Encyclopedia Astronautica
Kaguya



wkaguya.jpg
Kaguya
Japanese lunar orbiter. Launched 2007.09.14.

Objective of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Kaguya mission (dubbed Selene prior to launch) was to collect lunar data that would contribute to understanding the Moon's origin and evolution. The spacecraft consisted of the main lunar orbiter and two subsatellites, released in lunar orbit to provide relay services and assist in measuring the moon's gravitational field. Using the latest technology, Kaguya broadcast back to earth lunar data and images of immensely greater accuracy and detail than any previous lunar mission.

The satellite was three-axis stabilized with sufficient propellant aboard for a one-year mission in a circular lunar orbit at 100 km altitude and 90 degrees installation. The two subsatellites each had a mass of 50 kg, were spin stabilized, 1.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.65 m in dimension, and had solar cells providing 70 W of power. The Relay Satellite was released by Kaguya into an elliptical lunar orbit of 100km x 2400km, inclination 90 degrees. The VRAD Satellite was released into an elliptical lunar orbit of 100km x 800km, inclination 90 degrees .

The primary instruments carried by Kaguya were:

  • X-ray Spectrometer (XRS): The surface elemental composition (Al, Si, Mg, Fe, etc.) was determined through X-ray fluorescence spectrometry by irradiation of solar X-rays.
  • Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS): The abundance of key elements (U, Th, K, H, etc.) was determined by measuring energy spectra of gamma-rays from the lunar surface with high energy resolution.
  • Multi band Imager (MI): The mineral distribution on the lunar surface was obtained by taking visible and near-infrared images of the Moon's surface in nine wavelength bands.
  • Spectral Profiler (SP): The mineral composition of the Moon's surface was obtained by measuring the continuous visible and near infrared spectrum.
  • Terrain Camera (TC): High-resolution geographical features were imaged by the stereo cameras.
  • Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS): The subsurface stratification and tectonic features in the shallow part of the lunar crust (a few km) studied by high-power RF pulses.
  • Laser Altimeter (LALT): To construct an accurate lunar topography model, the altitude was precisely measured using high-power laser pulses.
  • Environment Lunar Magnetometer (LMAG): The magnetization structure of the Moon was acquired by measuring the lunar and the surrounding magnetic field.
  • Charged Particle Spectrometer (CPS): Alpha rays from the Moon's surface and the abundance of cosmic ray particles were measured.
  • Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment (PACE): The three dimensional distribution of the low-energy electrons and mass-discriminated low-energy ions around the Moon were measured.
  • Radio science (RS): The Moon's ionosphere was detected by measuring the small deviation of the phase of RF signals from the VRAD satellite.
  • Upper-atmosphere and Plasma Imager (UPI): Images of the magnetosphere and the ionosphere around the Earth were taken from the Moon to study the behavior of the plasma.
  • Gravitational field distribution: Four way Doppler measurements by the Relay satellite and Main Orbiter transponder (RSAT): The local gravity field of the far-side of the Moon was observed by measuring the disturbance of the orbit of the Main Orbiter using Doppler measurement.
  • Differential VLBI Radio Source (VRAD): The accurate gravity field data of the Moon was obtained by measuring the orbits of Relay and VRAD satellites using differential Very Long Baseline Interferometer observation of S and X band radio waves
  • High Definition Television (HDTV): Took pictures and movies of the Earth and Moon with high-definition television cameras.

Characteristics

Electric System: 3.50 kWh.

Gross mass: 2,900 kg (6,300 lb).
Height: 2.10 m (6.80 ft).
Diameter: 2.10 m (6.80 ft).
First Launch: 2007.09.14.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • H-2 Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A.

    3 stage vehicle consisted of 2 x H-II SRB + 1 x H-II stage 1 + 1 x H-II stage 2 More...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • H-2 Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • JAXA Japanese agency overseeing development of spacecraft. JAXA, Japan. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Tanegashima Japan's main launch site for he larger N and H launch vehicles. In use for sounding rockets from 1967 and orbital launches from 1975. As of 2007 over 140 major launches had been made from the site. More...

Kaguya Chronology


2007 September 14 - . 01:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima Y. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-IIA 2022. LV Configuration: H-IIA 2022 H-IIA-13.
  • Kaguya - . Payload: Selene. Nation: Japan. Agency: Mitsubishi. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Kaguya. USAF Sat Cat: 32054 . COSPAR: 2007-039A. Another of a series of new lunar probes to be launched in the next few years by China, India, Japan, USA, and Europe. Selene was dubbed Kaguya, a Japanese moon goddess, after launch. It included an HDTV camera. In lunar orbit two subsatellites would be released to provide continuous communications as well as better characterize the moon's gravity field. By 30 September Kaguya was in a 2243 km x 378,132 km lunar transfer orbit. On 3 October at 21:00 GMT it entered its initial 101 km x 11741 km x 95 deg lunar orbit. It then began maneuvers to enter its operational 100 km circular orbit, releasing the subsatellites on 9 and 12 October.
  • Okina - . Payload: Selene. Nation: Japan. Agency: Mitsubishi. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Kaguya. USAF Sat Cat: 32055 . COSPAR: 2007-039B. Summary: The Okina relay satellite was released from Kaguya into a 115 km x 2,399 km lunar orbit at 00:36 GMT on 9 October 2007..
  • Ouna - . Payload: Selene. Nation: Japan. Agency: Mitsubishi. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Kaguya. USAF Sat Cat: 32056 . COSPAR: 2007-039C. Summary: The Ouna (VRAD) subsatellite was released from Kaguya into a 127 km x 795 km lunar orbit at 04:28 GMT on 12 October 2007..

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