Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Living section.
Unique module developed for the LOK lunar orbiter, with many differences to any other Soyuz BO - Kontakt rendezvous system, DOK engine system for orientation in orbit, cupola for forward vision during lunar docking maneuvers, larger hatch for Krechet lunar suit.
From fore to aft the BO consisted of the following sub-modules:
- SU (Stikovochniy Uzel) - Docking apparatus. This was a truncated cone, 455 mm long, topped by three probes that would snare the hexagonal grid atop the LK. A mechanical turn-screw brought the probes out into a splayed position to lock the two spacecraft together. This lightweight device allowed firm connection of the spacecraft without the requirement for a precision aligned docking. It formed part of the Kontakt docking system designed by Mnatsakian at the NII for Precision Instruments.
- DOK (Dvigateliy Orbitalniy Kompleks) - Orbital engine system. This provided orientation for the LOK during trans-lunar coast and lunar orbit operations. This module, a 790 mm long truncated cone pierced by spherical propellant tanks, was developed by KB Arsenal, Leningrad. Work was concurrent with their productionization of similar maneuvering engine systems for the IS and US maneuverable anti-satellite and anti-ship systems. The module had a total mass of 800 kg, including 300 kg of propellant in six spherical tanks. These were fed by four smaller pressurization tanks to four clusters of thrusters with a total of 24 engines. Two of the clusters consisted of a pair of larger forward-firing translation nozzles, a pair of larger aft-firing translation nozzles canted at about 40 degrees from the vertical, and a single pair of smaller perpendicularly-firing yaw engines. The other two clusters consisted of a pair of smaller perpendicularly-firing pitch engines and two pairs of even smaller tangentially-firing roll engines. The propellant would provide about 90,000 kgf-sec of orientation impulse, which was consistent with the 360,000 kgf-sec provided by the RCS system of the much larger Apollo spacecraft.
BO (Bitovoy Otsek) - Living compartment. This was similar to the basic Soyuz, with several important changes. Not a simple sphere or sphere-and-cylinder, it consisted of a forward hemisphere 885 mm long with a radius of 1085 mm, a 236 mm transition, and an 1114 mm long aft hemisphere of 1143 mm radius. In the forward hemisphere a cupola was installed, allowing the cosmonaut a direct forward view in order to make a manual visual docking with the LK lunar lander. It was equipped with the highly classified laser-optical system designed by NPO Geofizika for the Kontakt docking system. As in other Soyuz spacecraft, the BO served as a living area, experimental laboratory, and airlock for EVA operations. A hatch at the base of the module sealed the cabin off from the SA descent module, while a hatch in the lower hemisphere allowed the cosmonauts to exit into space.
The LK cosmonaut would be wearing a Krechet-94 space suit, and the LOK pilot the lighter Orlan suit. After exiting the BO the LK cosmonaut would move to a large telescoping boom mounted on the exterior of the module. This would take him back to the hatch in the outside of the LK shroud.
Habitable Volume: 5.00 m3.
AKA: Bytovoy otsek.
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Gross mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb).
Height: 3.61 m (11.84 ft).
Diameter: 2.25 m (7.38 ft).
Soyuz 7K-LOK Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). The two-crew LOK lunar orbiting spacecraft was the largest derivative of Soyuz developed. More...
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