Today Russia observes Denj Kosmonavtov (Cosmonauts Day) and the world Yuri's Night -- celebrating Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin's pioneering flight into space 47 years ago. And NASA is observing the 27th anniversary of STS-1, the first Space Shuttle mission to orbit. (Yuri was accepted into the cosmonaut unit in 1960, at age 26. After his historic 108-min. flight around the Earth in 'Vostok 1', which ended with a parachute ejection at 7 km altitude over a farm field near the city of Engels in Saratov Oblast (province), he was promoted to unit leader. Seven years later, on March 27, 1968, Yuri died with a flight instructor in a fighter jet crash. Chief Designer of the thusly inaugurated Soviet human space program was Sergey Pavlovich Korolev. Exactly 20 years later, John Young and Bob Crippen took the Columbia into space for a test mission lasting 2 days 6 hours 20 minutes 52 seconds.)
The crew's work/sleep cycle shifted again, from yesterday's wakeup at 6:20am to 2:20am EDT (sleeptime tonight at 5:50pm). Tomorrow, work period will shift by 10 min (to 2:10am -5:40pm).
Aboard ISS, the E16/E17 crew rotation/handover period went underway with full activity schedules for all six residents involved. Whitson, Volkov, Malenchenko and Kononenko had several hours crewtime between them for dedicated CDR/CDR & FE/FE handover activities. In addition, there are 'generic' handovers where crewmembers are scheduled together to complete various designated standard tasks.
From the US voluntary 'job jar' task list, after wakeup and before breakfast, FE-2 Reisman & SFP (Space Flight Participant) So-Yeon Yi downloaded the SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight) experiment data from their Actiwatches to the HRF-1 (Human Research Facility 1) laptop. Yi is participating for NASA under a Space Act agreement with South Korea. (To monitor the crewmember's sleep/wake patterns and light exposure, crewmembers wear a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by them as well as their patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days.)
Today was the second session for CDR Whitson & FE-2 Reisman with the biomed experiment INTEGRATED IMMUNE (Validating Procedures for Monitoring Crew member Immune Function) for collecting wet saliva samples first thing in post-sleep. (IMMUNE protocol requires the collection to occur first thing post-sleep, before eating, drinking and brushing teeth, and all samples are stored at ambient temperature. Along with NUTRITION (Nutritional Status Assessment), INTEGRATED IMMUNE samples & analyzes participant's blood, urine, and saliva before, during and after flight for changes related to functions like bone metabolism, oxidative damage and immune function to develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. The strategy uses both long and short duration crewmembers as study subjects. The saliva is collected in two forms, dry and liquid. The liquid saliva collections require that the crewmembers soak a piece of cotton inside their mouth and place it in a salivette bag; there are four of the liquid collections during docked operations.)
Later, Whitson & Reisman conducted the BRASLET SDTO (Station Development Test Objective) protocol for Garrett's first scan session. (For the SDTO session, the FE-2 had to abstain from caffeine 12 hrs prior to the scan session, heavy meals 4 hrs before and any food at all 2 hrs prior to the scan, plus no exercise 2 hours before and no liquids 30 mins before. SDTO-17011 'Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (Braslet)' is a collaborative effort between NASA and the Russian FSA (Federal Space Agency), with the goal to establish a valid ultrasound methodology for assessing a number of aspects of central and peripheral hemodynamics and cardiovascular function, specifically in rapid changes in intravascular circulating volume. BRASLET uses Braslet-M occlusion cuffs, i.e., the Russian-made operational countermeasure already pre-calibrated and available onboard for each ISS crewmember. BRASLET employs multiple modes of ultrasound imaging and measurements, in combination with short-term application of Braslet-M occlusive cuffs and cardiopulmonary maneuvers (Valsalva, Mueller) to demonstrate and to evaluate the degree of changes in the circulating volume on orbit. This will be accomplished by performing echocardiographic examinations in multiple modes (including Tissue Doppler mode), ultrasound measurements of lower extremity venous and arterial vascular responses to Braslet-M device under nominal conditions and also during cardiopulmonary Mueller and Valsalva maneuvers. Identical measurements will be repeated without Braslet-M, with Braslet-M applied, and immediately after releasing the occlusion device.)
With the CDRA (Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly) operating, Whitson terminated the regeneration of METOX (Metal Oxide) CO2 absorption canisters #0017 & #0019 in the US Airlock (A/L) oven, then started the bake-out process on canisters #0012 & #0013.
Peggy also performed the periodic service of the prime CSA-CP (Compound Specific Analyzer-Combustion Products) instrument, replacing its battery with a fresh one (#1182).
Garrett continued his support of the Japanese CW/RW (Cell Wall/Resist Wall) experiment in the MSG EMCS (Microgravity Science Glovebox/European Modular Cultivation System), swapping the ECs (Experiment Containers) on rotor A in order to save as much science as possible for CW/RW - which has been having problems with the hydration. (CW/RW operates in the EMCS facility in eight special ECs (Experiment Containers) which Garrett recently (3/30) installed on the centrifuges of the facility. The EMCS rack contains two rotating centrifuges, Rotor A & Rotor B, that can support a wide range of small plant & animal experiments under partial gravity conditions.)
The FE-2 also serviced the U.S. OGS (Oxygen Generation System) which has been producing O2 in the last few days, removing the PWR (Payload Water Reservoir after verifying that it was empty and replacing it with a full PWR, then reactivating the OPS WDS (Water Delivery System). (The ground monitored the activity via S-band and returned the unit to 'Process' after R&R completion. Like the Elektron, OGS produces O2 from water by electrolysis, dumping the also generated H2 (hydrogen) through venting.)
As standard documentation for each Increment, Garrett took POSSUM (Payload On-orbit Still Shots for Utilization and Maintenance) digital photography of all payload racks that have undergone recent changes, including ER3 (EXPRESS Rack 3) & MSG in COL (Columbus Orbital Laboratory) and ER2, ER5 & HRF1 (Human Research Facility 1) in the Lab. (POSSUM is a regular payload photo activity that obtains formal electronic situational still shots of any subrack & locker payload that has been moved or reconfigured.)
Besides his extensive handover activities with Oleg Kononenko, FE-1 Malenchenko assisted SFP Yi in conducting her KAP (Korean Astronaut Program) science experiments, taking photo/video imagery of the VC14 activities where required, particularly for KAP15.
So-Yeon Yi's busy schedule today included work on -
KAP02/Identification of fruit fly genes responsive to gravity and responsible for aging (monitoring, video recording, later stowing),
KAP04/SFP medical monitoring (taking four measurements of ocular pressure during the day);
KAP06/Study of the possibility of using traditional Korean food in onboard food rations (testing during crew Breakfast & Dinner),
KAP07/Growth of Zeolite crystals, super crystals, and crystal layers in microgravity (equipment transfer, assembly, setup in SM, activating oven with samples A,B,C, several temperature checks),
KAP08/Synthesis of metal-organic porous materials in microgravity (hardware transfer, assembly and setup, installation of first sample, oven activation, and temperature check),
KAP09/High-resolution telescope (ELT) and study of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for next generation telescopes (mounting equipment at SM window 9, activation, video recording, filling out questionnaire, deactivation, gear removal from window),
KAP13/Measurements using the South-Korean developed SMMS (Small Mass Measurement System, later termination & cleanup),
KAP15/Recording scenes of daily life & activities of the SFP, using Samsung Gx-10 and Samsung NV11 cameras.
So-Yeon also had two regular daily tagups with her consultant team at TsUP-Moscow via VHF, and two PAO TV downlinks with VIP personnel at TsUP-Moscow -
one (~4:50am EDT) with Anatoly N. Perminov, Head of Roskosmos, on the occasion of today's Cosmonautic Day,
the other (~6:20am) with President Lee Myung-bak of South Korea. (President Lee: 'I can't believe you are actually in space'. Yi: 'Yes, Then let me show you something (does a somersault). How's that?' €¦ Lee: 'I guess all the people feel my feeling in this nation and my heart is filled with unspeakable joy from living in this beautiful place.' Yi: 'Though it has only been a few days, I can say that this is a wonderful opportunity for me that I will never forget for the rest of my life. It is regrettable that I am enjoying this wonderful experience alone. I believe it was the strength of science that allowed me to enjoy this opportunity. I hope that the Government has more interest so that more people can enjoy this kind of precious opportunity.' Lee: 'Yes, I myself thought more of the space industry while witnessing the process of putting the first Korean in outer space. I realized that the citizens of Korea are interested in space development -more than I thought they were. The space industry is an important factor that determines a nation's competitiveness in the 21st Century. As such, I will provide as much support as possible. I will make efforts so that we will send the second and third Koreans to space in the near future.')
Whitson retrieved a PMIC (Portable Microphone) with bad performance from the Lab forward cone and cleaned its internal relay contacts in an attempt to improve voice transmission.
Peggy also continued troubleshooting IMV (Intermodule Ventilation), cleaning the Node-1 aft IMV fan inlet and taking airflow measurements on the THC (Temperature & Humidity Control) IMV from the A/L to Node-1 at the NOD1O2-35 lower (deck) slots.
With the increase in crew size from three to six placing more emphasis on ventilation, Sergei Volkov was scheduled to check on the function of the important IP-1 airflow sensors in the various Russian segment (RS) hatchways, including the SM-to-DC1 tunnel, and the FGB-to-Node & FGB-to-Soyuz passageways.
Garrett Reisman set up the ARISS (Amateur Radio on ISS) ham radio equipment in the SM and checked out SFP Yi in using the amateur radio equipment. The ham station will remain powered on for the duration of the VC14 mission.
Major science activities in the Russian segment (RS) by Kononenko, with Volkov taking photo/video imagery, today focused on the biotechnological experiments BIOEMULSION and PLAZMIDA. (BIOEMULSION (BTKh-14): setting up incubator in Bioreactor, activation of mixing mode for culturing. PLAZMIDA (BIO-8): Removing Recomb-K hardware from KRIOGEM-3 at +37degC, activating mobilization and setting up in KRIOGEM-3M thermostat at +4degC, supported by ground specialist tagup. )
Kononenko transferred a new kit for the 'Matryoshka-R' (RBO-3-2) radiation payload suite from Soyuz TMA-12 to the ISS for installation in the RS. (The complex Matryoshka payload suite is designed for sophisticated radiation studies. Three detectors now in use are positioned in spherical 'Phantom' containers in the DC1, four in the stbd crew cabin, under the work table, and behind a panel (#327).)
Reisman took the CHeCS emergency medical operations OBT (On-Board Training) drill, a 30-min. exercise to refresh his Crew Medical Officer (CMO)'s acuity in applying ACLS (advanced cardio life support) in an emergency. (The HMS (Health Maintenance Systems) hardware, including ACLS equipment, may be used in contingency situations where crew life is at risk. To maintain proficiency, crewmembers spend one hour per month reviewing HMS and ACLS equipment and procedures via the HMS and ACLS CBT (computer-based training). The training drill, each crewmember for him/herself, refreshes their memory of the on-orbit stowage and deployment locations, equipment etc. and procedures.)
Garrett also had another 60 minutes for himself for general orientation (station familiarization & acclimatization) as is standard daily rule for the first two weeks after starting station residency.
At ~4:35am, the crew engaged in a PAO TV exchange with VIP guests at TsUP/Moscow, headed by Roskosmos Director General Anatoly Perminov, for Cosmonautics Day today, the 47th Anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's launch in Vostok-1.
At ~6:10am, the crew also supported the exchange of greetings and messages between SFP So-Yeon Yi and South-Korean President Myung-bak Lee (see above).
The FE-2 performed the routine daily maintenance of the SOZh (Environment Control & Life Support System, ECLSS) system in the SM, including the ASU toilet facilities systems/replaceables.
The crewmembers completed their regular 2.5-hr. physical workout program (about half of which is used for setup & post-exercise personal hygiene) on the CEVIS cycle ergometer (CDR, FE-2), TVIS treadmill (CDR, FE-1/fulltime), and RED resistive exercise device (FE-2).
Afterwards, Yuri was to download the crew's exercise data file to the MEC for downlink, as well as the daily wristband HRM (Heart Rate Monitor) data of the workouts on RED, followed by their erasure on the HRM storage medium (done six times a week).
Working off the discretionary 'time permitting' task list, Malenchenko performed the regular daily checkup on the Japanese experiment GCF-JAXA (Granada Crystallization Facility) in the Russian TBU incubator, maintained at +20 degC, including a temperature check on its ART (automatic temperature recorder), and
Handover Update: Handover activities between E16 & E17 crewmembers are designed to cover a large variety of onboard systems & operations, including Safety, Communications, Video & Audio, Life Support (SOZh), US Segment, TORU/Teleoperator Control, EVA Tools, ATV Status, Science Hardware, Medical Equipment, Iridium-9505A phone, CISN (Crew Informational Support System), BVS/Onboard Computer System, etc. FE-1 Malenchenko has 13:15 hrs scheduled for equipment preparation for return & disposal stowage on Soyuz 15S, with 3 hrs of assistance by Sergei Volkov.
Return Procedures Preps: After the Soyuz TMA-11 descent review on 4/7, a test of the Soyuz MCS (Motion Control System (SUD) is scheduled for 4/14, followed on 4/15 by the standard descent OBT/drill.
Weekly Science Update (Expedition Sixteen -- Week 25)
ALTCRISS (Alteino Long Term monitoring of Cosmic Rays on the ISS): Completed. Instrument was relocated to FGB for Inc17 measurements (as Russian experiment) and ALTCRISS was re-activated on 4/8.
BCAT-3 (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test 3): Reserve.
CCISS (Cardiovascular & Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS): Reserve.
CFE (Capillary Flow Experiment): Reserve.
CW/CR (Cell Wall/Resist Wall) in EMCS (European Modular Cultivation System) : The CW/RW Experiment Containers located in EMCS EC position A1, A2, B1 and B2 could not be hydrated due to EMCS Water Supply Subsystem problems. Troubleshooting is ongoing.
CSI-2/CGBA (CGBA Science Insert #2/Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus): In progress.
CGBA-2 (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 2): Complete.
CSLM-2 (Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures 2): In progress.
EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students): Complete.
ELITE-S2 (Elaboratore Immagini Televisive - Space 2): Planned.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations): Reserve.
ETD (Eye Tracking Device): Last session (4th) was successfully performed on 4/6.
EuTEF (European Technology Exposure Facility): EuTEF platform is nominal. DEBIE-2: Link error still under investigation; DOSTEL: On-going science acquisition; EuTEMP: Currently inactive as planned; EVC: so far further troubleshooting could not be performed due to too low EVC temperature; EXPOSE: On-going science acquisition; FIPEX: 6-day measurements period with sensors RAM1, RAM4 and ZENITH8 started on 4/8. On 4/10, the sensors turned off suddenly. Under further investigation; MEDET: On-going science acquisition; PLEGPAY: on 4/10, experiment 1 run was nominally performed; TRIBOLAB: on 4/10 the instrument was commanded in Thermal Stabilisation mode in preparation of the first experiment run. On 4/11, the first TRIBOLAB Pin On Disk (POD1) has been started and will run until Soyuz undock.
Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL): The FSL Facility awaits further troubleshooting after 1J/A departure.
GEOFLOW: Deferred. Start of GEOFLOW is pending further FSL troubleshooting/commissioning activities but is not expected in Inc16 anymore.
IMMUNO (Neuroendocrine & Immune Responses in Humans During & After Long Term Stay at ISS): Second session has currently started, to run from 4/12 through 4/15.
InSPACE-2 (Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions 2): In progress.
Integrated Immune: 'Peggy, thank you for unstowing Garrett's saliva kit and having it ready for him to begin his collections. Garrett, we appreciate your efforts during your early increment Integrated Immune session.'
KUBIK-FM1/ KUBIK-FM2 Centrifuge/Incubators: Completed.
LOCAD-PTS (Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System): Complete.
MISSE (Materials ISS Experiment): Ongoing.
MTR-2 (Russian radiation measurements): Passive dosimeters measurements in DC1 'Pirs'.
MSG-SAME (Microgravity Science Glovebox): Complete.
NOA-2 (Nitric Oxide Analyzer): Planned.
NUTRITION/REPOSITORY: 'Peggy, the Nutrition/Repository PI teams want to say thank you for your fantastic support throughout all five sessions and for the addition of the extra tube during this last activity!'
PMDIS (Perceptual Motor Deficits in Space): Complete.
SAMS/MAMS (Space & Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems): Ongoing.
SAMPLE: Last crew sampling session for Inc16 FE-1 Malenchenko was successfully performed on 4/7. Samples were inserted in MELFI Dewar 4.
SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight): 'Peggy, thanks for downloading 1 J/A FE2 and your Actiwatches, as well as initializing the KARI SFP Actiwatch. You also completed your last targeted week of sleep logging. Your only remaining scheduled activity is downloading all three Actiwatches and doffing your and KARI SFP Actiwatches. Thanks for all your additional sleep logging. The PI greatly appreciates it.' 'Garrett, you have competed your first two Sleep activities (Actiwatch Don and 1st download), and are in-process of completing your first week of sleep logging. Thanks for completing these activities. Any additional sleep logging is above and beyond, and the PI will greatly appreciate it.'
SOLAR (Solar Monitoring Observatory): On 4/4, SOLAR was commanded to SIMUL-PM (Pointing Mode (SIMUL-PM) using Station Ancillary data to find the Sun to allow science data acquisition. Sun tracking precision has been estimated to be sufficient to perform science measurements. Problems with ancillary data were observed on 4/9. The anomaly is under investigation. SOVIM: Science data acquisition on-going nominally since 4/4; SOLSPEC: To allow for sun tracking precision assessment, sun observations were performed on 4/5 after start of SIMUL-PM mode. Commissioning of instrument has been successfully completed on 4/8 and 4/9. SOLSPEC measurements are planned on 4/14-15 in order to cross-compare with Sun instrument on NASA Sounding Rocket launched on 4/14 (12:58pm EDT); SOLACES: Commissioning completion planned for 4/11. SOLACES measurements are planned on 4/13-14 in order to cross-compare with Sun instrument on NASA Sounding Rocket on 4/17 (12:58pm).
SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellite): In progress.
Swab (Characterization of Microorganisms & Allergens in Spacecraft): Complete.
TRAC (Test of Reaction & Adaptation Capabilities): Planned.
ULTRASOUND: 'Peggy, thank you for moving and checking out the Ultrasound - we were VERY excited to see if functioning nominally!'
WAICO #1 (Waving and Coiling of Arabidopsis Roots at Different g-levels): Planned.
CEO (Crew Earth Observation): Through 4/8 the ground has received a total of 17,604 ISS CEO images for review and cataloging. Late this week imagery received included sessions with camera times corresponding to the following daily target requests: Teide Volcano, Canary Islands; Volcan Colima, Mexico; Afar Rift Zone, Ethiopia; Calcutta India; and East Haruj Megafans, Libya. The ground specialists will provide feedback on these acquisitions as they work through them in the coming week. 'Feedback on last week's acquisitions includes: Lake Eyre, Australia - excellent coverage, best in many months, suggests moist conditions are returning; Somalia Coast - excellent mapping pass - dry conditions persist as expected - all requirement for this target have been met; Central Arizona-Phoenix - well-focused imagery of much of this target was acquired, but more nadir-looking views will be requested in the future; and the Madrean Sky Islands, northern Mexico - we will continue to work with you to help recognize and acquire imagery of these features. Your recent image of the bizarre landscape of the western Saudi Arabian lava field know as the Harrat Khaybar will be published on NASA/GSFC's Earth Observatory site this weekend. Your photo highlights the spectacular landforms, diverse mineralogy, and climate of this volcanic region. Good eye! Thanks for your good imagery response to our target requests. Any additional feedback you find time to provide on this activity would be most welcome!'
CEO photo targets uplinked for today were Eastern Tien Shan Mts., China (regional contextual images of the eastern half of the range were requested. These will assist in gaining more detailed views of permanent ice caps on this range that are being studied for the effects of climate change), South Tibesti Megafans (an extensive network of dry, non-functioning stream channels occupies a large area south of the Tibesti Mts (probably dating from the last wet period in the Sahara Desert ~10, 000 years ago). These channel networks appear to be good analogs for river-like lines on Mars. Overlapping images right of track on the nearer of two megafans were requested), Sky Islands, northern Mexico/SW USA (the crew was to shoot a mapping swath right of track. 'Sky Islands' are the higher elevations of mountains in Mexico's Sierra Madre ranges and the US Southwest which are cool and moist enough for dense forests to flourish. The forested peaks appear as green 'islands' in the deserts, mainly of northern Mexico, but also in the US Southwest. The sky islands boast some of the richest biodiversity anywhere in North America. To start this round of change documentation the ground requested broad views looking right of track), and Sevilleta Wildlife Area, New Mexico (the Sevilleta LTER (Long Term Ecological Research) Project is located about 80 kilometers south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The crew was to shoot a mapping swath just right of track, immediately after the Sky Islands target. The Refuge is of great interest because it falls at the geographic intersection of several major biotic zones: Chihuahuan Desert grassland and shrubland to the south, Great Plains grassland to the north, PiÃ±on-Juniper woodland on the neighboring mountains, Colorado Plateau shrub-steppe to the west, and riverbank vegetation along the middle Rio Grande Valley).