Second Soviet replenishable long-duration ‘civilian’ space station. Objectives: Continuation of scientific research on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the Soviet national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Continuation of the scientific research in progress on board manned space complexes in the interests of science and the national economy; testing of advanced systems and apparatus for orbital stations. Although of the same design as Salyut 6, technical breakdowns throughout its life made Salyut 7 a much less productive station. Replaced finally by Mir. Two different TKS resupply craft, originally designed for the Almaz military station, docked with Salyut 7 to provide a larger complex. With the cancellation of Almaz, a large proportion of the experiments carried out on board had military objectives. As of January 1990 out of fuel, unable to manoeuvre, uncontrolled re-entry expected in three to four years. Re-entered in 1991 with 70 kg fuel remaining over Argentina. Controllers attempted to control impact point (set for Atlantic Ocean) by setting Salyut 7/Kosmos 1686 assembly into a tumble. This however failed and Salyut 7 re-entered February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Many fragments fell on the town of Capitan Bermudez, 25 km from Rosario and 400 km from Buenos Aires, Argentina. At 1 am local time the sky was lit up with hundreds of incandescent meteors travelling from Southwest to Northeast. At dawn the inhabitants discovered numerous metal fragments, which seemed to have fallen in distinct groups at various locations in the city. Luckily no one was hurt in the metallic shower.

Major Events: EVA July 30 to demonstrate building materials. Docking of TKS Kosmos 1443 4 March 1983. Failure of Soyuz T-8 to dock 21 April 1983. Micrometeorite impact on window 27 July. Failure of primary arrays, causing internal conditions of 65 F and 100% humidity. Propellant leak 9 September drained 2 of 3 oxidiser tanks and shut down 16 of 32 attitude control thrusters. Soyuz T-10A with crew trained in erection of new arrays exploded on pad 27 September. EVA's 1 Nov and 3 November to erect auxiliary solar arrays (brought on Kosmos 1443). 4 EVA's in April 1984 to repair propulsion system. EVA May 18 1984 to erect additional arrays. EVA July 25 1984 (Savitskaya). EVA August 8 to continue propulsion repairs with new tool. Docking of TKS Kosmos 1686 2 October 1985. Following departure of last crew, space station went out of control, batteries drained, and dead in space. Visited by Soyuz T-15 7 May 1986 and revived. EVA's May 28 and 31 1986 to erect 15 m long truss.

Equipment: - Kristal materials processing furnace - EFO-7 star electrophotometer Improved Oasis plant growth unit - Aelita cardiovascular diagnostic unit - 24 hr hot water - food refrigerator - French echography ultrasonic medical system - Korund semiconductor materials furnace Military experiments: observations of ground aerosols; ABM intercept; naval exercises; laser pointing/tracking hardware tests.

Maneuver Summary:

209 km X 353 km orbit to 208 km X 262 km orbit. Delta V: 26 m/s

206 km X 257 km orbit to 207 km X 326 km orbit. Delta V: 20 m/s

205 km X 322 km orbit to 297 km X 364 km orbit. Delta V: 38 m/s

297 km X 364 km orbit to 309 km X 353 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

305 km X 347 km orbit to 346 km X 347 km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s

By Progress 13: 335 km X 341 km orbit to 302 km X 334 km orbit. Delta V: 11 m/s

By Progress 13: 302 km X 334 km orbit to 291 km X 321 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

280 km X 299 km orbit to 283 km X 320 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

283 km X 319 km orbit to 307 km X 329 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s

286 km X 299 km orbit to 294 km X 298 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s

294 km X 298 km orbit to 292 km X 301 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s

287 km X 297 km orbit to 293 km X 315 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

291 km X 313 km orbit to 314 km X 334 km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s

By Progress 15: 296 km X 320 km orbit to 308 km X 367 km orbit. Delta V: 16 m/s

By Progress 15: 308 km X 366 km orbit to 364 km X 374 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s

By Progress 16: 347 km X 353 km orbit to 354 km X 367 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

By Progress 16: 350 km X 367 km orbit to 351 km X 354 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s

By Kosmos 1443: 318 km X 320 km orbit to 296 km X 319 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

By Kosmos 1443: 294 km X 316 km orbit to 293 km X 305 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s

By Kosmos 1443: 282 km X 295 km orbit to 291 km X 333 km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s

By Kosmos 1443: 290 km X 333 km orbit to 329 km X 341 km orbit. Delta V: 13 m/s

By Kosmos 1443: 315 km X 328 km orbit to 326 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s

314 km X 330 km orbit to 315 km X 346 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s

313 km X 326 km orbit to 314 km X 346 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s

By Progress 17: 313 km X 326 km orbit to 319 km X 341 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s

By Progress 17: 321 km X 338 km orbit to 332 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s

By Progress 17: 332 km X 355 km orbit to 335 km X 354 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s

324 km X 340 km orbit to 322 km X 337 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s

298 km X 323 km orbit to 312 km X 325 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s

292 km X 303 km orbit to 293 km X 317 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s

By Progress 19: 282 km X 283 km orbit to 280 km X 309 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s

By Progress 19: 279 km X 308 km orbit to 306 km X 311 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s

By Progress 19: 291 km X 292 km orbit to 289 km X 303 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s

By Progress 20: 278 km X 290 km orbit to 285 km X 326 km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s

By Progress 21: 272 km X 312 km orbit to 296 km X 347 km orbit. Delta V: 16 m/s

By Progress 21: 295 km X 347 km orbit to 334 km X 359 km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s

By Progress 22: 328 km X 354 km orbit to 307 km X 354 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

By Progress 22: 307 km X 353 km orbit to 334 km X 355 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s

333 km X 353 km orbit to 342 km X 372 km orbit. Delta V: 7 m/s

341 km X 369 km orbit to 351 km X 375 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s

By Progress 23: 351 km X 376 km orbit to 373 km X 375 km orbit. Delta V: 6 m/s

By Kosmos 1669: 352 km X 355 km orbit to 353 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s

By Kosmos 1669: 352 km X 353 km orbit to 339 km X 353 km orbit. Delta V: 3 m/s

By Kosmos 1686: 336 km X 353 km orbit to 338 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s

By Kosmos 1686: 338 km X 358 km orbit to 358 km X 359 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s

By Kosmos 1686: 331 km X 333 km orbit to 333 km X 385 km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s

By Kosmos 1686: 333 km X 385 km orbit to 332 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s

By Kosmos 1686: 332 km X 468 km orbit to 466 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 37 m/s

By Kosmos 1686: 466 km X 468 km orbit to 470 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s

By Kosmos 1686: 470 km X 475 km orbit to 475 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s

Total Delta V: 437 m/s.

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