Encyclopedia Astronautica
A-35



va350.jpg
A-350
Credit: © Mark Wade
First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972.

On 8 April 1958 a decree was issued to proceed with the advanced project for the anti-ballistic missile system for the defence of Moscow. This was designated 'System A-35' and was to be developed under General Designer K B Kisunko. A 1960 resolution authorised the later TsNPO Vympel to proceed with further development of the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system, with the objective of defeating incoming Minuteman-2 and Titan-2 ICBM warheads aimed at Moscow. The A-35 system consisted of a command point, 8 sector radars, a single long-distance Duna-3 search radar (designed by V P Sosulnikov) a Duna-3U radar for 360 degree detection of enemy targets (chief designer A N Musatov), and 32 missile launchers with sealed transport-launch tubes containing the A-350 anti-ballistic missile (designed by Grushin).

The first draft project was defended in the fall of 1962, but the review board raised numerous objections. The second draft project was presented in 1964, this time featuring a nuclear warhead on the anti-ballistic missile as opposed to the high explosive warhead proposed in the first draft, and a reduction of the number of launch complexes from 32 to 16. The system was to be implemented in two phases. The phase 1 system would produce an anti-ballistic missile that would be launched to the position in time and space predicted for the incoming warhead by ground=based computers. The phase 2 system would use a new active radar homing system aboard the missile to intercept incoming re-entry vehicles.

Construction of the anti-ballistic missile sites around Moscow began in 1962, using the infrastructure and some of the equipment of the existing S-25 surface-to-air missile system. The A-35 system completed its trials successfully and Phase 1 was put into operation in June 1972. Phase 2 testing accomplished the first active radar homing intercept in 1974. Trials indicated the system had a kill probability of 93%.

The A-35 system's A-350 missile had a new thermonuclear warhead with a greater range of dynamic effects than that used on the V-1000 missile of System A. The warhead was developed at Chelyabinsk-70. The A-350 was the first solid propellant rocket in the USSR with gimbled nozzles. The missile trials were also conducted in phases (confusing separate from the overall system test phases). Phase 1, using the A-350Zh missile, was completed in 1973. This was the missile with which the system around Moscow became operational. Phase 2, using the radiation-hardened A-350R, was completed in 1974.

Radars: Don-2N Pill Box early warning radar, band, range 6000 km. Hen House early warning radar, VHF band, range 6000 km. Dog House target acquisition radar, VHF band, range 2800 km. Cat House target acquisition radar, VHF

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • A-350Zh Russian anti-ballistic missile. Initial version of the A-350 missile. More...
  • A-35 Russian anti-ballistic missile. First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972. More...
  • A-350R Russian anti-ballistic missile. Radiation-hardened version of the A-350. More...
  • A-35M Russian anti-ballistic missile. Improved version of the A-35 with radiation-hardened missiles and command centres, improved radars, and capability against tactical missiles fired from Europe against Moscow. Went into operation in 1978. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Sary Shagan Primary Soviet anti-ballistic missile test site. Known to have been used for 85 launches from 1958 to 2007, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude. The actual number of missile tests ran into the thousands. More...

A-35 Chronology


1962 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 5TYa F2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1962? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 5TYa F3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1962? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 5TYa F4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1962 April 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 5TYa F1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1963? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa F2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1963? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 5TYa F5.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1963 May 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 5TYa F6.
  • F6 test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1963 September 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa F1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1964? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa F3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1964? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa F4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1964 October 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa F5.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1965 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966? - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967 May 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh. LV Configuration: A-350Zh 6TYa?.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967 September 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. Launch Complex: Sary Shagan LC6. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350Zh.
  • Phase 1 state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350R.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350R.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350R.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1976 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350R.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1977 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350R.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1993 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350R.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1999 November 1 - . Launch Site: Sary Shagan. LV Family: A-35. Launch Vehicle: A-350R.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: PKO. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

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