Encyclopedia Astronautica
Biology


Category of spacecraft.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • DS-U4-B Ukrainian biology satellite. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • Biosatellite American biology satellite. 3 launches, 1966.12.14 (Biosatellite 1) to 1969.06.29 (Biosatellite 3). Biosatellite was a NASA spacecraft designed in the early 1960's to study the effects of the space environment on living organisms in missions. More...
  • OFO American biology satellite. One launch, 1970.11.09. The Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP) contained all apparatus necessary to assure survival of two frogs. More...
  • Bion Russian biology satellite. 11 launches, 1973.10.31 (Cosmos 605) to 1996.12.24 (Bion No. 11). Bion was developed for biological studies of the effects of radiation. More...
  • Genesat American biology satellite. One launch, 2006.12.16. Genesat was a NASA Ames nanosatellite launched as a secondary payload. More...

Biology Chronology


1957 November 3 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Sputnik 8K71PS. LV Configuration: Sputnik 8K71PS No. 2PS.
  • Sputnik 2 - . Payload: PS-2. Mass: 508 kg (1,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Sputnik 2. Decay Date: 1958-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 3 . COSPAR: 1957-Beta-1. Apogee: 1,660 km (1,030 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 103.70 min. Carried dog Laika. Study of the physical processes and conditions of life in outer space. After the surprise public impact of Sputnik 1, the satellite and launch teams were called back from vacation and in one month assembled the satellite (using equipment already developed for dog sounding rocket flights). After the launch, Soviet space officials said that the spacecraft would not return and that the dog had enough food and oxygen to live for up to 10 days. Only 45 years later was it revealed that Laika overheated, panicked and died within 5 to 7 hours of launch. What turned out to be the first space crypt remained in orbit a total of 162 days, then burned up in the atmosphere on April 14, 1958.

1966 December 14 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta G. LV Configuration: Thor Delta G 471/D43.
  • Biosatellite 1 - . Payload: Biosat 1. Mass: 425 kg (936 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Biosatellite. Decay Date: 1967-02-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2631 . COSPAR: 1966-114C. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 33.5000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Reentry into the Earth's atmosphere was not achieved because the retrorocket failed to ignite. The biosatellite was never recovered. Although the scientific objectives of the mission were not accomplished, the Biosatellite I experience provided technical confidence in the program because of excellent performance in most other areas.

1967 September 7 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta G. LV Configuration: Thor Delta G 475/D51.
  • Biosatellite 2 - . Payload: Biosat 2. Mass: 507 kg (1,117 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Biosatellite. Decay Date: 1967-09-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 2935 . COSPAR: 1967-083A. Apogee: 318 km (197 mi). Perigee: 297 km (184 mi). Inclination: 33.5000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Biological capsule recovered. The scientific payload, consisting of 13 select biology and radiation experiments, was exposed to microgravity during 45 hours of Earth-orbital flight. Experimental biology packages on the spacecraft contained a variety of specimens, including insects, frog eggs, microorganisms and plants. The planned three-day mission was recalled early because of the threat of a tropical storm in the recovery area, and because of a communication problem between the spacecraft and the tracking systems. The primary objective of the Biosatellite II mission was to determine if organisms were more, or less, sensitive to ionizing radiation in microgravity than on Earth. To study this question, an artificial source of radiation was supplied to a group of experiments mounted in the forward part of the spacecraft.

1969 June 29 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta N. LV Configuration: Thor Delta N 539/D70.
  • Biosatellite 3 - . Payload: Biosat 3. Mass: 695 kg (1,532 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Biosatellite. Decay Date: 1970-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 4000 . COSPAR: 1969-056A. Apogee: 374 km (232 mi). Perigee: 363 km (225 mi). Inclination: 33.5000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Biological capsule reentered 7/7/69. The intent had been to fly a 6 kg male pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) named Bonnie in Earth-orbit for 30 days. However, after only 8.8 days in orbit, the mission was terminated because of the subject's deteriorating health. High development costs were a strong incentive for maximising the scientific return from the mission. Because of this, the scientific goals had become exceedingly ambitious over time, and a great many measurements were conducted on the single research subject flown. Although the mission was highly successful from a technical standpoint, the science results were apparently compromised. Additional Details: here....

1970 November 9 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S174C.
  • OFO 1 - . Payload: OFO 1 / RM 1. Mass: 133 kg (293 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Ames. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: OFO. Decay Date: 1971-05-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4690 . COSPAR: 1970-094A. Apogee: 518 km (321 mi). Perigee: 304 km (188 mi). Inclination: 37.4000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Orbiting Frog Otolith. The satellite carrying the OFO-A experiment remained in orbit for almost seven days. Recovery of the spacecraft was not planned. The payload was the Frog Otolith Experiment Package (FOEP). The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of microgravity on the otolith, a sensory organ that responds to changes in an animal's orientation within the Earth's gravitational field. Two bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) were used as experimental subjects in the flight experiment. Additional Details: here....

1973 October 31 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 605 - . Payload: Bion no. 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 21.50 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6913 . COSPAR: 1973-083A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the influence of space flight on living organisms and testing of life-support systems for biological entities. Capsule recovered 53 deg 29 min N, 65 deg 27 min E..

1974 October 22 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 690 - . Payload: Bion no. 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 20.50 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7478 . COSPAR: 1974-080A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Biological research. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1975 November 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 782 - . Payload: Bion no. 3. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 19.50 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8450 . COSPAR: 1975-110A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Biological research. Continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 64 deg 11 min E. The Cosmos 782 mission marked the first time that the United States participated in the Soviet Cosmos Program. Scientists from France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. participated in these investigations. Additional Details: here....

1977 August 3 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 936 - . Payload: Bion no. 4. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.60 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10172 . COSPAR: 1977-074A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Biological research. Scientists from the U.S.S.R., the U.S., Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic conducted experiments in physics and biology on the mission. The biosatellite was recovered at 51 deg 53 min N, 61 deg 30 min E, near Kustanay in Central Asia after remaining in orbit for 18.5 days. Additional Details: here....

1979 September 25 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1129 - . Payload: Bion no. 5. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.50 days. Decay Date: 1979-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11536 . COSPAR: 1979-083A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Biological experiments; embryo development, radiation medicine. Biosatellite for the continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 65 deg 30 min E. Cosmos 1129 satellite carried biological and radiation physics experiment packages from Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the German Democratic Republic, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Additional Details: here....

1983 December 14 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1514 - . Payload: Bion no. 6. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 14549 . COSPAR: 1983-121A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Biological experiments. Continued investigation of the influence of space flight factors on living organisms. Carried monkeys Abrek and Bion. Capsule recovered 52 deg 42 min N, 62 deg 48 min E. The first U.S.S.R. orbital flight of a non-human primate was accomplished on the Cosmos 1514 mission. Two monkeys flew on the mission, together with several pregnant rats. More than 60 experiments were performed by investigators from Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, France, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. U.S. scientists conducted three experiments on the primates and another experiment on the rat subjects. Additional Details: here....

1985 July 10 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1667 - . Payload: Bion no. 7. Mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 6.90 days. Decay Date: 1985-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 15891 . COSPAR: 1985-059A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Biological research. Carried monkeys Verniy and Gordiy. Continued investigations of the influence of space flight factors on living organisms and radiation physics research. Cosmos 1667 was the second USSR biosatellite mission with a primate payload. Cosmos 1667 also featured a large rodent payload, however the U.S. only conducted a single experiment cardiovascular experiment on one of the two flight monkeys. Mission parameters were very similar to those of Cosmos 1514. Countries participating in the mission included the USSR, U.S., France, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. Additional Details: here....

1987 September 29 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1887 - . Payload: Bion no. 8. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 18380 . COSPAR: 1987-083A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Biological research. Carried monkeys Drema and Erosha. Continued investigations of the influence of space flight factors on living organisms and radiation physics research. Capsule recovered 62 deg 47 min N, 112 deg 26 min E (?).. Additional Details: here....

1989 September 15 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2044 - . Payload: Bion no. 9. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20242 . COSPAR: 1989-075A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. 29 US/USSR life science experiments conducted on monkeys, insects, plants, fish, rats. Carried monkeys Zhankonya and Zabiyaka. Cosmos 2044 was the seventh Soviet Biosatellite to orbit the Earth with joint U.S./U.S.S.R. experiments onboard. Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Canada, Poland, Britain, Romania, Czechoslovakia and the European Space Agency also participated in the mission. The joint U.S./U.S.S.R. experiments were conducted on two rhesus monkeys and ten rats that were flown onboard the Biosatellite. The biological payload on the spacecraft also included fish, amphibians, insects, worms, protozoans, cell cultures and plants. Last launch from LC41. Additional Details: here....

1992 December 29 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2229 - . Payload: Bion no. 10. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 22300 . COSPAR: 1992-095A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Biological research; carried monkeys Ivasha and Krosha. International study of the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of space flight. After 12 days in Earth orbit, the capsule was recovered 50 deg 46 min N, 73 deg 08 min E, about 100 kilometers north of the city of Karaganda. The Cosmos 2229 mission was also referred to as Bion 10, because it was the tenth in a series of Soviet/Russian unmanned satellites carrying biological experiments. Additional Details: here....

1996 December 24 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U PVB15000-050.
  • Bion No. 11 - . Payload: Bion No. 11. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1997-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24701 . COSPAR: 1996-073A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Biological research. Carried monkeys Lalik and Multik..

2006 December 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA0B. LV Family: Minotaur. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur 1.
  • GeneSat-1 - . Mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: NASA Ames. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 29654 . COSPAR: 2006-058B. Apogee: 426 km (264 mi). Perigee: 410 km (250 mi). Inclination: 40.0100 deg. Period: 92.93 min. Nanosatellite launched as a secondary payload. A collaboration of NASA, industry, and local universities resulted in this fully-automated, miniaturized spaceflight system that provided life support, nutrient delivery, and performed assays to monitor genetic changes of E. coli bacteria in space conditions.

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