Encyclopedia Astronautica
Cancelled


Category of launch vehicles and spacecraft.

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Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Maul Camera Rocket German sounding rocket. Maul conceived of using powder rockets to launch film cameras for military reconnaissance in 1901, beginning an 11 year development process. More...
  • GIRD-09 Russian sounding rocket. The first rocket successfully launched by the Soviet GIRD organisation was a hybrid, using a liquid oxygen to burn gelled petroleum in large casing. Development of the rocket was begun by GIRD's second brigade under M K Tikhonravov. More...
  • Opel Fritz von Opel sponsored early tests of rocket-powered automobiles and aircraft, popularizing the idea of rocket propulsion in Germany. More...
  • Schmiedl Friedrich Schmiedl used powder rockets to make regular rocket mail service between two Austrian towns from 1931 to 1933. More...
  • Me-163 German winged rocketplane. The rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me-163 was the world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter and represented the culmination of Alexander Lippisch's years of research in rocketplanes, tail-less aircraft, and delta wings. As a weapon, the Me-163 had tremendous speed but very limited range. However the concepts developed by Lippisch contributed to the Space Shuttle and Buran orbiters of a quarter century later. More...
  • Oberth German sounding rocket. Rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth agreed to build and fly a liquid propellant rocket to publicise the Fritz Lang film Frau im Mond. Oberth's design was too ambitious and the rocket was never completed in time for the film's premiere. But the engine developed for it would be further refined and used in the Mirak rocket, flown in 1931-1933. More...
  • ARS The ARS-2 was an improvement by the American Interplanetary Socity of the German Mirak design. It used liquid oxygen and gasoline propellants, and was successfully launched on 14 May 1933. Successive rockets refined the design. More...
  • Valier Max Valier, first with the backing of automobile magnate von Opel, then in competition with him, was instrumental in popularising rocketry in Germany in the 1920's. He dreamed of rocket-propelled transatlantic aircraft, but was killed in a rocket engine test in 1932. More...
  • Swan American rocketplane. William G. Swan stayed aloft for 30 minutes over Atlantic City, N.J., in a glider powered with 10 small rockets. More...
  • GIRD-10 Russian sounding rocket. The first liquid propellant rocket launched in the Soviet Union, the GIRD-10 used liquid oxygen and alcohol propellants, pressure-fed to the combustion chamber by nitrogen gas. More...
  • He-112 The Heinkel He-112 was an unsuccessful pre-war German monoplane fighter, competing for orders with the Bf 109. However it entered rocketry history when tests were conducted with rocket engines. More...
  • Puellenberg Albert Puellenberg began construction of a series of increasingly sophisticated rockets in 1928. After further private rocketry development was prohibited in 1934, Puellenberg continued his work in secret, culminating with the extremely sophisticated VR12 rocket in 1938. This was the end of the line and the last privately-developed rocket built in Germany until 1956. More...
  • A9/A10 German intercontinental boost-glide missile. The A9/A10 was the world's first practical design for a transatlantic ballistic missile. Design of the two stage missile began in 1940 and first flight would have been in 1946. Work on the A9/A10 was prohibited after 1943 when all efforts were to be spent on perfection and production of the A4 as a weapon-in-being. Von Braun managed to continue some development and flight tests of the A9 under the cover name of A4b (i.e. a modification of the A4, and therefore a production-related project). In late 1944 work on the A9/A10 resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, but no significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b in January 1945. More...
  • 212 Russian air-to-surface missile. Korolev's second design for a rocket-propelled cruise missile. It was flight tested twice after his arrest in 1939 but work was then abandoned. More...
  • A7 German test vehicle. Subscale test model of the A9 rocket. Considered for use as a weapon as well. More...
  • V-3 German gun-launched missile. The V-3 Hochdruckpumpe (aka HDP, 'Fleissiges Lieschen'; 'Tausend Fussler') was a supergun designed by Saar Roechling during World War II. The 140 m long cannon was capable of delivering a 140 kg shell over a 165 km range. Construction began of a bunker for the cannons in September 1943 at Mimoyecques, France. The site was damaged by Allied bombing before it could be put into operation and was finally occupied by the British at the end of August 1944. Two short-length (45 m long) V-3's were built at Antwerp and Luxembourg in support of the Ardennes offensive in December 1944. These were found to be unreliable and only a few shots were fired without known effect. More...
  • RDD Russian tactical ballistic missile. The RDD - Long range rocket - was assigned to Korolev in November 1944 in response to the German V-2. Korolev was given charge of a team of 60 engineers and required to provide a draft project in three days. The resulting two-stage design used Lox/Alcohol propellants and an autopilot for guidance. It was proposed that a 5 tonne thrust rocket, 110 mm in diameter, would be available by 1945. A 250 tonne thrust, solid fuelled, 280 mm diameter, 4 m long rocket would be ready by 1949. These designs evolved into the more refined D-1 and D-2 before being overtaken by the post-war availability of V-2 technology. More...
  • Rheinbote German surface-to-surface missile. Director Klein and Doctor Vuellers at Rheinmetall in Leba had developed this unguided bombardment weapon. It was a four-stage powder rocket of minimum weight but a range of 120 km. More...
  • Taifun German surface-to-air barrage rocket, tested during World War II, but never operational. Copied in the USA as the Loki and in the USSR as the R-103. The name translates as 'Typhoon'. More...
  • BQ-1-BQ-2 American intermediate range cruise missile. In March 1942, the USAAF initiated a program to develop radio-controlled assault drones, frequently called "aerial torpedoes" at that time. These aerial torpedoes were to be unmanned expendable aircraft (either purpose-built or converted from existing types), fitted with a large payload of high-explosive, remote-control equipment and a forward-looking TV camera. The drones were to be directed to the target by radio commands from a control aircraft, where the operator would "fly" the drone watching the video transmitted by the camera. More...
  • BQ-3 American intermediate range cruise missile. In October 1942, Fairchild received a contract to build two XBQ-3 prototype unmanned assault drones based on the AT-21 Gunner twin-engined trainer design. More...
  • BQ-4-TDR Early family of American unmanned remotely-controlled aircraft for use in combat. More...
  • Schmetterling German surface-to-air missile which completed development at the beginning of 1945. However it was never produced in appreciable quantities. The name translates as 'Butterfly'. More...
  • X4 German wire-guided air-to-air missile. 8 kg of pressure-fed Salbei + Tonka 250 propellants provided a thrust that varied from 140 kgf down to 30 kgf over the 17 second burn time. Final velocity was 230 m/s. More...
  • Rascal American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1958. Project originated as Bell Aircraft Corp / AAF / Project MX-776. Requirement for a 160 km range air-launched guided missile was overcome by other technology during its protracted development. More...
  • Aphrodite American intermediate range cruise missile. In July 1944, the USAAF implemented the idea to convert "war-weary" B-17 Flying Fortress bombers to radio-controlled assault drones. About 25 B-17s, mostly B-17F, were converted to BQ-7 configuration under program Aphrodite. The BQ-7 was to be flown from Great Britain against very hardened or heavily defended German targets - submarine pens or V-1 missile sites. More...
  • BQ-8 American intermediate range cruise missile. In 1944 the USAAF intended to convert some worn-out Consolidated B-24D/J Liberator bombers to BQ-8 radio-controlled assault drones for use against heavily defended targets on Japanese islands in the Pacific. The concept was the same as used for the B-17 Flying Fortress conversions in the BQ-7 Aphrodite project. More...
  • Banshee American intercontinental cruise missile. Cruise missile version of B-29 bomber More...
  • Enzian German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II but abandoned in 1945 in favour of Wasserfall. More...
  • Rheintochter German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never completed development. The name translates as 'Rhine Maiden'. More...
  • R-3 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the long-range R-3 missile was authorised at the same time as the V-2-derived R-1 and R-2 rockets in April 1947. Supplemental authorisation was contained in a government decree of 14 April 1948.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km. To achieve this objective innovative technology was needed in every area of the missile design. Korolev was again in direct competition with the design to the same specification of the captured Germans (Groettrup's G-4). More...
  • Cobra-BTV American test vehicle, part of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program that led to the operational Talos ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile in the 1950's. More...
  • HATV American orbital launch vehicle. Significant Navy program begun in 1946 to develop a single-stage-to-orbit satellite launch vehicle. The Air Force blocked Navy efforts to develop it on a joint basis, while at the same time having no interest in the project itself. Work was abandoned at the end of 1948. More...
  • Hiroc American test vehicle, built and flown by Convair in 1945-1947 to test technologies applied to the later Atlas ICBM. More...
  • Super V-2 French intermediate range ballistic missile. Developed version of German A9 studied by the German team in France in 1946-1948. Cancelled as too ambitious, but led to the Veronique of the 1950's, the Diamant of the 1960's, and the Ariane space booster of 1979-2003. More...
  • Bumblebee STV American test vehicle in the 1940's. The primary goal of the U.S. Navy's Bumblebee missile program was to develop a ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. Bumblebee test vehicles and technologies led to the operational Terrier and Talos missile of the 1950's. More...
  • Taurus SSM-N-4 Interim long-range cruise missile considered by the US Navy in 1946-1948, an unmanned version of the AJ-1 Savage carrier-based bomber. More...
  • Buran Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Myasishchev aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. The competing Burya design of Lavochkin was launched in July 1957, but the development of unstoppable ICBM's had made intercontinntal cruise missiles oboslete. The equivalent American Navaho project was cancelled ten days later. Korolev's R-7 ICBM completed its first successful test flight in August. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled on November 1957. More...
  • R-3A Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. So much new technology was involved for the R-3 that it was deemed necessary to build an R-3A intermediate experimental rocket, based on the R-2. This would be flown to test new construction methods, guidance systems, and high energy propellants. The R-3A was specified in 1949 to have a 900 to 1000 km range with a payload of 1530 kg; an unfuelled mass of 4100 kg; 20,500 kg of propellants; and a lift-off thrust of 40 tonnes. The R-3A could also serve as a prototype for a more modest IRBM. Flight tests of the R-3A were scheduled for October 1951. More...
  • LTV-N-4 American Naval Ordnance Test Station solid-propellant test vehicle to support development of ramjet-powered missiles. Flew in 1949 and was 4.5 m long. More...
  • YaKhR-2 Russian nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. First large space launcher considered in the Soviet Union. It would have had the same layout as the R-7, but with six strap-ons increased in size by 50%. The core, igniting at altitude, used a nuclear thermal engine using ammonia as propellant. Dropped in favor of development of conventional chemical propulsion. More...
  • R-102 Post-war Russian version of German Schmetterling surface-to-air missile. 16 test flights made at Kapustin Yar between 18 October and 19 December 1949. Not put into production, cancelled in favour of the R-112. More...
  • R.04 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Wasserfall. More...
  • R-117 Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1950. Developed in competition with the R-112 (derrived from the German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1950 in favour of further development of the R-112. More...
  • SE.4350 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Enzian. More...
  • SE.4300 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Rheintochter. More...
  • SE.4100 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Hs.117. More...
  • R-101 Post-war Russian version of German Wasserfall surface-to-air missile. Never put into production, but technology used for further surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile developments in Russia. More...
  • R-112 Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1951. Propulsion and guidance based on that of the R-102 (copy of German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1951 when decision was made to proceed with a new generation of SAM designs. More...
  • R-108 All-Russian second generation version of the R-101, itself a derivative of the German Wasserfall. Development began in May 1949 but the missile did not reach flight test stage before its cancellation in 1951. More...
  • R-109 Russian derivative of the German Wasserfall, an interim design between the R-101 and R-108. The missile did not reach flight test stage before it was cancellation in 1951. More...
  • R-103 Post-war Russian version of German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1947-1951 but abandoned in favour of the R-110. More...
  • 10Kh Chelomei mobile-launched short range cruise missile derived from the German V-1. Did not reach production. More...
  • Rigel SSM-N-6 American Navy pioneering cruise missile project. Development started in 1943. Program cancelled in 1953. More...
  • RS Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Soviet Mach 3 manned air-launched ramjet aircraft, developed in 1954-1961, but cancelled before the first full-scale test article could be flown. More...
  • RSS-52 Russian air-launched test vehicle. Hypersonic ramjet-powered research vehicle proposed by Myasishchev in 1958. This version of the cancelled Buran intercontinental cruise missile would have been air-launched at supersonic speed from a derivative of the M-50 bomber. It would then use its own ramjet to accelerate to hypersonic velocity. More...
  • Lobber American surface-to-surface missile. In 1955 Convair undertook a small R&D program to develop a resupply missile that would deliver supplies and communications equipment to surrounded or isolated Army field units. More...
  • Orion OLV American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space. More...
  • 18D Russian surface-to-air missile. Variant of the 18D air-breathing surface-to-air missile using a magnesium alloy in the fuel to double the initial launch thrust. More...
  • R-110 Larger caliber Russian version of the German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1948-1956 and reached the initial production stage, but cancelled due to the inability to produce an economical rocket with the necessary consistent range accuracy for the barrage role. More...
  • R-15 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye 1000-km range submarine-launched ballistic missile. According to Przybilski, it was related to the light ICBM later designated R-26/8K66. More...
  • Triton US Navy ship- and sub-to-surface cruise ramjet-powered supersonic missile. Development started in 1946. Program cancelled in 1957. More...
  • DF-3 Tsien Development of the original DF-3 10,000 km missile was undertaken personally by Tsien Hue Shen, the father of Chinese rocketry, but faced insurmountable technical and management difficulties. It was cancelled and replaced by the DF-4. More...
  • 22D Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype surface-to-air missile, using liquid-propellant ramjets in place of the air-augmented solid propellant of the 17D. More...
  • Crossbow American air-to-surface missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1957. More...
  • Dart American surface-to-surface anti-tank missile. Development started in 1953 Program cancelled in 1958 in favor of the the French SS.10. More...
  • Plato US Army anti-ballistic missile, development started in 1951. Program cancelled in 1959. More...
  • Regulus 2 American supersonic sub-to-surface intermediate-range cruise missile, development started in 1953. Program cancelled in 1958 in deference to Polaris project. More...
  • R-13 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Developed from 1956-1960. First nuclear-armed SLBM. More...
  • 17D Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype air-breathing surface-to-air missile, using air-augmented solid propellant. More...
  • 9M/1/TEMP Russian short range ballistic missile. Two-stage deployed short range missile. Four solid motors strapped together, operating in staged pairs. More...
  • M-51 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Intercontinental cruise missile based on M-50 manned bomber. Subsonic cruise with Mach 2 dash into the target area. More...
  • Tu-131 Russian surface-to-air missile. Tupolev design for a long-range air-breathing surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. More...
  • Tu-121 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Mach 3 intermediate range cruise missile, tested in 1958-1960 before cancellation. More...
  • Tu-133 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Mach 3 intercontinental range cruise missile, cancelled in 1960 before flight tests began. More...
  • YaRD ICBM Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Single-stage nuclear-powered ICBM designed by OKB-1. More...
  • D-6 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First Soviet solid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile. Development began in 1958, but the system was cancelled in 1961 in favour of the D-7 naval version of the RT-15 IRBM (itself in turn cancelled). More...
  • MBR Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. 'Sealed unit' liquid propellant ICBM proposed by Reshetnev in 1960. More...
  • P-100 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Family of sea- or silo- launched Mach 3.5 cruise missiles with ranges up to intercontinental distances. More...
  • PR-90 Russian short range ballistic missile. Short-range air-augmented ballistic missile. Tested concepts for Gnom ICBM. More...
  • P-205 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of a family of long-range cruise missiles was begun in 1956 by Ilyushin. The P-205 was a land-based strategic cruise missile based on the P-20 antiship missile. The land-launch version was developed for the VVS in 1958-1960. There were two submarine projects for the missile, 627A and 653, both designed by OKB-143. Construction of the 627A submarine began at Severodvinsk, but the work on the submarine was cancelled in November 1961. More...
  • R-500 Russian surface-to-air missile. MiG design for an equivalent to the US Bomarc extremely long-range surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. More...
  • Spiral 50-50 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. The Soviet Air Force had an enduring interest in a horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing, manned, reusable space launch system that could ferry crews and priority supplies between earth and space on the same basis as conventional aircraft. Between 1960 and 1976 Mikoyan developed this manned partially reusable space launch system. It consisted of a reusable hypersonic air-breathing booster; two expendable rocket stages; and the reusable Spiral manned spaceplane. The effort was never properly funded by the government, and by the mid-1970's had only reached the stage of flight tests of subscale versions of Spiral. Development was discontinued in 1976 in favor of the Buran, a copy of the US space shuttle. However it was resurrected in improved form in the 1980's as the MAKS spaceplane. More...
  • GR-1 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev's entry in the 'Global Rocket' competition, a missile that could place a nuclear warhead in orbit, where it could come in under or behind American anti-ballistic missile defences, and be deorbited with little warning. Cancelled in 1964 in preference to Yangel's R-36-O. More...
  • Midgetman American intercontinental ballistic missile. Early 1960's two-stage version of Minuteman. More...
  • SK-100 Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1962 Yangel produced his first design for a large clustered rocket. The SK-100 would have clustered seven R-16 ICBM first stages in order to put 100 metric tons into earth orbit. The concept was abandoned for the simpler R-56 design. More...
  • UR-700 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The UR-700 was the member of Vladimir Chelomei's Universal Rocket family designed in the 1960's to allow direct manned flight by the LK-700 spacecraft to the surface of the moon. However Korolev's N1 was the selected Soviet super-booster design. Only when the N1 ran into schedule problems in 1967 was work on the UR-700 resumed. The draft project foresaw first launch in May 1972. But no financing for full scale development was forthcoming; by then it was apparent that the moon race was lost. More...
  • R-26 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Two stage light ICBM developed 1960-1962, but cancelled so that Yangel could concentrate his efforts on the R-36. After project cancellation, a mock-up of this missile was shown in Moscow parades and misidentified for years by Western analysts as the 'SS-8'. More...
  • Aerospaceplane American winged orbital launch vehicle. Development project from 1958-1963 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would carry three crew and additional paylaod from any airfield to orbit and back More...
  • RT-25 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Decree 316-157 of 4 April 1961 authorised development of a family of solid propellant launch vehicles utilising various combinations of three stages (the RT-2, RT-15, and RT-25). The RT-25 IRBM used the first and third stages of the RT-2 ICBM. M Yu Tsirulnikov at SKB-172 in Perm was responsible for development of the RT-25. However there was little interest in this variant and in 1963 further development was dropped. More...
  • Ares ICBM American intercontinental ballistic missile. The Ares single-stage, liquid-propellant ICBM was the objective of propulsion studies at both Aerojet and Rocketdyne. More...
  • MMRBM American surface-to-surface ballistic missile, development started in 1962. Program cancelled in 1964. More...
  • Nova American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova was NASA's ultimate launch vehicle, studied intently from 1959 to 1962. Originally conceived to allow a direct manned landing on the moon, in its final iteration it was to put a million-pound payload into low earth orbit to support manned Mars expeditions. It was abandoned in NASA advanced mission planning thereafter in favor of growth versions of the Saturn V. More...
  • SLAM American intercontinental Mach-3-at-sea-level cruise missile, powered by a nuclear ramjet. Development begun 1957. Cancelled 1964 over cost and environmental concerns. More...
  • Taran Russian anti-ballistic missile. Anti-ballistic missile design that was part of the basic capability of the UR-100. Studied in 1962-1964 but abandoned. More...
  • Gnom Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Gnom was a unique design which represented the most advanced work ever undertaken on an air-augmented missile capable of intercontinental ranges or orbital flight. Although cancelled in 1965 before flight tests could begin, Gnom was the closest the world aerospace engineering community ever came to fielding an orbital-capable launcher of less than half of the mass of conventional designs. More...
  • RT-20 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. First and third stages of SS-13. Cancelled after 8 test firings. Claims to have been deployed briefly. More...
  • Project 621 German sounding rocket. Dornier project of the early 1960's for a recoverable, reusable sounding rocket. The liquid fueled rocket would use a paraglider for recovery, and could be reused up to six times. Drop tests were made of the paraglider system in Sardinia in 1965 but no flights of the rocket itself ever took place. More...
  • AICBM Advanced Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, a planned 1966 successor to the Minuteman. Cancelled in 1967, with the Minuteman also outlasting such competitors as the Peacekeeper and SICBM, to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. More...
  • Isinglass American winged rocketplane. CIA air-launched, rocket-powered high speed manned vehicle project of 1965-1968 that developed basic technologies used in later shuttle and reusable launch vehicle programmes. More...
  • RT-22 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The RT-22 was a follow-on study to the RT-21 for a train-launched solid-propellant ICBM. It reached the stage of an advanced project in 1969. The three stage rocket would have a total mass of 80 tonnes including its transport container. A train would have a total of 22 cars, six of which would be missile launchers. More...
  • Taurus RGM-59 American tactical ballistic missile to provide US Navy ships with a long range surface-to-surface capability. Development began 1961; cancelled 1965. More...
  • Dal Russian surface-to-air missile. Trials of this long range surface-to-air missile were conducted in 1960-1963 but the project was cancelled after the system failed to down a single target. V-200 missiles were installed in the Dal installations built around Leningrad for the failed missile. In a bit of disinformation, the V-400 was paraded in Moscow, and US intelligence, thinking it was operational, applied the SA-5 designation. The SA-5 code was transferred to the V-200 after the La-400 was cancelled. More...
  • LIM-100 Unidentified American expermental silo-launched interceptor missile, probably the Sprint II concept. More...
  • LIM-99 Unidentified American expermental silo-launched interceptor missile, possibly the Sprint ABM. More...
  • BGM-110 American intermediate range cruise missile. Losing design in Sea-Launched Cruise Missile competition. Nuclear warhead version with warhead mass of 120 kg. More...
  • LoADS American anti-ballistic missile. Low-Altitude Defense System, BTDS, SDIO/BMDO project More...
  • Babylon Gun From March of 1988 until the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Iraq contracted with Gerard Bull to build three superguns: two full sized 'Project Babylon' 1000 mm guns and one 'Baby Babylon' 350 mm prototype. Nine tonnes of special supergun propellant could fire a 600 kg projectile over a range of 1,000 kilometres, or a 2,000 kg rocket-assisted projectile. The 2,000 kg projectile would place a net payload of about 200 kg into orbit at a cost of $ 600 per kg. The 1000 mm guns were never completed. After the war UN teams destroyed the guns and gun components in Iraqi possession. More...
  • HOTOL This single-stage-to-orbit winged horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing launch vehicle concept was powered by the unique Rolls-Royce RB545 air / liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen rocket engine. HOTOL development was conducted from 1982 to 1986 before the British government withdrew funding. It was superseded by the Interim HOTOL design which sought to reduce development cost through use of existing Lox/LH2 engines. More...
  • Copper Canyon American winged orbital launch vehicle. DARPA program of 1984 that proved the technologies and concept for the X-30 National Aerospace Plane concept. More...
  • MAKS Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988 and consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled in 1991. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. A 9,000 kgf experimental engine with 19 injectors was tested. There were 50 test burns proving the separate modes and a smooth switch between them. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990's that development funding could be found. However this did not materialise. MAKS was to have flown by 1998. More...
  • SHARP American gun-launched test vehicle. The SHARP (Super High Altitude Research Project) light gas gun was developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California. The L-shaped gun consisted of the 82 m long, 36 cm calibre pump tube and the 47 m long, 10 cm calibre gun barrel. SHARP began operation in December 1992 and demonstrated velocities of 3 km/sec with 5 kg projectiles. However the $ 1 billion funding to elevate the tube and begin space launch tests of smaller projectiles at speeds of up to 7 km/sec was not forthcoming. By 1996 the gun was relegated to occasional test of sub-scale Mach 9 scramjet models. More...
  • Senior Prom American intermediate range stealth cruise missile. US Air Force program with test flights in 1978-1981. More...
  • Tu-2000 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This Soviet equivalent to the US X-30 single-stage-to-orbit scramjet aerospaceplane began development in1986. Three versions were planned: a Mach 6 test vehicle, under construction at cancellation of the program in 1992; a Mach 6 intercontinental bomber; and a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. More...
  • TAV American winged rocketplane. USAF program of the 1980's that reached the test hardware stage and was leading to a single-stage-to-orbit, rocket-powered, winged manned vehicle. Halted in favour of the X-30 National Aerospace Plane. More...
  • ALS American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), was a US Air Force funded effort in 1987-1989 to develop a flexible, modular, heavy-lift, high rate space launch vehicle that could deliver payloads to earth orbit at a tenth the cost of existing boosters. Such a vehicle was seen as essential to supporting the launch of the huge numbers of satellites required for deployment of the ‘Star Wars' ballistic missile defense system. With the end of the Cold War, Star Wars was abandoned. The projected launch rate without the Star Wars requirement could never pay back the $15 billion non recurring cost, and the program was ended. More...
  • Skorost Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Soviet medium range ballistic missile, flown once but cancelled after being outlowed by INF Treaty. More...
  • Liberty American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Private commercial launch vehicle. More...
  • Meteorit Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of three variants of this cruise missile was authorised on 9 December 1976. The Meteorit-M strategic version would be deployed from 667M submarines with 12 launchers per boat. The air-launched Meteorit-A would be launched from Tu-95 bombers. The land-based version was designated Meteorit-N. The missile was also sometimes referred to by the code-name Grom. The first test launch, on 20 May 1980, was unsuccessful, as were the next three attempts. The first successful flight did not come until 16 December 1981. The first launch from a 667M submarine took place on 26 December 1983 from the Barents Sea. However all variants were cancelled in 1988 as a result of the INF Treaty. More...
  • Hatf 1 Pakistani single-stage solid propellant tactical ballistic missile Developed by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) based on French Stromboli engine technology. The unguided IA version went into service in 1992; the improved, inertiallty guided IB version in 2001. More...
  • X-30 American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Air-breathing scramjet single stage to orbit. Second attempt after study of similar proposal in early 1960's. Cancelled due to cost, technical challenges. More...
  • Albatros ICBM Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Albatros was an ICBM designed by NPO Mashinostroeniya under Chief Designer Gerbert Yefremov according to a decree of 9 February 1987. Like the Yuzhnoye Universal ICBM, it was to be built in enormous numbers in order to defeat any deployment by America of mass missile defences under their Strategic Defence Initiative. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the abandonment of SDI by the United States, the missile was cancelled. More...
  • Ikar Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Ikar was Yuzhnoye's design for a heavy ICBM, a next-generation replacement for the R-36M2. Design was begun at the beginning of the 1990's under Stanislav Us. It may have used all-solid propellants, and nested rocket stages. Work was quickly dropped after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. More...
  • Koltso Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Koltso was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of decrees of 29 September 1976 and 31 May 1984. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. More...
  • Kopye-R Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Kopye-R was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of a draft project completed in February 1986. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. More...
  • P-750 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. IOC in 1988 est 1992+. SS-C-5 GLCM banned in INF. More...
  • RSS-40 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. SS-18 Replacement. The designation SS-X-26 was originally assigned to the RSS-40, but the number was reused for another missile after its cancellation. More...
  • Universal Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye solid-propellant ICBM designed for mass production to counter US 'Star Wars' programme. Two built before break-up of Soviet Union. Some design features incorporated into all-Russian Topol-M. More...
  • Burlak Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Burlak air-launched satellite launcher was proposed in 1992 and studied by Germany in 1992-1994. Evidently based on secret anti-satellite missile. Air launched from Tu-160 bomber, released at 13,500 m altitude and Mach 1.7. Development estimated to cost only DM 50 million, but not proceeded with. Burlak/Diana variant would have been launched from Concorde. More...
  • Timberwind American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. DARPA project. Nuclear fission engine using pebble bed reactor with spherical fuel elements. More...
  • Skylon British single-stage-to-orbit, horizontal-takeoff-horizontal-landing turborocket orbital launch vehicle design of the mid-1990's. The novel lightweight structural design was based on lessons learned in the many iterations of the HOTOL concept. The classified Sabre turbojet-rocket combined-cycle engine was taken to a high level of test by Alan Bond at Rolls Royce. Despite the extreme promise of the design, neither British government or private financing was forthcoming. More...
  • SEALAR American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. SEALAR (SEA LAunched Rocket) was yet another attempt by Truax Engineering to get the amphibious-launch concept off the ground. The project received some Navy Research Laboratory funding in the early 1990's, with a planned first launch date of 1996. A production model would have been able to achieve orbit at an estimated cost of $ 10 million per launch. As with the earlier Truax projects, it did not achieve flight test status. More...
  • Beal BA-2 American low cost orbital launch vehicle. The Beal Aerospace BA-2 was a privately-financed heavy-lift commercial launch vehicle that used innovative technical solutions to achieve low cost to orbit. It harkened back to the low-cost Truax Sea Dragon or TRW 'Big Dumb Booster' concepts of the 1960's but added several new twists. Beal abandoned the project at the end of 2000 after the collapse of the MEO satellite market and active measures by NASA to support other, competing, more high-tech projects by the major aerospace contractors. More...
  • Capricorno Spanish all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Small all-solid-propellant launch vehicle pursued by Spain in 1992-1999. Cancelled in 2000 before any flights could be made. More...
  • Roton American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. The Roton was a fully reusable, single-stage-to-orbit, vertical take-off and landing piloted space vehicle designed to transport two crew members and 3200 kg of payload to and from a 300 km / 50 degree inclination earth orbit. It used a unique rotor system for recovery. Although a subscale landing test vehicle was built and received enormous media attention, the concept never made much technical sense. More...
  • Venturestar American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. Production reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle using technology developed in X-33 testbed. More...
  • LEAP American anti-ballistic missile. Lightweight Exo- Atmospheric Projectile. SDIO/BMDO project More...
  • X-33 American winged rocketplane. NASA-sponsored suborbital unmanned prototype for a single-stage-to-orbit rocketplane. The Lockheed Martin vehicle would have used a linear aerospike engine, metallic insulation, and other features similar to their Starclipper shuttle proposal of 1971. In 1999 catastrophic failure of the composite fuel tank during static test brought into question the technical feasiblity of the design. The program was cancelled in 2001 before any flight articles were completed and after over $1.2 billion had been expended. More...
  • X-34 American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. NASA failed to attract industry co-investment to develop the original X-34A air-launched, reusable, low-technology, low-cost orbital launch vehicle concept. So the project was scaled back and NASA contracted with Orbital Sciences on 28 August 1996 to build and fly the X-34 unmanned technology demonstrator. This program in turn developed overruns and was cancelled in 2001 before a test flight was made. More...
  • LASM Land Attack Standard Missile, a derivative of the Standard Missile SM-2MR naval air-defense designed to provide surface-to-surface fire support for the US Marine Corps. More...
  • Industrial Sounding System Canadian gun-launched sounding rocket. Columbiad Launch Services announced itself publicly in August 2003. They were then developing a high-volume Industrial Sounding System based on gun propulsion technology, which was scheduled to be fully operational by late 2004. This would also serve as a prototype for a follow-on orbital gun-based launch system. More...
  • Rascal SLV American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Expendable rocket air-launched from a supersonic aircraft with engines modified using a technology called Mass Injected Pre-Compressor Cooling (MIPCC), where a coolant such as water or liquid oxygen was added to the air at the engine inlet, allowing the engine to operate at higher altitudes than normally possible. More...

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