Encyclopedia Astronautica
DS



kakos2.jpg
DS-U3-S satellite
DS-U3-S satellite (Cosmos 166). Other satellites in the DS-U3 series had a similar appearance.
Credit: © Mark Wade
The DS ('Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik') small satellite bus was developed by Yangel's OKB-586 / KB Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine for launch by the same bureau's Kosmos launch vehicles. They were used for a wide range of military and scientific research; component proving tests; and as radar, ASAT, and ABM targets.

The original DS series spacecraft made maximum possible use of a common design scheme and equipment. The sealed casing of the spacecraft consisted of two hemispherical bulkheads joined by a cylindrical center section of 800 mm diameter. The length of the cylinder was varied according to the requirements of the internal payload. The casing was filled with nitrogen, and internal trusses allowed mounting of batteries, standard telemetry equipment, and mission-specific research equipment. Sensors for the research equipment were installed on the cylindrical section or on the upper hemisphere.

Common avionics included the BKRL-E command radio line equipment developed by NII-648, the Tral-MCD radio telemetry system and Rubin-1D orbit radio control systems developed by the Experimental Design Bureau of the Moscow Institute of Energy, the chemical batteries developed by All-Union Research Institute of Current Sources.

The thermal control system used two fans, a control unit, temperature sensors and an external radiator. The DS-MT and DS-MG variants used an offset heat exchanger with an external radiator.

The antennae suite included four rod antennae, five ribbon antennae, and one slot antenna. The spacecraft had no attitude control with the exception of the aerodynamically-oriented DS-MO. The mass of the spacecraft was between 47 kg and 321 kg. Net mass of the research equipment was between 4.5 kg and 44 kg. The active life in orbit was from 10 to15 days, dictated by the payload's power consumption from the batteries (except for the DS-P1 solar-powered radar target series) .Ground control and reception of data were via the Soviet military's ground tracking, command, and control network.

The success of the initial DS-series satellites resulted in an increased demand for low-cost small satellite missions to conduct scientific research. By 1962 the number of projects assigned to KB Yuzhnoye became so great that it was decided to transfer some satellite development projects to other design bureaus (the Meteor weather satellite to Yosifiyan at the VNIIEM State Scientific and Research Institute of Electromechanics in April 1962; the Tsiklon navigation satellite to Reshetnev at OKB-10 in August 1962; and the Yantar reconnaissance satellite to Kozlov in June 1967). Even then, to cope with the wide assortment of missions being assigned, it was necessary to design an improved universal satellite bus for the more demanding missions.

A requirements document from the Academy of Sciences of the USSR stated the need for such satellites with capabilities beyond those of the initial DS series. Preliminary Design for the DS-U was completed in 1963. Yuzhnoye proposed an improved DS-U common bus produced in five primary variants:

  • DS-U1: Unstabilized and battery-powered bus
  • DS-U2: Unstabilized and solar-powered bus
  • DS-U3: Sun-oriented and solar-powered bus
  • DS-U4: Stabilized bus with a recoverable capsule. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown
  • DS-U5: Stabilized bus with propulsion system for correction or maintenance of orbit. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown
Yuzhnoye's history indicates that 49 DS-U spacecraft were manufactured and delivered to orbit between 1963 and 1976. This count evidently included the two Omega flights in 1963, and excludes the GVM DS-U- mass model flight in 1977. Depending on mission requirements, these satellites were equipped with supplementary three-axis spacecraft stabilization systems, or roll stability systems, or orientation of the satellite relative to the magnetic field of the Earth. Even with a common design, the workload in the design office became so great that the Minister of General Machinery issued a decree on 30 October 1965 creating a specialized satellite design office within KB Yuzhnoye. Thirty patents were received by the bureau for various new inventions required during development of the design. The DS-U also became a vital part of the Intercosmos international program. Scientific results from the series were reported at 27 international symposia and congresses, published in 95 scientific articles in national and foreign publications and demonstrated on ten international and four national exhibitions.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • DS-1 Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1961.10.27 (DS-1 s/n 1) and 1961.12.21 (DS-1 s/n 2). Technology test version of the original DS light satellite design. Primary mission was to test launch vehicle. More...
  • DS-2 Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.03.16 (Cosmos 1) to 1964.12.01 (DS-2 s/n 2). More...
  • DS-P1 Ukrainian military target satellite. 4 launches, 1962.06.30 (Cosmos 6) to 1964.02.27 (Cosmos 25). Prototype ABM radar target; supported developmental experiments for ABM systems. More...
  • DS-K-8 Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1962.08.18, Cosmos 8. Detected meteoroid flux in near-earth space and carried unspecified military research equipment. More...
  • DS-A1 Ukrainian navigation technology satellite. 7 launches, 1962.10.20 (Cosmos 11) to 1965.07.02 (Cosmos 70). More...
  • Omega Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1963.04.13 (Cosmos 14) to 1963.12.13 (Cosmos 23). Early Cosmos satellite, evidently using the Yuzhnoye DS satellite bus. Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. More...
  • DS-MT Ukrainian technology satellite. 3 launches, 1963.06.01 (DS-MT s/n 1) to 1964.12.10 (Cosmos 51). Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied variations in the intensity of cosmic rays. More...
  • DS-U4-T Ukrainian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1963. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for low gravity materials and technology studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-MG Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1964.03.18 (Cosmos 26) to 1964.10.24 (Cosmos 49). Payload developed by VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied magnetosphere of the earth. More...
  • DS-P1-Yu Ukrainian military target satellite. 79 launches, 1964.07.30 (Cosmos 36) to 1976.08.26 (Cosmos 850). Development of systems for air defense and the control of outer space. More...
  • DS-U2-V Ukrainian military technology satellite. 4 launches, 1965.10.19 (Cosmos 93) to 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 202). Military technology development satellite - mission still classified. More...
  • DS-U2-M Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.11.26 (Cosmos 97) to 1967.03.03 (Cosmos 145). Development tests of atomic clocks. More...
  • DS-K-40 Ukrainian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.12.28 (DS-K-40 s/n 1) and 1966.02.21 (DS-K-40 s/n 2). Development of systems for the later operational Tselina satellites. More...
  • DS-U5 Ukrainian technology satellite. Cancelled 1965. Light satellite with propulsion for periodic correction of orbit. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-U4-B Ukrainian biology satellite. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-P1-I Ukrainian military target satellite. 19 launches, 1966.01.25 (Cosmos 106) to 1977.06.18 (Cosmos 919). Operational radar target for the ABM forces. More...
  • DS-U1-G Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.02.11 (Cosmos 108) to 1967.12.19 (Cosmos 196). Studied the relationship between variations in the upper atmosphere and solar activity. More...
  • DS-U2-I Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1966.05.24 (Cosmos 119) to 1968.12.14 (Cosmos 259). Studied the influence of the ionosphere on passing VLF radio waves. More...
  • DS-U2-MP Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.12 (Cosmos 135) to 1967.06.05 (Cosmos 163). Studied cosmic dust particles in near-Earth space. More...
  • DS-U2-D Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.21 (Cosmos 137) to 1968.04.26 (Cosmos 219). Studied charged particle flows. More...
  • DS-MO Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.03.21 (Cosmos 149) to 1970.01.16 (Cosmos 320). Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilization and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments. More...
  • DS-U3-S Ukrainian solar satellite. 2 launches, 1967.06.16 (Cosmos 166) to 1968.07.05 (Cosmos 230). Specialized orbital solar observatory for measuring solar rays in multiple spectral zones. More...
  • DS-U1-Ya Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.03.06 (DS-U1-Ya s/n 1) and 1968.06.12 (Cosmos 225). Studied charged particle flows and cosmic rays. More...
  • DS-U1-A Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1968.04.19, Cosmos 215. Studied the optical characteristics of the atmosphere. Radiation observatory; 8 telescopes. More...
  • DS-U2-GK Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.20 (Cosmos 261) to 1970.06.13 (Cosmos 348). Conducted complex geophysical studies of the upper atmosphere. Air density, auroral investigations. More...
  • DS-U2-GF Ukrainian solar satellite. One launch, 1968.12.26, Cosmos 262. Conducted heliophysical studies. More...
  • DS-U3-IK Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1969.10.14 (Intercosmos 1) to 1976.07.26 (Intercosmos 16). Measurements of the sun; used for Interkosmos launches. More...
  • DS-U1-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.25 (Intercosmos 2) to 1972.12.01 (Intercosmos 8). Studies ionosphere of the earth; version used for Intercosmos international launches. More...
  • DS-U2-MG Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1970.01.20 (Cosmos 321) to 1970.08.10 (Cosmos 356). Studied the Earth's magnetic poles. More...
  • DS-U1-R Ukrainian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.04.24, Cosmos 335. Studied spectral range of the UF. More...
  • DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1970.08.07 (Intercosmos 3) to 1975.12.11 (Intercosmos 14). Studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere; version used for Intercosmos international launches. More...
  • DS-U2-IP Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.11.17, Cosmos 378. Studied the ionosphere and charged particle flows. More...
  • DS-P1-M Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 15 launches, 1970.12.22 (DS-P1-M s/n 1) to 1982.06.06 (Cosmos 1375). Target for IS ASAT systems tests. More...
  • DS-U2-K Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.06.05, Cosmos 426. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic radiation. More...
  • DS-U2-MT Ukrainian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1971.12.02, Cosmos 461. Measured micrometeoroid impacts and gamma rays. More...
  • GVM DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1977.02.15, Cosmos 893. Designation indicates a mass model of the DS-U2-IK (which studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere). However flown after the functional spacecraft's flights were completed. More...

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