Encyclopedia Astronautica
Goddard



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Goddard First Rocket
The world's first liquid fuel rocket.
Robert H. Goddard was the father of American rocketry. In a series of rockets flown between World War I and World War II, he solved all of the fundamental problems of guided liquid propellant rockets.

After his experiments with liquid fueled rockets alarmed the local authorities in Massachusetts, he was sponsored by Guggenheim and Charles Lindbergh to continue his experiments in Roswell, New Mexico. Secretive, working in isolation, unwilling to work in the necessary large industrial teams required for the new technology, he solved all the fundamental problems of guided rockets - but his work represented a dead end. Parallel work by Von Braun in Germany and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena duplicated his discovereis and led to post-war rocketry in Russia, Europe, and America.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Goddard Robert H. Goddard was the father of American rocketry. In a series of rockets flown between World War I and World War II, he solved all of the fundamental problems of guided liquid propellant rockets. More...
  • Goddard 1 American test vehicle. Rocket used by Goddard to achieve the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket. More...
  • Goddard 2 American test vehicle. After several tests indicating the model was too small to permit refinements, Goddard decided to build a rocket twenty-fold larger. During 1926 a new tower was built, and flow regulators, multiple liquid injection into large combustion chambers, means for measurement of pressure and lifting force, electrically fired igniter, and turntable for rotation were developed. More...
  • Goddard 3 American test vehicle. First instrumented liquid fuel rocket. Length 11 ft 6 in.; maximum diameter 26 in.; weight 32 lb; gasoline 14 lb; liquid oxygen 11 lb; total loaded weight 57 lb. More...
  • Goddard 4 American test vehicle. Goddard rocket using pressure-fed Lox/Gasoline propellants, streamline casing, and remote control guidance. Masses varied; typical values indicated. More...
  • Goddard A American test vehicle. The A series rockets used simple pressure feed, gyroscopic control by means of vanes, and parachute. The rockets in this series averaged in length from 4.11 m to 4.65 m.; their weight empty varied from 26 kg to 39 kg. More...
  • Goddard K American test vehicle. This consisted of ten proving-stand tests for the development of a more powerful motor, 10 in. in diameter. Weight of rocket, about 225 lb; weight of fuels, 50-70 lb for the series. More...
  • Goddard L-A American test vehicle. Tests of the Goddard L Section A covered development of a nitrogen-pressured flight rocket using 10 in, motors based on the K series and ran from May 11 to November 7, 1936 (L1-L7). Length of the L Series Section A rockets varied from 10 ft 11 in, to 13 ft 6 1/2 in.; diameter 18 in.; empty weight 120 to 202 lb; loaded weight 295 to 360 lb; weight oxygen about 78 lb; weight gasoline 84 lb; weight nitrogen, 4 lb. More...
  • Goddard L-B American test vehicle. The L-B series were check tests of 5.75-in.-diameter chambers with fuels of various volatilities; development of tilting cap parachute release; tests of various forms of exposed movable air vanes; test of retractable air vanes and parachute with heavy shroud lines. The series ran from November 24, 1930-May 19, 1937 (L8-L15). Final results of Section B of L Series showed two proving-stand tests, and six flight test attempts, all of which resulted in flights. Average interval between tests 22 days. More...
  • Goddard L-C American test vehicle. Series L Section C rockets included light tank construction, movable-tailpiece (i.e. gimbal) steering, catapult launching, and further development of liquid nitrogen tank pressure method. Lengths varied from 17 ft 4.25 in. to 18 ft 5.75 in.; diameter 9 in., weight empty varied from 80 to 109 lb; loaded weight about 170 lb or more; lift of static tests varied from 228 lb to 477 lb; jet velocities from 3960 to 5340 ft/sec. More...
  • Goddard P-C American test vehicle. Section C tests would run through October 10, 1941 and represent the final Goddard rocket flight tests. The series of twenty-four static and flight tests (P13-P36) was made with rockets of large fuel capacity, with the rocket motor, pumps, and turbines previously developed. These rockets averaged nearly 22 ft in length, and were 18 in, in diameter. They weighed empty from 190 to 240 lb. The liquid-oxygen load averaged about 140 lb, the gasoline 112 lb, making "quarter-ton" loaded rockets. More...

Goddard Chronology


1925 December 6 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • First net thrust by a Goddard liquid fuel rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Returning to the simple pressure feeding of the liquid propellants, to reduce weight, Goddard obtained in the Clark University Physical Laboratories a 24-sec test in which the lift was great enough to raise the rocket the last half of the run..

1925 December 30 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • Goddard test of liquid rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Rocket trembled in its support for 8 sec. .

1926 January 3 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • Goddard test of liquid rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Rocket again quivered for 17 sec..

1926 January 20 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • Goddard test of liquid rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: The lift raised the rocket motor the full distance it could travel. Outdoor tests with a flight model were begun on March 8, 1926..

1926 March 16 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • First flight of a Goddard liquid-propellant rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0125 km (0.0078 mi). Range: 0.0560 km (0.0348 mi). Goddard achieves the first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket at Aunt Effie's Farm, Auburn, Massachusetts. Altitude 41 ft; average speed 60 mph; in air 2.5 sec; landed 184 ft from launching frame; total path 220 ft. This event was the "Kitty Hawk" of rocketry.

1926 April 3 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • Second flight of a Goddard liquid-propellant rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0150 km (0.0093 mi). Summary: Goddard achieves the second flight of a liquid-propellant rocket. In air 4.2 sec; landed 50 ft from testing stand..

1926 May 5 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 1.
  • Smithsonian informed of rocket test. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Robert H. Goddard communicated the results of his successful liquid-propellant rocket flight of March 16 to the Smithsonian Institution..

1926 May 5 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 2.
  • Goddard turns to larger liquid propellant rockets. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. After several tests indicating the model was too small to permit refinements, Goddard decided to build a rocket twenty-fold larger. During 1926 a new tower was built, and flow regulators, multiple liquid injection into large combustion chambers, means for measurement of pressure and lifting force, electrically fired igniter, and turntable for rotation were developed.

1927 January 18 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 2.
  • Attempt to launch Goddard large model rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Goddard's large model rocket set up in tower for the first time. Rocket and turntable lifted several times in following months, but no flights were obtained with the large model..

1927 September 3 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 3.
  • Goddard third rocket design - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Goddard began construction on a rocket one-fifth size of the 'large model' (i.e. four times larger than 1926 flight models), with few, simple parts, easily replaced, and much-improved fuel injection..

1928 July 18, September 29, October 10, October 20 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 3. FAILURE: Tipped and caught in tower.
  • Launch attempts of Goddard third rocket design - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Goddard's third rocket design started to rise, but tipped and caught in tower every time..

1928 December 26 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 3.
  • Third flight of a Goddard liquid rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0050 km (0.0031 mi). Range: 0.0620 km (0.0385 mi). Rose out of tower rapidly and tipped, passing over observation shelter; distance 204.5 ft; speed about 60 mph. This flight was followed by a series of static tests, to develop liquid 'curtain cooling' for inside of combustion-chamber wall, a regenerative system, and better stability in flight.

1929 July 17 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 3.
  • Fourth flight of a Goddard liquid rocket; first with instruments. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0270 km (0.0168 mi). Range: 0.0520 km (0.0323 mi). Started to lift at 13 sec; rose at 14 1/2 sec; reached top of flight (90 ft) at 17 sec; hit ground at 18 1/2 sec; landed 171 ft from tower. The rocket carried a small camera, thermometer, and a barometer which were recovered intact after the flight. Flight was bright and noisy, attracted public attention. The result was a great deal of "moon rocket" publicity. This resulted in prohibition of further test flights from Aunt Effie's Farm by the local fire marshall. Length 11 ft 6 in.; maximum diameter 26 in.; weight 32 lb; gasoline 14 lb; liquid oxygen 11 lb; total loaded weight 57 lb. Up to that time Goddard had achieved numerous proving-stand tests of liquid rockets, and 10 attempts at flight tests, of which four achieved flight.

1929 December 3 - 1930 June 30 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard rockets tests at Camp Devens - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Goddard conducts tests at the artillery range at Camp Devens, 25 miles from Worcester, for the improvement of liquid-fuel rocket-motor efficiency, particularly the 'curtain cooling.' Sixteen proving-stand tests were made; there were no flight tests. A few special tests were made with rocket-operated propellers.

1930 July - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard moves rocket work to Roswell, New Mexico - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Goddard's liquid rocket development project was moved to New Mexico under the auspices of Daniel Guggenheim of New York City. Dr. Goddard could now devote full time to the rocket work. .

1930 October 23 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard begins rocket tests at Roswell - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Goddard first begins a series of thorough static tests in which the operating conditions were varied. The combustion chamber decided upon for use in flight tests was 5.75 inches in diameter and weighed 5 lb. In these static tests the maximum lift was 289 lb; duration 20+ sec; lifting force steady; jet velocities over 5000 ft/sec.

1930 December 30 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard's fifth flight of a liquid fuel rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.61 km (0.38 mi). Summary: The rocket reached an altitude of 2000 ft and a maximum speed of 500 mph. The vehicle was 11 ft long; empty weight 33.5 lb; a gas pressure tank was used to force liquid oxygen and gasoline into combustion chamber..

1931 September 29 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard rocket flight test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0550 km (0.0342 mi). Summary: Flight of Goddard liquid fuel rocket with jacket, streamline casing, remote control. Length, 9 ft 11 in.; diameter 12 in.; weight empty 37 lb; weight loaded 87.2 lb; in air 9.6 sec; height 180 ft; trajectory 'like a fish swimming upward.'.

1931 October 13 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard rocket flight test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.52 km (0.32 mi). Summary: Flight of Goddard liquid fuel rocket with simplified combustion chamber, parachute releasing. Length 7 ft 9 in.; diameter 12 in.; height 1700+ ft; loud whistling on descent..

1931 October 27 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard rocket flight test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.41 km (0.25 mi). Range: 0.28 km (0.18 mi). Summary: Flight of Goddard liquid fuel rocket with new gasoline shutoff valve. Dimensions similar to October 13; altitude 1330 ft; landed 930 ft from tower; in air 8.6 sec..

1931 November 23 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Static test of Goddard liquid fuel rocket with modified oxygen injection; lift 270 lb for 11 sec; jet velocity 5088 ft/sec. .

1932 April 19 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard 4.
  • Goddard tests rocket with gyro stabilization. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0410 km (0.0255 mi). Summary: Flight of Goddard liquid fuel rocket with pressure generated by liquid nitrogen, and eight gyro-controlled vanes (four into blast and four into slipstream) for stabilisation. Length 10 ft 9.5 in.; weight empty 19.5 lb; height 135 ft; in air 5 sec..

1934 September 14 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Goddard obtained funding allowing liquid rocket flight tests to be resumed in Roswell, New Mexico. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. This funding would continue through 1941. The first test series was designated the A Series (A1-A14). The A series rockets used simple pressure feed, gyroscopic control by means of vanes, and parachute. The rockets in this series averaged in length from 13 ft 6 in. to 15 ft 3 1/4 in.; their weight empty varied from 58 lb to 85 lb.

1935 February 16 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.20 km (0.12 mi). Summary: Rocket had no automatic guiding device; short and rapid flight, during which the parachute was released and checked the fall..

1935 March 8 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Range: 3.35 km (2.08 mi). Rocket was equipped with equaliser to prevent liquid-oxygen tank pressure from exceeding gasoline tank pressure, pendulum stabiliser, and 10-ft parachute; flame small and white; duration 12 sec; altitude about 1000 ft; then tilted to a horizontal powered flight at speed of over 700 mph; landed 11,000 ft from tower. Pendulum stabiliser as was expected gave an indication of operating the vanes for the first few hundred feet, but not thereafter.

1935 March 28 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket reaches 4,800 feet. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 1.46 km (0.91 mi). Range: 4.00 km (2.40 mi). Rocket had improved gyro stabilisation; length 14 ft 9 3/4 in.; empty weight 78 1/2 lb; altitude 4800 ft; average speed 550 mph; corrected its flight perfectly several times, for several hundred feet; horizontal distance, 13,000 ft; total time of flight, 20 sec.

1935 May 31 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket reaches 7,500 feet. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 2.30 km (1.43 mi). Range: 1.70 km (1.06 mi). Summary: Rocket had new lift indicator; length 15 ft 1 1/2 in.; weight 84 lb; altitude 7500 ft; excellent stabilisation; landed 5500 ft from tower, digging hole 10 in. deep; loud whistle on descent. .

1935 June 25 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0370 km (0.0230 mi). Summary: Rocket had new timing device for parachute, and cushioned gyro. Day was windy; duration 10 sec; height 120 ft; tipped into wind as it left the tower..

1935 July 12 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Summary: Rocket had strainers and thicker air vanes; duration of propulsion, 14 sec; altitude 6600 ft with excellent correction up to 3000 ft; parachute torn off. .

1935 October 29 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard A.
  • Flight of Goddard A series rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 1.22 km (0.76 mi). Rocket had new gasoline orifices; duration of lift 12 sec; altitude about 4000 ft; speed high -- shot a wave of dirt, resembling a water wave, before it on landing. This completed Goddard's test of the A series of rockets. They had included 10 proving-stand tests and 14 flight test attempts, of which 7 resulted in flights. Average interval between tests was 28 days

1935 November 22 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard K.
  • Goddard begins tests of his K series rockets (K1-K10). - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 1.20 km (0.75 mi). Summary: This consisted of ten proving-stand tests for the development of a more powerful motor, 10 in. in diameter. Weight of rocket, about 225 lb; weight of fuels, 50-70 lb for the series..

1935 December 17 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard K.
  • One of the best proving-stand tests of Goddard's K series of rockets. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Lift 496 lb for 14 sec; weight liquid oxygen 31 lb; weight gasoline 24 lb; jet velocity, greater than 4470 ft/sec..

1936 February 12 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard K.
  • Last and best of the proving-stand tests of Goddard's K series of rockets. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Lift 623.5 lb for 4 sec; weight oxygen 25.5 lb; weight gasoline 13.5 lb; jet velocity greater than 4340 ft/sec. Average interval between K-series tests was 8 days..

1936 May 11 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Goddard begins tests of his L Series of liquid fuel rockets. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. These would run through August 9, 1938 and included 30 flight tests of 10-in.-diameter motors, in nitrogen-pressured rockets. The series was divided into three sections: A, B, and C. Section A covered development of a nitrogen-pressured flight rocket using 10 in, motors based on the K series and ran from May 11 to November 7, 1936 (L1-L7). Length of the L Series Section A rockets varied from 10 ft 11 in, to 13 ft 6 1/2 in.; diameter 18 in.; empty weight 120 to 202 lb; loaded weight 295 to 360 lb; weight oxygen about 78 lb; weight gasoline 84 lb; weight nitrogen, 4 lb.

1936 July 31 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section A rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0600 km (0.0373 mi). Range: 0.0900 km (0.0559 mi). Summary: Rocket achieved altitude 200 ft above 80-ft tower; duration 5 sec; landed 300 ft from tower..

1936 October 3 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section A rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0600 km (0.0373 mi). Summary: Rocket achieved 200 ft vertically in 5 sec, then combustion chamber burned through; weight oxygen 40 lb; weight gasoline 46 lb; weight nitrogen 4 lb; fell 20 ft from tower..

1936 November 7 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-A.
  • Final flight of Goddard series L section A rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0600 km (0.0373 mi). Rocket equipped with a cluster of four combustion chambers, each 5.75 in. in diameter; length 13 ft 6.5 in.; altitude about 200 ft; fell near tower. The L series included four proving-stand tests and three flight test attempts, of which all were successful. Average interval between tests 25 days

1936 November 24 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Goddard series L section B liquid rocket tests. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. These were check tests of 5 3/4-in.-diameter chambers with fuels of various volatilities; development of tilting cap parachute release; tests of various forms of exposed movable air vanes; test of retractable air vanes and parachute with heavy shroud lines. The series ran from November 24, 1930-May 19, 1937 (L8-L15).

1936 December 18 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0010 km (0.0006 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with a pressure storage tank; rocket turned sharply to the right soon after it emerged from the tower, and proceeded at 150 angle above the horizontal until it landed 2000 ft from tower; noise heard at ranch house, 8 miles away..

1937 February 1 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.57 km (0.35 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with gyro, air and blast vanes; length 16 ft 7 5/8 in.; diameter 9 in.; altitude 1870 ft; duration 20.5 sec; corrected well; ground behind flame deflector turned green and glazed by heat..

1937 February 27 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.46 km (0.29 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with new parachute release operated by gyro; altitude 1500 ft; duration 20 sec; speed very high; landed 3000 ft from tower, softened ground for considerable distance..

1937 March 26 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 2.60 km (1.62 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with larger movable air vanes; altitude 8000-9000 ft; duration 22.3 sec; corrected while propulsion lasted, then tilted; altitude uncertain because of haze remaining from dust storms..

1937 April 22 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with larger movable air vanes and reinforced parachute; length 17 ft 9 in.; diameter 9 in.; duration 21.5 sec; could not be followed to top of flight, as it was nearly overhead; landed 1 mile from tower..

1937 May 19 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-B.
  • Final flight of Goddard series L section B rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.99 km (0.62 mi). Rocket was equipped with streamline retractable air vanes and wire-wound pressure storage tank; length 17 ft 8 in.; diameter 9 in.; altitude 3250 ft; duration 29.5 sec; much-improved stabilisation. Final results of Section B of L Series, from November 1936-May 1937, showed two proving-stand tests, and six flight test attempts, all of which resulted in flights. Average interval between tests 22 days

1937 July 28 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Start of Goddard series L section C liquid rocket tests - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. These would run through August 9, 1938 (L16-L30). Section C rockets included light tank construction, movable-tailpiece (i.e. gimbal) steering, catapult launching, and further development of liquid nitrogen tank pressure method. Lengths varied from 17 ft 4.25 in. to 18 ft 5.75 in.; diameter 9 in., weight empty varied from 80 to 1091b; loaded weight about 170 lb or more; lift of static tests varied from 228 lb to 477 lb; jet velocities from 3960 to 5340 ft/sec. These tests indicated extremely high temperatures for the jet: pebbles of the cement gas deflector were fused and thrown out, starting fires more than 50 ft from the tower.

1937 July 28 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.63 km (0.39 mi). Rocket was equipped with movable-tailpiece or gimbal steering, with wire-wound tanks and barograph; length 18 ft 5.5 in.; diameter 9 in.; weight empty 95 lb 5 oz; loaded 162 lb 5 oz; 39 lb liquid oxygen, 28 lb gasoline; altitude 2055 ft; duration 28 sec; parachute opened near ground, checked speed; coasted one-eighth of ascent; landed 1000 ft from tower.

1937 August 26 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.60 km (0.37 mi). Summary: Rocket was equipped with movable-tailpiece steering, catapult launching; length 18 ft 5.5 in.; diameter 9 in.; weight loaded 162 lb; altitude 2000+ ft; corrected well and strongly seven times in flight. .

1937 November 24 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0300 km (0.0186 mi). Summary: Short flight, leaned after leaving tower, fell 100 ft from tower; lift low..

1938 March 6 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.16 km (0.10 mi). Summary: Short flight, 500 ft plus coasting period, very fast in leaving tower; little smoke..

1938 March 17 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.66 km (0.41 mi). Summary: Rocket reached altitude 2170 ft; duration 15 sec; vertical to 800 ft, then leaned to right; landed 3000 ft from tower; little smoke. .

1938 April 20 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 1.26 km (0.78 mi). Summary: Rocket reached altitude 4215 ft; duration of propulsion 25.3 sec; landed 6960 ft from tower; carried official NAA barograph. .

1938 May 26 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0400 km (0.0249 mi). Summary: Rocket reached altitude 140 ft; veered to right, landed 500-600 ft from tower..

1938 August 9 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 1.50 km (0.90 mi). Rocket reached altitude 4920 ft as determined from telescope; from NAA barograph, 3294 ft, but altitude appeared greater visually and by telescope; corrected well, parachute opened at maximum point of ascent. This completed Section C of the L series, conducted from July 1937-August 1938. It had included seven proving-stand tests and 8 flight test attempts, all of which resulted in flights. Average interval between tests 25 days. For the entire L Series, from May 1936-August 1938, there were 13 proving-stand tests 13 and 17 flight test attempts, all of which were successful. Average interval between tests was 22-25 days

1939 November 18 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket tests - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Section C tests would run through October 10, 1941. The series of twenty-four static and flight tests (P13-P36) was made with rockets of large fuel capacity, with the rocket motor, pumps, and turbines previously developed. These rockets averaged nearly 22 ft in length, and were 18 in, in diameter. They weighed empty from 190 to 240 lb. The liquid-oxygen load averaged about 140 lb, the gasoline 112 lb, making 'quarter-ton' loaded rockets.

1939 December 2 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Static test at flight tower; steady 40-sec run; lift 760 lb. .

1940 May 15 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Static test, flame hot, apparently large lift; ground behind dame deflector looked melted..

1940 June 11 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Static test, steadier run 43.5 sec, longest to date; red-hot stones seen to fly up out of cement gas deflector..

1940 August 9 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket flight test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0900 km (0.0559 mi). Summary: First flight with pumps, altitude 300 ft; velocity low, 10-15 mph. .

1941 January 6 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Static test, highest lift so far recorded, 985 lb. .

1941 May 8 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket flight test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 0.0800 km (0.0497 mi). Summary: Second flight with pumps, altitude 250 ft; then heeled away from tower..

1941 July 17 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • Goddard Series P Section C rocket static test - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Summary: Static test: duration 34 sec; average thrust 825+ lb; gas ejection velocity 4060 ft/sec; average thrust per pound of fuel per second 128; mechanical horsepower 3040; liquid oxygen 131.7 lb; gasoline 91.5 lb; ratio oxygen to gasoline 1.43. .

1941 October 19 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard P-C.
  • End of Goddard sounding rocket tests - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. The Goddard P series pump-turbine tests had run from November 1939-October 1941. The series included 15 proving-stand tests and nine attempts at flight tests, of which only two resulted in flights. Average interval between tests was 28 days. This also ended Goddard development of liquid fuel rockets for space flight. Beginning in September 1941 with the impending involvement of the US in the world war, the Goddard rocket establishment worked under contracts with the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department and the Army Air Forces. Up to that point Goddard's team had completed 103 liquid rocket proving stand tests and made 48 attempts at flight tests, of which 31 resulted in rocket flights

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