Encyclopedia Astronautica
Medium earth orbit


Category of spacecraft.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Meteor-M New-generation Russian weather satellite, successor to the Meteor-3M, with new electronics and designed for launch by the Soyuz ST launch vehicle rather than the discontinued Tsiklon-3 and non-Russian Zenit-2. First launched in 2009. More...
  • Transit American navigation satellite. 46 launches, 1959.09.17 (Transit 1A) to 1988.08.25 (Transit O-31). The Transit Navigation System began development in 1958. More...
  • Midas American military early warning satellite. 18 launches, 1960.02.26 (Midas 1) to 1966.10.05 (Midas 12). Part of a then-secret USAF program known as WS-117L, the MIDAS (Missile Defense Alarm System) program began in November 1958. More...
  • TIROS American earth weather satellite. 12 launches, 1960.04.01 (Tiros 1) to 1966.02.28 (ESSA 2). TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. More...
  • GRAB American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 9 launches, 1960.04.13 (Dummy subsatellite) to 1965.03.09 (Solrad 7B). GRAB, the first US electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite, was not declassified until June 1998. More...
  • Echo American passive communications satellite. 2 launches, 1960.05.13 (Echo 1) and 1960.08.12 (Echo 1). The Echo satellites were NASA's first experimental communications satellite project. More...
  • Courier American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1960.08.18 (Courier 1A) and 1960.10.04 (Courier 1B). Experimental communications. More...
  • TRAAC American technology satellite. One launch, 1961.11.15. Transit Research and Attitude Control. More...
  • SURCAL American military target satellite. 15 launches, 1962.01.24 (Surcal) to 1969.09.30 (Surcal). More...
  • SECOR American earth geodetic satellite. 13 launches, 1962.01.24 (Secor) to 1969.04.14 (SECOR 13). More...
  • OSO American solar satellite. 9 launches, 1962.03.07 (OSO 1) to 1975.06.21 (OSO 8). The Orbiting Solar Observatories, developed for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, were designed primarily as stabilized platforms for solar-oriented scientific instruments. More...
  • Anna American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1962.05.10 (Anna 1A) and 1962.10.31 (Anna 1B). More...
  • Telstar American communications satellite. 2 launches, 1962.07.10 (Telstar 1) and 1963.05.07 (Telstar 2). More...
  • Relay American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.12.13 (Relay 1) and 1964.01.21 (Relay 2). More...
  • SSF American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 54 launches, 1963.03.18 (P-11 No. 1) to 1989.08.08 (USA 41). More...
  • Dash American military technology satellite. 2 launches, 1963.05.09 (Dash 1) and 1963.07.18 (Dash 2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • APL American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.09.28 (APL SN 39) to 1964.12.13 (APL SN 43). Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory built several satellites for the Air Force in the 1960's. More...
  • GGSE American gravity gradient technology satellite. 5 launches, 1964.01.11 (GGSE 1) to 1967.05.31 (GGSE 5). Developed designs and deployment techniques later applied to the NOSS / Whitecloud naval reconnaissance satellites. More...
  • Echo 2 American passive communications satellite. One launch, 1964.01.25. Passive communications satellite; balloon; 1st joint US/USSR space mission. More...
  • Strela-1 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 29 launches, 1964.08.18 (Cosmos 38) to 1965.09.18 (Cosmos 90). More...
  • IE American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1964.08.25, Explorer 20. Ionospheric research. More...
  • Calsphere American military target satellite. 11 launches, 1964.10.06 (Calsphere 1) to 1971.02.17 (Calsphere 5). Radar calibration objects (but also cover for other classified subsatellites). More...
  • Beacon American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.10.10 (Explorer 22) to 1965.04.29 (Explorer 27). Early technology satellite. None reached orbit. More...
  • LES American communications technology satellite. 8 launches, 1965.02.11 (LES 1) to 1976.03.15 (LES 9). More...
  • DODECAPOLE American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1965.03.09 (DODECAPOLE 1/Porcupine 1) and 1965.08.13 (Dodecapole 2). More...
  • Snapshot American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1965.04.03. Carried SNAP-9A nuclear power source. The on-board reactor provided electrical power for a 2.2-lb ion engine. More...
  • LCS American military target satellite. 3 launches, 1965.05.06 (LCS 1) to 1971.08.07 (LCS 4). Aluminum sphere used for radar calibration. More...
  • Tempsat American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1965.08.13 (Tempsat 1) and 1969.09.30 (Tempsat 2). Surveillance Calibration; black 14 inch diameter. sphere. More...
  • OV2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1965.10.15 (OV2-01) to 1968.09.26 (OV2-05). OV2 satellites were built for the USAF Office of Aerospace Research, and flew as secondary payloads on Titan IIIC test flights. More...
  • GEOS American solar satellite. 3 launches, 1965.11.06 (Explorer 29) to 1975.04.09 (Geos 3). The GEOS spacecraft were gravity-gradient-stabilized, solar-cell powered satellites designed exclusively for geodetic studies. More...
  • IQSY American solar satellite. One launch, 1965.11.19, Explorer 30. Solar radiation data. More...
  • FRANCE French earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1965.12.06. Investigated the properties of the ionized layers of the atmosphere by observation of the propagation of very low frequency waves in the ionosphere. More...
  • Strela-2 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 103) to 1968.08.27 (Cosmos 236). More...
  • US-A Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 38 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 102) to 1988.03.14 (Cosmos 1932). The US-A (later known as RLS) was a nuclear powered RORSAT (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). More...
  • OAO American visible astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1966.04.08 (OAO 1) to 1972.08.21 (OAO 3). More...
  • Pageos American earth geodetic satellite. 3 launches, 1966.06.24 (Pageos 1) to (Pageos canister half). 100 foot diameter. balloon. More...
  • Tsiklon Russian navigation satellite. 31 launches, 1967.05.15 (Cosmos 158) to 1978.07.27 (Cosmos 1027). More...
  • Owl American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.18 (Transit 16) to 1967.09.25 (Transit 17). More...
  • Timation American navigation technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.05.31 (Timation 1) and 1969.09.30 (Timation 2). More...
  • Tselina-O Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 42 launches, 1967.06.26 (Tselina-O GVM) to 1982.03.31 (Cosmos 1345). From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated. More...
  • Aurora American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1967.06.29. Investigated aurora borealis. More...
  • Sfera Russian earth geodetic satellite. 18 launches, 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 203) to 1978.12.26 (Cosmos 1067). The Sfera geodetic system covered a broad development for solving problems in geodetics, continental drift, and precise location of cartographic points. More...
  • IS-P Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1968.04.24 (Cosmos 217) to 1970.10.20 (Cosmos 373). ASAT Target, launched by R-36. Evidently a derivative of the first IS-A ASAT itself. More...
  • RAE American radio astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1968.07.04 (Explorer 38) to 1973.06.10 (Explorer 49). More...
  • RADCAT American military technology satellite. 2 launches, 1968.08.16 (Radcat) and 1972.10.02 (RADCAT). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • PAC American technology satellite. One launch, 1969.08.09. Package Attitude Control; semi-active gravity gradient stabilization tests. More...
  • SOICAL American military target satellite. 2 launches, 1969.09.30 (SOICAL Cone) and (SOICAL Cylinder). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Ionosfernaya Russian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.27 (Ionosfernaya?) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 381). Ionospheric studies. Used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2. More...
  • Strela-1M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 371 launches, 1970.04.25 (Cosmos 336) to 2005.10.27 (Mozhaets 5). More...
  • Rhyolite American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 4 launches, 1970.06.19 (Rhyolite 1) to 1978.04.07 (Rhyolite 4). More...
  • Strela-2M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 52 launches, 1970.06.27 (Strela-2) to 1994.12.20 (Cosmos 2298). More...
  • Peole French communications satellite. One launch, 1970.12.12. Gathered data from meteorological balloon system. More...
  • SAS Italian solar satellite. 3 launches, 1970.12.12 (Explorer 42) to 1975.05.07 (Explorer 53). More...
  • Tselina-D Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 77 launches, 1970.12.18 (Cosmos 389) to 1994.05.25 (Tselina-D). The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. More...
  • DS-P1-M Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 15 launches, 1970.12.22 (DS-P1-M s/n 1) to 1982.06.06 (Cosmos 1375). Target for IS ASAT systems tests. More...
  • Tselina-OM Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Study 1970. Improved version of Tselina-O. Either not put into production or later launches listed as Tselina-O were actually of Tselina-OM model. More...
  • Gridsphere American technology satellite. 2 launches, 1971.08.07 (Gridsphere 1) and (Gridsphere 2). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Mylar American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Rigidsphere American military target satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology. More...
  • Eole French earth weather satellite. One launch, 1971.08.12. Experimental weather satellite; received meteorological data from balloon network. More...
  • ASTEX American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.10.17. Space Test Program; technology experiments. More...
  • NOSS American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 22 launches, 1971.12.14 (OPS 7898 P/L 1) to 1993.08.02 (TLD). Ocean surveillance; aka White Cloud type spacecraft; Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite; PARCAE. More...
  • TIP American navigation satellite. 6 launches, 1972.09.02 (Triad 1) to 1988.06.16 (Nova 2). More...
  • Skynet British military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1974.01.19 (Skynet 2A) and 1974.11.23 (Skynet 2B). More...
  • Meteor-Priroda Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31). More...
  • NTS American navigation technology satellite. 2 launches, 1974.07.14 (NTS 1) and 1977.06.23 (NTS 2). Demonstrated navigation technologies. More...
  • Parus Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.12.26. Military satellite which provided navigation information and store-dump radio communications to Soviet naval forces and ballistic missile submarines. More...
  • Starlette French earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1975.02.06. Geodesic satellite. More...
  • Meteor-2 Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs. More...
  • ETS Japanese technology satellite. 7 launches, 1975.09.09 (Kiku 1) to 2006.12.16 (Kiku 8). More...
  • JISS Japanese earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1976.02.29 (ISS 1) to 1978.02.16 (ISS 2). JISS - national name "Ume". Spin-stabilized; Ionospheric Sounder, Radio Noise Receiver, Plasma Measuring Equipment, Ion Mass Spectrometer, and other instruments. More...
  • NOSS-Subsat American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 27 launches, 1976.04.30 (SSU 1 (NOSS 1)) to 1996.05.12 (USA 121). Detected the location of naval vessels using radio interferometry. More...
  • LAGEOS American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1976.05.04 (Lageos) and 1992.10.22 (Lageos 2). The LAGEOS satellites were passive vehicles covered with retroreflectors designed to reflect laser beams transmitted from ground stations. More...
  • Tsikada Russian navigation satellite. 20 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 883) to 1995.07.05 (Cosmos 2315). Tsikada was a complementary civilian version of the Parus military naval navigation satellite system for the Soviet Merchant Marine and Academy of Sciences. More...
  • HEAO American x-ray astronomy satellite. 3 launches, 1977.08.12 (HEAO 1) to 1979.09.20 (HEAO 3). The 3 satellites of the High Energy Astronomical Observatory program surveyed the celestial sphere for X-ray sources and gamma and cosmic ray phenomena. More...
  • GPS Block 1 American navigation satellite. 11 launches, 1978.02.22 (Navstar 1) to 1985.10.09 (USA 10). GPS Block 1 prototype satellites formed the GPS Demonstration system and were followed by the Block 2 operational system. More...
  • Radio Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 9 launches, 1978.10.26 (Radio Sputnik 1) to 1994.12.26 (Radio-ROSTO RS-15). More...
  • Astrofizika Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1978.12.23, Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth. More...
  • Okean-E Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1979.02.12 (Cosmos 1076) to 1980.01.23 (Cosmos 1151). First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean. More...
  • Geo-IK Russian earth geodetic satellite. 14 launches, 1981.01.23 (Geo-IK no. 1) to 1994.11.29 (Geo-IK). Development of a second generation geodetic satellite system began in 1977. More...
  • IK-B-1300 Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1981.08.07, Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. More...
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • Nadezhda Ukrainian navigation satellite. 10 launches, 1982.06.29 (Cosmos 1383) to 2002.09.26 (Nadezhda-M). More...
  • Glonass Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1982.10.12. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. More...
  • HILAT American communications satellite. One launch, 1983.06.27. Communications technology tests. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication. More...
  • Okean-OE Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1983.09.28 (Cosmos 1500) to 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1602). More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 25 launches, 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1603) to 2007.06.29 (Cosmos 2406). More...
  • ERBS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1984.10.05. ERBS was part of the NASA's three-satellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), designed to investigate how energy from the Sun is absorbed and re-emitted by the Earth. More...
  • Meteor-3 Russian earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1984.11.27 (Cosmos 1612) to 1994.01.25 (Meteor 3-06). Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite. More...
  • Strela-3 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1985.01.15. Said to have initially been developed for the GRU. More...
  • Geosat American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1985.03.13. Geosat was a US Navy satellite designed to measure sea surface heights to within 5 cm. More...
  • Okean-O1 Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 9 launches, 1986.07.28 (Cosmos 1766) to 2004.12.24 (Sich-1M). Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner. More...
  • EGS Japanese earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1986.08.12. Experimental Geophysical Payload; new launch vehicle test flight. EGS (Ajisai). Improvement of the accuracy of domestic geodetic triangulation network. More...
  • MABES Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 1986.08.12. MABES (Jindai). Experiment on the levitation of the magnetic bearing flywheel under zero-g condition. More...
  • Polar Bear American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.11.14. also known as STP P87-1, a military mission designed to study communications interference caused by solar flares and increased auroral activity. More...
  • Pirs-1 Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 and 1987.07.10 . More...
  • Lacrosse American military side-looking radar all-weather surveillance radar satellite. Operational, first launch 1988.12.02. More...
  • Etalon Russian earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1989.01.10 (Cosmos 1989) to 1989.05.31 (Cosmos 2024). Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection. More...
  • GPS Block 2 and 2A American navigation satellite. 28 launches, 1989.02.14 (USA 35) to 1997.11.06 (USA 134). The Navstar GPS constellation worked in concert with ground receivers to give precise location information to military and civilian users anywhere in the world. More...
  • HST American visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.04.24. The Hubble Space Telescope was designed to provide a space telescope with an order of magnitude better resolution than ground-based instruments. More...
  • MACSAT American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1990.05.09 (Macsat 1; M-1) and (Macsat 2; M-2). More...
  • ROSAT German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.06.01. West German extreme UV, X-ray telescope; all-sky survey. More...
  • NOSS-2 subsatellite American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 6 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 60) to 1991.11.08 (USA 77). More...
  • NOSS-2 American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 5 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 59) to 1996.05.12 (USA 122). New generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. More...
  • Tselina-3 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The Tselina-3 third generation two-tier ELINT satellite system was developed in parallel with Tselina-2. More...
  • Informator Russian communications satellite. One launch, 1991.01.29, Oscar 21. Informator was the spacecraft component of the planned Koskon medium earth-orbit communications satellite system. More...
  • REX American earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.29 (REX) and 1996.03.09 (REX-II). The REX satellites were designed to study scintillation effects of the Earth's atmosphere on RF transmissions. More...
  • Orbcomm American communications technology satellite. 31 launches, 1991.07.17 (Orbcomm-X) to 2008.06.19 (Orbcomm FM36). Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. More...
  • Solar Japanese solar satellite. One launch, 1991.08.30. X-ray imaging of Sun. More...
  • UARS American earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1991.09.12. The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite was designed to study the physical and chemical processes occurring in the Earth's upper atmosphere (between 15 and 100 km). More...
  • Radiobook Russian communications satellite. Study 1991. The Radiobook network would utilize from 24 to 36 micro-satellites (10 kg or less) in a packet radio network, which could be launched with small boosters, including air-launched missiles. More...
  • EUVE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1992.06.07. The EUVE Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer mission mapped space in the 70- to 760-angstrom portion of the spectrum and conducted detailed ultraviolet examinations of selected celestial targets. More...
  • SAMPEX American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1992.07.03. More...
  • Gonets-D1 Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. 15 launches, 1992.07.13 (Cosmos 2199) to 2005.12.21 (Gonets D1M 1). Commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite. More...
  • Topex/Poseidon American earth sea satellite. One launch, 1992.08.10. TOPEX/Poseidon was a co-operative mission between the United States and France designed to provide high-accuracy global sea level measurements. More...
  • SCD Brazilian communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1993.02.09 (SCD-1) to 1998.10.23 (SCD-2). Environmental data relay. More...
  • CDS American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.02.09, Orbcomm OXP-1. Experimental spacecraft. More...
  • Start Russian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.03.25. Experimental satellite carried on test flight of the Start-1 carrier rocket, a new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. More...
  • ALEXIS American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1993.04.25. ALEXIS was a small spacecraft built for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Its mission was to provide high resolution maps of low-energy astronomical x-ray sources. More...
  • Radcal American military target satellite. One launch, 1993.06.25. Radar calibration. More...
  • Temisat Italian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.08.31. Temisat's primary mission was demonstration of a data relay system. More...
  • Globsat Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Salyut Design Bureau proposed the least ambitious of all Russian low earth orbit communications systems. More...
  • Pallada Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Pallada network was devised by the Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute for Commonwealth of Independent States communications services, including voice, telegraph, fax, and data transmissions. More...
  • DARPASAT American technology satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 102. GPS receiver and data processor technology tests. More...
  • TAOS American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1994.03.13, USA 101. TAOS was a technology demonstration satellite whose purpose was to demonstrate autonomous space navigation systems to reduce satellite ground support needs. More...
  • Eagle American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1994.05.19 (STEP 2 (SIDEX)) to 1997.10.22 (STEP-4). More...
  • Astrid Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1995.01.24. Sweden's third scientific satellite and first microsatellite, ASTRID carries an Energetic Neutral Atom analyzer, an Electron Spectrometer and two UV imagers for imaging the Earth's aurora. More...
  • FAISAT American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1995.01.24 (FAISAT) and 1997.09.23 (FAISAT-2V). Store/forward communications. More...
  • GFZ-1 German earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1995.04.19 (GFZ-1) and 1998.07.10 (WESTPAC). GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. More...
  • XTE American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1995.12.30. X-ray Timing Explorer; X-ray astronomy. More...
  • Konvert Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The Elas Scientific Production Association was a principal participant in the proposed Kuryer communications system of Konvert spacecraft. More...
  • SAX Italian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1996.04.30, Beppo SAX. Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X; X-ray celestial observatory More...
  • TiPS American tether technology satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.12 (USA 123) to 1998.10.03 (USA 141). The 53 kg satellite consisted of 2 end masses connected by a 4 km tether. NRO (the National Reconnaissance Office) provided funding for the TiPS project. More...
  • HETE American gamma ray astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 1996.11.04 (HETE) and 2000.10.09 (HETE-2). The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was an international mission led by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). More...
  • SAC-B Argentinan solar satellite. One launch, 1996.11.04. SAC-B, an Argentine / US mission, was designed to study solar physics and astrophysics through the examination of solar flares, gamma-ray burst sources and the diffuse soft X-ray cosmic background. More...
  • GPS Block 2R American navigation satellite. 21 launches, 1997.01.17 (USA 132) to 2009-08-17. Launches began in 1997 of 'GPS-IIR' replenishment satellites, produced by General Electric Astrospace (later acquired by Lockheed Missiles & Space). More...
  • CPAC American burial satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21, Celestis. More...
  • Minisat American technology satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21. The Minisat spacecraft were built for the Spanish space Agency by CASA. More...
  • LM 700 American communications satellite. 98 launches, 1997.05.05 (Iridium 8) to 2002.06.20 (Iridium SV98 ). The LM 700 had its first use in the Iridium system, a commercial communications network comprised of a minimum of 66 LEO spacecraft. More...
  • Arkon-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.06.06 (Cosmos 2344) to 2002.07.25 (Cosmos 2392). More...
  • FORTE American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.08.29. FORTE - 'Fast On-orbit Recording of Transient Events' - was a US Los Alamos National Laboratory satellite designed to study natural and artificial radio emissions from the ionosphere. More...
  • ETS-7 Japanese rendezvous technology satellite. One launch, 1997.11.27, Hikoboshi. Technology satellite, to accomplish remote automatic rendezvous and docking. More...
  • Odyssey American communications satellite network. Operations were planned in 1997 to begin by the end of 1998. However in the event the entire enterprise was cancelled when the dot-com / MEO satellite bubble burst. More...
  • GFO American earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1998.02.10. GFO was a follow-on to the successful GEOSAT program which flew between 1985 and 1990. GFO was to provide real-time ocean topography data to 65 Navy users at sea and on shore. More...
  • Celestis American burial satellite. 4 launches, 1998.02.10 (Celestis-02) to 2008.08.03 (Celestis-4). Celestis offers the loved ones of the space-smitten deceases the opportunity to have (a portion) of their cremains put into orbit. More...
  • Globalstar American communications satellite. 72 launches, 1998.02.14 (Globalstar FM1) to 2007.10.20 (Globalstar D). The Globalstar constellation was a Medium Earth Orbit system for mobile voice and data communications. More...
  • STEX American tether technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.03. STEX's (Space Technology EXperiments) main equipment was provided by the Naval Research Laboratory. More...
  • SWAS American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1998.12.06. SWAS, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, had a 0.6m telescope with a 490 to 550 GHz submillimeter receiver and an acousto-optical spectrometer. More...
  • Astrid-2 Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1998.12.10. Swedish Space Corporation's second microsatellite (based on Astrid-1) was slated to perform high resolution E-field and B-filed measurements in the Earth's auroral regions. More...
  • ROCSAT Taiwanese earth sea satellite. 3 launches, 1999.01.27 (ROCSAT-1) to 2008.10.01 (ROCSAT 2). Taiwan's ROCSAT (Republic of China Satellites) were built for Taiwan's National Space Program Office. More...
  • Orsted Danish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1999.02.23. More...
  • Sunsat South African technology satellite. One launch, 1999.02.23. Sunsat was built by students at Stellenbosch University, South Africa and carried a small imager and a message relay payload. More...
  • MiniSat-400 British technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.21 (UoSAT-12) to 2005.12.28 (Giove-A). Basic Surrey Minisat bus. More...
  • ABRIXAS German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.04.28. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arcsecond resolution. More...
  • Megsat Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.28 (Megsat-0) and 2000.09.26 (MegSat-1). The first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data. More...
  • FUSE American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.06.24. FUSE carried four 0.35m far ultraviolet telescopes each with an ultraviolet high resolution spectrograph. More...
  • Gonets Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. Study 1999. The first generation store-dump communications Gonets-D system was to have been followed by an advanced Gonets-R design equipped with satellite-to-satellite links. More...
  • Meteor-3M Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010. More...
  • GPS Block 2F American navigation satellite. Study 2005. Block IIF satellites were the planned fourth generation of the Navstar satellite. Launched 2010.05.28, More...
  • GPS Block 3 American navigation satellite. Study 2010. GPS III, as planned in 2003, would be the fifth generation of Navstar satellites. They would continue to deliver the new civil signals and improved military codes initiated on the GPS IIR-M and IIF programs. More...

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