Encyclopedia Astronautica
Sandhawk


The Sandhawk motor was developed for Sandia primarily for use in multi-stage rockets launched in support of Atomic Energy Agency activities. It was however flown as a single-stage vehicle in initial tests of the motor and some subsequent scientific mission.s

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Sandhawk American sounding rocket. The Sandhawk motor was developed for Sandia primarily for use in multi-stage rockets launched in support of Atomic Energy Agency activities. It was however flown as a single-stage vehicle in initial tests of the motor and some subsequent scientific mission.s More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Pacific Ocean Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Pacific accounted for 280 launches from 1949 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Poker Flat Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1969 to present. Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) contains five major launch pads. Pads 1 and 2 each have a 7.5K launcher, pads 3 and 4 each contain 20K MRL launchers, and pad 5 contains a 4K twin boom launcher. Pad 3 is equipped with a moveable launcher enclosure which can be used to protect a rocket on pad 3 and workers from the severe winter weather. More...
  • Tonopah Sounding rocket and test vehicle launch site. Conducted launches in support of US nuclear weapons development programs. Known to have been used for 93 launches from 1957 to 1986, reaching up to 270 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Johnston Island US military base on this island in the Pacific Ocean. Used for rocket-launched nuclear tests in the 1950's. In the 1960's it was the site for the operational AFP-437 anti-satellite system. The system was retired in 1975. Several sounding rockets were also launched over the years, either in support of nuclear tests or in experiments related to anti-satellite technology. Known to have been used for 124 launches from 1958 to 1975, reaching up to 1158 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Barking Sands Military missile test and sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1962 to present. Sandia National Laboratories operates the Kauai Test Facility for the Department of Energy and, through inter-Service Support Agreements provides the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility with rocket launch services for target systems and upper atmosphere measurements. PMRF/KTF is recognized in the INF Treaty as an authorized site from which launches of the STARS missile can be conducted. The site was recently involved in anti-ballistic missile tests. Known to have been used for 2320 launches from 1962 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Lancelin Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1974, reaching up to 320 kilometers altitude. More...

Sandhawk Chronology


1966 August 10 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 281-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 September 15 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 281-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 January 17 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 281-3.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1967 May 11 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 281-4.
  • Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1967 May 11 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 281-5.
  • Dart Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 116 km (72 mi).

1967 September 21 - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-7.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Summary: AEC galactic astronomy payload - detected cosmic soft x-rays..

1967 September 27 - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 281-6.
  • Dart Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1967 October 3 - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-8.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 423 km (262 mi).

1968 August 23 - . 04:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 152-?.
  • LRL AXE-2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1968 October 29 - . 11:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island UL6. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-10.
  • LRL ACS-3 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi).

1968 November 7 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Johnston Island. Launch Complex: Johnston Island UL6. Launch Pad: UL6?. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-11.
  • LRL ACS-2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi).

1969 March 20 - . 05:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk SECEDE R8.
  • HEMLOCK Ba Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1970 May 13 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-14.
  • LRL ACS-4 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi).

1970 May 15 - . 11:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • Far infrared Radiometer Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1970 May 16 - . 05:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk SECEDE R9.
  • ROADRUNNER Infrared Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1970 May 26 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk SECEDE R10.
  • SAPSUCKER Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1970 June 6 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk SECEDE R11.
  • TITMOUSE Aeronomy / Fields mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 May 26 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-19?.
  • LRL ACS-4B X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1971 May 29 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi).

1971 October 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC19. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-?.
  • LRL ACS-4C X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi).

1971 November 18 - . 07:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 27.4 N x 125.0 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Hydra Sandhawk.
  • LRL BOX-17 Test / x-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN NMC. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Summary: Launched at Pacific Ocean Launch Site 7 LP1 - - Latitude: 27.38 N - Longitude: 125.00 W..

1972 March 16 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-24.
  • CARIBOU VI Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1972 March 17 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-25.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Solar eclipse observations..

1972 May 17 - . 01:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk.
  • Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi).

1972 July 10 - . 18:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-28.
  • Solar eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1972 October 20 - . 12:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC14. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-29.
  • LRL ACS-4D X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi).

1973 April 26 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 27.0 N x 125.0 W. Launch Platform: T-AGM-8. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Hydra Sandhawk.
  • LRL BOX-18 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN NMC. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi).

1973 June 23 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC12. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-32.
  • LRL ACS-4E (ACS-9) X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi).

1974 June 20 - . 05:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Lancelin. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia.
  • Eclipse Solar ultraviolet eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Summary: Eclipse observations - Launched from Lancelin, Perth, W. Australia - Latitude: 31.01 S, Longitude:115.19 E..

1974 June 20 - . 05:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Lancelin. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia.
  • Eclipse Solar ultraviolet eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Summary: Eclipse observations - Launched from Lancelin, Perth, W. Australia - Latitude: 31.01 S, Longitude:115.19 E..

1974 June 30 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia 281-?.
  • LRL ACS-4F X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 305 km (189 mi).

1974 November 10 - . 12:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Sandhawk Sandia 281-3.
  • LEINAX III X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 180 km (110 mi). Summary: LEINAX III - USAF plasma physics experiment. Detected cosmic soft x-rays..

1975 May 9 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia.
  • Monitoring mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 406 km (252 mi).

1976 May 29 - . 09:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia.
  • LEINAX IV X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi).

1976 June 6 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Sandia.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 430 km (260 mi).

1977 September 2 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Lagopedo Uno.
  • Active ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Los Alamos. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi).

1977 September 12 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Sandhawk. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Sandhawk. LV Configuration: Terrier Sandhawk Lagopedo Dos.
  • Active ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Los Alamos. Apogee: 286 km (177 mi).

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