Encyclopedia Astronautica
surface-to-air


Category of missiles.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • 217/I First anti-aircraft missile flown in the USSR. The 217/I had a conventional aircraft layout, with a main wing and aerodynamic control surfaces on the tail. More...
  • Wasserfall Seminal German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never operational. The V-2-configuration rocket was copied in the USA as the Hermes and in the USSR as the R-101. In Russia it also became the starting point for the R-11/R-17 Scud surface-to-surface missile. More...
  • Taifun German surface-to-air barrage rocket, tested during World War II, but never operational. Copied in the USA as the Loki and in the USSR as the R-103. The name translates as 'Typhoon'. More...
  • Schmetterling German surface-to-air missile which completed development at the beginning of 1945. However it was never produced in appreciable quantities. The name translates as 'Butterfly'. More...
  • Baranov SAM Russian surface-to-air missile. First Soviet anti-aircraft barrage rocket, fired in limited numbers during siege of Leningrad, and downing two German aircraft. More...
  • Enzian German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II but abandoned in 1945 in favour of Wasserfall. More...
  • Rheintochter German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never completed development. The name translates as 'Rhine Maiden'. More...
  • Lark American surface-to-air missile. Lark missile. More...
  • 205 Russian surface-to-air missile. Original missile of the S-25 system, development described above. More...
  • Krug Russian surface-to-air missile. Ramjet-powered long-range surface-to-air missile, deployed by the Soviet Union and its allies. More...
  • RIM-2D American surface-to-air missile. Nuclear warhead. More...
  • R-102 Post-war Russian version of German Schmetterling surface-to-air missile. 16 test flights made at Kapustin Yar between 18 October and 19 December 1949. Not put into production, cancelled in favour of the R-112. More...
  • R.04 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Wasserfall. More...
  • R-117 Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1950. Developed in competition with the R-112 (derrived from the German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1950 in favour of further development of the R-112. More...
  • SE.4100 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Hs.117. More...
  • SE.4300 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Rheintochter. More...
  • SE.4350 French post-war surface-to-air missile based on the German Enzian. More...
  • Land-Based Version American surface-to-air missile. Land based-version of Terrier surface-to-air missile. Development begun in 1951. Project cancelled in 1956. More...
  • R-101 Post-war Russian version of German Wasserfall surface-to-air missile. Never put into production, but technology used for further surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile developments in Russia. More...
  • R-112 Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1951. Propulsion and guidance based on that of the R-102 (copy of German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1951 when decision was made to proceed with a new generation of SAM designs. More...
  • R-108 All-Russian second generation version of the R-101, itself a derivative of the German Wasserfall. Development began in May 1949 but the missile did not reach flight test stage before its cancellation in 1951. More...
  • R-109 Russian derivative of the German Wasserfall, an interim design between the R-101 and R-108. The missile did not reach flight test stage before it was cancellation in 1951. More...
  • S-25 Russian surface-to-air missile. First surface-to-air missile deployed by the Soviet Union. Under a crash program ordered by Stalin, development began in 1951, first guided launch was in 1953, and by 1956, 2,640 launchers were deployed in defence of Moscow. The system was upgraded with improved missiles and ground systems into the 1960's. More...
  • Bomarc USAF Mach 3 ramjet surface-to-air missile; later converted to target missiles and launched from Vandenberg AFB. More...
  • Talos American Navy long-range ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile. In service 1959-1979. More...
  • R-103 Post-war Russian version of German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1947-1951 but abandoned in favour of the R-110. More...
  • 206 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 206 was a version of the 205 using a single-chamber Isayev engine in place of the four-chamber design of the 205. Cancelled in April 1953. More...
  • 207 Russian surface-to-air missile. This was an improvement of the 205 with an improved warhead and reduced cruise thrust. Trials were conducted of the missile in 1953, but it was decided not to put it into service. More...
  • 32B Russian surface-to-air missile. Alternate missile developed for the S-25 system. Technically superior but not put into production, it led to the S-75 and later Soviet surface-to-air missiles. More...
  • XIM-70 American surface-to-air missile. Land-based version. Full scale development begun in 1954. Project cancelled in 1957. More...
  • Nike Hercules American surface-to-air missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Hercules Booster + 1 x TX-30 More...
  • Nike Ajax American surface-to-air missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Ajax More...
  • 207A Russian surface-to-air missile. The 207A, with numerous improvements to the 205 which had been developed in a crash program, completed trials in 1955 and rapidly replaced the 205 in PVO service. It basically doubled all of the performance characteristics of the 205. More...
  • SE.4400 French surface-to-air missile. SNCASE missile design using a Stromboli booster and two ramjet sustainers. More...
  • 18D Russian surface-to-air missile. Variant of the 18D air-breathing surface-to-air missile using a magnesium alloy in the fuel to double the initial launch thrust. More...
  • 215 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 215 was a derivative of the 207A with a nuclear warhead. It entered service in 1957. More...
  • R-110 Larger caliber Russian version of the German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1948-1956 and reached the initial production stage, but cancelled due to the inability to produce an economical rocket with the necessary consistent range accuracy for the barrage role. More...
  • S-75 Russian surface-to-air missile. Known in the west as the SA-2 Guideline, this weapon was responsible for the downing of more American aircraft than any missile in history. It was deployed worldwide beginning in 1957, and improvements and updates, many by third parties, continued into the 21st Century. More...
  • 217 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 217 was a version of the V-300 with a variable thrust engine. Entered production. More...
  • 22D Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype surface-to-air missile, using liquid-propellant ramjets in place of the air-augmented solid propellant of the 17D. More...
  • 207T Russian surface-to-air missile. The 207T was an alternative derivative of the 207A with a nuclear warhead. It was developed during 1958 but does not seem to have entered service. More...
  • V-753 Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the SA-2 Guideline. Installed on the test cruiser Dzerzhinsky 1958-1982. Not adopted for fleet use due to the missile's liquid propellants, but exploited for its unique capability, including ability to intercept targets travelling at up to 2300 kph More...
  • Terrier Standard US Navy solid propellant two-stage extended-range surface-to-air missile. Developed in the 1950's, in service until replaced by the Standard ER in the 1980's. Modified Terrier missiles were used as sounding rockets, sometimes supplemented with upper stages. More...
  • 217M Russian surface-to-air missile. Developed together with the improved S-25M missile system, the 217M entered production and gave the S-25 an enormous performance in improvement. More...
  • S-75M Russian surface-to-air missile. Last production version. Fakel-designed missile; Almaz upgrade offered. More...
  • CIM-10A American surface-to-air missile. Also XIM-10, YIM-10. More...
  • Dal-2 Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned next generation high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963. More...
  • Dal-M Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned improved version of the Dal high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963. More...
  • Terrier Sounding Rocket American surface-to-air missile. Modified single stage Navy Terrier missiles with cameras were used as sounding rockets. They were launched to an altitude of 140 km from Wallops Island, providing a 1,600 km composite photograph of a frontal cloud formation. More...
  • 17D Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype air-breathing surface-to-air missile, using air-augmented solid propellant. More...
  • 208 Russian surface-to-air missile. In this version of the V-300 the warhead was increased to 430 kg to compensate for accuracy problems in the original production version. Cancelled in favour of the 207A. More...
  • S-200 Russian surface-to-air missile. Enormous surface-to-air missile developed by Grushin after the failure of the Dal project. Deployed in limited numbers and exported to countries in the mideast to defend against American high-altitude, high-speed SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. More...
  • S-300V Russian surface-to-air missile. Mobile, multiple-target, universal integrated surface-to-air missile. The S-300V system can fire either of two versions of the containerised missiles loaded: long range and medium range. These missiles are given different NATO designations. However any mix of the two missiles can be loaded as needed in the vertical launcher cells. More...
  • Tu-131 Russian surface-to-air missile. Tupolev design for a long-range air-breathing surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. More...
  • Vega SAM French surface-to-air missile, tested at Hammaguir in early 1961 but not put into production. More...
  • CIM-10B American surface-to-air missile. CQM-10 drone version More...
  • Patriot American surface-to-air missile. Standard Army surface-to-air missile. Later versions had anti-tactical missile capability. More...
  • R-500 Russian surface-to-air missile. MiG design for an equivalent to the US Bomarc extremely long-range surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. More...
  • 218 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 218 was a version of the 217M with a nuclear warhead, which entered service in 1964. More...
  • Micon Swiss surface-to-air missile. The dual-thrust (45 kN then 22 kN) solid propellant motor providing a total impulse of 900 kN-sec. More...
  • S-300F Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 5V55RM missile. Maximum target speed 4680 kph. More...
  • S-300 Russian surface-to-air missile. Third generation family of surface-to-air missiles developed in the 1970's based on new principles. The same launch system could use either 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles, of both mid- and long-range types. More...
  • Dal Russian surface-to-air missile. Trials of this long range surface-to-air missile were conducted in 1960-1963 but the project was cancelled after the system failed to down a single target. V-200 missiles were installed in the Dal installations built around Leningrad for the failed missile. In a bit of disinformation, the V-400 was paraded in Moscow, and US intelligence, thinking it was operational, applied the SA-5 designation. The SA-5 code was transferred to the V-200 after the La-400 was cancelled. More...
  • Kub Mid-range integral rocket-ramjet Russian surface-to-air missile, widely deployed with Soviet forces and exported to 22 countries. The missile provided one of the great technological surprises in warfare in the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War. More...
  • Hawk American surface-to-air missile. The Hawk was the first mobile medium-range guided anti-aircraft missile deployed by the U.S. Army, and was the oldest SAM system still in use by U.S. armed forces in the late 1990s. More...
  • 9M83 Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; inner-layer defense. More...
  • 9M83M Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; inner-layer defense. More...
  • RIM-67D American surface-to-air missile. Command/inertial, semi-active RF terminal guided. 2 stage vehicle. More...
  • 48N6E Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved version of the 48N6E for the S-400 system, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles at incoming speeds of 4.8 km/s or hypersonic targets flying at 3.0 km/s at 150 km altitude. More...
  • S-300P Russian surface-to-air missile. Original version of the S-300 system for the PVO Air Defence Force using the 5V55R missile More...
  • V-880M Russian surface-to-air missile. Fakel-designed missile; not widely exported until 1980s. More...
  • 9M82 Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; outer-layer defense. More...
  • 9M96 Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved, longer range version of 9M96 for the S-400. Four 9M96's can be housed in a single 48N6E launch container position. More...
  • MIM-104A American surface-to-air missile. Command-guided / semi-active radar-homing. Range 160 km in PAC-1 with software changes. PAC-2 modification with bigger warhead. More...
  • Korean modification American surface-to-air missile. South Korea displayed a modification of the Nike Hercules with a new monolithic single-engine solid propellant stage of South Korean manufacture. The modification was believed to also have guidance changes allowing it to serve as a surface-to-surface missile. More...
  • S-300PMU-1 48N6E Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for the land forces and export using the advanced 48N6E missile, which doubled the range and greatly increased the effectiveness of the system. Alternatively any of the earlier model 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles could be loaded. More...
  • S-300FM Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 48N6Ye missile. Maximum target speed 10,000 kph. More...
  • Antey-2500 Russian surface-to-air missile. The Antey-2500 was a new generation of the S-300V, capable of shooting down re-entry vehicles of IRBMs of up to 2500 km range. More...
  • Standard SM-2ER Block IV American surface-to-air missile. Extended-range surface-to-air missile for use by AEGIS naval vessels. A version with lower tier anti-missile capability against tactical ballistic missiles was tested but not put into production. More...
  • Standard-ER American Navy long range surface-to-air missile. Later versions have anti-ballistic missile capability. More...
  • S-300PMU-2 Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for export using the advanced 48N6E2 missile, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles. More...
  • S-300PMU-1 9M96 Russian surface-to-air missile. New version of S-300PMU with 9M96E and 9M96E2 rockets. The system could also fire earlier-model 5V55 or 48N6 series rockets. More...
  • 9M82M Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; outer-layer defense. More...
  • S-300PMU-1 5V55U Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300PMU system for export using the 5V55U missile. More...
  • MIM-14A American surface-to-air missile. W31 Mod 2 warhead. Two different warhead sections were possible: M22 and M97, with yields of 1-20-40 kt. More...
  • S-500 New anti-aircraft, anti-missile system design in competitive development with Antey's S-400 to produce a Russian equivalent to THAAD. More...
  • S-400 Russian surface-to-air missile. Fourth generation surface-to-air missile system that replaced the Army's S-300V (SA-12) and the Air Defence Force's S-300PMU (SA-10). The system would feature twice the engagement area of the S-300PMU. Initial service was by the end of 2007. More...

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