Encyclopedia Astronautica
Venus probe


Category of spacecraft.

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Associated Spacecraft
  • Venera 1VA Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1961.02.12 (Sputnik 7) to (Venera 1). The 1VA probe, the first spacecraft sent towards Venus, consisted of a cylindrical body topped by a dome, totaling 2 meters in height. More...
  • Mariner R American Venus probe. Study 1961. Planned 1961 JPL crash program to beat the Soviet Union in launching the first probe to another planet. More...
  • Mariner 1-2 American Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.07.22 (Mariner 1) to 1962.08.27 (Mariner 2). The world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. More...
  • Mars 2MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.08.25 (Sputnik 19) to 1962.09.01 (Sputnik 20). More...
  • Mars 2MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.11.04, Sputnik 24. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. More...
  • Venera 3MV-1A Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1963.11.11 (Cosmos 21) to 1964.02.19 (3MV-1A). More...
  • Venera 3MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 3 launches, 1964.02.19 (3MV-1 No. 2 SA) to 1964.04.02 (Zond 1). More...
  • Venera 3MV-4 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1965.11.12 (Venera 2) to 1965.11.23 (Cosmos 96). Carried a TV system and scientific instruments. More...
  • Venera 3MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1965.11.16, Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. More...
  • Venera 1V (V-67) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1967.06.12 (Venera 4) to 1967.06.17 (Cosmos 167). Venus probe with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. More...
  • Mariner 5 American Venus probe. One launch, 1967.06.14. Mariner 5 was a refurbished backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 Mars mission converted to fly a Venus mission. More...
  • Venera 2V (V-69) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1969.01.05 (Venera 6) to 1969.01.10 (Venera 6). Spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 / 1V (V-67) although the descent module was of a stronger design. More...
  • Venera 3V (V-70) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1970.08.17 (Venera 7) to 1970.08.22 (Cosmos 359). Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. More...
  • Venera 3V (V-72) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.27 (Venera 8) to 1972.03.31 (Cosmos 482). Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters. More...
  • Venera 4V-1 Russian Venus probe. 6 launches, 1975.06.08 (Venera 9) to 1981.11.04 (Venera 14). More...
  • Pioneer 12 American Venus probe. One launch, 1978.05.20, Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Part of the Pioneer program Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to perform long-term observations of the Venusian atmosphere and surface features. More...
  • Pioneer 13 American Venus probe. 5 launches, 1978.08.08 (Pioneer Venus 2) to (Pioneer Venus Probe 4). The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe consisted of a bus which carried one large and three small atmospheric probes. More...
  • Venera 4V-2 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1983.06.02 (Venera 15) to 1983.06.07 (Venera 16). Venera radar mappers which used an 8 cm band side-looking radar to study the surface properties of Venus. More...
  • Vega 5VK Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1984.12.15 (Vega 1) to 1984.12.21 (Vega 2). The Vega 5VK spacecraft was designed for a mission combining a flyby of the planet Venus followed by an encounter with Halley's Comet. More...
  • Vega 5VS Russian Venus probe. Cancelled 1985. Unflown series of Venus probes (which also served as the basis for the Granat satellite). Original plans called for two versions, 5VS and 5VP, both weighing 4850 kg. More...
  • Magellan American Venus probe. One launch, 1989.05.04. The primary objectives of the Magellan mission were to map the surface of Venus with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and to determine the topographic relief of the planet. More...
  • Venus Express European Venus probe. One launch, 2005.11.09. European Union probe to Venus, with the primary mission of studying the atmosphere and space environment of the planet. More...

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