Encyclopedia Astronautica
Ariane 40



ari40.jpg
Ariane 40 V44
Ariane 40 V44 - COSPAR 1991-050
French orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage core vehicle with original Ariane H10 upper stage. A fully fueled Ariane core cannot lift off the ground without strap-on liquid or solid motors. When Ariane 4 is launched in this configuration, the propellant tanks of the first and second stages are not completely filled.

LEO Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Payload: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb) to a GTO. LEO Payload: 2,740 kg (6,040 lb).

Gross mass: 243,000 kg (535,000 lb).
Payload: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
Height: 58.40 m (191.60 ft).
Diameter: 3.80 m (12.40 ft).
Thrust: 2,708.00 kN (608,782 lbf).
First Launch: 1990.01.22.
Last Launch: 1999.12.03.
Number: 7 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Oscar International series of amateur radio communications satellites. Operational, first launch 1961.12.12. Launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • MicroSat-70 British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • MicroSat SSTL British technology satellite. 3 launches, 1981.10.06 (CERISE) to 1990.01.22 (Oscar 14). Original version of the Surrey Microsat bus. More...
  • SPOT-1-2-3 French earth land resources satellite. 3 launches, 1986.02.22 (SPOT 1) to 1993.09.26 (SPOT 3). SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program, with support from Belgium and Sweden. More...
  • Orbcomm American communications technology satellite. 31 launches, 1991.07.17 (Orbcomm-X) to 2008.06.19 (Orbcomm FM36). Orbcomm was a commercial venture to provide global messaging services using a constellation of 26 low-Earth orbiting satellites. More...
  • Tubsat German communications technology satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Tubsat-A) to 2007.01.10 (Maroc-Tubsat). Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. More...
  • ERS 1-2 European earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1991.07.17 (ERS 1) to 1995.04.21 (ERS 2). The primary mission of Europe's ERS-1 and -2 was to perform remote sensing of the Earth's oceans, ice caps, and coastal regions. More...
  • SARA French radio astronomy satellite. One launch, 1991.07.17. Radioastronomy. More...
  • Kitsat South Korean technology satellite. 2 launches, 1993.09.26 (Oscar 23) to 1999.05.26 (Kitsat-3). South Korean indigenous 50-kg-class small satellite series, developed originally with technology transfer from Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. More...
  • STELLA French earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1993.09.26. Laser reflectors. More...
  • Helios 1A-1B French military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1995.07.07 (Helios 1A) to 1999.12.03 (Helios 1B). Helios 1A an 1B were advanced French military surveillance satellites which were widely believed to have 1 meter resolution capability. More...
  • LBSAT Spanish communications technology satellite. One launch, 1995.07.07, UPM/LBSAT 1. Universidad Politecnia de Madrid Satellite; experimental communications, microgravity experiments. More...
  • SPOT-4 French earth land resources satellite. One launch, 1998.03.24, SPOT 4. SPOT was the French government-sponsored civil earth observation program. A single SPOT satellite provides complete coverage of the Earth every 26 days. More...

See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Programs
  • Oscar Amateur radio satellite network. For over a third of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • SPOT Systeme Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre - French remote sensing satellite network. More...
  • Tubsat Small experimental store and forward communications satellite series. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...

Associated Stages
  • Ariane 1-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 37,130/3,625 kg. Thrust 720.97 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Ariane 4-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 245,900/17,900 kg. Thrust 3,034.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds. More...
  • Ariane H10 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,000/1,600 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds. More...

Ariane 40 Chronology


1990 January 22 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40 V35.
  • SPOT 2 - . Mass: 1,870 kg (4,120 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Program: SPOT. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: SPOT-1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 20436 . COSPAR: 1990-005A. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 825 km (512 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Summary: Remote sensing. Earth observation satellite. Registration 1990-1-B..
  • Oscar 18 - . Payload: Webersat. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Weber. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 20441 . COSPAR: 1990-005F. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 780 km (480 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Summary: Carried Earth imaging camera. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • Oscar 19 - . Payload: LuSat. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Argentina. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 20442 . COSPAR: 1990-005G. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 779 km (484 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Summary: Carried CCD camera..
  • Oscar 14 - . Payload: UoSAT 3. Mass: 46 kg (101 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Microsat SSTL. USAF Sat Cat: 20437 . COSPAR: 1990-005B. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 781 km (485 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. University of Surrey experimental satellite. The first of Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd's modular microsatellites. Launched on the Ariane ASAP; carried an operational store and forward communications payload with extensive radiation monitoring experiments for SatelLife and Data Trax Inc (USA). Still operational in 2000. Owner/operator University of Surrey, Dept of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH.
  • Oscar 15 - . Payload: UoSAT 4. Mass: 48 kg (105 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: Surrey. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 20438 . COSPAR: 1990-005C. Apogee: 798 km (495 mi). Perigee: 784 km (487 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. Technology demonstration mission carrying transponder, solar cell, CCD camera technology experiments. Customer: University of Surrey/European Space Agency. Launched alongside UoSAT-3, the microsatellite operated perfectly for 2 days before a failure occured in the downlink. Owner/operator University of Surrey, Dept of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH. Box shaped 350 x 350 x 650 mm. Four solar panels and 6 m gravity gradient boom.
  • Oscar 17 - . Payload: Microsat 2. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: Brazil. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 20440 . COSPAR: 1990-005E. Apogee: 796 km (494 mi). Perigee: 780 km (480 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.60 min.
  • Oscar 16 - . Payload: PACSAT. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Arianespace. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 20439 . COSPAR: 1990-005D. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 781 km (485 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1991 July 17 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40 V44.
  • ERS 1 - . Mass: 2,384 kg (5,255 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: ERS 1-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21574 . COSPAR: 1991-050A. Apogee: 775 km (481 mi). Perigee: 774 km (480 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.30 min. Microwave, IR imaging of oceans, ice and land; SAR. ERS-1 was an Earth exploration satellite, using active and passive sensors for oceanography etc. Frequency plan: 2048.85/2225 MHz (TTC), 7225.2960/8489 MHz (PRARE), 8040, 8140 MHz (data transmission). Launch time 0146:31 UT. Designator ESA/91/02.
  • Orbcomm-X - . Payload: ERS 1 Orbcomm X. Mass: 22 kg (48 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESIEESPA. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Orbcomm. USAF Sat Cat: 21576 . COSPAR: 1991-050C. Apogee: 771 km (479 mi). Perigee: 764 km (474 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.20 min. Summary: Store and forward communication..
  • Tubsat-A - . Payload: Tubsat A. Mass: 38 kg (83 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Orbcomm. Program: Tubsat. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Tubsat. USAF Sat Cat: 21577 . COSPAR: 1991-050D. Apogee: 772 km (479 mi). Perigee: 762 km (473 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.20 min. Tubsat-A was the first satellite built at Germany's Technical University of Berlin was intended primarily to test attitude control subsystems and give students practice in the design, construction and operation of a satellite. Tubsat-A was launched piggyback with the first ERS mission, and because of it's near polar orbit, the spacecraft became an important communications tool for arctic and Antarctic expeditions. The spacecraft also acted as a testbed for some industry technology including GaAs cells and a transputer. Payload: Star Sensor, Sun Sensor, 3-Axis Magnetic Field Sensor, Magnetorquer, Store & Forward Communication. Dimensions: 38x38x38 cm. Mass: 35 kg. Still in operation as of 2003.
  • Oscar 22 - . Payload: UoSAT 5. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: TUB. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 21575 . COSPAR: 1991-050B. Apogee: 772 km (479 mi). Perigee: 759 km (471 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.20 min. Summary: Customer: SateLife. Carried store and forward communications and Earth observation payloads, replacing those lost on UoSAT-4. Still operational in 2000..
  • SARA - . Mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Surrey. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: SARA. USAF Sat Cat: 21578 . COSPAR: 1991-050E. Apogee: 764 km (474 mi). Perigee: 756 km (469 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.00 min. Summary: Radioastronomy..

1993 September 26 - . 01:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40 V59.
  • SPOT 3 - . Payload: Spot 3. Mass: 1,907 kg (4,204 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Program: SPOT. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: SPOT-1-2-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22823 . COSPAR: 1993-061A. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 821 km (510 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: Remote sensing..
  • Eyesat 1 - . Payload: Oscar 27. Mass: 12 kg (26 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Interfer. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 22829 . COSPAR: 1993-061G. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Experimental Interferometric Microsatellite built by Interferometrics Inc, of Chantilly, Virginia. The satellite was also equipped with amateur radio equipment, constructed by AMRAD, a non-profit organization of radio amateurs, to conduct digital satellite communications experiments. The Amrad-Oscar-27 payload was an 'FM Repeater', consisting of a crystal controlled FM receiver operation at 145.850 MHz and a crystal controlled FM transmitter operating at approximately 436.795 MHz. Output power of the transmitter was normally 0.5 watts. Because of the satellite's limited power budget the amateur transmitter was on for only part of the daylight portion of each orbit. As of September 1998, the satellite passed its five year design goal.
  • Stella - . Payload: Stella. Mass: 48 kg (105 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: STELLA. USAF Sat Cat: 22824 . COSPAR: 1993-061B. Apogee: 805 km (500 mi). Perigee: 797 km (495 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.90 min. Summary: Laser reflectors..
  • Posat 1 - . Payload: Oscar 28. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Portugal. Agency: INETI. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 22826 . COSPAR: 1993-061D. Apogee: 801 km (497 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Summary: Portugal's first satellite achieved through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward, DSP communications, GPS and Earth observation payloads. Still operational in 2000.. Additional Details: here....
  • Kitsat-2 - . Payload: Oscar 25. Mass: 49 kg (108 lb). Nation: Korea South. Agency: KAIST. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Kitsat. USAF Sat Cat: 22825 . COSPAR: 1993-061C. Apogee: 801 km (497 mi). Perigee: 790 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. KITSAT-OSCAR 25 was a South Korean experimental microsatellite based on the SSTL UoSAT bus built by the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). KO-25 was operated from The Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC) in South Korea. KO-25's mission was to take CCD pictures, process numerical information, measure radiation, and receive and forward messages. The Infrared Sensor Experiment (IREX) was designed to acquire I/V characteristics of IR sensors. A passive cooling structure was devised for this experiment. KO-25 was eventually operated purely as a packet store-and-forward satellite.
  • Healthsat 2 - . Mass: 48 kg (105 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Satelife. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 22827 . COSPAR: 1993-061E. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Customer: SateLife. Store and forward communications satellite operating in the SatelLife 'HealthNet' LEO satellite communications network for remote regions. Still operational as of 2000.

    Healthsat - II joined UoSAT-3/HealthSat-I as the second microsatellite in the HealthNet global communications system of SatelLife, a U.S. not-for-profit organisation. HealthNet, which was licensed in eighteen countries in Africa and Latin America, was providing desperately needed low cost 'last mile' communication links between medical institutions and health programmes in the developing world.

    The HealthSat-II mission was completed, from concept to launch, within one year. SSTL were responsible for all the programmatic aspects of the mission including procuring the launch slot on the Ariane ASAP and arranging suitable insurance for the launch and early commissioning phase - all within a total contract price of 1M. Additional Details: here....

  • ITAMsat - . Payload: Oscar 26. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: AmSat. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: Oscar. USAF Sat Cat: 22828 . COSPAR: 1993-061F. Apogee: 802 km (498 mi). Perigee: 789 km (490 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Summary: ITAMsat was built by AMSAT-ITALY. Its mission was to store and forward amateur radio messages..

1995 April 21 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40+ V72.
  • ERS 2 - . Mass: 2,516 kg (5,546 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: ERS 1-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23560 . COSPAR: 1995-021A. Apogee: 785 km (487 mi). Perigee: 784 km (487 mi). Inclination: 98.6000 deg. Period: 100.50 min. Summary: European Remote Sensing; carried SAR; ocean, land, ice, and atmospheric observations..

1995 July 7 - . 16:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40-3 V75.
  • Helios 1A - . Mass: 2,537 kg (5,593 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; DGA. Program: Helios. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Helios 1A-1B. USAF Sat Cat: 23605 . COSPAR: 1995-033A. Apogee: 682 km (423 mi). Perigee: 680 km (420 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.40 min.
  • CERISE - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; DGA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 23606 . COSPAR: 1995-033B. Apogee: 675 km (419 mi). Perigee: 666 km (413 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Caracterisation de l'Environnement Radioelectrique par un Instrument Spatiale Embarque; examined Earth RF environment. Customer: Alcatel Espace/DME. French government research payload incorporated into an advance microsatellite platform. Still operational as of 2000.
  • UPM/LBSAT 1 - . Mass: 47 kg (103 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: UPM. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: LBSAT. USAF Sat Cat: 23607 . COSPAR: 1995-033C. Apogee: 676 km (420 mi). Perigee: 663 km (411 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.10 min. Summary: Universidad Politecnia de Madrid Satellite; experimental communications, microgravity experiments..

1998 March 24 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40-3 V107.
  • SPOT 4 - . Mass: 2,755 kg (6,073 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: SPOT. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: SPOT-4. USAF Sat Cat: 25260 . COSPAR: 1998-017A. Apogee: 826 km (513 mi). Perigee: 824 km (512 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.40 min. Developed by Matra Marconi Space/Toulouse for CNES, the satellite provided 10-m resolution images with a wide field of view. SPOT 4 also carried a wide field 'vegetation' imager and a laser communications experiment. Launch was by an Arianespace Ariane 40 rocket, the base Ariane 4 model with no strap-on boosters. The liquid hydrogen fuelled third stage of the Ariane 40 entered an 800 km sun-synchronous orbit together with SPOT 4.

1999 December 3 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 40. LV Configuration: Ariane 40-3 V124.
  • Helios 1B - . Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: France. Agency: DGA. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Helios. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Helios 1A-1B. USAF Sat Cat: 25977 . COSPAR: 1999-064A. Apogee: 682 km (423 mi). Perigee: 680 km (420 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.40 min. French optical military reconnaisance satellite based on Spot 4. Taken out of service in mid-October 2004, when the orbit of the satellite was lowered to 637 x 640 km, taking it out of the path of Helios 1A and the Helios 2A that would be launched in December 2004.
  • Clementine - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; DGA. Manufacturer: Surrey. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 25978 . COSPAR: 1999-064B. Apogee: 616 km (382 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 96.90 min. Summary: Customer: Alcatel Espace(France). French government military electronic intelligence research payload incorporated into an advance microsatellite platform. Based on CERISE with enhanced EMC subsystem. Still operational as of 2000..

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