Encyclopedia Astronautica
Proton-K/DM-2


Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'.

Payload: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb) to a GEO. Failures: 8. Success Rate: 92.45%. First Fail Date: 1987-01-30. Last Fail Date: 1999-10-27. Launch Price $: 70.000 million in 1994 dollars.

AKA: Proton 8K82K / Block DM-2; UR-500K; SL-12; 8K82K / 11S861; D-1e.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 711,110 kg (1,567,720 lb).
Payload: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb).
Height: 59.00 m (193.00 ft).
Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft).
Span: 7.40 m (24.20 ft).
Thrust: 8,847.00 kN (1,988,884 lbf).
First Launch: 1982.10.12.
Last Launch: 2009.02.28.
Number: 107 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Raduga First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.03.26. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. More...
  • Prognoz SPRN Russian military early warning satellite. 15 launches, 1975.10.08 (Cosmos 775) to 2008.06.26 (Cosmos 2397). Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980. More...
  • Gorizont Russian communications satellite. 35 launches, 1978.12.19 (Gorizont 1) to 2000.06.06 (Gorizont). Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. More...
  • Potok Russian military communications satellite. 10 launches, 1982.05.18 (Cosmos 1366) to 2000.07.04 (Cosmos 2371). Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976. More...
  • Glonass Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1982.10.12. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 25 launches, 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1603) to 2007.06.29 (Cosmos 2406). More...
  • Luch Russian military communications satellite. 5 launches, 1985.10.25 (Cosmos 1700) to 1995.10.11 (Luch 1). More...
  • AS 4000 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1985.11.27 (Satcom K2) to 1998.02.04 (Inmarsat 3 F5). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. More...
  • Ekran-M Russian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1987.01.30 (Cosmos 1817) to 2001.04.07 (Ekran-M No. 18). Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3). More...
  • Etalon Russian earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1989.01.10 (Cosmos 1989) to 1989.05.31 (Cosmos 2024). Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection. More...
  • Raduga-1 Russian communications satellite. 8 launches, 1989.06.21 (Raduga 1-1) to 2007.12.09 (Raduga-1). The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System. More...
  • Gals Russian communications satellite. 2 launches, 1994.01.20 (Gals) and 1995.11.17 (Gals-2). Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. More...
  • Ekspress Russian communications satellite. 15 launches, 1994.10.13 to 2009-02-11. The Ekspress series communications satellite closely resembled the Gals spacecraft and shared a similar spacecraft bus. More...
  • Elektro Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 1994.10.31. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994. More...

Associated Engines
  • RD-0210 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Isp=326s. Cluster of four similar engines used in second stage of Proton - one providing tank pressurization (8D412K/RD-0211) and three (8D411K/RD-0210). Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-0212 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 613 kN. Proton stage 3. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0213 maine engine and 4 RD-0214 vernier/steering engines. 8D48 essentially similar to 8D411 and 8D412 and has the same combustion chamber. Isp=324s. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-253-11D48 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1635 kN. Isp=316s. Six gimballed single chamber RD-253s provide the first stage power for the UR-500 Proton launch vehicle. First flown in 1965. More...
  • RD-58M Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM). In production. Isp=353s. First flight 1974. More...

See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Chelomei Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Chelomei Design Bureau, Reutov, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Associated Stages
  • Proton K-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,510/31,100 kg. Thrust 10,470.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Proton 11S861 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. Commercial version designated Block DM1 and is equipped with Saab payload adapter for insertion of AS 4000 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. With improved guidance system as compared to 11S86, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Used from 1982 to present. More...
  • Proton K-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 167,828/11,715 kg. Thrust 2,399.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. More...
  • UR-200-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,810/2,400 kg. Thrust 612.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Developed 1960-1965. Orevo has sectioned hardware. All data accurate except empty mass prorated between first and second stages. More...

Proton-K/DM-2 Chronology


1982 October 12 - . 14:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 315-01.
  • Cosmos 1413 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 11L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 13603 . COSPAR: 1982-100A. Apogee: 19,076 km (11,853 mi). Perigee: 19,062 km (11,844 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 673.30 min. Summary: Glonass test flight. Testing of the components and equipment of the space navigation system established in order to locate the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and its merchant and fishing vessels. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1414 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 13606 . COSPAR: 1982-100D. Apogee: 19,230 km (11,940 mi). Perigee: 19,028 km (11,823 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass test flight. Testing of the components and equipment of the space navigation system established in order to locate the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and its merchant and fishing vessels. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1415 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 13607 . COSPAR: 1982-100E. Apogee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 673.00 min. Summary: Glonass test flight. Testing of the components and equipment of the space navigation system established in order to locate the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and its merchant and fishing vessels. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..

1983 August 10 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 317-01.
  • Cosmos 1490 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 12L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 14258 . COSPAR: 1983-084A. Apogee: 19,160 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass test flight. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.
  • Cosmos 1491 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 13L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14259 . COSPAR: 1983-084B. Apogee: 19,028 km (11,823 mi). Perigee: 18,863 km (11,720 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 668.40 min. Glonass test flight. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.
  • Cosmos 1492 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14260 . COSPAR: 1983-084C. Apogee: 19,159 km (11,904 mi). Perigee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 676.80 min. Glonass test flight. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket.

1983 December 29 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 320-02.
  • Cosmos 1519 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 14L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 14590 . COSPAR: 1983-127A. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,108 km (11,873 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1520 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 15L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14591 . COSPAR: 1983-127B. Apogee: 19,185 km (11,920 mi). Perigee: 19,075 km (11,852 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1521 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14592 . COSPAR: 1983-127C. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 18,992 km (11,801 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 673.40 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet navy and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..

1984 May 19 - . 15:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 323-02.
  • Cosmos 1554 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 16L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 14977 . COSPAR: 1984-047A. Apogee: 19,159 km (11,904 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1556 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14979 . COSPAR: 1984-047C. Apogee: 19,161 km (11,906 mi). Perigee: 19,129 km (11,886 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 676.30 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1555 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 17L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 14978 . COSPAR: 1984-047B. Apogee: 19,158 km (11,904 mi). Perigee: 19,100 km (11,800 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1984 September 4 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 320-01.
  • Cosmos 1593 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 18L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 15259 . COSPAR: 1984-095A. Apogee: 19,170 km (11,910 mi). Perigee: 19,090 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1595 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15261 . COSPAR: 1984-095C. Apogee: 19,178 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,079 km (11,855 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1594 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 19L. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15260 . COSPAR: 1984-095B. Apogee: 19,188 km (11,922 mi). Perigee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 677.20 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1984 September 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 327-02.
  • Cosmos 1603 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 15333 . COSPAR: 1984-106A. Apogee: 863 km (536 mi). Perigee: 832 km (516 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 101.90 min. Summary: First launch of new Tselina-2 ELINT satellite. .

1985 May 17 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 330-02.
  • Cosmos 1650 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 20L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 15697 . COSPAR: 1985-037A. Apogee: 19,177 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,081 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1652 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15699 . COSPAR: 1985-037C. Apogee: 19,155 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.90 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1651 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 21L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 15698 . COSPAR: 1985-037B. Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,111 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.60 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1985 May 30 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 313-02.
  • Cosmos 1656 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 15755 . COSPAR: 1985-042A. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 802 km (498 mi). Inclination: 71.1000 deg. Period: 101.40 min.

1985 October 25 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 332-02.
  • Cosmos 1700 - . Payload: Luch s/n 11L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Luch . Completed Operations Date: 1986-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 16199 . COSPAR: 1985-102A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 95 deg E. Experimental retransmission of telephone and telegraph data in the centimetre band. First launch in Altair/SR system for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. First tests with Mir were conducted on 29 March 1986 using Mir’s large aft antenna communicating with Cosmos 1700 stationed in geosynchronous orbit at 95 degrees East. In September 1986 Cosmos 1700 ceased operating and drifted off its geosynchronous orbit position. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg E in 1985-1986 As of 4 September 2001 located at 85.03 deg E drifting at 0.142 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 76.37E drifting at 0.157E degrees per day.

1985 December 24 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 334-02.
  • Cosmos 1710 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 22L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 16396 . COSPAR: 1985-118A. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 66.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1711 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 23L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16397 . COSPAR: 1985-118B. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,108 km (11,873 mi). Inclination: 66.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1712 - . Payload: Glonass Dummy. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16398 . COSPAR: 1985-118C. Apogee: 19,154 km (11,901 mi). Perigee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 676.30 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1986 September 16 - . 11:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 336-01.
  • Cosmos 1778 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 24L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 16961 . COSPAR: 1986-071A. Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1779 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 25L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16962 . COSPAR: 1986-071B. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,125 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1780 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 26L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 16963 . COSPAR: 1986-071C. Apogee: 19,147 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1987 January 30 - . 09:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 341-01. FAILURE: Block DM-2 ignition failure, remained in LEO.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 1817 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 11L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Decay Date: 1987-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 17365 . COSPAR: 1987-010A. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Summary: Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Launch vehicle failure; left in unusable orbit. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1987 April 24 - . 12:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 335-01. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 1838 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 30L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . Decay Date: 1991-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 17902 . COSPAR: 1987-036A. Apogee: 10,401 km (6,462 mi). Perigee: 140 km (80 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 208.50 min. Summary: Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure .
  • Cosmos 1840 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 32L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1991-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 17904 . COSPAR: 1987-036C. Apogee: 4,362 km (2,710 mi). Perigee: 125 km (77 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 132.80 min. Summary: Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure.
  • Cosmos 1839 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 31L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1991-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 17903 . COSPAR: 1987-036B. Apogee: 9,694 km (6,023 mi). Perigee: 137 km (85 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 199.10 min. Summary: Glonass; upper stage failure; unusable orbit. Fourth stage failure.

1987 September 16 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 339-02.
  • Cosmos 1883 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 33L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 18355 . COSPAR: 1987-079A. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1885 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 35L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 18357 . COSPAR: 1987-079C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1884 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 34L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 18356 . COSPAR: 1987-079B. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1987 October 1 - . 17:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 328-02.
  • Cosmos 1888 - . Payload: Potok no. 4 s/n 15L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1994-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18384 . COSPAR: 1987-084A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 4.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 80 deg E; later moved to 13.5 deg W. Communications experiments. Investigation of outer space; relaying of telephone and telegraph information. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1987-1990; 14 deg W in 1990-1994 As of 3 September 2001 located at 1.75 deg E drifting at 0.093 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 68.17W drifting at 0.344W degrees per day.

1987 October 28 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 325-01.
  • Cosmos 1894 - . Payload: SPRN No. 4. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1991-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18443 . COSPAR: 1987-091A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 4.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1987-1991 As of 5 September 2001 located at 165.32 deg W drifting at 0.190 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 85.03W drifting at 0.375E degrees per day.

1987 November 26 - . 13:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 330-01.
  • Cosmos 1897 - . Payload: Luch s/n 12L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Luch . Completed Operations Date: 1992-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 18575 . COSPAR: 1987-096A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 3.8000 deg. Period: 1,435.60 min. Stationed at 95 deg E. Relaying of telephone and telegraph information. Second launch in Altair/SR system for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. In late July 1988 Cosmos 1897 was moved from its station at 95 degrees East to 12 degrees East to support the Buran shuttle test flight of November 14, 1988. During February 1987 the satellite was moved back to its original position at 95 degrees East. The satellite drifted to 90 degrees East by March 1991. By late April it was maneuvered it back to 95 degrees East, but by the end of 1991 it had drifted to 77 degrees East and was considered inoperative. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg E in 1987-1988; 12 deg E in 1988-1989; 95 deg E in 1989-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 62.12 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 94.48E drifting at 0.087E degrees per day.

1987 December 10 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 343-01.
  • Raduga 21 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 32L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1997-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 18631 . COSPAR: 1987-100A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Inclination: 3.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Stationed at 128 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1987-1991; 170 deg W in 1991-1997 As of 3 September 2001 located at 140.92 deg W drifting at 0.213 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 154.31W drifting at 0.091W degrees per day.

1987 December 27 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 345-01.
  • Ekran 17 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 13L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Completed Operations Date: 1993-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 18715 . COSPAR: 1987-109A. Apogee: 37,239 km (23,139 mi). Perigee: 36,890 km (22,920 mi). Inclination: 3.6000 deg. Period: 1,501.90 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmitting USSR Central Television programmes to a network of communal receivers. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 125.85 deg W drifting at 15.807 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 124.58E drifting at 15.805W degrees per day.

1988 January 18 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 341-02. FAILURE: Third stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gorizont s/n 25L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 25L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont. COSPAR: F880118A.

1988 February 17 - . 00:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 346-02. FAILURE: Block DM-2 failure, remained in LEO.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 1917 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 38L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009A. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi). Perigee: 134 km (83 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.30 min. Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.
  • Cosmos 1919 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 36L. Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.
  • Cosmos 1918 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 37L. Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. COSPAR: 1988-009xx.
  • Cosmos 1918 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 37L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009B. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min. Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.
  • Cosmos 1919 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 36L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. Decay Date: 1988-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 18857 . COSPAR: 1988-009C. Apogee: 194 km (120 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 87.90 min. Triple Glonass launch; three satellites (Cosmos 1917, 1918, 1919) failed to separate. A Proton carrier rocket was put into staging orbit to test components, also apparatus for a space navigation system. The satellites were not put into their designed orbit owing to a malfunction in the separation assembly controls.

1988 April 26 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 332-01.
  • Cosmos 1940 - . Payload: SPRN No. 5. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1988-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19073 . COSPAR: 1988-034A. Apogee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Perigee: 35,590 km (22,110 mi). Inclination: 9.0000 deg. Period: 1,430.50 min. Given on Western lists as a geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. However not listed as such in Russian lists, and officially ...'conducted atmospheric, ocean studies. Investigation of the seas and oceans and the processes occurring in the earth's atmosphere'. So may have carried test instruments for second generation SPRN or had other purposes. Stationed initially at 12 deg E; Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1988 As of 1 September 2001 located at 49.66 deg W drifting at 1.409 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 70.52W drifting at 1.424E degrees per day.

1988 May 21 - . 17:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 348-01.
  • Cosmos 1946 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 39L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19163 . COSPAR: 1988-043A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,109 km (11,873 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels. .
  • Cosmos 1947 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 40L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19164 . COSPAR: 1988-043B. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels..
  • Cosmos 1948 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 41L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19165 . COSPAR: 1988-043C. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,127 km (11,884 mi). Inclination: 66.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and systems for a space-based navigation system being constructed to track Soviet civil aircraft and naval and fishing vessels..

1988 August 1 - . 21:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 351-01.
  • Cosmos 1961 - . Payload: Potok no. 5 s/n 16L. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1993-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19344 . COSPAR: 1988-066A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 13.5 deg W; later moved to 80 deg E. Investigation of outer space and relay of telegraph and telephone messages. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1988-1992; 80 deg E in 1992-1993. In September, 1993, Cosmos 1961 began drifting off station after a mission of five years had apparently been terminated. As of 4 September 2001 located at 80.01 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.58E drifting at 0.039E degrees per day.

1988 August 18 - . 19:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 333-02.
  • Gorizont 16 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 28L. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19397 . COSPAR: 1988-071A. Apogee: 35,919 km (22,318 mi). Perigee: 35,816 km (22,254 mi). Inclination: 3.2000 deg. Period: 1,440.30 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1988-1992 As of 28 August 2001 located at 176.78 deg W drifting at 1.036 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 169.61W drifting at 1.046W degrees per day.

1988 September 16 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 349-02.
  • Cosmos 1970 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 42L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19501 . COSPAR: 1988-085A. Apogee: 19,150 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1971 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 44L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19502 . COSPAR: 1988-085B. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,101 km (11,868 mi). Inclination: 65.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1972 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 43L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19503 . COSPAR: 1988-085C. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,123 km (11,882 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1988 October 20 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 339-01.
  • Raduga 22 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 34L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19596 . COSPAR: 1988-095A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 2.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Stationed at 35 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 34 deg E in 1988-1992; 12 deg E in 1992-1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 8.88 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 67.55E drifting at 0.412W degrees per day.

1988 December 10 - . 11:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 329-02.
  • Ekran 19 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 12L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . Completed Operations Date: 1997-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19683 . COSPAR: 1988-108A. Apogee: 36,980 km (22,970 mi). Perigee: 36,684 km (22,794 mi). Inclination: 8.8000 deg. Period: 1,489.90 min. Stationed at 99 deg E. Transmission of Central Television programmes to a network of receivers for collective use. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1988-1996 As of 28 August 2001 located at 156.78 deg W drifting at 13.031 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.37E drifting at 13.036W degrees per day.

1989 January 10 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 350-02.
  • Cosmos 1987 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 27L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 19749 . COSPAR: 1989-001A. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 1988 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 45L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 19750 . COSPAR: 1989-001B. Apogee: 19,147 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,111 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 1989 - . Payload: Etalon PKA s/n 1L. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Etalon. USAF Sat Cat: 19751 . COSPAR: 1989-001C. Apogee: 19,152 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.50 min. Summary: Etalon series. Acquisition of data to enhance accuracy in identifying and forecasting movements of space apparatus, and for geophysical and geodetic research. .

1989 January 26 - . 09:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 351-02.
  • Gorizont 17 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 29L. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1997-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 19765 . COSPAR: 1989-004A. Apogee: 36,224 km (22,508 mi). Perigee: 36,034 km (22,390 mi). Inclination: 8.4000 deg. Period: 1,453.60 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. The Rimsat network was initiated when Gorizont 17 was leased to the corporation and transferred from 53 degrees E (where it was then a backup to Gorizont 27) to 134 degrees E during late-June and July, 1993. At the close of 1994, Gorizont 17 was still on station but nearing the end of its operational life after six years. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1989-1993; 134 deg E in 1993-1995; 34 deg E in 1995-1997 As of 30 August 2001 located at 22.84 deg W drifting at 4.340 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 147.41W drifting at 4.350W degrees per day.

1989 April 14 - . 04:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 359-02.
  • Raduga 23 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 33L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1996-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 19928 . COSPAR: 1989-030A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 336 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg W in 1989-1995; 44 deg E in 1995-1996 As of 4 September 2001 located at 53.34 deg E drifting at 0.294 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.48E drifting at 0.016E degrees per day.

1989 May 31 - . 08:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 352-02.
  • Cosmos 2022 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 28L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 20024 . COSPAR: 1989-039A. Apogee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Perigee: 19,119 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 2024 - . Payload: Etalon PKA s/n 2L. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Etalon. USAF Sat Cat: 20026 . COSPAR: 1989-039C. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,095 km (11,865 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 675.40 min. Summary: Etalon series. Acquisition of data to enhance accuracy in identifying and forecasting movements of space apparatus, and for geophysical and geodetic research. .
  • Cosmos 2023 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 29L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 20025 . COSPAR: 1989-039B. Apogee: 19,169 km (11,911 mi). Perigee: 19,091 km (11,862 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1989 June 21 - . 23:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 355-02.
  • Raduga 1-1 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 11. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Completed Operations Date: 1996-12-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20083 . COSPAR: 1989-048A. Apogee: 36,313 km (22,563 mi). Perigee: 36,147 km (22,460 mi). Inclination: 8.1000 deg. Period: 1,458.80 min. Stationed at 49 deg E; first launch of alternate Raduga design. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1989-1992; 70 deg E in 1992-1996 As of 2 September 2001 located at 18.58 deg E drifting at 5.633 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 167.42W drifting at 5.632W degrees per day.

1989 July 5 - . 22:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 340-02.
  • Gorizont 18 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 27L. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20107 . COSPAR: 1989-052A. Apogee: 36,165 km (22,471 mi). Perigee: 35,902 km (22,308 mi). Inclination: 8.0000 deg. Period: 1,448.70 min. Stationed at 140 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 140 deg E in 1989-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 100.49 deg E drifting at 3.169 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 90.76W drifting at 3.156W degrees per day.

1989 September 28 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 346-01.
  • Gorizont 19 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 31L. Mass: 2,120 kg (4,670 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1998-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 20263 . COSPAR: 1989-081A. Apogee: 35,827 km (22,261 mi). Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,437.30 min. Stationed at 97.5 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 97 deg E in 1989-1996; 34 deg E in 1996-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 105.39 deg E drifting at 0.168 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 28 located at 84.84E drifting at 0.295W degrees per day.

1989 December 15 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 344-01.
  • Raduga 24 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 36L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1994-02-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20367 . COSPAR: 1989-098A. Apogee: 35,813 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Stationed at 45 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1990-1994. Replaced by Raduga 31. As of 3 September 2001 located at 103.47 deg E drifting at 0.067 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 47.08E drifting at 0.104W degrees per day.

1989 December 27 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 347-02.
  • Cosmos 2054 - . Payload: Luch s/n 14L. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Luch . Completed Operations Date: 1997-03-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20391 . COSPAR: 1989-101A. Apogee: 35,822 km (22,258 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 7.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Stationed at 346 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. The third Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Combined with Cosmos 1897, it permitted Mir to maintain contact with Mission Control in Moscow 70% of the time. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg W in 1990-1997 As of 30 August 2001 located at 21.03 deg W drifting at 0.023 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 68.57W drifting at 0.338W degrees per day.

1990 February 15 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 363-02.
  • Raduga 25 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 35L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1997-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20499 . COSPAR: 1990-016A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 70 deg E. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and television broadcasting. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1990-1995; 170 deg W in 1995-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 171.03 deg W drifting at 0.038 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 31.27W drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.

1990 May 19 - . 08:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 350-01.
  • Cosmos 2079 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 46L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 20619 . COSPAR: 1990-045A. Apogee: 19,195 km (11,927 mi). Perigee: 19,062 km (11,844 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2080 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 51L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 20620 . COSPAR: 1990-045B. Apogee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,113 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 65.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2081 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 52L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 20621 . COSPAR: 1990-045C. Apogee: 19,164 km (11,907 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1990 July 18 - . 21:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 340-01.
  • Cosmos 2085 - . Payload: Potok no. 6 s/n 17L. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1995-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20693 . COSPAR: 1990-061A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1990-1994 As of 29 August 2001 located at 71.92 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.57E drifting at 0.022W degrees per day.

1990 August 9 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 345-02. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Ekran-M s/n 14L - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 14L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran-M. COSPAR: F900809A.

1990 November 3 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 370-01.
  • Gorizont 21 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 32L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 20923 . COSPAR: 1990-094A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 1.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 90 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 90 deg E in 1990-1993. Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E in 1993. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. 145 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 4.18 deg E drifting at 0.139 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 5.59E drifting at 0.135E degrees per day.

1990 November 23 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 348-02.
  • Gorizont 22 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 33L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 20953 . COSPAR: 1990-102A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 40 deg E. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 40 deg E in 1990-1996; 140 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 31 August 2001 located at 45.22 deg E drifting at 0.368 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 85.49E drifting at 0.416E degrees per day.

1990 December 8 - . 02:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 366-02.
  • Cosmos 2109 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 47L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21006 . COSPAR: 1990-110A. Apogee: 19,271 km (11,974 mi). Perigee: 18,988 km (11,798 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket. .
  • Cosmos 2110 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 48L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21007 . COSPAR: 1990-110B. Apogee: 19,215 km (11,939 mi). Perigee: 19,045 km (11,833 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..
  • Cosmos 2111 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 49L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21008 . COSPAR: 1990-110C. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing components and apparatus from the space navigation system being set up to determine the position of Soviet civil aircraft and vessels in the Soviet merchant marine and fishing fleet. Three satellites launched by a single rocket..

1990 December 20 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 361-01.
  • Raduga 26 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 37L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1993-10-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 21016 . COSPAR: 1990-112A. Apogee: 35,823 km (22,259 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 7.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.80 min. Stationed at 85 deg E. Radio telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1991-1993. Raduga 26 then began a series of small maneuvers coincident with the launch of Raduga 30, and was placed in a graveyard orbit. As of 1 September 2001 located at 93.34 deg E drifting at 0.101 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 52.76E drifting at 0.024W degrees per day.

1990 December 27 - . 11:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 342-01.
  • Raduga 1-2 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 12. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. Completed Operations Date: 1996-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21038 . COSPAR: 1990-116A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Stationed at 49 deg E; second launch of alternate Raduga design. Further expansion of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communications system in the territory of the USSR. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1991-1996 As of 27 August 2001 located at 93.45 deg E drifting at 0.139 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 51.16E drifting at 0.090W degrees per day.

1991 February 14 - . 08:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 344-02.
  • Cosmos 2133 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 1. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1995-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21111 . COSPAR: 1991-010A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. First launch of improved second generation version. Declared purpose: 'Investigation of outer space and of processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1991; 24 deg W in 1992-1993; 80 deg E in 1993-1995 As of 2 September 2001 located at 80.48 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 74.02E drifting at 0.040E degrees per day.

1991 February 28 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 360-02.
  • Raduga 27 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 38L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1998-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21132 . COSPAR: 1991-014A. Apogee: 35,809 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 7.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Provision of telephone and telegraph radiocommunications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 29 August 2001 located at 109.47 deg E drifting at 0.276 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.06E drifting at 0.198W degrees per day.

1991 April 4 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 354-02.
  • Cosmos 2139 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 50L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21216 . COSPAR: 1991-025A. Apogee: 19,160 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,098 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2140 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 53L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21217 . COSPAR: 1991-025B. Apogee: 19,161 km (11,906 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2141 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 54L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21218 . COSPAR: 1991-025C. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,113 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of the Soviet Union's civil aircraft and vessels in its merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1991 July 1 - . 21:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 373-01.
  • Gorizont 23 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 34L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21533 . COSPAR: 1991-046A. Apogee: 36,188 km (22,486 mi). Perigee: 36,158 km (22,467 mi). Inclination: 6.8000 deg. Period: 1,455.90 min. Stationed at 103 deg E. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television broadcasts. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1991-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 159.68 deg E drifting at 4.917 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 0.82W drifting at 4.909W degrees per day.

1991 September 13 - . 17:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 353-01.
  • Cosmos 2155 - . Payload: SPRN No. 6. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21702 . COSPAR: 1991-064A. Apogee: 35,825 km (22,260 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,437.00 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Declared purpose: 'Relaying of telegraph and telephone information'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1991-1992 As of 3 September 2001 located at 160.51 deg W drifting at 0.257 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 94.69E drifting at 0.424W degrees per day.

1991 October 23 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 362-02.
  • Gorizont 24 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 35L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . Completed Operations Date: 1998-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21759 . COSPAR: 1991-074A. Apogee: 36,394 km (22,614 mi). Perigee: 36,220 km (22,500 mi). Inclination: 6.5000 deg. Period: 1,462.80 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Maintenance of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television broadcasts. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1991-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 158.79 deg E drifting at 6.583 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 172.52W drifting at 6.586W degrees per day.

1991 November 22 - . 13:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 353-02.
  • Cosmos 2172 - . Payload: Potok no. 7 s/n 18L. Mass: 2,150 kg (4,730 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 1995-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 21789 . COSPAR: 1991-079A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 13 deg W. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 14 deg W in 1991-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 7.91 deg W drifting at 0.026 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 39.91W drifting at 0.204W degrees per day.

1991 December 19 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 355-01.
  • Raduga 28 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 39L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 21821 . COSPAR: 1991-087A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 6.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1992-1999; 45 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 61.74 deg E drifting at 0.302 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 115.81E drifting at 0.085E degrees per day.

1992 January 29 - . 22:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 372-02.
  • Cosmos 2177 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 68L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 21853 . COSPAR: 1992-005A. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2178 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 69L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21854 . COSPAR: 1992-005B. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,087 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2179 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 71L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 21855 . COSPAR: 1992-005C. Apogee: 19,140 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,120 km (11,880 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigational satellite. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1992 April 2 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 369-01.
  • Gorizont 25 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 36L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 21922 . COSPAR: 1992-017A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 103 deg E. Transmission of Russian radio and television programmes in Siberia and the solution of communications problems in Russia's eastern regions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 140.44 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 44.59W drifting at 1.512W degrees per day.

1992 July 14 - . 22:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 371-02.
  • Gorizont 26 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 37L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22041 . COSPAR: 1992-043A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 349 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Launched in the interests of the Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 11 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 13.53 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 21 located at 16.60E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.

1992 July 30 - . 01:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 376-01.
  • Cosmos 2204 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 56L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 22056 . COSPAR: 1992-047A. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 3. Put into service on 30 July 1992 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.
  • Cosmos 2205 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 72L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22057 . COSPAR: 1992-047B. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,118 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..
  • Cosmos 2206 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 74L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22058 . COSPAR: 1992-047C. Apogee: 19,154 km (11,901 mi). Perigee: 19,106 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass. Testing of components and apparatus of the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet..

1992 September 10 - . 18:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 363-01.
  • Cosmos 2209 - . Payload: SPRN No. 7. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22112 . COSPAR: 1992-059A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Stationed at 24 deg W. Declared purpose:'Investigation of outer space and of processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1992-1996 As of 5 September 2001 located at 68.52 deg W drifting at 0.336 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 171.17W drifting at 0.109E degrees per day.

1992 October 30 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 372-01.
  • Ekran 20 - . Payload: Ekran-M s/n 15L. Mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekran-M . USAF Sat Cat: 22210 . COSPAR: 1992-074A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Transmission of television programmes to a network of multiple user receiving stations. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 99 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 79.69 deg E drifting at 0.201 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.67E drifting at 0.192E degrees per day.

1992 November 27 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 364-01.
  • Gorizont 27 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 38L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22245 . COSPAR: 1992-082A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 53 deg E. Development of the communications and television broadcasting system. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1992-1996; 96 deg E in 1996-1998; 50 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 26.46 deg E drifting at 0.193 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 26.21E drifting at 0.345W degrees per day.

1992 December 17 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 357-02.
  • Cosmos 2224 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 2. Mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1999-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22269 . COSPAR: 1992-088A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 4.8000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Stationed at 12 deg E. Declared purpose: 'Investigation of outer space and of processes occurring in the Earth's atmosphere. Prognoz series'. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg E in 1993; 24 deg W in 1994; 12 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 53.14 deg E drifting at 0.397 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 142.40E drifting at 0.029E degrees per day.

1993 February 17 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 362-01.
  • Cosmos 2234 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 73L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 22512 . COSPAR: 1993-010A. Apogee: 19,152 km (11,900 mi). Perigee: 19,106 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. .
  • Cosmos 2236 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 57L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22514 . COSPAR: 1993-010C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 66.0000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 1. Put into service on 14 March 1993 and taken out of service on 23 August 1997.
  • Cosmos 2235 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 59L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 22513 . COSPAR: 1993-010B. Apogee: 19,144 km (11,895 mi). Perigee: 19,115 km (11,877 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Glonass navigation spacecraft. Work on the Glonass global space navigation system being set up to determine the position of civil aircraft and vessels of the merchant marine and fishing fleet. Constellation 1. Put into service on 25 August 1993 and taken out of service on 4 August 1997.

1993 March 25 - . 02:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 358-01.
  • Raduga 29 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 42L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 22557 . COSPAR: 1993-013A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 1.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Telephone and telegraph communications and transmission of television programmes. Raduga 29 joined Raduga 22. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 12 deg E in 1993-1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 11.13 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 2 located at 61.26E drifting at 0.381E degrees per day.

1993 May 27 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 364-02. FAILURE: Second stage did not reach planned velocity. Cause determined to be propellant contamination.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Gorizont s/n 39L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 39L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont. COSPAR: F930527A.

1993 September 30 - . 17:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 359-01.
  • Raduga 30 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 41L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 22836 . COSPAR: 1993-062A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,762 km (22,221 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 83 deg E, replacing Raduga-26. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 86.23 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. Raduga 30 followed on 30 September 1993 and was transferred to 85 degrees E. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.18E drifting at 0.046E degrees per day.

1993 October 28 - . 15:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 368-01.
  • Gorizont 28 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 40L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22880 . COSPAR: 1993-069A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 5.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Gorizont 28 replaced Gorizont 21 at 90 degrees E. This allowed Gorizont 21 to be repositioned from mid-November to late-December for the inauguration of a new station at 145 degrees E. As of 6 September 2001 located at 96.68 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 116.96E drifting at 0.001E degrees per day.

1993 November 18 - . 13:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 367-01.
  • Gorizont 29 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 41L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 22907 . COSPAR: 1993-072A. Apogee: 35,835 km (22,266 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg. Period: 1,437.70 min. Gorizont 29 (18 November 1993) and 30 (20 May 1994) were launched for Rimsat, Ltd., to provide communications services in the Pacific region under an agreement signed in 1992 between Rimsat and the Applied Mechanics NPO. Gorizont 29 was located at 130 degrees E in accordance with a lease arrangement with Rimsat Corporation (using slots allocated to Tonga by the International Telecommunications Union). Intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 130 deg E in 1993-1997; 161 deg E in 1997-1998; 130 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 130.39 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 168.05E drifting at 0.374W degrees per day.

1994 February 5 - . 08:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 375-02.
  • Raduga 1-3 - . Payload: Raduga-1. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 22981 . COSPAR: 1994-008A. Apogee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Perigee: 36,513 km (22,688 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,473.00 min. Joined Raduga 1-2 at 48 deg E; third launch of alternate Raduga design. Extension of the telephone and telegraph radio communications system on the territory of the Russian Federation. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 49 deg E in 1994-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 49.75 deg E drifting at 0.057 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 100.54E drifting at 0.021W degrees per day.

1994 February 18 - . 07:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 376-02.
  • Raduga 31 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 40L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1995-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23010 . COSPAR: 1994-012A. Apogee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Perigee: 36,483 km (22,669 mi). Inclination: 1.5000 deg. Period: 1,472.00 min. Stationed at 44 deg E; replaced Raduga 24. Operation of telephone and telegraph radio communications and transmission of television programmes. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 45 deg E in 1994-1995 As of 29 August 2001 located at 65.21 deg E drifting at 0.236 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 81.01E drifting at 0.234E degrees per day.

1994 April 11 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 377-01.
  • Cosmos 2275 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 58L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23043 . COSPAR: 1994-021A. Apogee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,117 km (11,878 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigational satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2276 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 60L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23044 . COSPAR: 1994-021B. Apogee: 19,216 km (11,940 mi). Perigee: 19,044 km (11,833 mi). Inclination: 64.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigational satellite..
  • Cosmos 2277 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 61L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23045 . COSPAR: 1994-021C. Apogee: 19,157 km (11,903 mi). Perigee: 19,103 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.3000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigational satellite..

1994 May 20 - . 02:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 357-01.
  • Gorizont 30 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 42L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23108 . COSPAR: 1994-030A. Apogee: 35,833 km (22,265 mi). Perigee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Inclination: 4.8000 deg. Period: 1,437.60 min. Stationed at 142.5 deg E as 'Rimsat-2' - leased to Rimsat Corporation, using an orbital slot allocated to Tonga. Communications satellite intended for use under commercial conditions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 142 deg E in 1994-1997; 122 deg E in 1997-1999; 142 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 142.86 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 173.22W drifting at 0.132W degrees per day.

1994 July 6 - . 23:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 365-02.
  • Cosmos 2282 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 3. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23168 . COSPAR: 1994-038A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,754 km (22,216 mi). Inclination: 1.8600 deg. Period: 1,436.06 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 24 deg W in 1994-1995 As of 5 September 2001 located at 170.85 deg W drifting at 0.127 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 58.90W drifting at 0.281E degrees per day.

1994 August 11 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 367-02.
  • Cosmos 2287 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 67L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23203 . COSPAR: 1994-050A. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,118 km (11,879 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2288 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 70L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23204 . COSPAR: 1994-050B. Apogee: 19,168 km (11,910 mi). Perigee: 19,091 km (11,862 mi). Inclination: 64.8100 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite..
  • Cosmos 2289 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 75L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23205 . COSPAR: 1994-050C. Apogee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Perigee: 19,126 km (11,884 mi). Inclination: 64.8100 deg. Period: 675.73 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite..

1994 September 21 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 381-02.
  • Cosmos 2291 - . Payload: Potok no. 8 s/n 19L. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. USAF Sat Cat: 23267 . COSPAR: 1994-060A. Apogee: 35,829 km (22,263 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.90 min. Cosmos 2291 quickly moved to 80 degrees E, joining Cosmos 2085 as a replacement for Cosmos1961. Thus, at the end of 1994 the Potok constellation had been restored to its normal 4·sateellite complement: Cosmos 2085 and 2291 at 80 degrees E and Cosmos 1888 and 2172 at 13.5 degrees W. Cosmos 2291 continued at 80 deg E in 1994-1995; then it was moved to 14 deg W in 1995-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 62.64 deg W drifting at 0.324 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 112.35W drifting at 0.417W degrees per day.

1994 October 31 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 361-02.
  • Elektro 1 - . Payload: Elektro s/n 1L. Mass: 2,850 kg (6,280 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Elektro . Completed Operations Date: 1998-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23327 . COSPAR: 1994-069A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 4.7000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Stationed at 76.61 deg E. Elektro 1 was finally launched on 31 October 1994, 15 years after its original public schedule. Malfunction of the local vertical sensor and the attitude control system delayed the positioning of the spacecraft at its intended location of 76 degrees E, but by early December Elektro 1 was on station. However problems with the local vertical sensor continued to plague the spacecraft, and useful images were not available. Stayed in geosynchronous orbit at 76 deg E in 1995-1998 before being shut down. As of 4 September 2001 located at 71.89 deg E drifting at 0.069 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 67.89E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.

1994 November 20 - . 00:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 371-01.
  • Cosmos 2294 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 62L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23396 . COSPAR: 1994-076A. Apogee: 19,203 km (11,932 mi). Perigee: 19,057 km (11,841 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2295 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 63L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23397 . COSPAR: 1994-076B. Apogee: 19,155 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,105 km (11,871 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite..
  • Cosmos 2296 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 64L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23398 . COSPAR: 1994-076C. Apogee: 19,138 km (11,891 mi). Perigee: 19,122 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite..

1994 December 16 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 373-02.
  • Luch - . Payload: Luch s/n 13L. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Luch . Completed Operations Date: 1998-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23426 . COSPAR: 1994-082A. Apogee: 35,815 km (22,254 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 2.4800 deg. Period: 1,436.09 min. Stationed at 95 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Improved Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 95 deg E in 1994-1997; 16 deg W in 1997-1998 As of 4 September 2001 located at 143.35 deg W drifting at 0.319 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 64.95W drifting at 0.320E degrees per day.

1994 December 28 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 366-01.
  • Raduga 32 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 43L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . USAF Sat Cat: 23448 . COSPAR: 1994-087A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 1.4100 deg. Period: 1,436.22 min. Raduga 32 joined Raduga 25 and Raduga 1-1 at 70 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 70 deg E in 1995-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 80.00 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 73.08E drifting at 0.033E degrees per day.

1995 March 7 - . 09:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 370-02.
  • Cosmos 2307 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 65L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23511 . COSPAR: 1995-009A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,110 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite. .
  • Cosmos 2309 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 77L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23513 . COSPAR: 1995-009C. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 675.90 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite. Plane 2. Put into service 6 April 1995..
  • Cosmos 2308 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 66L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23512 . COSPAR: 1995-009B. Apogee: 19,145 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,115 km (11,877 mi). Inclination: 63.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite..

1995 July 24 - . 15:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 374-01.
  • Cosmos 2316 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 80L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23620 . COSPAR: 1995-037A. Apogee: 19,167 km (11,909 mi). Perigee: 19,093 km (11,863 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 26 August 1995. .
  • Cosmos 2318 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 85L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23622 . COSPAR: 1995-037C. Apogee: 19,206 km (11,934 mi). Perigee: 19,054 km (11,839 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 22 August 1995..
  • Cosmos 2317 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 81L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23621 . COSPAR: 1995-037B. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation spacecraft. Constellation 2. Put into service 25 August 1995..

1995 August 30 - . 19:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 369-02.
  • Cosmos 2319 - . Payload: Potok no. 9 s/n 20L. Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. USAF Sat Cat: 23653 . COSPAR: 1995-045A. Apogee: 35,837 km (22,268 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 3.8000 deg. Period: 1,437.10 min. Stationed at 80 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 31 August 2001 located at 16.12 deg W drifting at 0.037 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 5 located at 17.95W drifting at 0.052W degrees per day.

1995 October 11 - . 16:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 386-01.
  • Luch 1 - . Payload: Luch. Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Luch. Completed Operations Date: 1999-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 23680 . COSPAR: 1995-054A. Apogee: 35,817 km (22,255 mi). Perigee: 35,754 km (22,216 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 77 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. Improved Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 77 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 75.63 deg E drifting at 0.029 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 77.39E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1995 November 17 - . 14:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 384-01.
  • Gals-2 - . Payload: Gals s/n 12L. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gals . USAF Sat Cat: 23717 . COSPAR: 1995-063A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Three transponders for direct broadcast television. Stationed at 70 deg E. Used SPT-100 plasma engine. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 71 deg E in 1995-1996; 36 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 36.88 deg E drifting at 0.031 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 62.06E drifting at 1.427W degrees per day.

1995 December 14 - . 06:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 378-01.
  • Cosmos 2323 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 76L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass . USAF Sat Cat: 23734 . COSPAR: 1995-068A. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,095 km (11,865 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite. Constellation 2. Put into service 18 January 1996. .
  • Cosmos 2325 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 82L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23736 . COSPAR: 1995-068C. Apogee: 19,147 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,112 km (11,875 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite. Constellation 2. Put into service 18 January 1996..
  • Cosmos 2324 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 78L. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 23735 . COSPAR: 1995-068B. Apogee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Perigee: 19,133 km (11,888 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Glonass navigation satellite. Constellation 2. Still in reserve as of August 1997..

1996 January 25 - . 09:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 374-02.
  • Gorizont 31 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 43L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23775 . COSPAR: 1996-005A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Stationed at 39.8E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 40 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 40.11 deg E drifting at 0.042 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.36E drifting at 1.416W degrees per day..

1996 February 19 - . 08:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 383-02. FAILURE: No second Block DM-2 ignition (blocked LOX valve). Block DM-2 propellant automatically jettisoned.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Raduga s/n 44L - . Payload: Raduga s/n 44L. Mass: 1,965 kg (4,332 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga. Decay Date: 2004-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 23794 . COSPAR: 1996-010A. Apogee: 36,582 km (22,730 mi). Perigee: 259 km (160 mi). Inclination: 47.2000 deg. Period: 646.10 min. Summary: Secret military name for Raduga program is Gran'..

1996 May 25 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 379-01.
  • Gorizont 32 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 44L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 23880 . COSPAR: 1996-034A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 3.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Stationed at 53.2E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 53 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 53.25 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 14.58W drifting at 0.023W degrees per day..

1996 September 6 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 (DM1) 375-01.
  • Inmarsat 3 F2 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INMARSAT. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 24307 . COSPAR: 1996-053A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 2.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 15.5W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 15 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 15.48 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 15.47W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day..

1997 August 14 - . 20:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 381-01.
  • Cosmos 2345 - . Payload: SPRN No. 8. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1999-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 24894 . COSPAR: 1997-041A. Apogee: 36,504 km (22,682 mi). Perigee: 35,134 km (21,831 mi). Inclination: 2.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.80 min. Geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 23 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 142.44 deg E drifting at 0.028 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 66.03W drifting at 0.329E degrees per day.

1998 April 29 - . 04:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 384-02.
  • Cosmos 2350 - . Payload: SPRN Generation 2 No. 4. Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. Completed Operations Date: 1998-07-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 25315 . COSPAR: 1998-025A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 2.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Summary: Geostationary at 73.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 1998 As of 3 September 2001 located at 72.67 deg E drifting at 0.041 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 70.07E drifting at 0.036W degrees per day..

1998 December 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 385-02.
  • Cosmos 2362 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25593 . COSPAR: 1998-077A. Apogee: 19,177 km (11,916 mi). Perigee: 19,082 km (11,856 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2363 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25594 . COSPAR: 1998-077B. Apogee: 19,163 km (11,907 mi). Perigee: 19,097 km (11,866 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2364 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 25595 . COSPAR: 1998-077C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,125 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

1999 February 28 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 387-01.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Raduga-1 s/n 14. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 25642 . COSPAR: 1999-010A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 10.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.40 min. Geosynchronous communications satellite, stationed at 35 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 35 deg E in 1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 34.80 deg E drifting at 0.013 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 107.14E drifting at 0.165W degrees per day.

1999 October 27 - . 16:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 386-02. FAILURE: Failed early in second-stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ekspress-A1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. COSPAR: F991027A. Summary: Communications satellite; failed to reach orbit..

2000 July 4 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 389-02.
  • Cosmos 2371 - . Payload: Geyzer. Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Potok. Completed Operations Date: 2000-07-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 26394 . COSPAR: 2000-036A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Second flight using RD-0210 Phase 2 engines. Geizer military communications satellite. The Blok DM upper stage inserted the Geizer into geosynchronous orbit at 06:20 GMT on July 5. Stationed at 80 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 80 deg E in 2000. As of 6 September 2001 located at 79.81 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.73E drifting at 0.022W degrees per day.

2000 August 28 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 401-02.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,400 kg (5,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26477 . COSPAR: 2000-049A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Raduga-1 military communications satellite initially named Cosmos 2372 by the RVSN press service. Stationed at 50 deg E. As of 5 September 2001 located at 49.25 deg E drifting at 0.048 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 45.70E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

2000 October 13 - . 14:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 393-01.
  • Cosmos 2374 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 83. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26564 . COSPAR: 2000-063A. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three navigation satellites for the GLONASS system were launched by a single Proton-K/Blok DM-2 upper stage into an initial 160 km x 64.8 deg parking orbit. The Blok DM-2 made two burns to maneuver into a 19120 x 19120 km x 64.8 deg orbit and deployed the three satellites about four hours after launch.
  • Cosmos 2375 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 87. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26565 . COSPAR: 2000-063B. Apogee: 19,136 km (11,890 mi). Perigee: 19,124 km (11,883 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2376 - . Payload: Glonass s/n 88. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Polyot. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26566 . COSPAR: 2000-063C. Apogee: 19,278 km (11,978 mi). Perigee: 18,982 km (11,794 mi). Inclination: 64.5000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2001 August 24 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 404-01.
  • Cosmos 2379 - . Payload: SPRN No. 9. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. USAF Sat Cat: 26892 . COSPAR: 2001-037A. Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 1.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Launch delayed from August 23. Early-warning geosynchronous satellite. The Proton upper stage entered a geostationary transfer orbit after its first burn at 2152 GMT. A second burn was at 0310 GMT put the payload into its operational orbit. It was to provide early warning of missiles launched from the United States with the help of a heat-sensing array of detectors. According to the Moscow Kommersant newspaper, these early warning geosynchronous satellites belong to the US-KMO group, also known as Prognoz fleet, while the highly elliptical complement belongs to the US-KS group, also known as Oko fleet, both supplemented by about eight ground-based radars. As of 6 September 2001 located at 80.17 deg E drifting at 0.031 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.84W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

2001 October 6 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 405-01?.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Globus 2 / Raduga 1-6. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26936 . COSPAR: 2001-045A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. The Blok-DM2 upper stage put the Russian geosynchronous military communications satellite into a geosynchronous transfer orbit at 1755 GMT. A second burn at 2318 GMT to circularized the orbit at geostationary altitude. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 106.48E drifting at 9.104W degrees per day.

2001 December 1 - . 18:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 405-02?.
  • Cosmos 2380 - . Payload: Glonass 790. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26987 . COSPAR: 2001-053A. Apogee: 19,146 km (11,896 mi). Perigee: 19,114 km (11,876 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Three navigation satellites of the GLONASS system were launched to replenish the constellation. This was the second end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2381 - . Payload: Glonass 789. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26988 . COSPAR: 2001-053B. Apogee: 19,185 km (11,920 mi). Perigee: 19,074 km (11,852 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2382 - . Payload: Glonass-M 711. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 26989 . COSPAR: 2001-053C. Apogee: 19,156 km (11,902 mi). Perigee: 19,104 km (11,870 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: First launch of the Uragan-M improved model GLONASS satellite..

2003 April 24 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-02.
  • Cosmos 2397 - . Payload: US-KMO (Prognoz 2). Mass: 2,155 kg (4,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. USAF Sat Cat: 27775 . COSPAR: 2003-015A. Apogee: 35,928 km (22,324 mi). Perigee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,442.30 min. Summary: As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 60.65W drifting at 0.723E degrees per day..

2004 March 27 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-05.
  • Raduga-1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 28194 . COSPAR: 2004-010A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 1.3000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Military communications satellite. Parked in geostationary orbit at 85.0 deg E, after being placed in unusual subsynchronous drift orbit. Original name Cosmos 2406. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 85.19E drifting at 0.029W degrees per day..

2004 December 26 - . 13:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-07.
  • Cosmos 2411 - . Payload: Glonass 796. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28508 . COSPAR: 2004-053A. Apogee: 19,149 km (11,898 mi). Perigee: 19,141 km (11,893 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min. Summary: Three Russian navigation satellites orbited in a single launch. Two of the satellites (s/n 796 and 797) were standard Uragan satellites, while s/n 712 had an uprated Glonass-M payload. This was the fifth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000..
  • Cosmos 2412 - . Payload: Glonass 797. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28509 . COSPAR: 2004-053B. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,143 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min.
  • Cosmos 2413 - . Payload: Glonass-M 712. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28510 . COSPAR: 2004-053C. Apogee: 19,148 km (11,897 mi). Perigee: 19,142 km (11,894 mi). Inclination: 64.8500 deg. Period: 676.05 min.

2005 December 25 - . 05:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-11.
  • Cosmos 2417 - . Payload: Glonass 798. Mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28915 . COSPAR: 2005-050A. Apogee: 19,171 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,089 km (11,861 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. The Block D upper stage delivered three GLONASS navigation satellites into their planned orbits at 08:39 GMT. These satellites were placed in GLONASS orbit plane 3. The satellites had an extended seven-year service life compared to earlier models. This was the sixth end-of-year replenishment launch since 2000. When operational they brought the total of operational GLONASS SVs in orbit to 16. The launch was part of a Russian government-funded program to replenish and expand the Glonass constellation to at least 18 operating satellites satellites by 2007 (compared to 14 satellites at the end of 2005). In 2006 launch of a new Glonass satellite design with a ten-year service was planned.
  • Cosmos 2418 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 713. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28916 . COSPAR: 2005-050B. Apogee: 19,172 km (11,912 mi). Perigee: 19,087 km (11,860 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2419 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 714. Mass: 1,480 kg (3,260 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 28917 . COSPAR: 2005-050C. Apogee: 19,165 km (11,908 mi). Perigee: 19,094 km (11,864 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2006 December 24 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-15.
  • Cosmos 2424 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 715. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29670 . COSPAR: 2006-062C. Apogee: 19,176 km (11,915 mi). Perigee: 19,083 km (11,857 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Three Glonass satellites are lofted in a single launch in support of restoring the Glonass navigation satellite constellation to full military and commercial functionality. They were placed in Glonass orbit plane 2, beginning its population. At the time of launch the constellation consisted of 11 operational spacecraft, and five more on-orbit spares. A fully operational constellation would consist of 24 satellites - eight in each of three orbital planes. Only two planes were populated by 2006 - the full complement of 24 satellites was not to be reached until 2009. This was the first launch to repopulate plane 2; planes 1 and 3 had satellites operational.
  • Cosmos 2425 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 716. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29671 . COSPAR: 2006-062A. Apogee: 19,187 km (11,922 mi). Perigee: 19,073 km (11,851 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.
  • Cosmos 2426 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 717. Mass: 2,480 kg (5,460 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 29672 . COSPAR: 2006-062B. Apogee: 19,183 km (11,919 mi). Perigee: 19,077 km (11,853 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 675.70 min.

2007 October 26 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-17.
  • Cosmos 2431 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 718. Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32275 . COSPAR: 2007-052A. Apogee: 19,130 km (11,880 mi). Perigee: 19,128 km (11,885 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Three Uragan-M satellites were launched to replenish the Glonass navigation system, placed in GLONASS orbit plane 3. Cosmos 2431 set to operational on 4 December; plane/slot 3/17, frequency channel -1.
  • Cosmos 2432 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 719. Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32276 . COSPAR: 2007-052B. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Set to operational; plane/slot 3/20, frequency channel 2 on 27 November..
  • Cosmos 2433 - . Payload: Glonass-M s/n 720. Nation: Russia. Agency: KNITs. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Glonass. USAF Sat Cat: 32277 . COSPAR: 2007-052C. Apogee: 19,135 km (11,889 mi). Perigee: 19,121 km (11,881 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 675.70 min. Summary: Set to operational; plane/slot 3/19, frequency channel 3 on 25 November..

2009 February 28 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 s/n P343.
  • Raduga 1-8 - . Mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 34264 . COSPAR: 2009-010A. Apogee: 35,943 km (22,333 mi). Perigee: 35,635 km (22,142 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min.

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