Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-16U



r16ukraz.jpg
R-16
Credit: Ukrainian Space Agency
Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Standardised version of R-16, for either pad or silo launch.

Development of the R-16U universal version of the missile, for either pad or silo launch, and the 8P764 launch silo, was begun in March 1960. The silo was designed by KBTM Leningrad, the first missile silo handled by this design bureau. Modifications to the missile for silo launch included the use of inert nitrogen gas propellant tank pressurisation and modifications to the vernier steering engines of the first stage. Test launches of the R-16U began in February 1962 from an open launch pad. The first silo, 'Object 310', was built at LC-60 at Baikonur with the first launch on 13 June 1962. On this launch the missile cleared the silo, but failed to guide in flight. There were several more failures until a solution was found, a heat-resistant fabric cover to protect the verniers from the hot gases during silo launch. The 8S81U and 8S81UFS first and second stages of the missile used the same engines as the basic R-16, but the first stage engines were tweaked to provide 2% greater thrust on lift-off.

Four variant silo designs were studied, the draft projects for them being completed in Mach 1960, October 1960, and the final one in March 1961. The selected 'Sheksna-V' complex consisted of three silos, a common propellant storage bunker, and a hardened command bunker with its own electrical generator for sustained autonomous operation. The first R-16U silo regiment became operational at Nizhniy Tagil on 5 February 1963. The Third Rocket Division was activated at Plesetsk on 30 March 1963 at LC-9, LC-10, and LC-11 at Plesetsk, In May 1963 the salvo launch of three R-16U's was demonstrated. The R-16U and its silo complex were officially accepted by the military on 15 July 1963. R-16U's also took part in the massive Operation Groza, with the R-16U being the first Soviet ICBM launched from a silo during such an exercise on 8 October 1963.

The R-16U was deployed to Bershet, Nizhniy Tagil, Bologoye, Itatka, Yoshkar-Ola, Novosibirsk, Shadrinsk, and Yurya. The missile was accepted for military service on 15 July 1963 and last finally withdrawn from service under the SALT-1 treaty in 1978.

Failures: 17. Success Rate: 91.46%. First Fail Date: 1961-10-11. Last Fail Date: 1968-07-16. Maximum range: 13,000 km (8,000 mi).

AKA: SS-7 Mod.2; 8K64U; Saddler; Sheksna-V.
Gross mass: 146,600 kg (323,100 lb).
Height: 34.30 m (112.50 ft).
Diameter: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Span: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Thrust: 2,610.00 kN (586,750 lbf).
Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).
First Launch: 1961.10.09.
Last Launch: 1972.01.01.
Number: 199 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • R-16 The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations. More...
  • missile Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Associated Stages
  • R-16-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 882.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...
  • R-16-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,609.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...

R-16U Chronology


1961 October 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 2LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 1LU. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 October 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 4LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 3LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1961 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 5LU.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 January 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 March 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 June 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 June 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 July 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 August 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. LV Configuration: R-16U 17 min salvo.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 5 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 October 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 November 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 November 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 November 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 November 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 December 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1962 December 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 May 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 May 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 June 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 June 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • BD - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 June 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 June 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 July 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 July 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 August 13 - . 04:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi).

1963 August 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 August 30 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • T - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 754 km (468 mi).

1963 September 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • T - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 September 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 October 22 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk PU11. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Groza test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 October 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 November 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 November 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1963 December 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 February 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 February 6 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 February 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 March 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/4?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 May 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 June 7 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 July 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 July 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 August 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 September 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • UBP Kedr operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Summary: Demonstration launch witnessed by Khrushchev..

1964 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Climate Test operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 September 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 October 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 December 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • K OT? operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1964 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 February 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 March 10 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 March 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 April 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 April 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 May 22 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch to Kamchatka - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 920 km (570 mi).

1965 May 28 - . 02:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch to Kamchatka - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 743 km (461 mi).

1965 June 29 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 July 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 August 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 September 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 September 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 September 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/4?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 November 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 November 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Verification Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 1 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Verification Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/4?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1965 December 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 January 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 March 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 March 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 April 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 April 18 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 April 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 May 21 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • PBG - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 June 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 June 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 June 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. Launch Pad: LC60/7?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-1 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 June 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-1 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 July 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 August 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 August 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 September 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1966 September 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Military training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-2 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/6. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Palma-2 Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 October 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 1 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 17 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 November 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 December 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 December 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 December 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 March 4 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. Launch Pad: LC41/3?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 May 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 July 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 July 15 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 August 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 August 30 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 October 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 3 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/7. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 13 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 October 26 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 December 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 December 12 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1967 December 22 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/3. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1967 December 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1968 July 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1970 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1971 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1972 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Combat training launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

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