Encyclopedia Astronautica
Volna SLV



volna.jpg
Volna
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian launch vehicle based on surplus R-29RL submarine launched ballistic missiles. Suborbital and orbital versions. Payload volume 1.3 cu. M. Payload 115 kg to 3000 km or 1250 kg to 200 km altitude suborbital trajectories, or 120 (260 lb) kg to a 200 km orbit. Liftoff mass 34 tonnes.

LEO Payload: 120 kg (260 lb) to a 200 km orbit. Maximum range: 6,500 km (4,000 mi).

AKA: RSM-50; SS-N-18.
Status: Out of production.
Gross mass: 35,300 kg (77,800 lb).
Payload: 120 kg (260 lb).
Height: 14.10 m (46.20 ft).
Diameter: 1.90 m (6.20 ft).
Thrust: 682.00 kN (153,319 lbf).
Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).
First Launch: 1975.01.01.
Last Launch: 2010.10.28.
Number: 35 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Parus Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.12.26. Military satellite which provided navigation information and store-dump radio communications to Soviet naval forces and ballistic missile submarines. More...

See also
  • R-29 First intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile (range 7800 km). First flight 1969. Development completed 1973. The variants of this missile were given three different DoD designations over the years (SS-N-8, SS-N-18, and SS-N-23). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Makeyev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Makeyev Design Bureau, Kolomna, Russia. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Pacific Ocean Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Pacific accounted for 280 launches from 1949 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • White Sea Launch Area Submarine-launched ballistic missile area known to have been used for 27 launches from 1955 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Sea-launched Sounding rocket launched from a naval vessel at an undocumented location. 2001 launches from 1956 to 2008, reaching up to 35,820 kilometers altitude, fall into this category. More...
  • Barents Sea Launch Area Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 119 launches from 1965 to 2007, reaching up to 1270 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Nenoksa Primary missile testing range of the Russian Navy. Known to have been used for 22 launches from 1965 to 1997, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude, but the number of actual missile tests was in the hundreds. More...
  • Okhotsk Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 27 launches from 1981 to 2005, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. From 2009 offshore point used for launch of Volna SLBM's from submarines. More...

Associated Stages
  • Volna-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg. Thrust 682.00 kN. More...
  • Volna-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. More...

Volna SLV Chronology


1975 - . Launch Site: Nenoksa. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 November 1 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Launched from White Sea Launch Area, Beloye More, Archangel'sk Oblast' - Latitude: 65.50 N - Longitude: 38.00 E..

1977 Q1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 September 1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Launched from White Sea Launch Area, Beloye More, Archangel'sk Oblast' - Latitude: 65.50 N - Longitude: 38.00 E..

1981 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: KALMAR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1992 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: KALMAR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF RF.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 December 1 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKPL. Launch Platform: KALMAR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF RF.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 June 6 - . 22:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: KALMAR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF RF.
  • Volan? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,270 km (780 mi).

1997 January 15 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: KALMAR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 July 23 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 August 21 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 April 1 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 October 1 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: K-211. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 October 1 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1999 October 2 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: K-211. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 July 20 - . 00:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-496. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Cosmos 1 Solar Sail Spacecraft test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 412 km (256 mi). Launch delayed from April 26 and July 19 failure. The Russian Navy launched a three-stage R-29R Volna from the submarine Borisoglebsk in the Barents Sea on a suborbital flight. The payload was a joint project between the Planetary Society and NPO Lavochkin's Babakin center, and consisted of a solar sail deployment test with an inflatable reentry shield. The payload failed to separate from the final stage.

2002 July 12 - . 00:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-44. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • IRDT-2 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). The Russian Navy launched the IRDT-2 spacecraft using a surplus R-29R Volna from the submarine K-44 Ryazan. The spacecraft was launched on a suborbital trajectory from the Barents Sea and landed in Kamchatka. After third stage separation the IRDT fired a boost motor to increase its speed and then inflated the first stage of its heat shield.

2004 September 8 - . 07:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-496. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: SLBM Test - second launch in one day..

2004 November 2 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: K-433. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • RSM-54 test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2005 June 21 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Cosmos 1 - . Payload: Solnechny Parus. Mass: 103 kg (227 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Planetary Society. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. Launched from SSBN Borisoglebsk. First orbital flight attempt of converted SLBM. Payload was solar sail demonstrator. Delayed from late 2001; March 20 and October 2002; late March, August 28 and October, 2003; February, March, April 6, May 20 and 31, 2005.

2005 September 30 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: K-433. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF RF.
  • RSM-50 Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Search for payload at reentry site was unsuccessful. Delayed from fourth quarter 2003, May and October 2004, July 5/8, September 15 and 27, 2005..

2005 October 6 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-496. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • IRDT-2R re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: Germany. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Suborbital test of the Demonstrator inflatable reentry technology test vehicle. The reentry vehicle could not be located in the Kamchatka Peninsula impact zone and was not recovered. Test delayed from the fourth quarter of 2003, then May and October 2004, then July 5, July 8, September 15, September 27, 2005.

2006 September 10 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 47.0 N x 152.0 E. Launch Platform: K-433. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF RF.
  • R-29R test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Submarine K-433 St Georgiy Pobedonosets launched the missile from the Pacific near Simushir Island towards an impact zone on the Kanin Peninsula. The two warheads were reported to have successfully reached their targets..

2007 August 7 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: POR. Launch Platform: K-211. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV. LV Configuration: Volna VMF RF.
  • 1 RV SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2009 October 6 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: K-43. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Volna RV - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Summary: Operational test.

2009 October 7 - . Launch Site: Okhotsk. Launch Platform: K-44. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • Volna RV - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Summary: Operational test.

2010 October 28 - . Launch Site: Sea of Okhotsk Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-433. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Volna SLV.
  • RV x 4 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Operational test..

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