Encyclopedia Astronautica
Cannes


French manufacturer of spacecraft. Cannes, France.

AKA: Aerospatiale; Alcatel.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Planck Space observatory designed to observe the fine detail of the cosmic microwave background. Planck reached the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrangian point in July 2009, and had successfully completed a second all-sky survey by February 2010. Launched 2009.05.14, More...
  • ATV ICC European space tug. Study 1985. The Integrated Cargo Carrier was located at the forward end of the ATV. It represented 60% of the total ATV volume and carried all of the cargo for resupplying the Station. More...
  • ATV SM European space tug. Study 1985. The unpressurized ATV Service Module included propulsion systems, electrical power (including solar arrays), computers, communications and most of the avionics. More...
  • ESA ACRV European manned spacecraft. Study 1992. As Hermes gradually faded into oblivion, the European Space Agency started to take a closer a look at cheaper and less complicated manned space capsules. More...
  • Spacebus 2000 French communications satellite. 5 launches, 1994.01.24 (Turksat 1A) to 1997.01.30 (Nahuel 1A). More...
  • Huygens European outer planets probe. One launch, 1997.10.15. Titan landing probe; attached to Cassini spacecraft. More...
  • ARD French re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.21. The ARD was an 80 percent scale model of the Apollo Command Module, and a technology test for a possible International Space Station Crew Rescue Vehicle. More...
  • Spacebus 4000 European communications satellite bus. Operational, first launch 2005.02.03. The Spacebus 4000 represented a new larger platform to meet customer demand. More...
  • ATV European logistics spacecraft and space tug. The Automated Transfer Vehicle was first proposed in the mid-1980s as a way to transport unmanned cargo to a Space Station. Operational in that role, first launch 2008.03.09. Studies for a manned version with a re-entry capsule conducted, but no funding for development. More...
  • Ares French spaceplane. Study 1998. Small 7-meter long delta wing spaceplane, proposed by Aerospatiale, weighing 2,000 kg. Launched 2009.10.28, More...
  • CTV CM European manned spacecraft module. Study 2018. Re-entry vehicle portion of the proposed European CTV manned spacecraft. More...
  • CTV European manned spacecraft. Study 2018. Proposed European manned spacecraft to shuttle crews to the International Space Station from 2018. More...
  • Mini Space Station European manned space station. Study 2020. Potential European independent space station consisting of two docked ATV's with additional life support systems. More...
  • Safe Haven European manned space station. Study 2020. The ATV could evolve towards an unmanned free-flying laboratory providing a better microgravity level than the ISS. More...

See also
Associated Programs
  • Eutelsat EUTELSAT regional geostationary telecommunication satellite for European countries. Operated by the EUTELSAT organization. More...
  • Sinosat Communications satellite network operated by Sino Satellite Communications Company of Shanghai for communications services in China. More...
  • Thaicom Thai commercial communications satellite network operated by the Shinawatra Satellite Public Company. More...
  • Turksat Communications satellites launched to support Turkish domestic communications and television, orbited by the Ministry of Posts and Communications of the Republic of Turkey. More...

Cannes Chronology


1994 August 10 - . 23:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V66.
  • Turksat 1B - . Mass: 1,779 kg (3,922 lb). Nation: Turkey. Agency: Turk Tel. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Turksat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23200 . COSPAR: 1994-049B. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 16 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 41.92 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 42 deg E in 1994-1996; 31 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 31.29 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 6 located at 144.60E drifting at 4.406W degrees per day.

1995 March 28 - . 23:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP+ V71.
  • Hot Bird 1 - . Payload: Eutelsat HB1. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23537 . COSPAR: 1995-016B. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Stationed at 13.0 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 12.93 deg E drifting at 0.014 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 160.81W drifting at 3.441W degrees per day..

1996 July 9 - . 22:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V89.
  • Arabsat 2A - . Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 23948 . COSPAR: 1996-040A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: Geostationary at 26.0E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 29 August 2001 located at 25.92 deg E drifting at 0.000 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 166.53W drifting at 3.749W degrees per day..
  • Turksat 1C - . Nation: Turkey. Agency: Turk Tel. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Turksat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 23949 . COSPAR: 1996-040B. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 22 Ku band and 12 C band transponders. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg E in 1996; 42 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 42.02 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 42.00E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1996 November 13 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V92.
  • Arabsat 2B - . Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 24652 . COSPAR: 1996-063A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 21.9E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 30 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 30.46 deg E drifting at 0.009 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 30.52E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day..

1997 January 30 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V93.
  • Nahuel 1A - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: ArSat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Nahuel. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 24714 . COSPAR: 1997-002B. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,774 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 71.8W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 72 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 71.82 deg W drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 71.83W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day..

1997 April 16 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP-3 V95.
  • Thaicom 3 - . Nation: Thailand. Agency: Shinawat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Thaicom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 24768 . COSPAR: 1997-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 78.5E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 78 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 78.53 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 111.51W drifting at 5.525W degrees per day..

1997 September 2 - . 22:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V99.
  • Meteosat 7 - . Payload: MTP 1. Nation: Europe. Agency: Eumetsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteosat. USAF Sat Cat: 24932 . COSPAR: 1997-049B. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geosynchronous. Stationed over 10.2W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg W in 1997-1998; deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 0.68 deg E drifting at 0.036 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 57.39E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

1997 October 15 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan Centaur 401B. LV Configuration: Titan 401B B-33 /Centaur (45E-13).
1997 November 12 - . 21:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V102.
  • Sirius 2 - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: NSAB. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Sirius. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 25049 . COSPAR: 1997-071A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 4.8E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 5 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 4.81 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 4.77E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1998 July 18 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3B CZ3B-5 (53).
  • Sinosat - . Mass: 2,820 kg (6,210 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Eurasspa. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Sinosat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000 . USAF Sat Cat: 25404 . COSPAR: 1998-044A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The CZ-3B's liquid hydrogen upper stage and the Sinosat were placed in a 609 x 35958 km x 19.0 deg geostationary transfer orbit at 09:45 GMT. The first two liquid apogee burns were carried out on July 19 and 21. Sinosat, an Alcatel Spacebus 3000, was built in Cannes and owned temporarily by EurasSpace, a joint venture between Daimler-Benz Aerospace and the China Aerospace Corporation. After on-orbit testing it was delivered to the Sino Satellite Communications Company of Shanghai for communications services in China. The satellite carried 24 C-band transponders and 14 Ku-band transponders which covered the entire Asia-Pacific region. With a design life span of 15 years, the satellite was to provide multiple data transfer services for China's financial and air transportation control systems, as well as the Shanghai Information Port project, Sinosat operated in geosynchronous orbit at 110.5 deg E in 1998-1999. As of 5 September 2001 located at 110.55 deg E drifting at 0.012 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 110.51E drifting at 0.001W degrees per day.

1998 October 5 - . 22:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V111.
  • Eutelsat W2 - . Payload: Eutelsat W2. Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 25491 . COSPAR: 1998-056A. Apogee: 36,086 km (22,422 mi). Perigee: 36,056 km (22,404 mi). Inclination: 1.7000 deg. Period: 1,450.70 min. Summary: Geostationary at 16.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 16.17 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 16.01E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

1998 October 28 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V113.
  • GE 5 - . Mass: 1,720 kg (3,790 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GE Americom. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25516 . COSPAR: 1998-063B. Apogee: 35,808 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,765 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Satellite was originally built as a backup for Argentina's Nahuelsat. This allowed Dornier and Alcatel to deliver the satellite in a record twelve months. Dry mass of GE 5 was 769 kg - it carried 950 kg of propellant at launch. Geostationary at 36.4 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 79 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 79.00 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 78.99W drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.

1999 February 26 - . 22:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V116.
  • Arabsat 3A - . Mass: 2,708 kg (5,970 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 25638 . COSPAR: 1999-009A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The Arab League satellite had 20 Ku-band transponders and was to be stationed at 26 degrees East. Dry mass was 1200 kg. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg E in 1999. As of 29 August 2001 located at 25.93 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 25.89E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.

1999 April 12 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-154.
  • Eutelsat W3 - . Payload: Spacebus 3000B2. Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 25673 . COSPAR: 1999-018A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite is for the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization. The vehicle entered a 153 km x 385 km x 27.4 deg parking orbit nine minutes after launch. The second Centaur stage burn delivered the satellite to a 166 km x 46,076 km x 19.7 deg super-synchronous transfer orbit. The satellite was stationed at 7 deg E and carried 24 Ku-band transponders with a wide beam covering Europe, North Africa and Asia, and a spot beam for digital TV to Turkey. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 7 deg E in 1999. As of 26 August 2001 located at 7.01 deg E drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 21.59E drifting at 0.003E degrees per day.

2000 February 3 - . 23:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. Launch Pad: SLC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-158.
  • Hispasat 1C - . Mass: 3,112 kg (6,860 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Hispasat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Hispasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26071 . COSPAR: 2000-007A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Spanish domestic geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 30 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 30 deg W in 2000. As of 3 September 2001 located at 30.14 deg W drifting at 0.013 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 30.01W drifting at 0.005W degrees per day.

2000 May 24 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. Launch Pad: SLC36B. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIIA. LV Configuration: Atlas 3A AC-201.
  • Eutelsat W4 - . Mass: 3,190 kg (7,030 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26369 . COSPAR: 2000-028A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Maiden flight of Atlas IIIA with Russian RD-180 main engine; scrubbed four times. European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Eutelsat) satellite equipped with 32 Ku-band transponders, and antennae covering Russia and Africa. It will be stationed at 36 deg E. This was the third of the high power Eutelsat W series to be launched (W1 was destroyed in a ground accident). Stationed at 36 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 32 deg E in 2000. As of 4 September 2001 located at 35.98 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 36.08E drifting at 0.005E degrees per day.

2001 January 10 - . 22:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. LV Configuration: Ariane 44P-3 V137.
  • Turksat 2A - . Payload: Eurasiasat 1. Mass: 3,535 kg (7,793 lb). Nation: Turkey. Agency: Eurasisa. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Turksat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26666 . COSPAR: 2001-002A. Apogee: 35,808 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Communications satellite. Launch delayed from December 8, 2000 and January 8. The Turksat 2A (Eurasiasat 1) satellite was an Alcatel Spacebus 3000B3 with a dry mass of 1577 kg (launch mass 3535 kg) and a 37m solar panel span. The satellite was placed in a 162 x 36742 km x 2.9 deg orbit; by January 13 the perigee had been raised to 21185 km. The satellite had 36 Ku-band transponders and three antennae. The dual name was probably due to the dual ownership of the spacecraft: 75% by Turk Telecom and 25% by the manufacturer Alcatel Space Company. The 3.4 tonne, 9 kW spacecraft was to provide direct-to-home voice, video, and data transmissions to countries between central Europe and the Indian subcontinent, through its 32 "BSS- and FSS-bands" transponders, after parking over 42 deg-E longitude (replacing the aging Turksat 1C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 42 deg E in 2001 As of 4 September 2001 located at 41.96 deg E drifting at 0.016 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 42.03E drifting at 0.008E degrees per day.

2001 March 8 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V140 (509).
  • Eurobird - . Payload: Eutelsat W1R. Mass: 3,050 kg (6,720 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26719 . COSPAR: 2001-011A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Launch delayed from March 2. Eurobird was a Spacebus 3000B3 built by Alcatel (Cannes). It was the 18th member of the European Eutelsat consortium's geosynchronous constellation and carried 24 Ku-band transponders to provide broad bandwidth and high power direct-to-home transmissions to enable digital entertainment and internet connections. The three tonne (with fuel) satellite was to be parked over 28.5 deg-E longitude, replacing the aging Copernicus (Kopernikus (DFS 3), 1992-066A). Dry mass was probably around 1300 kg. The satellite had an Astrium S400 bipropellant engine. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 2001 As of 4 September 2001 located at 28.50 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 28.52E drifting at 0.000W degrees per day.
  • BSAT-2a - . Mass: 3,050 kg (6,720 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 26720 . COSPAR: 2001-011B. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. BSAT-2a was a Japanese geosynchronous communications spacecraft and the second Orbital STAR-class television broadcasting satellite. Its launch mass was 1317 kg; dry mass was 535 kg. The satellite had a Thiokol Star 30CBP solid apogee motor. The new BSTAR STAR-class satellites are a new design replacing the earlier Starbus type satellite of which only one (Cakrawarta 1) was launched. BSAT Corp. (Broadcasting Satellite System Corp.) earlier launched HS-376 satellites BSAT 1a and 1b, replacing the government's BS series which began Japanese direct broadcast services in 1978. The satellite was to be parked over 110 deg-E longitude to provide direct-to-home voice, video and internet communications. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 2001 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.82 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 109.92E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day.

2001 September 25 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. LV Configuration: Ariane 44P-3 V144.
  • Atlantic Bird 2 - . Mass: 3,149 kg (6,942 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 26927 . COSPAR: 2001-042A. Apogee: 35,804 km (22,247 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Ariane V144 placed the Atlantic Bird 2 satellite in geostationary transfer orbit. Atlantic Bird 2 was an Alcatel/Cannes Spacebus 3000B2 Ku-band communications satellite owned by the European consortium Eutelsat. It replaced the Telecom 2A satellite at 8 deg W. AB-2 had a dry mass of 1368 kg and a launch mass of 3150 kg. Atlantic Bird 1, built by Alenia, was to be launched at a later date. The spacecraft was the twenty-second member of the fleet. and was to provide high-speed television, video streaming, radio and internet services between North and South America, and Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, through its 26 Ku-band transponders. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 8.04W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

2001 December 7 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-X. LV Configuration: Delta 7920-10 D289.
  • Jason 1 - . Payload: TPFO. Mass: 485 kg (1,069 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; NASA. Manufacturer: Cannes. Class: Earth. Type: Ionosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Jason. USAF Sat Cat: 26997 . COSPAR: 2001-055A. Apogee: 1,344 km (835 mi). Perigee: 1,332 km (827 mi). Inclination: 66.1000 deg. Period: 112.40 min. Oceanography satellite, launch delayed from August 10 and September 15. Jason 1 was a joint mission between CNES (the French space agency) and NASA/JPL, following on the Topex satellite which carried the Poseidon sea surface altimeter. Jason carried Poseidon 2, as well as orbital tracking experiments and a microwave radiometer which measured the amount of water vapor, allowing path delay errors to be calibrated. The satellite used the Alcatel Proteus bus and had a dry mass of 472 kg plus 28 kg of hydrazine propellant. The JASON/TIMED mission's Boeing Delta 7920-10C second stage reached an initial orbit of 215 x 1343 km x 66.2 deg at 1517 GMT. A second burn at 1559 GMT circularized at apogee to 1320 x 1330 km x 66.0 deg, and the Jason 1 satellite was ejected at 1602 GMT.
  • TIMED - . Mass: 485 kg (1,069 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: CNES; NASA. Manufacturer: Cannes. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: TIMED. USAF Sat Cat: 26998 . COSPAR: 2001-055B. Apogee: 624 km (387 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. TIMED was the first NASA Solar Terrestrial Probe, operated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab to study the thermosphere, mesosphere and lower ionosphere. TIMED was built in-house at APL and had a mass of 587 kg; the project was managed at NASA-Goddard. It measured solar and auroral energy input, atmospheric cooling rates, and atmospheric composition, temperature and wind profiles.

    Five minutes after deploying the JASON satellite, the DPAF adapter atop the Delta upper stage separated to reveal the TIMED satellite inside it. Burn 3 at 1614 GMT put Delta/TIMED in a descending 636 x 1330 km x 71.3 deg orbit; at perigee at 1706 GMT a fourth burn circularized the orbit at 627 x 640 km x 74.1 deg and TIMED was ejected six minutes later. A final depletion burn left the Delta stage in a low perigee orbit.


2002 July 5 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5G. LV Configuration: Ariane 5G V153 (512) Ville de Charleroi.
  • Stellat 5 - . Mass: 4,050 kg (8,920 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Stellat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 27460 . COSPAR: 2002-035A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from late June. Stellat-5 was an Alcatel Spacebus 3000B3 with a dry mass of 1805 kg and 2245 kg of propellant. The satellite carried Ku-band and C-band transponders, and was a joint venture between France Telecom and Europeon.Star which was to provide 2-way internet access and video transmission from 5 deg W. Stellat-5 was colocated with France Telecom's Telecom 2C. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 4.99W drifting at 0.000E degrees per day.
  • NStar c - . Mass: 4,050 kg (8,920 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: Stellat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: N-STAR. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 27461 . COSPAR: 2002-035B. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from late June. The N-Star c satellite was an S-band satellite for mobile telephone communications for NTT DoCoMo of Japan. N-Star c had a communications payload built by Lockheed Martin and used the Star 2 bus from Orbital. The small Star 2 satellite had a dry mass around 800 kg and was the first flight of a new Orbital hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide liquid apogee propulsion system with a 500N thrust apogee engine developed by Japan's IHI. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 135.92E drifting at 0.012W degrees per day.

2002 August 21 - . 22:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. Launch Pad: SLC41. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 401. LV Configuration: Atlas V 401 AV-001.
  • Hot Bird 6 - . Mass: 3,905 kg (8,609 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 27499 . COSPAR: 2002-038A. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,757 km (22,218 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. This was the maiden flight of the Atlas 5 EELV. Launch delayed from May 9, July 8 and 29, August 6 and 12 due to both payload and booster delays. Hot Bird 6 was a European (EUTELSAT) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 4.9-ton Hot Bird 6 (a Spacebus 3000B3) was to provide digital radio and television coverage to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East through its 28 Ku-band and four Ka-band transponders after being parked over 13 E longitude. As of 2007 Mar 4 located at 12.95E drifting at 0.012E degrees per day.

2002 September 18 - . 22:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-159.
  • Hispasat 1D - . Mass: 3,250 kg (7,160 lb). Nation: Spain. Agency: Hispasat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Hispasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 27528 . COSPAR: 2002-044A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from May 28, August 14. Hispasat 1D was a Spanish geostationary communications spacecraft. The 3.3-ton, 7.0-kW satellite carried three antennae looking in different directions to provide video, data, and Internet services to Europe, North America, and North Africa via 28 Ku-band transponders after being parked over 30 W longitude alongside Hispasat 1A, 1B, and 1C. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 29.97W drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

2002 November 20 - . 22:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. Launch Pad: SLC37B. LV Family: Delta IV. Launch Vehicle: Delta IV Medium+ (4.2). LV Configuration: Delta 4M+(4,2) D4-1 (293) 4240.
  • Eutelsat W5 - . Payload: W1A. Mass: 3,170 kg (6,980 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 27554 . COSPAR: 2002-051A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.50 min. Maiden flight of the Delta 4 EELV booster, delayed due to development problems from January and November 2001, April 30, July 15, August 31, October 9, November 3, 16 and 19. EUTELSAT W5 was a European (EUTELSAT Consortium) geostationary communication spacecraft. EUTELSAT W5 was to provide voice, video, and Internet services to all countries in western Europe, central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent through its 24 Ku-band transponders after being parked over 70.5 E longitude. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 70.55E drifting at 0.004W degrees per day.

2002 November 25 - . 23:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 408-02. FAILURE: The Block DM upper stage failed to ignite for its second burn, leaving the satellite in parking orbit.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Astra 1K - . Mass: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. Decay Date: 2002-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 27557 . COSPAR: 2002-053A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 244 km (151 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Delayed from December 2001 and July 15, August 16 and 25. Astra 1K was to be a European (Luxembourg-based) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 5.0-ton, 13-kW spacecraft was the most massive of civilian communications spacecraft ever launched. Its 52 Ku-band and two Ka-band transponders could cover 1,100 channels and were to replace three earlier Astra satellites. However the DM-3 upper stage, after operating successfully to place itself and the satellite in parking orbit, failed to ignite for transfer orbit injection, leaving the spacecraft stranded in parking orbit. In an effort to prevent imminent re-entry, the spacecraft was raised to a circular orbit at an altitude of 290 km. Three options were considered: force re-entry over the Pacific Ocean; retrieval by a US shuttle; or use of all the fuel aboard the satellite to attempt to move it to a geostationary orbit at 19.2 E longitude. The decision was taken in December to deorbit the spacecraft, resulting in a huge insurance loss and bringing into question both continued use of the Block D series of upper stages and the 'bigger is better' comsat philosophy.

2003 June 6 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz K/M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/Briz-M 410-01.
  • AMC-9 - . Payload: Spacebus 3000B3. Mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SES Americom. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 27820 . COSPAR: 2003-024A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Launch delayed from December 2002, then to February 10, 2003, then to February 28, March 15, April 28 and May 19. Finally moved forward from June 12 and 7. Upper stage changed from DM3 after several failures. The fifth burn of the Briz-M upper stage placed the spacecraft in a geostationary transfer orbit of 6,445 km x 35,674 km x 17.2 deg. The satellite used its own engine to place itself in geosynchronous orbit at apogee. Alcatel Spacebus 3000B3 with C and Ku band communications for North America from a geotationary position of 72 deg W. Americom at the time of launch had become a subsidiary of Societe Europeene des Satellites (SES), Luxembourg, which operated the European Astra satellie constellation. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 83.02W drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

2004 April 26 - . 20:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 410-06.
  • Ekspress AM-11 - . Mass: 2,542 kg (5,604 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28234 . COSPAR: 2004-015A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Delayed from April 10. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 79.96W drifting at 3.741W degrees per day..

2005 February 3 - . 02:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M. LV Configuration: Proton-M/Briz-M 535-09.
  • AMC-12 - . Mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SES Americom. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Americom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 28526 . COSPAR: 2005-003A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Americom 12 satellite, also known as Worldsat 2. The first Alcatel Spacebus 4000 satellite to be launched..

2005 March 29 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 410-09.
  • Ekspress AM-2 - . Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28629 . COSPAR: 2005-010A. Apogee: 35,893 km (22,302 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,438.50 min. Summary: Delayed from December 2004, then moved up from March 31, 2005. Communications payload of C, Ku and L band transponders. It was to be stationed at 80 deg E. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 80.01E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

2005 June 24 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-10? (07?).
  • Ekspress AM-3 - . Payload: Ekspress AM. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 28707 . COSPAR: 2005-023A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Delayed from April 2005. Satellite built by NPO PM with Alcatel C-, Ku- and L-band transponders.Stationed over 80 deg E longitude. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 139.98E drifting at 0.015W degrees per day..

2008 January 28 - . 00:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton/Briz M.
  • Ekspress AM-33 - . Mass: 2,579 kg (5,685 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Svyaz. Manufacturer: Reshetnev; Cannes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Ekspress. USAF Sat Cat: 32478 . COSPAR: 2008-003A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0300 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Summary: Stationed at 96.5 degrees east longitude to provide Internet, video, radio, and data services for at a planned 12 year life. The satellite also was earmarked to provide mobile communications for the Russian president and other top government officials..

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