Encyclopedia Astronautica
Hughes


American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Hughes Aircraft Co. , USA

AKA: Hughes Tool Co; Hughes Aircraft Co.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Rosen, Harold Rosen, Harold A (1926-) American Hughes Engineer. Harold A. Rosen was one of the key scientists at the Hughes Aircraft Company who developed Syncom, the first geosynchronous communications satellite, for NASA. He received the National Medal of Technology in 1985. More...
  • Jarvis Jarvis, Gregory Bruce (1944-1986) American engineer payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident. More...
  • Konrad Konrad, John Harrison (1949-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1988. Systems engineer and fluid mechanics specialist at Hughes Aircraft. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Intelsat 1 American communications satellite. One launch, 1965.04.06. Intelsat 1, also called Early Bird, was the world's first commercial communications satellite. It provided the first scheduled transoceanic TV service and was operational for 3.5 years. More...
  • Intelsat 2 American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1966.10.26 (Intelsat 2 F-1) to 1967.09.28 (Intelsat 2 F-4). The Intelsat 2 series expanded ITSO coverage to include 2/3 of the Earth's surface. More...
  • ATS-1 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1966.12.07, ATS 1. During its 18 year lifetime, ATS-1 examined spin stabilization techniques, investigated the geostationary environment, and performed several communications experiments. More...
  • ATS-2 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.04.06, ATS 2. ATS-2 was placed into an undesirable orbit due to a launch vehicle failure. More...
  • ATS-3 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.11.05, ATS 3. The goals for ATS-3 included investigations of spin stabilization techniques and VHF and C-band communications experiments. More...
  • ATS-4 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1968.08.10, ATS 4. A launch vehicle failure stranded ATS-4 in a much lower than planned orbit, making the satellite nearly useless. More...
  • TACSAT American communications technology satellite. First launch 1969.02.09. TACSAT was designed to experimentally test and develop tactical communications concepts for all US military services. More...
  • ATS-5 American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1969.08.12, ATS 5. More...
  • Intelsat 4 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1971.01.26 (Intelsat 4 F-2) to 1975.05.22 (Intelsat 4 F-1). The Intelsat 4 series continued the growth of the Intelsat communications network. More...
  • HS 333 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1972.11.10 (Anik A1) to 1979.08.10 (Westar 3). The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. More...
  • Intelsat 4A American communications satellite. 10 launches, 1975.09.26 (Intelsat 4A F-1) to 1981.02.21 (Comstar 4). Intelsat 4A satellites increased satellite capacity to 7250 voice circuits or 2 TV channels. More...
  • Pioneer 12 American Venus probe. One launch, 1978.05.20, Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Pioneer Venus Orbiter. Part of the Pioneer program Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to perform long-term observations of the Venusian atmosphere and surface features. More...
  • Pioneer 13 American Venus probe. 5 launches, 1978.08.08 (Pioneer Venus 2) to (Pioneer Venus Probe 4). The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe consisted of a bus which carried one large and three small atmospheric probes. More...
  • HS 376 American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant. More...
  • HS 381 American military communications satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.30 (Syncom IV-2) to 1985.08.27 (Syncom IV-4). The Leasat HS 381 series was developed as a commercial venture to provide dedicated communications services to the U. S. military. More...
  • HS 393 American communications satellite. 7 launches, 1989.03.06 (JCSAT 1) to 1991.10.29 (Intelsat 6A F-1). Domestic communication. Launching states: Japan, France, USA. At the time, these were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built. More...
  • HS 601 American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels. More...
  • Milstar American military communications satellite. 6 launches, 1994.02.07 (USA 99) to 2003.04.08 (USA 169). Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users. More...
  • HS 376W American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1994.08.10 (Brasilsat B1) to 2000.08.17 (Brasilsat B-4). Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilized, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL. More...
  • Orbview-2 American civilian surveillance satellite. One launch, 1997.08.01. The SeaStar satellite carries the SeaWiFS instrument which was designed to monitor the color of the world's oceans. More...
  • CAPRICORN American military communications satellite. One launch, 1998.01.29, USA 137. There was no firm information on this classified satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office. More...
  • HS 702 American communications satellite bus. Operational, first launched 1999.12.22. More...

Associated Engines
  • IAPS Hughes electric/mercury rocket engine. Isp=2500s. Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System work took place in the 1974-1983. Flight ready article prepared, but not flown due to budget cuts. More...
  • P78-2 Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 0.14 mN. Flown in 1979. Isp=350s. The thruster for the Scatha experiment consisted of one electron bombardment engines using xenon propellant. More...
  • SEPS Hughes, TRW, NASA Cleveland electric/mercury rocket engine. 128 mN Isp=3000s. Solar Electric Propulsion Stage program, started in the early 1970s, a goal to provide a primary ion propulsion system operating at a fixed power for Earth orbital applications. More...
  • SEPST JPL, Hughes, TRW electric/mercury rocket engine. 88 mN. Isp=3600s. The Solar Electric Propulsion System Technology program of 1960-1980 demonstrated a complete breadboard ion propulsion system that would be applicable to an interplanetary spacecraft. More...
  • Sert-I Cesium Hughes electric/cesium rocket engine. 5.6 naN. In Development, 1962-1964. Isp=8050s. 8 cm diameter cesium contact ion engine was designed to operate at 0.6 kW. More...
  • SIT- 5 Hughes electric/mercury rocket engine. 2.1 mN. Isp=3000s. 5 cm diameter mercury ion engine, developed 1970 for attitude control and north-south stationkeeping of geosynchronous satellites. More...
  • XIPS-25 4.2 kW Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 165 mN. Isp=3800s. 25 cm diameter xenon engine system for orbital circularization, station-keeping, attitude control, and momentum dumping for its HS 702 spacecraft. More...
  • XIPS-13 0.44 kW Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 17.8 mN. In Production. Isp=2585s. HS 702 operational communications satellites each employed four of these 0.44 kW xenon ion thrusters. More...
  • XIPS-25 1.3 kW Hughes electric/xenon rocket engine. 63 mN. Isp=2800s. XIPS-25 program, conducted by Hughes, developed thrusters, BBPPUs, and a feed system pressure regulator for stationkeeping of 2500 kg class communication satellites. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Jarvis American orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle planned for Pacific launch based on Saturn V engines, tooling. Masses, payload estimated. More...

Associated Programs
Associated Stages

Hughes Chronology


1992 December 21 - . 11:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-3 (30). FAILURE: Shortcomings in the guidance system lead to the vehicle not anticipating the true effects of horizontal wind-shear once the mountains surrounding the launch site were cleared. This caused the nose fairing to collapse 45 seconds after launch.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Aussat B2 / Optus B2 - . Payload: Optus B2 / Star 63F. Mass: 2,760 kg (6,080 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Hughes. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. Decay Date: 1995-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 22278 . COSPAR: 1992-090A. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 28.1000 deg. Period: 94.90 min. Summary: Despite collapse of the nose fairing and near-desctruction of the payload, the launch vehicle continued on to place the wreckage of Optus-B2, and the Star-63F Kick-Motor into low earth orbit..

2000 March 12 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiritimati. Launch Pad: 0.0 N x 154.0 W. Launch Platform: ODYSSEY. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL. FAILURE: Second stage shut down prematurely due to a valve software command mistake. The satellite fell in the South Pacific, south of Pitcairn Island.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • ICO F-1 - . Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ICO. Manufacturer: Hughes. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. COSPAR: F000312A. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: First ICO Global Communications satellite. Lost due to launch vehicle failure; was to have entered a 10,300 km x 45 deg circular orbit. ICO's satellites would carry multiple spot beams for mobile communications..

2007 August 14 - . 23:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5ECA V177 (537).
  • Spaceway 3 - . Mass: 6,075 kg (13,393 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: Hughes. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: DirecTV. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 702. USAF Sat Cat: 32018 . COSPAR: 2007-036A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0200 deg. Period: 1,436.12 min. Summary: Satellite launched for Hughes Network Systems, with a Ka-band payload for space-based internet. Mass 3655 kg dry..

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