Encyclopedia Astronautica
NASA Langley


American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Langley, USA.

AKA: NASA; Langley Research Center; LaRC.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Echo American passive communications satellite. 2 launches, 1960.05.13 (Echo 1) and 1960.08.12 (Echo 1). The Echo satellites were NASA's first experimental communications satellite project. More...
  • MORAD American manned spacecraft. Study 1961. MORAD (Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking) would require the use of the Mercury-Atlas and Scout in the 1961- 1963 period. More...
  • LM Langley Lighter American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab Langley design used cryogenic propellants. The cryogenic design was estimated to gross 3,284 kg - to be compared with the 15,000 kg / 2 man LM design that eventually was selected. More...
  • LM Langley Light American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. This early open-cab single-crew Langley lunar lander design used storable propellants, resulting in an all-up mass of 4,372 kg. More...
  • LM Langley Lightest American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. Extremely light-weight open-cab lunar module design considered in early Langley studies. More...
  • Apollo LLRF American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. The Lunar Landing Research Facility. The huge structure (76.2 m high and 121.9 m long) was used to explore techniques and to forecast various problems of landing on the moon. More...
  • Echo 2 American passive communications satellite. One launch, 1964.01.25. Passive communications satellite; balloon; 1st joint US/USSR space mission. More...
  • EEM American manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Re-entry at extreme velocities from manned interplanetary missions.. More...
  • LDEF American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1984.04.06. More...
  • HL-42 American manned spaceplane. Study 1997. The HL-42 was a reusable, lifting body manned spacecraft designed to be placed into low-Earth orbit by an expendable booster. More...
  • LANTR Moon Base American manned lunar base. Study 1997. Liquid oxygen mined from the moon combined with a LOX-Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket earth-to-moon shuttle to achieve dramatic reductions in launch requirements for a lunar base. More...

See also
  • Agency Agencies or institutions overseeing design, development, construction, or operation of space-related systems. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nike American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicles consisting first of just the Nike booster were initially fired in the course of development of the Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile. Later it was used occasionally as a sounding rocket, but much more often as the boost stage of a multi-stage sounding rocket. More...
  • Nike Deacon American test vehicle. Two-stage rocket using surplus Nike boosters and Deacon sounding rocket upper stage. The combination was much cheaper than Aerobee, and unlike Rockoon could be launched from fixed launchers in two and a half hours. It was used for 'falling sphere' air density studies, atmospheric soundings, and for heat transfer studies launched from NACA Wallops Island. More...
  • Nike Nike T40 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 More...
  • Nike Nike HPAG American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x HPAG More...
  • HJ Nike T40 T55 American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 More...
  • Nike Nike American sounding rocket. 2-4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + upper stages. More...
  • HJ Nike T40 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 More...
  • Nike T40 T55 American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 More...
  • Nike Recruit American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit More...
  • HJ Nike Nike American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike More...
  • Trailblazer American test vehicle. The Trailblazer rockets were designed to conduct experiments in re-entry physics. More...
  • Trailblazer 1 American test vehicle. The rocket's first three stages would take the upper stage package to a 260 km apogee. The upper stage package was mounted upside-down in relation to the other stages. When it had reached the peak, the three upper stages fired in sequence, ramming the payload, a 13 cm sphere, into the atmosphere at orbital re-entry speeds. More...
  • Shotput American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Sergeant + 1 x Altair More...
  • HJ Nike Gosling American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Gosling More...
  • Trailblazer 2M American test vehicle. Five stage version for artificial meteorite launches consisting of 2 x Recruit strap-ons + 1 x Castor first stage + 1 x Skat second stage. The upper stage package consisted of 1 x Altair + 1 x Cygnus 15 + 1 x Cygnus 5 More...
  • Nike Hawk American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Hawk More...
  • Shuttle II American orbital launch vehicle. In May 1988 NASA Langley studied a new-technology approach to improving the shuttle's payload capability. The design would allow 9,000 to 18,000 kg of additional payload to be carried in an external payload container or in the orbiter. More...

Associated Programs
  • Explorer Series of satellites launched by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the exploration of the space environment (micrometeoroids, charged particles, radiation, etc) from both earth orbital and heliocentric orbital locations. More...

NASA Langley Chronology


1959 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Recruit. Launch Vehicle: Recruit.
  • Blunt cone Stab. test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi).

1959 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Recruit. Launch Vehicle: Recruit.
  • Ogive Stab. test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi).

1959 January 28 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun.
  • Beacon Test 4 Satellite test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1959 April 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Nike Cajun 2. LV Configuration: Nike Nike Cajun F40.
  • F40 Heat transfer test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1959 October 28 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 1.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1960? - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Recruit Nike.
  • Teflon nose Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1960 January 16 - . 22:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 2.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi).

1960 February 27 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 3.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1960 April 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 4.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1960 May 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 5.
  • E60 Echo spacecraft test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1960 August 3 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike Recruit.
  • Glide Rocket Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).

1960 December 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Recruit Nike.
  • Teflon nose Re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1963? - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
1963? - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
1963? - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
1963 September 27 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • Arcas-Margo (Meteor) re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1963 December 19 - . 18:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4. LV Configuration: Scout X-4 S122R.
  • Explorer 19 - . Payload: ADE A. Mass: 7.00 kg (15.40 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ADE. Decay Date: 1981-05-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 714 . COSPAR: 1963-053A. Apogee: 2,391 km (1,485 mi). Perigee: 597 km (370 mi). Inclination: 78.6000 deg. Period: 115.90 min. Summary: 12 foot dia. balloon; identical to Explorer 9; atmospheric density studies. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1964 January 25 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B SLV-2. LV Configuration: Thor SLV-2 Agena B 397 (TA2) / Agena B 6301.
  • Echo 2 - . Payload: Echo C A-12. Mass: 256 kg (564 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Echo 2. Decay Date: 1969-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 740 . COSPAR: 1964-004A. Apogee: 1,315 km (817 mi). Perigee: 1,030 km (640 mi). Inclination: 81.5000 deg. Period: 108.80 min. Summary: Passive commsat; balloon; 1st joint US/USSR space mission. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1964 November 6 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4. LV Configuration: Scout X-4 S133R.
  • Explorer 23 - . Payload: S-55C. Mass: 134 kg (295 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: S-55. Decay Date: 1983-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 924 . COSPAR: 1964-074A. Apogee: 980 km (600 mi). Perigee: 463 km (287 mi). Inclination: 51.9000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Micrometeoroid data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1964 November 21 - . 17:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-4. LV Configuration: Scout X-4 S135R.
  • Explorer 24 - . Payload: ADE B. Mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ADE. Decay Date: 1968-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 931 . COSPAR: 1964-076A. Apogee: 2,498 km (1,552 mi). Perigee: 530 km (320 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 116.30 min. Summary: 12 foot dia. balloon; atmospheric density studies. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • Explorer 25 - . Payload: Injun 4. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Injun. USAF Sat Cat: 932 . COSPAR: 1964-076B. Apogee: 2,319 km (1,440 mi). Perigee: 526 km (326 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. Summary: Radiation data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1965 August 10 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S131R.
  • SECOR 5 (EGRS 5) - . Payload: SEV / FW4S. Mass: 24 kg (52 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: SECOR. USAF Sat Cat: 1506 . COSPAR: 1965-063A. Apogee: 2,419 km (1,503 mi). Perigee: 1,134 km (704 mi). Inclination: 69.2000 deg. Period: 122.20 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1965 October 15 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ PRV. LV Configuration: HJ PRV Pacemaker.
  • Apollo test re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 23 km (14 mi).

1966 June 24 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena D SLV-2A/D. LV Configuration: Thor SLV-2A Agena D 473 (TA7) / Agena D SS-01B 631.
  • Pageos 1 - . Payload: Pageos A. Mass: 55 kg (121 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Pageos. Decay Date: 1975-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 2253 . COSPAR: 1966-056A. Apogee: 4,220 km (2,620 mi). Perigee: 3,913 km (2,431 mi). Inclination: 85.4000 deg. Period: 177.10 min. The PAGEOS (Passive Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite) spacecraft was a 30.48-m inflatable sphere, and had no instrumentation on board. It was the second (following GEOS 1) NASA satellite in the National Geodetic Satellites Program. The launch, orbit, separation, inflation and initial operation were nominal, with more than 40 ground stations participating in the observation program. The orbit was generally considered too high for drag-density study, although some work was done in this area by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Additional Details: here....
  • Pageos canister half - . Payload: Pageos canister half. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Spacecraft: Pageos. USAF Sat Cat: 2256 . COSPAR: 1966-056C. Apogee: 4,276 km (2,656 mi). Perigee: 4,196 km (2,607 mi). Inclination: 86.9000 deg. Period: 181.40 min.
  • Pageos canister half - . Payload: Pageos canister half. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Spacecraft: Pageos. USAF Sat Cat: 2511 . COSPAR: 1966-056D. Apogee: 4,255 km (2,643 mi). Perigee: 4,227 km (2,626 mi). Inclination: 87.0000 deg. Period: 181.50 min.

1966 August 10 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5801 (AA17) / Agena D 6630.
  • Lunar Orbiter 1 - . Payload: Lunar Orbiter A. Mass: 386 kg (850 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Lunar Orbiter. Decay Date: 1966-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 2394 . COSPAR: 1966-073A. Lunar Orbiter I was launched from Cape Kennedy Launch Complex 13 at 3:26 p.m. EDT August 10 to photograph possible Apollo landing sites from lunar orbit. The Atlas-Agena D launch vehicle injected the spacecraft into its planned 90-hour trajectory to the moon. A midcourse correction maneuver was made at 8 p.m. the next day; a planned second midcourse maneuver was not necessary. A faultless deboost maneuver on August 14 achieved the desired initial elliptic orbit around the moon, and one week later the spacecraft was commanded to make a transfer maneuver to place it in a final close-in elliptic orbit of the moon.

    During the spacecraft's stay in the final close-in orbit, the gravitational fields of the earth and the moon were expected to influence the orbital elements. The influence was verified by spacecraft tracking data, which showed that the perilune altitude varied with time. From an initial perilune altitude of 58 kilometers, the perilune decreased to 49 kilometers. At this time an orbit adjustment maneuver began an increase in the altitude, which was expected to reach a maximum after three months and then begin to decrease again. The spacecraft was expected to impact on the lunar surface about six months after the orbit adjustment.

    During the photo-acquisition phase of the flight, August 18 to 29, Lunar Orbiter I photographed the 9 selected primary potential Apollo landing sites, including the one in which Surveyor I landed; 7 other potential Apollo landing sites; the east limb of the moon; and 11 areas on the far side of the moon. Lunar Orbiter I also took photos of the earth, giving man the first view of the earth from the vicinity of the moon (this particular view has been widely publicized). A total of 207 frames (sets of medium- and high-resolution pictures) were taken, 38 while the spacecraft was in initial orbit, the remainder while it was in the final close-in orbit. Lunar Orbiter I achieved its mission objectives, and, with the exception of the high-resolution camera, the performance of the photo subsystem and other spacecraft subsystems was outstanding. At the completion of the photo readouts, the spacecraft had responded to about 5,000 discrete commands from the earth and had made about 700 maneuvers.

    Photographs obtained during the mission were assessed and screened by representatives of the Lunar Orbiter Project Office, U.S. Geological Survey, DOD mapping agencies, MSC, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was deliberately crashed into moon after the mission was completed.


1966 October 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ PRV. LV Configuration: HJ PRV Pacemaker.
  • Velocity package re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 23 km (14 mi).

1966 November 6 - . 23:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5802 (AA18) / Agena D 6631.
  • Lunar Orbiter 2 - . Payload: Lunar Orbiter B. Mass: 390 kg (850 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Lunar Orbiter. Decay Date: 1967-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 2534 . COSPAR: 1966-100A. Lunar Orbiter II was launched at 6:21 p.m. EST from Launch Complex 13 at Cape Kennedy, to photograph possible landing sites on the moon for the Apollo program. The Atlas-Agena D booster placed the spacecraft in an earth-parking orbit and, after a 14-minute coast, injected it into its 94-hour trajectory toward the moon. A midcourse correction maneuver on November 8 increased the velocity from 3,051 to 3,133 kilometers per hour. At that time the spacecraft was 265,485 kilometers from the earth.

    The spacecraft executed a deboost maneuver at 3:26 p.m., November 10, while 352,370 kilometers from the earth and 1,260 kilometers from the moon and traveling at a speed of 5,028 kilometers per hour. The maneuver permitted the lunar gravitational field to pull the spacecraft into the planned initial orbit around the moon. On November 15, a micrometeoroid hit was detected by one of the 20 thin-walled pressurized sensors.

    The spacecraft was transferred into its final close-in orbit around the moon at 5:58 p.m. November 15 and the photo-acquisition phase of Lunar Orbiter II's mission began November 18. Thirteen selected primary potential landing sites and a number of secondary sites were to be photographed. By the morning of November 25, the spacecraft had taken 208 of the 211 photographs planned and pictures of all 13 selected potential landing sites. It also made 205 attitude change maneuvers and responded to 2,421 commands.

    The status report of the Lunar Orbiter II mission as of November 28 indicated that the first phase of the photographic mission was completed when the final photo was taken on the afternoon of November 25. On November 26, the developing web was cut with a hot wire in response to a command from the earth. Failure to achieve the cut would have prevented the final readout of all 211 photos. Readout began immediately after the cut was made. One day early, December 6, the readout terminated when a transmitter failed, and three medium-resolution and two high-resolution photos of primary site 1 were lost. Full low-resolution coverage of the site had been provided, however, and other data continued to be transmitted. Three meteoroid hits had been detected.


1967 February 5 - . 01:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5803 (AA20) / Agena D 6632.
  • Lunar Orbiter 3 - . Payload: Lunar Orbiter C. Mass: 385 kg (848 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Lunar Orbiter. Decay Date: 1967-10-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 2666 . COSPAR: 1967-008A. Summary: Crashed into Moon; returned 182 photos of lunar surface. Selenocentric orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1967 May 4 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5804 (AA22) / Agena D 6633.
  • Lunar Orbiter 4 - . Payload: Lunar Orbiter D. Mass: 390 kg (850 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Lunar Orbiter. Decay Date: 1967-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 2772 . COSPAR: 1967-041A. Summary: Returned 163 photos of lunar surface before impacting Moon. Selenocentric orbit. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

1967 August 1 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC13. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5805 (AA24) / Agena D 6634.
  • Lunar Orbiter 5 - . Payload: Lunar Orbiter E. Mass: 389 kg (857 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Lunar Orbiter. Decay Date: 1968-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 2907 . COSPAR: 1967-075A. Lunar Orbiter V was launched from the Eastern Test Range at 6:33 p.m. EDT August 1. The Deep Space Net Tracking Station at Woomera, Australia, acquired the spacecraft about 50 minutes after liftoff. Signals indicated that all systems were performing normally and that temperatures were within acceptable limits. At 12:48 p.m. EDT August 5, Lunar Orbiter V executed a deboost maneuver that placed it in orbit around the moon. The spacecraft took its first photograph of the moon at 7:22 a.m. EDT August 6. Before it landed on the lunar surface on January 31, 1968, Lunar Orbiter V had photographed 23 previously unphotographed areas of the moon's far side, the first photo of the full earth, 36 sites of scientific interest, and 5 Apollo sites for a total of 425 photos.

1968 August 8 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout B. LV Configuration: Scout B S165C.
  • Explorer 39 - . Payload: ADE C. Mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ADE. Decay Date: 1981-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 3337 . COSPAR: 1968-066A. Apogee: 2,538 km (1,577 mi). Perigee: 670 km (410 mi). Inclination: 80.7000 deg. Period: 118.30 min. Summary: Air Density Explorer; atmospheric density and temperature data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .
  • Explorer 40 - . Payload: Injun E. Mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Injun. USAF Sat Cat: 3338 . COSPAR: 1968-066B. Apogee: 2,489 km (1,546 mi). Perigee: 679 km (421 mi). Inclination: 80.7000 deg. Period: 117.80 min. Summary: Injun Explorer; radiation data. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1971 August 19 - . 18:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper-Dart.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 135 km (83 mi).

1972 June 28 - . 18:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas. LV Configuration: Arcas L1-5480.
  • Stokes Flow Parachute test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi).

1972 June 29 - . 17:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas. LV Configuration: Arcas L1-5481.
  • Stokes Flow Parachute test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 69 km (42 mi).

1972 June 29 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas. LV Configuration: Arcas L1-5482.
  • Stokes Flow Parachute test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 74 km (45 mi).

1972 June 30 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Arcas. LV Configuration: Arcas L1-5483.
  • Stokes Flow Parachute test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1972 August 13 - . 15:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3A. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout D-1. LV Configuration: Scout D-1-F S184C.
  • Explorer 46 - . Payload: Meteoroid Technology Satellite. Mass: 136 kg (299 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: MTS. Decay Date: 1979-11-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 6142 . COSPAR: 1972-061A. Apogee: 811 km (503 mi). Perigee: 492 km (305 mi). Inclination: 37.7000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Summary: Micrometeoroid tests. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1972 August 14 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart. LV Configuration: Loki Dart T 1-6097.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 35 km (21 mi).

1974 June 3 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout E-1. LV Configuration: Scout E-1 S191C.
  • Explorer 52 - . Payload: Hawkeye. Mass: 27 kg (59 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Program: Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Hawkeye. Decay Date: 1978-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 7325 . COSPAR: 1974-040A. Apogee: 125,569 km (78,024 mi). Perigee: 469 km (291 mi). Inclination: 89.0000 deg. Period: 3,032.00 min. Summary: Solar wind experiments. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1975 August 20 - . 21:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3E. LV Configuration: Titan IIIE 23E-4 / Centaur D-1T E-4.
  • Viking 1 Lander - . Payload: Viking 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Viking. Decay Date: 1976-07-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 9024 . COSPAR: 1975-075C. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1975 September 9 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3E. LV Configuration: Titan IIIE 23E-3 / Centaur D-1T E-3.
  • Viking 2 Lander - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Viking. Decay Date: 1976-08-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 9408 . COSPAR: 1975-083C. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1976 May 19 - . 17:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki T 1-8286.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1976 May 19 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki T 1-8288.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1976 May 20 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki T 1-8287.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1976 June 23 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki T 1-8332.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1976 June 29 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki T 1-8289.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1976 July 14 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki. LV Configuration: Super Loki T 1-8333.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1984 April 6 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 41-C.
  • LDEF - . Payload: Challenger F5 / LDEF 1. Mass: 3,625 kg (7,991 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Earth. Type: Micrometeoroid satellite. Spacecraft: LDEF. Decay Date: 1990-01-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 14898 . COSPAR: 1984-034B. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Long Duration Exposure Facility; deployed from STS 41C 7 April 1984; retrieved by STS-32 20 January 1990. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B)..

2009 August 17 - . 11:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A.
  • IRVE Support - . Mass: 90 kg (198 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite.

2009 December 16 - . 13:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Mesquito.
  • NASA 12.068GT - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Langley. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Test.

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