Encyclopedia Astronautica
VKS


Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Military Space Force, Russia.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Temisat Italian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.08.31. Temisat's primary mission was demonstration of a data relay system. More...

See also
  • Agency Agencies or institutions overseeing design, development, construction, or operation of space-related systems. More...

Associated Programs
  • Mars Soviet Mars probes were intended to photograph Mars on flyby trajectories, followed by Mars orbit, landing, and Phobos reconnaisance missions. Essentially all of the series failed. More...
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Strela Military store-dump communications satellite network. The commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite are designated Gonets-D1. They were to be deployed in a constellation of 12 satellites (2 planes of 6) between 1996 and 1998. Each satellite has a single simultaneous earth-space and space-earth channel. On-board storage is 12 Mbits of data, with a transmission rate of 2.4 kbit/sec. Two preproduction test spacecraft of slightly different configuration called 'Gonets-D' were flown. More...

VKS Chronology


1985 June 21 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. Launch Pad: LC45/pad?. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Zenit launch vehicle test - . Payload: Mass Model. Nation: USSR. Agency: VKS. Program: Tselina. Decay Date: 1985-06-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 15842 . COSPAR: 1985-053A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 64.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Intended to be suborbital, but some debris reached orbit. Rocket debris decayed by 6/28/85..

1990 November 20 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC131. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot. LV Configuration: Rokot-K No. 1L.
  • Naryad-V - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VKS. Apogee: 900 km (550 mi). Summary: Noted as a suborbital test mission; but one Russian source indicates the payload was a Naryad-V satellite. That would indicate a failure to achieve orbit. No other information is available on the 'Naryad-V'..

1991 December 20 - . 21:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC175/2. Launch Pad: LC175/pad?. LV Family: UR-100N. Launch Vehicle: Rokot. LV Configuration: Rokot-K No. 3L.
  • Grand Prix test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VKS. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1992 August 15 - . 22:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 U15000-064.
1993 May 22 - . 06:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
1993 May 27 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 364-02. FAILURE: Second stage did not reach planned velocity. Cause determined to be propellant contamination.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Gorizont s/n 39L - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 39L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont. COSPAR: F930527A.

1993 August 10 - . 22:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U N15000-634.
1993 October 11 - . 21:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 77044270.
1994 May 22 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 76024355.
1994 May 25 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. FAILURE: Stage 2 and 3 failed to separate due to a breakdown of the launch vehicle control system.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Tselina-D - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 74. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. COSPAR: F940525A. Summary: Destroyed by launch safety..

1995 August 2 - . 23:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M 2BL N15000-294 10M127S.
  • Magion 4 - . Payload: S2. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Czech Republic. Agency: VKS. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Magion. USAF Sat Cat: 23646 . COSPAR: 1995-039F. Apogee: 175,449 km (109,018 mi). Perigee: 17,068 km (10,605 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 5,454.00 min. Summary: Deployed from Interbol-1 on 8/3/95; solar wind studies in conjunction with Interbol-1..

1995 August 31 - . 06:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. LV Configuration: Tsiklon-3 801.
  • Fasat-Alfa - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Chile. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Fasat. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 23657 . COSPAR: 1995-046xx. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 605 km (375 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Chile's first satellite built through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward and Earth observation payloads. Decommissioned as of 2000..

1996 May 14 - . 08:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U PVB78051-368. FAILURE: Shroud broke up at T+49 seconds.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Kometa - . Payload: Yantar-1KFT no. 18. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. COSPAR: F960514A. Summary: Topographic mapping satellite failed to reach orbit..

1996 June 20 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Shroud broke up at T+50seconds.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Yantar-4K1 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. COSPAR: F960620A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1996 August 29 - . 05:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M 2BL.
  • Interbol 2 - . Payload: SO-M2 s/n 512. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz-M. USAF Sat Cat: 24293 . COSPAR: 1996-050C. Apogee: 18,604 km (11,559 mi). Perigee: 1,369 km (850 mi). Inclination: 63.6000 deg. Period: 347.20 min. Summary: Auroral research. Paired with Magion 5 subsatellite..

1996 November 16 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/39. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D-2 392-02. FAILURE: No second Block D-2 ignition.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Mars-96 (Mars 8) - . Payload: M1 s/n 520. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M1. Decay Date: 1996-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 24656 . COSPAR: 1996-064A. Apogee: 340 km (210 mi). Perigee: 110 km (60 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. The Mars 96 spacecraft was launched into Earth orbit, but failed to achieve insertion into Mars cruise trajectory and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere at about 00:45 to 01:30 GMT on 17 November 1996 and crashed within a presumed 320 km by 80 km area which includes parts of the Pacific Ocean, Chile, and Bolivia. The Russian Mars 96 mission was designed to send an orbiter, two small autonomous stations, and two surface penetrators to Mars.
  • Penetrator 1 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/4. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • Penetrator 2 - . Payload: PN s/n 520/5. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 1 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/1. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.
  • MAS 2 - . Payload: MAS s/n 520/2. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Mars. Spacecraft: Mars M1. COSPAR: 1996-064xx.

1997 May 20 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. FAILURE: Strut in first stage engine failed at T+48 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Heavy ELINT - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 21. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. COSPAR: F970520A.

1999 December 27 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2368 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 26042 . COSPAR: 1999-073A. Apogee: 38,751 km (24,078 mi). Perigee: 1,603 km (996 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Early warning satellite, carrying a large telescope to monitor missile launches. The payload and fourth stage were placed in an initial 229 km x 523 km x 62.8 deg orbit; the fourth stage (Block-2BL) fired over South America on the first orbit and delivered the payload to its 12-hour final orbit.

2001 August 24 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 404-01.
  • Cosmos 2379 - . Payload: SPRN No. 9. Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. USAF Sat Cat: 26892 . COSPAR: 2001-037A. Apogee: 35,810 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,768 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 1.6000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Launch delayed from August 23. Early-warning geosynchronous satellite. The Proton upper stage entered a geostationary transfer orbit after its first burn at 2152 GMT. A second burn was at 0310 GMT put the payload into its operational orbit. It was to provide early warning of missiles launched from the United States with the help of a heat-sensing array of detectors. According to the Moscow Kommersant newspaper, these early warning geosynchronous satellites belong to the US-KMO group, also known as Prognoz fleet, while the highly elliptical complement belongs to the US-KS group, also known as Oko fleet, both supplemented by about eight ground-based radars. As of 6 September 2001 located at 80.17 deg E drifting at 0.031 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 23.84W drifting at 0.002W degrees per day.

2001 October 6 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 405-01?.
  • Raduga-1 - . Payload: Globus 2 / Raduga 1-6. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga-1. USAF Sat Cat: 26936 . COSPAR: 2001-045A. Apogee: 35,801 km (22,245 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. The Blok-DM2 upper stage put the Russian geosynchronous military communications satellite into a geosynchronous transfer orbit at 1755 GMT. A second burn at 2318 GMT to circularized the orbit at geostationary altitude. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 106.48E drifting at 9.104W degrees per day.

2001 October 25 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M 77013-687.
  • Molniya-3-52 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 26970 . COSPAR: 2001-050A. Apogee: 40,658 km (25,263 mi). Perigee: 646 km (401 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Launch delayed from October 11. The Molniya-3 military communications satellite and Block ML upper stage were inserted into an initial 214 x 617 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit at 1143 GMT. At apogee over the South Pacific, the BOZ ullage motor fired and separated, then the ML main engine ignited and put the Molniya-3 satellite into its 615 x 40659 km x 62.8 deg operational orbit with apogee over the northern hemisphere.

2001 December 28 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2384 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27055 . COSPAR: 2001-058A. Apogee: 1,432 km (889 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. The Tsiklon put six military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites into a medium earth orbit. Due to a launch failure in 2000 this was the first replenishment of the Strela satellite constellation since 1998. The Tsiklon second stage burn was complete at 0329:02 UTC. The S5M stage separated and ignited at 0330 and shut down at 0332:00, placing the stage and satellite dispenser in a suborbital -550 x 1400 km orbit. A second burn at apogee at 0406:15 UTC put the stage in a 1400 km circular orbit. The three Gonets satellites separated first, beginning at 0407:28 UTC; the last of the three Kosmos/Strela satellites was ejected at 0408:33, with a perigee about 15 km higher than the first of the deployments.
  • Cosmos 2386 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27057 . COSPAR: 2001-058C. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27058 . COSPAR: 2001-058D. Apogee: 1,419 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,411 km (876 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.10 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Cosmos 2385 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27056 . COSPAR: 2001-058B. Apogee: 1,426 km (886 mi). Perigee: 1,417 km (880 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.30 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27059 . COSPAR: 2001-058E. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,416 km (879 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.20 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..
  • Gonets D1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 27060 . COSPAR: 2001-058F. Apogee: 1,418 km (881 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.00 min. Summary: Three military Strela-3 and three civilian equivalent Gonets-D1 satellites orbited in a single launch..

2002 May 28 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2389 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 27436 . COSPAR: 2002-026A. Apogee: 1,017 km (631 mi). Perigee: 949 km (589 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. The Kosmos-3M rocket entered a transfer orbit of about 150 x 1000 km x 83 deg at about 1823 UTC; a second burn at apogee around 1905 UTC circularized the orbit at 950 x 1016 km. The Parus navigation satellite was placed in Plane 4, probably replacing Cosmos 2336; it was between the planes of Cosmos 2366 and Cosmos 2361.

2002 September 26 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65021-706.
  • Nadezhda-M - . Payload: Tsikada-Kospas. Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Nadezhda. USAF Sat Cat: 27534 . COSPAR: 2002-046A. Apogee: 1,022 km (635 mi). Perigee: 987 km (613 mi). Inclination: 82.9341 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Nadezhda 7, also called Nadezhda -M, was a Russian navigational satellite. It was to participate in the international search and rescue (SAR) network known as COSPAS-SARSAT, for ships at sea..

2002 December 24 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL 77045-865.
  • Cosmos 2393 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 27613 . COSPAR: 2002-059A. Apogee: 39,722 km (24,682 mi). Perigee: 542 km (336 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 716.00 min. Summary: Launch delayed from September, then October 22..

2003 April 2 - . 01:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML 684.
  • Molniya 1-92 - . Payload: Molniya 1T-26 or 28. Mass: 1,660 kg (3,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 27707 . COSPAR: 2003-011A. Apogee: 39,693 km (24,664 mi). Perigee: 655 km (406 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.60 min.

2003 April 24 - . 04:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 410-02.
  • Cosmos 2397 - . Payload: US-KMO (Prognoz 2). Mass: 2,155 kg (4,750 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz SPRN. USAF Sat Cat: 27775 . COSPAR: 2003-015A. Apogee: 35,928 km (22,324 mi). Perigee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,442.30 min. Summary: As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 60.65W drifting at 0.723E degrees per day..

2003 June 4 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2398 - . Mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 27818 . COSPAR: 2003-023A. Apogee: 1,016 km (631 mi). Perigee: 970 km (600 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min.

2003 June 19 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML 689.
  • Molniya 3-53 - . Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27834 . COSPAR: 2003-029A. Apogee: 39,703 km (24,670 mi). Perigee: 651 km (404 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. The satellite entered a 211 x 559 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit, and then the Blok ML upper stage fired to put it in a 604 x 40578 km x 62.7 deg drift orbit with a 734 minute period. The orbit was later adjusted to 717.8 minutes (semi-synchronous) with an onboard engine. The special orbital inclination of 63 degrees minimizes the rotation of the orbit in its plane due to the oblateness of the Earth, keeping the apogee in the same apparent position over the northern hemisphere.

2003 August 12 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2399 - . Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Decay Date: 2003-12-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 27856 . COSPAR: 2003-035A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Originally to have launched September 2002; June 2003. A Russian newspaper report (Kommersant, 13 August) stated that Cosmos 2399 was a Neman (Yantar-4KS1M) imaging satellite, which used data relay satellites to return CCD imagery rather than physically recovering film. However some Western observors, when Cosmos 2399 raised its perigee on August 14 to 205 km and lowered the apogee to 330 km, believed this was more like the standard operational orbit for an Orlets-1 Don 17F12 film-return capsule imaging satellite. This seemed confirmed when debris was tracked around the satellite later on, which was then said to be due to a failed film capsule recovery attempt. Destroyed in orbit on December 9 after completing its mission.

2004 February 18 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya-1T - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 28163 . COSPAR: 2004-005A. Apogee: 39,708 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 650 km (400 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Launched during a nationwide military exercise. Original name Cosmos 2405..

2005 June 21 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML 77046-694. FAILURE: Failure - Third stage propulsion. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Molniya 3K - . Payload: 11F637. Mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Summary: Delayed from May 25.

2005 September 2 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2415 - . Payload: Kometa s/n 21. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Cartographic satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-1KFT. Duration: 44.00 days. Decay Date: 2005-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 28841 . COSPAR: 2005-034A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: 1,700th launch of a vehicle derived from the R-7 ICBM put a Kometa-type cartographic satellite into orbit. The surveillance satellite's primary camera and film payload was recovered at 21:44 on 15 or 16 October..

2005 December 21 - . 19:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53727-232.
  • Gonets D1M 1 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gonets-D1. USAF Sat Cat: 28908 . COSPAR: 2005-048A. Apogee: 1,447 km (899 mi). Perigee: 1,437 km (892 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Summary: Delayed from December 15. Civilian version of Strela-3 store-dump survivable military satellite..
  • Cosmos 2416 - . Mass: 225 kg (496 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-3. USAF Sat Cat: 28909 . COSPAR: 2005-048B. Apogee: 1,448 km (899 mi). Perigee: 1,438 km (893 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 114.70 min. Summary: Russian military satellite dubbed Rodnik, possibly a new design to replace the Strela-3 in the store-dump survivable communications satellite constellation..

2006 May 3 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2420 - . Payload: Yantar 4K-2M. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Decay Date: 2006-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 29111 . COSPAR: 2006-017A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Imaging reconnaissance satellite, probably the second Kobalt-M satellite, built by the Arsenal factory. The satellite carried small film recovery capsules and one large reentry vehicle, recovered at the end of the mission with the camera and more film..

2006 July 21 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2422 - . Mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 29260 . COSPAR: 2006-030A. Apogee: 39,741 km (24,693 mi). Perigee: 616 km (382 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Missile early warning satellite.

2006 September 14 - . 13:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2423 - . Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Orlets-1. Duration: 64.00 days. Decay Date: 2006-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 29402 . COSPAR: 2006-039A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Military surveillance; believed to be a derivative of the Orlets-1 multiple-capsule-return reconnaisance sattelite. Destroyed in orbit on November 17 at the end of its mission..

2006 December 24 - . 08:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz ST. LV Configuration: Soyuz-2-1A/Fregat 76033135.
  • Meridian 1 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Meridian. USAF Sat Cat: 29668 . COSPAR: 2006-061A. Apogee: 39,093 km (24,291 mi). Perigee: 1,264 km (785 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Launch rescheduled twice due to Soyuz 2 software problems. The Meridian satellite was designed to provide communication between vessels and airplanes involved in ice surveillance in the North Sea area, and coastal stations on the ground, as well as to expand a network of satellite communications in the northern regions of Siberia and the Russian Far East.

2007 June 7 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2427 - . Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 76.13 days. Decay Date: 2007-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 31595 . COSPAR: 2007-022A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Recoverable capsule military optical reconnaisance satellite. Orbit was raised on 11 June to 182 km x 354 km; decayed until 19 June, when it was lowered to 175 km x 325 km. On 28 June the orbit was raised to 183 km x 348 km; on 5 July to 169 km x 375 km. Landed at 21:00 GMT on 22 August after a 76-day mission.

2007 June 29 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2SLB. LV Configuration: Zenit-2M 1-2005.
  • Cosmos 2428 - . Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 31792 . COSPAR: 2007-029A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Signals intelligence satellite. First launch in three years, and first with the improved version of the Zenit-2 launch vehicle using components developed for the Zenit-3SL..

2007 October 23 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2430 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 32268 . COSPAR: 2007-049A. Apogee: 39,175 km (24,342 mi). Perigee: 520 km (320 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 704.50 min. Summary: Missile early warning satellite.

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