Encyclopedia Astronautica
VNIIEM


Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. VNII Elektromekhaniki (Russian abbreviation for All-Union Scientific-Research Institute for Electro-Mechanics), Russia.

The institute can be traced back to a production plant for electric equipment established in Moscow in 1941. In 1944 NII-627 (Scientific Research Institute) was established on premises of the plant. In 1946 NII-627 was given engineering responsibility for electric functional equipment for the R-1, the Soviet copy of the V-2. They then developed further such equipment for later Korolev and Yangel missiles. In 1953 NII-627 was renamed the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Electromechanics (VNIIEM).

On 30 October 1960 development of the Soviet Union's first weather satellite was begun by Yangel's bureau. VNIIEM had developed an innovative electromechanical satellite stabilization system and was a principle subcontractor. Overburdened with higher priority missile and military spacecraft work, Yangel agreed to transfer complete responsibility for the spacecraft to VNIIEM in 1962. VNIIEM thereafter began a sometimes not-too-successful forty year run of building the Soviet Union's meteorological and remote sensing satellites.

AKA: NII-627.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Iosifyian Iosifyian, Andronik Gevondovich (1905-1993) Armenian-Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1974 of Nll-627/VNIIEM. Specialised in power sources and remote-sensing spacecraft. More...
  • Sheremetyevskiy Sheremetyevskiy, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1916-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1974-1991 of losifyan design bureau. Specialised in power sources and earth survey satellites. More...
  • Adasko Adasko, Vladimir Iosifiyanovich (1933-1963) Russian engineer. Talented engineer of electro-mechanical systems. Director of VNIIEM, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics in 1991-1993. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Omega Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1963.04.13 (Cosmos 14) to 1963.12.13 (Cosmos 23). Early Cosmos satellite, evidently using the Yuzhnoye DS satellite bus. Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. More...
  • Meteor Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Meteor-Priroda Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31). More...
  • Meteor-2 Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs. More...
  • Meteor-3 Russian earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1984.11.27 (Cosmos 1612) to 1994.01.25 (Meteor 3-06). Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite. More...
  • Resurs-O1 Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Elektro Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 1994.10.31. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994. More...
  • Meteor-3M Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010. More...

See also
Associated Programs
  • Resurs Zenit-derived satellites used for earth resources studies as part of the 'Resurs' and 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. More...

VNIIEM Chronology


1998 July 10 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Resurs-O1 No. 4 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 No. 4. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: VNIIEM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 25394 . COSPAR: 1998-043A. Apogee: 818 km (508 mi). Perigee: 815 km (506 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. In addition to its remote sensing equipment, the satellite carried the Belgian LLMS (Little LEO Messaging System) communications payload for the IRIS system. The launch was critical in restoring confidence in the Zenit vehicle prior to planned commercial launches of Globalstar satellites from Baikonur and the first Sea Launch flights using a three-stage Zenit from a California-based floating launch platform. Expected life 3 to 5 years.

2001 December 10 - . 17:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 19L (1381573091).
  • Meteor-3M - . Payload: Meteor 3M-N1. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: VNIIEM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-3M. USAF Sat Cat: 27001 . COSPAR: 2001-056A. Apogee: 1,014 km (630 mi). Perigee: 994 km (617 mi). Inclination: 99.2000 deg. Period: 105.20 min. Meteorology satellite. Launch postponed from late 2000, then delayed from November 30. The Meteor-3M weather satellite carried visible and IR sensors as well as NASA's SAGE III instrument which studied aerosols and the ozone layer. This was the first launched of a modernised version of the spacecraft. Launch be Zenit launch vehicle from Baikonur rather than Tsyklon 3 from Plesetsk allowed the spacecraft to be 350 kg heavier, carrying additional sensors and various piggy-back payloads.

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