Encyclopedia Astronautica
Veronique 61M


Nitric acid/Turpentine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 60.00 kN.

AKA: Veronique.
Status: Retired 1975.
Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Height: 11.70 m (38.30 ft).
Diameter: 0.55 m (1.80 ft).
Thrust: 60.00 kN (13,488 lbf).
Burn time: 56 s.
Number: 15 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Veronique 61M French sounding rocket. Lengthened version of Veronique 61 capable of carrying an increased payload of 100 kg. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • LRBA French manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. LRBA, France. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Turpentine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. More...

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