Encyclopedia Astronautica

Nitric acid/Tonka propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,500/1,700 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN.

Status: Retired 1944.
Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb).
Height: 7.80 m (25.50 ft).
Diameter: 0.88 m (2.88 ft).
Thrust: 80.00 kN (17,984 lbf).
Burn time: 40 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Wasserfall Seminal German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never operational. The V-2-configuration rocket was copied in the USA as the Hermes and in the USSR as the R-101. In Russia it also became the starting point for the R-11/R-17 Scud surface-to-surface missile. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Wehrmacht German agency overseeing development of rocket engines and rockets. Wehrmacht, Germany. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Amine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02. More...

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