Encyclopedia Astronautica
November 25


November 25 Chronology


1898 November 25 - .
  • Birth of Floyd L Thompson - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer, at NASA 1927-1968, chief of flight research and then headed Langley..

1914 November 25 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Fedorovich Tolubko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1960-1968. Commander-in-Chief 1972-1985..

1927 November 25 - .
  • Birth of Boris Arkadyevich Dorofeyev - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Korolev design bureau. Chief Designer for N1 rocket 1972-1974. He was demoted in 1974 after the cancellation of the N1 programme..

1933 November 25 - . Launch Vehicle: GIRD-10. FAILURE: Failure.
  • GIRD-10 launch. - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 0.0800 km (0.0497 mi). Summary: First Soviet liquid-propellant rocket. It reached 80 m altitude before the combustion chamber burned through..

1940 November 25 - .
1943 November 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-080.
1944 November 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19835. FAILURE: Guidance failure.
  • V-2 Ma298 262 P7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Guidance failure; accuracy 90.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 190.1 km from aim point..

1950 November 25 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • R-1 accepted for military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On adoption of the R-1 into armaments' was issued. The missile was accepted for service, with the first operational unit the 92nd brigade (BON RVGK) at Kapustin Yar..

1952 November 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 2E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 November 25 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 6DJ.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1957 November 25 - .
  • $3 million of fiscal year 1958 funds for Dyna-Soar. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Air Force headquarters issued Development Directive 94, which allocated $3 million of fiscal year 1958 funds for Dyna-Soar..

1959 November 25 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike Recruit T55.
  • F131 Heat Transfer re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 26 km (16 mi).

1960 November 25 - .
  • Birth of Theresa Mary Stevens Tittle - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1985-1988. Graduated in operations research from the USAF Academy, 1982. US Air Force operations specialist, stationed in the Pentagon. Later a Shuttle Flight Controller at the JSC..

1960 November 25 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Antares. Launch Vehicle: Antares. LV Configuration: Antares 008.
  • Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1961 November 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: R-12.
  • - . Nation: Ukraine. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi).

1962 November 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1963 November 25 - .
  • Vostok / Soyuz Space Plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Spacecraft: Vostok. Kamanin meets with Korolev at OKB-1. Korolev is opposed to the VVS getting out of manned space flight. The Air Force already has a good laboratory infrastructure to support such space flights. More to the point Korolev feels more at home working with pilots and is sick and tired of dealing with the artillery officers that run the rocket forces. He's been stuck with them for twenty years and its a constant stress. A resolution was issued for development of the Soyuz on 1 December. However Korolev needs 80 million roubles to build and fly four Soyuz spacecraft in 1964, but has only been allocated 30 million.

1964 November 25 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • The Combined Systems Acceptance Test of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 4 was conducted. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 4. The vehicle acceptance team inspected the vehicle and reviewed all test and manufacturing data December 11-13 and authorized Martin to remove GLV-4 from the vertical test cell. During the next three months, while awaiting shipment to Cape Kennedy, GLV-4 had 27 engineering changes installed. Final integrity checks, weighing, and balancing were completed March 8, 1965.

1964 November 25 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NB3.161.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 November 25 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C91.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1965 November 25 - . 08:24 GMT - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C93.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Argentina. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1965 November 25 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA5B. Launch Pad: LA5B?. LV Family: Black Knight. Launch Vehicle: Black Knight 301/C2. LV Configuration: Black Knight-301/C2 BK.25.
  • Dazzle re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: UK. Agency: RAE. Apogee: 632 km (392 mi).

1966 November 25 - .
  • Apollo MSC to rearrange flights after AS-204 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. MSC was requested by NASA Hq. to take the following actions:

    1. Delete all experiments assigned to AS-205.
    2. Assign experiment M005 (Bioassays Body Fluid, modified version) to AS-205/208.
    3. Assign experiment M006 (Bone Demineralization) to AS-205/208.
    4. Assign experiment M011 (Cytogenic Blood Studies) to AS-205/208.
    5. Assign experiment M023 (Lower-Body Negative Pressure) to AS-205/208.
    6. Redesignate experiments assigned to AS-207/208 to AS-205/208.

1967 November 25 - .
  • Titov in France. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov. Summary: Titov is on tour in France. Kamanin notes that Titov used to make many mistakes, but has now reformed..

1967 November 25 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110L. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N-1 mockup 1M1 rolled out to launch pad - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3. Summary: Stays on pad until 12 December for facilities checks. Photographed by US reconnsat on 11 December. 1M1 mockup scrapped in 1975..

1967 November 25 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 November 25 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 November 25 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 November 25 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 619. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1967 November 25 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 193 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 58. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1967-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 3052 . COSPAR: 1967-117A. Apogee: 756 km (469 mi). Perigee: 745 km (462 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1968 November 25 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 ESRO S43/1.
  • ESRO S43 / 1 Aurora mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1969 November 25 - .
  • X-24 Flight 8 - . Crew: Gentry. Payload: X-24A flight 8. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gentry. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Glide. Maximum Speed - 730 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 266 sec..

1970 November 25 - .
  • M2 Flight 20 - . Crew: Dana. Payload: M2-F3 flight 4. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Dana. Program: NASA Lifting Body. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: M2-F3. Summary: First powered flight. Maximum Speed - 859 kph. Maximum Altitude - 15819 m. Flight Time - 377 sec..

1970 November 25 - .
  • NASA Administrator discussed significance of Russian unmanned lunar probes to Apollo. - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Luna Ye-8; Lunokhod. George M. Low, Acting NASA Administrator, discussed the significance of unmanned lunar probes Luna XVI and XVII launched by the U.S.S.R. September 12 and November 10. Luna XVI had brought lunar samples back to earth and Luna XVII had landed an unmanned Lunokhod roving vehicle on the moon's surface. Low stated in a letter to Chairman Clinton P. Anderson of the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences that while the two launches were impressive their contributions to science and technology were relatively minor. Low suggested that the main lesson to be learned from the two launches specifically and the U.S. and U.S.S.R. space programs in general was that while the Soviet launch rate was increasing that of the United States was decreasing. These trends in the two countries' space programs should be a cause of concern if the United States was interested in maintaining a position of leadership in space.

1970 November 25 - .
  • TsPK Deputy Commander appointment disputed. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Kamanin is being pressured to replace the Deputy Commander of the training centre with a non-cosmonaut officer..

1970 November 25 - . 03:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Blue Scout Jr SLV-1C. LV Configuration: Blue Scout Jr SLV-1C NB22.208.
  • Ultraviolet Telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi).

1971 November 25 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P124S/C.
  • Lithium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1971 November 25 - . 17:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S70/2.
  • ESRO S70/2 Ionosphere/VLF Radio mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1972 November 25 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Launched from White Sea Launch Area, Beloye More, Archangel'sk Oblast' - Latitude: 65.50 N - Longitude: 38.00 E..

1972 November 25 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF22. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OT GT18GB operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1972 November 25 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 537 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 6287 . COSPAR: 1972-093A. Apogee: 303 km (188 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1973 November 25 - . 22:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5A. LV Configuration: Black Brant VA AMF-VA-40. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Auroral mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1974 November 25 - . 07:22 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.154UA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1974 November 25 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.31UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1974 November 25 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 200A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 200A NASA 26.42UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1975 November 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 782 - . Payload: Bion no. 3. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 19.50 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8450 . COSPAR: 1975-110A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Biological research. Continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 64 deg 11 min E. The Cosmos 782 mission marked the first time that the United States participated in the Soviet Cosmos Program. Scientists from France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. participated in these investigations. Additional Details: Cosmos 782.

1975 November 25 - . 23:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B. LV Configuration: Black Brant IVB AEC-IVA-03.
  • Periquito Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRCC; Sandia. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1976 November 25 - .
  • Intercosmos Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Hermaszewski; Jaehn; Jankowski; Koellner; Pelczak; Remek. Summary: Training group of potential 'guest cosmonauts' for propaganda flights to the Salyut space station. The 'guests', from states allied to the Soviet Union, would be flown on Soyuz lifeboat changeout missions to the station..

1976 November 25 - . 03:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-SOL.
  • Prognoz 5 - . Payload: SO-M s/n 505. Mass: 930 kg (2,050 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Prognoz. Decay Date: 1979-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 9557 . COSPAR: 1976-112A. Apogee: 198,560 km (123,370 mi). Perigee: 777 km (482 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 5,728.00 min. Investigation of the corpuscular and electromagnetic radiation of the sun and of solar plasma fluxes, study of the magnetic fields in circumterrestrial space in order to determine the effects of solar activity on the interplanetary medium and in the magne tosphere of the earth.

1977 November 25 - . 14:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Thule AFB. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1978 November 25 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8B. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8B AAF-NVB-05.
  • CMB spectrum 2 Submillimeter radio astronomy mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi).

1980 November 25 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Energy Budget Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi).

1981 November 25 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1982 November 25 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1985 November 25 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1987 November 25 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper 3A. LV Configuration: Viper 3A M-100B ?.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 109 km (67 mi).

1989 November 25 - .
  • British Commercial Cosmonaut Training Group selected. - . Nation: UK. Related Persons: Mace; Sharman. Summary: The group was selected for the Juno commercial British cosmonaut mission..

1989 November 25 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 DLR K-GR-170.
  • TEXUS 23 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: MBB. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi).

1990 November 25 - . 05:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 12. LV Configuration: Skylark 12 DLR K-GRC-184.
  • Maxus test - . Nation: Germany. Agency: MBB. Apogee: 534 km (331 mi).

1992 November 25 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2222 - . Payload: Oko #71. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 22238 . COSPAR: 1992-081A. Apogee: 35,026 km (21,764 mi). Perigee: 5,330 km (3,310 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 270 degree longitude of ascending node..

1993 November 25 - .
  • Cosmonaut Vladimir Yevgenyevich Preobrazhensky dies at age of 54 -- Killed in auto crash. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Preobrazhensky. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1980. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute Soviet Air Force, liaising with aircraft industrial enterprises. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center..

1994 November 25 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • CWS-58 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1997 November 25 - . 00:02 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-87-1 - . Crew: Scott, Winston; Doi. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.32 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Scott, Winston; Doi. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-87. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Retrieved Spartan free-flier. Tested EVA tools and techniques..

1998 November 25 - .
  • ISS Status Report 7 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Flight controllers in Moscow continued to monitor the health of systems aboard the first component of the International Space Station as it passed within range of ground stations in Russia today, performing a standard check of two command relay electronics boxes and of the fire detection and suppression system. Additional Details: ISS Status Report 7.

2002 November 25 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF7632. LV Family: R-17. Launch Vehicle: R-17. LV Configuration: Scud FMA.
  • GMDS test - . Nation: USA. Agency: MDA. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

2002 November 25 - . 23:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 408-02. FAILURE: The Block DM upper stage failed to ignite for its second burn, leaving the satellite in parking orbit.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Astra 1K - . Mass: 5,250 kg (11,570 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. Decay Date: 2002-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 27557 . COSPAR: 2002-053A. Apogee: 317 km (196 mi). Perigee: 244 km (151 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Delayed from December 2001 and July 15, August 16 and 25. Astra 1K was to be a European (Luxembourg-based) geostationary communications spacecraft. The 5.0-ton, 13-kW spacecraft was the most massive of civilian communications spacecraft ever launched. Its 52 Ku-band and two Ka-band transponders could cover 1,100 channels and were to replace three earlier Astra satellites. However the DM-3 upper stage, after operating successfully to place itself and the satellite in parking orbit, failed to ignite for transfer orbit injection, leaving the spacecraft stranded in parking orbit. In an effort to prevent imminent re-entry, the spacecraft was raised to a circular orbit at an altitude of 290 km. Three options were considered: force re-entry over the Pacific Ocean; retrieval by a US shuttle; or use of all the fuel aboard the satellite to attempt to move it to a geostationary orbit at 19.2 E longitude. The decision was taken in December to deorbit the spacecraft, resulting in a huge insurance loss and bringing into question both continued use of the Block D series of upper stages and the 'bigger is better' comsat philosophy.

2004 November 25 - .
2005 November 25 - .
  • Hayabusa (MUSES-C), second Asteroid 25143 Itokawa Sample Collection - . Nation: Japan. Spacecraft: Hayabusa.

2007 November 25 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 11/25/07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Malenchenko; Tani; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1. Sunday -- light-duty day for CDR Whitson, FE-1 Malenchenko and FE-2 Tani.

    Ahead: Week 6 of Increment 16.

    The FE-1 started his day by recording post-EVA radiation readings from the Russian 'Pille-MKS' dosimeters in the two spacesuits worn by Whitson & Tani during yesterday's spacewalk and from one background dosimeter. Measurements were logged in a table for subsequent downlink to the ground.

    In the SM (Service Module), Malenchenko afterwards activated the Kenwood D700 amateur radio station and started the program for the Russian SHADOW-BEACON (Tenj-Mayak) experiment. (Objective of the experiment is the automatic retranslation of time tag (pre-planned executable) packets from ground stations. SHADOW (or ECLIPSE), sponsored by Roskosmos and its leading Moscow research organization TSNIIMASH (Central Research Institute of Machine Building), employs VHF amateur radio (ham) operators around the globe (via ARISS/Amateur Radio on ISS) to help in observing refraction/scattering effects in artificial plasmas using the method of RF (radio frequency) sounding in space experiments under different geophysical conditions. This is the experiment's second run, after Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin conducted it first on Expedition 14 in November 2006.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 11/25/07.


2010 November 25 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Balasore. LV Family: Agni. Launch Vehicle: Agni 1.
  • Agni I RV - . Nation: India. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Summary: Test mission..

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