Encyclopedia Astronautica
November 28


November 28 Chronology


1921 November 28 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Alekeseyevich Vasilyev - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1964-1967. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Forces 1967-1969..

1942 November 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-007. FAILURE: Tumbled after vane failure at T+37 seconds. Range 8.6 km.
1944 November 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19827. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma299 269 P12 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.1 km from aim point..

1947 November 28 - .
  • Norton Sound selected as sounding rocket ship. - . Nation: USA. Summary: USS Norton Sound was assigned to Operational Development Force for use as an experimental rocket-firing ship, alterations initiated at Naval Shipyard at Philadelphia in March 1948, and completed October 1, 1948..

1951 November 28 - .
1951 November 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 12.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1952 November 28 - . LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1.
  • First production R-1 delivery - . Nation: USSR. Summary: The first rocket built completely of Dnepropetrovsk-fabricated parts was rolled out of the factory..

1953 November 28 - . Launch Vehicle: G-4.
  • Groettrup and last Germans return to Germany. - . Nation: USSR.

1958 November 28 - . 20:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1959 November 28 - .
  • Birth of Dr Ray Glynn Holt - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1994-1995..

1960 November 28 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan.
  • Titan II instead of Titan I for Dyna-Soar. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force requested ARDC to examine the feasiblity of employing Titan II instead of Titan I for Dyna-Soar suborbital flights..

1960 November 28 - .
  • Death of Alexis Graciov. Reported killed in an orbital flight on 28 November 1960. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Graciov. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut, alleged sender of a morse code radio message from deep space received by the Judica-Cordiglia brothers on 1960.11.28. In fact Russia would not have a large enough booster for such a mission until 1968..

1961 November 28 - .
  • North American awarded Apollo prime contract - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM Source Selection. Despite an announcement at Martin on 27 November that they had won the Apollo program, the decision was reversed at the highest levels of the US government. NASA announced instead that the Space and Information Systems Division of North American Aviation, Inc., had been selected to design and build the Apollo spacecraft. The official line: 'the decision by NASA Administrator James E. Webb followed a comprehensive evaluation of five industry proposals by nearly 200 scientists and engineers representing both NASA and DOD. Webb had received the Source Evaluation Board findings on November 24. Although technical evaluations were very close, NAA had been selected on the basis of experience, technical competence, and cost'. NAA would be responsible for the design and development of the command module and service module. NASA expected that a separate contract for the lunar landing system would be awarded within the next six months. The MIT Instrumentation Laboratory had previously been assigned the development of the Apollo spacecraft guidance and navigation system. Both the NAA and MIT contracts would be under the direction of MSC.

1962 November 28 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Mercury Simulator 2 modified to the 1-day configuration. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Flight: Mercury MA-9. Spacecraft: Mercury. Summary: Mercury Simulator 2 was modified to the 1-day Mercury orbital configuration in preparation for the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) flight..

1962 November 28 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D.
  • Retrofire initiated 2 seconds late during Mercury MA-8 - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Retrofire was reported to have initiated 2 seconds late during the Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) mission. Because of this, the mechanics and tolerances of the Mercury orbital timing device were reviewed for the benefit of operational personnel, and the procedural sequence for Mercury retrofire initiation was outlined.

1962 November 28 - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Bacchus. Launch Pad: Bacchus?. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C32.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1962 November 28 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ Nike Nike. LV Configuration: HJ Nike Nike AC20.454.
  • Firefly III MABEL Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 121 km (75 mi).

1962 November 28 - . 10:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C SL165.
  • Grenade / Chaff Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1962 November 28 - . 23:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. LV Family: Nike Zeus. Launch Vehicle: Nike Zeus. LV Configuration: Nike Zeus-3.
  • PM-17? St3 guidance - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1963 November 28 - .
  • Bykovsky achieved lunar flight duration - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Tereshkova. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6. Summary: According to a review of Bykovsky's flight log, Bykovsky could have successfully completed a circumlunar flight. Tereshkova would have tired on such a flight - she ate poorly and slept too much..

1963 November 28 - .
  • John F Kennedy Space Center (KSC) named - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Lyndon; Kennedy. Program: Apollo. In honor of the late President John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated six days earlier, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced that LOC and Station No. 1 of the Atlantic Missile Range would be designated the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), ". . . to honor his memory, and the future of the works he started . . . ," Johnson said. On the following day, he signed an executive order making this change official. With the concurrence of Florida Governor Farris Bryant, he also changed the name of Cape Canaveral to Cape Kennedy.

1963 November 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 G15001-02. FAILURE: Failure of block E upper stage. Spacecraft liquidated by APO destruct system.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 14 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 14. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Decay Date: 1963-11-28 . COSPAR: F631128A. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite..

1964 November 28 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 3. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena C003. FAILURE: Failure.
  • USAF C003 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1964 November 28 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena D 288D (AA12) / Agena D 6932 (AA12).
  • Mariner 4 - . Payload: Mariner C-3. Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; JPL. Program: Mariner. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mariner 3-4. USAF Sat Cat: 938 . COSPAR: 1964-077A. Mariner 4 provided the first up close pictures of Mars. The protective shroud covering Mariner 4 was jettisoned and the Agena D/Mariner 4 combination separated from the Atlas D booster at 14:27:23 GMT on 28 November 1964. The Agena D first burn from 14:28:14 to 14:30:38 put the spacecraft into an Earth parking orbit and the second burn from 15:02:53 to 15:04:28 injected the craft into a Mars transfer orbit. Mariner 4 separated from the Agena D at 15:07:09 and began cruise mode operations. The solar panels deployed and the scan platform was unlatched at 15:15:00 and Sun acquisition occurred 16 minutes later. A midcourse maneuver made on 5 December 1964.

    After a 228 day cruise, the spacecraft flew by Mars on July 14 and 15, 1965. Planetary science mode was turned on at 15:41:49 GMT on 14 July. The camera sequence started at 00:18:36 GMT on July 15 and 21 pictures plus 21 lines of a 22nd picture were taken. The images covered a discontinuous swath of Mars starting near 40 N, 170 E, down to about 35 S, 200 E, and then across to the terminator at 50 S, 255 E, representing about 1% of the planet's surface. The closest approach was 9,846 km from the Martian surface at 01:00:57 GMT 15 July 1965. The images taken during the flyby were stored in the onboard tape recorder. At 02:19:11 GMT Mariner 4 passed behind Mars as seen from Earth and the radio signal ceased. The signal was reacquired at 03:13:04 GMT when the spacecraft reappeared. Cruise mode was then re-established. Transmission of the taped images to Earth began about 8.5 hours after signal reacquisition and continued until 3 August. All images were transmitted twice to insure no data was missing or corrupt.

    The spacecraft performed all programmed activities successfully and returned useful data from launch until 22:05:07 GMT on 1 October 1965, when the distance from Earth (309.2 million km) and the antenna orientation temporarily halted signal acquisition. In 1967 Mariner 4 returned to the vicinity of Earth again and engineers decided to use the ageing craft for a series of operational and telemetry tests to improve their knowledge of the technologies that would be needed for future interplanetary spacecraft. The cosmic dust detector registered 17 hits in a 15 minute span on 15 September, part of an apparent micrometeoroid shower which temporarily changed the spacecraft attitude and probably slightly damaged the thermal shield. On 7 December the gas supply in the attitude control system was exhausted, and on December 10 and 11 a total of 83 micrometeoroid hits were recorded which caused perturbation of the attitude and degradation of the signal strength. On 21 December 1967 communications with Mariner 4 were terminated.

    Results

    The total data returned by the mission was 5.2 million bits. All experiments operated successfully with the exception of the ionization chamber/Geiger counter which failed in February, 1965 and the plasma probe, which had its performance degraded by a resistor failure on 6 December 1964. The images returned showed a Moon-like cratered terrain (which later missions showed was not typical for Mars, but only for the more ancient region imaged by Mariner 4). A surface atmospheric pressure of 4.1 to 7.0 mb was estimated and no magnetic field was detected.


1965 November 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Last Thor/Agena launch from Vandenberg AFB - . Nation: USA. Summary: Last Thor/Agena launch from Vandenberg AFB (first mission on 28 February 1959)..

1966 November 28 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3P-378.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 November 28 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3P-389.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1966 November 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-02.
  • Cosmos 133 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK (A) s/n 2. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1966-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2601 . COSPAR: 1966-107A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First test flight of Soyuz 7K-OK earth orbit spacecraft. A planned 'all up' test, with a second Soyuz to be launched the following day and automatically dock with Kosmos 133. This was to be followed by a manned link-up in December 1966. However Kosmos 133's attitude control system malfunctioned, resulting in rapid consumption of orientation fuel, leaving it spinning at 2 rpm. After heroic efforts by ground control and five attempts at retrofire over two days, the craft was finally brought down for a landing on its 33rd revolution. However due to the inaccuracy of the reentry burn, it was determined that the capsule would land in China. The APO self destruct system detected the course deviation and the destruct charge of several dozen kilogrammes of explosive was thought to have destroyed the ship on November 30, 1966 at 10:21 GMT. But stories persisted over the years of the Chinese having a Soyuz capsule in their possession....

1966 November 28 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA8. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Sparta. LV Configuration: SPARTA ?/SV-1. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Sparta SV-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1967 November 28 - . 05:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1968 November 28 - .
  • Soyuz 4 / 5 spacecraft begin preparation - . Nation: USSR. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Soyuz spacecraft 12 and 13 have begun their 45 day preparation cycle at Baikonur, which implies a 15 January 1969 launch for he Soyuz 4/5 mission. The crews will be ready by 25 December.

    Kamanin compares the results of Soyuz capsule re-entries to date:

    Soyuz s/n 7 8 9 10 11
    Max G's 3.15 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
    
    SA Propellant, kg 40.0 40.0 40.0 38.0 38.0
    Propellant usage:
    Used Pre-reentry, kg 8.5 10.0 2.0 3.0 5.3
    Used in Re-entry, kg 17.5 29.0 3.7 9.5 12.5
    Total 26.0 39.0 5.7 12.5 17.8
    Left at chute opening, kg 14.0 0.0 34.3 25.8 20.2
    
    Miss distance, km 157 55 40 15 42
    

1968 November 28 - . 18:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Aero High. LV Configuration: Aero High AH1007.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 November 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 245-01. FAILURE: First stage malfunction.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1 - first stage malfunction - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1. Mass: 10,380 kg (22,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1E. Decay Date: 1969-11-16 . COSPAR: F691128A. Attempted test flight of Block D upper stage in N1 lunar crasher configuration. Payload was a modified Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions. Mission flown successfully over a year later as Cosmos 382.

1970 November 28 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5V.
  • Vertikal-1 Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 468 km (290 mi).

1972 November 28 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Launched from White Sea Launch Area, Beloye More, Archangel'sk Oblast' - Latitude: 65.50 N - Longitude: 38.00 E..

1972 November 28 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: PLBR. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Vysota.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Launched from White Sea Launch Area, Beloye More, Archangel'sk Oblast' - Latitude: 65.50 N - Longitude: 38.00 E..

1972 November 28 - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1973 November 28 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 611 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 64. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1974-06-20 . Decay Date: 1974-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6952 . COSPAR: 1973-094A. Apogee: 480 km (290 mi). Perigee: 269 km (167 mi). Inclination: 70.1000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1973 November 28 - . 11:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 612 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1973-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 6953 . COSPAR: 1973-095A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1973 November 28 - . 22:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • D-75MG - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1974 November 28 - . LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5M.
  • Ballistic missile warheads no longer stored separately from missiles - . Nation: USSR. From 1972, as the last open-pad missiles were retired, it was decided to mount all warheads on the silo-based missiles in instant readiness for launch. Its operational tasks finished, the 12th Directorate was placed under the Ministry of Defence. In its place the RSVN created a Sixth Directorate for security of nuclear weapons.

1974 November 28 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 6 AC SL911.
  • Echelle spectrograph Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1975 November 28 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53721-252.
  • Cosmos 783 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 8458 . COSPAR: 1975-112A. Apogee: 797 km (495 mi). Perigee: 779 km (484 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 100.60 min.

1975 November 28 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P152H.
  • Electron density Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1975 November 28 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P151H.
  • Atomic oxygen Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 147 km (91 mi).

1975 November 28 - . 23:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Parry. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B. LV Configuration: Black Brant IVB AEC-IVA-04.
  • Periquito Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRCC; Sandia. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1976 November 28 - .
  • Complete orbiter transporter strongback - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1977 November 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 November 28 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1050 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-12-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 11121 . COSPAR: 1978-108A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 November 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1980 November 28 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: MSBS. Launch Vehicle: MSBS M4. LV Configuration: MSBS M4 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1980 November 28 - . 03:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. LV Configuration: Nike Orion DLR A-NO-103.
  • EBC-A Ferdinand 56 Trinom Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1981 November 28 - . 18:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65093-121.
  • Cosmos 1320 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 225. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12975 . COSPAR: 1981-116A. Apogee: 1,635 km (1,015 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.30 min. Summary: Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 1322 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 227. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12977 . COSPAR: 1981-116C. Apogee: 1,629 km (1,012 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.20 min.
  • Cosmos 1321 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 226. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12976 . COSPAR: 1981-116B. Apogee: 1,632 km (1,014 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.20 min.
  • Cosmos 1324 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 229. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12979 . COSPAR: 1981-116E. Apogee: 1,620 km (1,000 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1327 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 232. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12982 . COSPAR: 1981-116H. Apogee: 1,604 km (996 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 116.90 min.
  • Cosmos 1325 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 230. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12980 . COSPAR: 1981-116F. Apogee: 1,617 km (1,004 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.10 min.
  • Cosmos 1326 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 231. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12981 . COSPAR: 1981-116G. Apogee: 1,611 km (1,001 mi). Perigee: 1,481 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.00 min.
  • Cosmos 1323 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 228. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 12978 . COSPAR: 1981-116D. Apogee: 1,625 km (1,009 mi). Perigee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 117.20 min.

1983 November 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-9.
  • STS-9 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Garriott; Lichtenberg; Merbold; Parker; Shaw; Young. Payload: Columbia F06 / Spacelab 1 Pallet. Mass: 15,088 kg (33,263 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Garriott; Lichtenberg; Merbold; Parker; Shaw; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-9. Spacecraft: Columbia. Duration: 10.32 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116A. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi). Perigee: 241 km (149 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Carried ESA Spacelab. Payloads: Payload: Spacelab-1 experiments, habitable Spacelab and pallet, carried 71 experiments. The six-man crew was divided into two 12-hour-day red and blue teams to operate experiments. First high-inclination orbit of 57 degrees.
  • Spacelab 1 Pallet - . Payload: SL 1 PLT. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116xx. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.
  • Spacelab 1 - . Payload: SL 1 LM. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Spacelab. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space laboratory. Spacecraft: Spacelab. Decay Date: 1983-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14523 . COSPAR: 1983-116xx. Apogee: 239 km (148 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min.

1984 November 28 - . 21:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1985 November 28 - . 13:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47122-346.
  • Cosmos 1704 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 16291 . COSPAR: 1985-110A. Apogee: 1,007 km (625 mi). Perigee: 962 km (597 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1598..

1986 November 28 - . 13:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1988 November 28 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 DLR K-GR-161.
  • TEXUS 19 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1989 November 28 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 3-36 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 46. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2000-05-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20338 . COSPAR: 1989-094A. Apogee: 39,655 km (24,640 mi). Perigee: 698 km (433 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. .

1989 November 28 - .
1990 November 28 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 736. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • DASO-5 demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 November 28 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2106 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 69. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 2000-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 20966 . COSPAR: 1990-104A. Apogee: 469 km (291 mi). Perigee: 458 km (284 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 93.90 min. Summary: Released 27 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1991 November 28 - .
  • DMSP 5D-2 F11 - . Nation: USA. Program: DMSP. USAF Sat Cat: 37585 . COSPAR: 1991-082CR. Apogee: 839 km (521 mi). Perigee: 816 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.7000 deg. Period: 101.50 min.

1991 November 28 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M2 15A18M.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 November 28 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 53E / Star-37S-ISS.
  • USA 73 - . Payload: DMSP S-12/Star 37S S/N 15029. Mass: 830 kg (1,820 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DMSP. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: DMSP Block 5D-2. USAF Sat Cat: 21798 . COSPAR: 1991-082A. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 835 km (518 mi). Inclination: 99.0000 deg. Period: 101.80 min. Summary: Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. 500th Atlas launch..

1992 November 28 - . 21:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 404A. LV Configuration: Titan 404A K-3 (45J-1).
  • USA 86 - . Mass: 19,600 kg (43,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; CIA. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Improved Crystal. Decay Date: 2000-06-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 22251 . COSPAR: 1992-083A. Apogee: 911 km (566 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Summary: Optical reconnaisance satellite built for the US National Reconnaissance Office..

1993 November 28 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. LV Configuration: Atlas II AC-106 / Centaur II 8106.
  • USA 97 - . Payload: DSCS III B-10. Mass: 2,615 kg (5,765 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: DSCS. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: DSCS III. USAF Sat Cat: 22915 . COSPAR: 1993-074A. Apogee: 35,501 km (22,059 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 26.4000 deg. Period: 625.40 min. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with GCS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 52 deg W in 1995; 60 deg E in 1997. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1995 November 28 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Vehicle: Maxus. LV Configuration: Maxus MAXUS 2.
  • Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: SSC; DLR. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi).

1995 November 28 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-6 (38).
  • Asiasat 2 - . Mass: 3,485 kg (7,683 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Asiasat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Asiasat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 7000. USAF Sat Cat: 23723 . COSPAR: 1995-064A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.4000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. TV; 24 C-band and 9 Ku-band transponders. Stationed at 100.5 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 100 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 100.49 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 100.49E drifting at 0.011W degrees per day.

1996 November 28 - .
  • Death of Cai Jintao - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Cai Jintao. Summary: Chinese Engineer. Chinese communications and telemetry systems engineer..

2001 November 28 - .
2001 November 28 - .
  • Death of Gleb Yevgenyevich Lozino-Lozinskiy - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Lozino-Lozinskiy. Summary: Russian Chief Designer of spaceplanes, headed NPO Molniya 1976-2001. Developed the Buran space shuttle and MAKS spaceplane. Earlier had headed the Spiral spaceplane project at MiG 1965-1976..

2002 November 28 - . 05:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Anhueng. LV Family: KSR. Launch Vehicle: KSR-III. LV Configuration: KSR-I-1.
  • KSR-III Launch Vehicle Technology Test / Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Korea South. Agency: KARI. Apogee: 43 km (26 mi). The rocket reached 42 km altitude and a speed of 902 meters per second. It impacted in the West Sea 85 km from the coastal launch site, 231 seconds after launch. In preparation for the launch, KARI and related agencies successfully carried out ignition tests in May and August.

2002 November 28 - . 06:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53779-802.
  • ALSAT-1 - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Algeria. Agency: NCST. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Alsat. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: MicroSat-100. USAF Sat Cat: 27559 . COSPAR: 2002-054A. Apogee: 745 km (462 mi). Perigee: 681 km (423 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 99.00 min. Delayed from September 12, October 29. ALSAT 1 was an Algerian imaging minisatellite. The 90-kg satellite was the first part of an international Disaster Monitoring System (DMS) for alerting natural/man-made disasters. ALSAT was built by Surrey Satellite for the CNTS (Centre National des Techniques Spatiales) in Algiers. It carriee a 32-m resolution 3-band imager, a 100 mN resistojet thruster for small orbit corrections, and a GPS receiver. The SSTL Microsat-100 class satellite was a 0.60m cube with a 6m gravity gradient boom. As well as gravity gradient stabilization, it used a momentum wheel to improve stability for imaging.
  • Mozhaets - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NCST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 27560 . COSPAR: 2002-054B. Apogee: 746 km (463 mi). Perigee: 683 km (424 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Delayed from September 12, October 29. Mozhaets was a Russian experimental, 90-kg minisatellite. It was designed and built by the cadets and teachers of a military space academy to learn about spacecraft operations. It may have been based on the Strela-1M small communications satellite bus. It included a GLONASS/GPS receiver, a particle detector, and an amateur radio payload.
  • Rubin-3-DSI - . Mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NCST. Manufacturer: Polyot; Bremen. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 27561 . COSPAR: 2002-054C. Apogee: 748 km (464 mi). Perigee: 687 km (426 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 99.10 min. Delayed from September 12, October 29. Rubin-3-DSI, with a mass of 45 kg, was built by PO Polyot of Omsk (builders of the Kosmos-3M) and OHB System of Bremen. It remained attached to the booster final stage and measured the launch vehicle environment and performance

2003 November 28 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: SvalRak. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Nike Orion. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ICI-1 Plasma mission - . Nation: Norway. Agency: NDRE. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

2007 November 28 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 11/28/07 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love; Malenchenko; Tani; Whitson. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1. FE-2 Dan Tani continued servicing the CSLM-2 (Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures 2) experiment on its second session.

    (The FE-2 configured the hardware to allow the ground to perform ground commanding to the MLC (Microgravity Science Glovebox Laptop Computer) for diagnostic testing and to develop recovery steps for the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) to be reprogrammed correctly.)

    FE-1 Yuri Malenchenko performed a thorough 2-hr. troubleshooting inspection & verification of the connections of the Russian segment's Onboard Cabling System (BKS) to the FGB's Thermal Control System (SOTR). (Using the Nikon D200 digital camera, Yuri documented the SOTR layout behind panel 215 and checked connector pins for dirt or misalignment.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 11/28/07.


2008 November 28 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Bulava. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
2009 November 28 - . 01:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. LV Family: H-2. Launch Vehicle: H-IIA 202. LV Configuration: H-IIA 202 s/n F16.
  • IGS O-3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: Mitsubishi. Spacecraft: IGS. USAF Sat Cat: 36104 . COSPAR: 2009-066A. Summary: Information Gathering Satellite, an optical surveillance satellite operated by Japan's Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center..

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