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Molniya 8K78M-PVB
Part of R-7 Family
Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Molniya 8K78M with safety modifications to prevent and resist fires in all stages and the upper stage avionics compartment. These were incorporated as a result of the 18 March 1980 disaster at Plesetsk, when the launch vehicle exploded, killing 18 and putting the pad out of commission for three years.

Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1990-04-28. Last Launch: 1992-12-02. Number: 10 .

The disaster review board requested changes to equipment and procedures, especially as regarded liquid oxygen handling. Reportedly the explosion occurred during the fuelling of the Block E upper stage, and was due to hydrogen peroxide being present in a lox line filter and a confusion between fuel and lox lines.


More at: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.

Country: Russia. Spacecraft: Oko, Molniya-3. Launch Sites: Plesetsk LC43/4, Plesetsk LC43/3, Plesetsk LC16/2.

1990 April 28 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2076 - . Payload: Oko #63. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20596 . COSPAR: 1990-040A. Apogee: 34,572 km (21,482 mi). Perigee: 5,748 km (3,571 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 277 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 June 21 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB. FAILURE: Fourth stage failure.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Cosmos 2084 - . Payload: Oko #64. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1990-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20663 . COSPAR: 1990-055A. Apogee: 666 km (413 mi). Perigee: 582 km (361 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Launched into an erroneous orbit. There was no communication with the satellite. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 115 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 July 25 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2087 - . Payload: Oko #65. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20707 . COSPAR: 1990-064A. Apogee: 36,991 km (22,985 mi). Perigee: 3,357 km (2,085 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Replaced Cosmos 2084. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 117 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 August 28 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2097 - . Payload: Oko #66. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2014-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 20767 . COSPAR: 1990-076A. Apogee: 37,021 km (23,003 mi). Perigee: 3,383 km (2,102 mi). Inclination: 66.5000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 357 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 November 20 - . 02:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2105 - . Payload: Oko #67. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2008-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20941 . COSPAR: 1990-099A. Apogee: 38,453 km (23,893 mi). Perigee: 1,936 km (1,202 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 718.50 min. Covered Oko constellation planes 3/4 - 12 degree longitude of ascending node..

1992 July 8 - . 09:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2196 - . Payload: Oko #69. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2016-09-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 22017 . COSPAR: 1992-040A. Apogee: 36,915 km (22,937 mi). Perigee: 3,433 km (2,133 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 75 degree longitude of ascending node..

1992 October 14 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Molniya 3-42 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 50. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 22178 . COSPAR: 1992-067A. Apogee: 38,190 km (23,730 mi). Perigee: 2,167 km (1,346 mi). Inclination: 64.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .

1992 October 21 - . 10:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2217 - . Payload: Oko #70. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2010-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 22189 . COSPAR: 1992-069A. Apogee: 36,700 km (22,800 mi). Perigee: 3,642 km (2,263 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 717.50 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 8 - 201 degree longitude of ascending node..

1992 November 25 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Cosmos 2222 - . Payload: Oko #71. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 22238 . COSPAR: 1992-081A. Apogee: 35,026 km (21,764 mi). Perigee: 5,330 km (3,310 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 270 degree longitude of ascending node..

1992 December 2 - . 01:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M-PVB.
  • Molniya 3-43 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 56. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft Bus: KAUR-2. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2008-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22255 . COSPAR: 1992-085A. Apogee: 39,109 km (24,301 mi). Perigee: 1,169 km (726 mi). Inclination: 64.2000 deg. Period: 716.20 min. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. .


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