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Topol'

Topol

Topol

Russian containerized all-solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos.

AKA: 15Zh58;RS-12M;RT-2PM;Sickle;SS-25 Mod 1 and 2. Status: Active. First Launch: 1981-09-29. Last Launch: 2016-10-12. Number: 111 . Payload: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 890.00 kN (200,070 lbf). Gross mass: 45,100 kg (99,400 lb). Height: 21.50 m (70.50 ft). Diameter: 1.80 m (5.90 ft). Span: 1.80 m (5.90 ft). Location: Moscow, Russian Federation. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

Nadiradze at MIT began study of mobile ICBM in 1975. This would considered absolutely necessary since increasing US missile accuracy was making silo-based ICBM's vulnerable to a first strike. In response a government decree of 19 July 1976 ordered development of the Topol ICBM. Development of this all-solid propellant design would be continued by Boris Lapygin after Nadiradze's death Guidance was designed by Pilyugin at NPO AP. Launch from the mobile transports was controlled from a separate mobile command post. The first launch on 27 October 1982 was a failure. The second on 8 February 1983 was successful, travelling 6430 km from Plesetsk to the impact zone in Kamchatka. The first four launches, two of them unsuccessful, were conducted from a test silo originally built for the RT-2P. Trials of the RT-2PM version capable of dispensing 3 to 4 MIRV's began on 30 May 1983. The first test series was completed in December 1984, but many reliability problems had been identified. Further test series were required and the missile not finally accepted by the military until 1 December 1988. Throughout this process severe 'maskirova' (concealment and deception) measures were used to confuse the Americans as to the nature and status of development and deployment of the missile.

Despite the problems with the first test series the threat was considered so urgent that the Votkinsk Factory was ordered to begin series production in December 1984. The missile was deployed in rocket divisions of 4 to 5 regiments, each regiment with nine mobile launchers and one mobile command vehicle. The first provisional regiment became operational on 23 July 1985 at Yoshkar-Ola. This was followed by replacement of silo-based UR-100's by RT-2PM's at Teikovo. Deployment of the mobile version extended to Nizhniy Tagil on 28 April 1987. This was the first site to use the Baryev redundant multi-channel radio command link between the control points and the missile launchers. On 27 May 1988 a regiment began operations at Irkutsk with the improved Granit command point featuring a completely automated guidance system update. By 1991 288 launchers had been built, and deployment peaked at 386 in 1997. Rocket divisions were provided with the RT-2PM at Barnaul, Nizhniy Tagil, Bologoye, Yoshkar-Ola, Teikovo, Yurya, Novosibirsk, Kansk, Irkutsk , and Drovyanaya. Nine regiments with 81 launchers had been deployed to Lida, Mozyr, and Pruzhany in Belarus, but were moved back to Russia from 13 August 1990 to 27 November 1996. By 1999 there were 360 launchers in ten divisions. 57 missiles were test fired from Plesetsk to the end of the century, without a single failure of an operational missile.

The missile featured much new technology, including a new high energy, high density solid propellant in the first stage. A new countermeasure system was designed to confuse enemy defenses. The missile could be launched at any time within two minutes, whether on the march or from special garage shelters with split roof doors. The missile was designed for a two year operational life, later extended based on in-service tests. Surplus ICBM's were marketed as Start and Start-1 space launchers. The first launch of this version took place from Svobodniy in March 1992.

Maximum range: 10,500 km (6,500 mi). Number Standard Warheads: 1. Warhead yield: 550 KT. CEP: 0.21 km (0.13 mi). Boost Propulsion: Solid rocket. Initial Operational Capability: 1985.



Subtopics

Perimetr-RTs Ukrainian strategic communications missile. 15Zh58A-derived missile replacing 15A11-derived Perimetr.

Topol'-M All-Russian solid propellant ICBM set to replace all older models in the first decade of the 21st Century. Designed for mobile deployment on 8-axis transport-launcher RT-2M2/SS-X-29), or placement in existing UR-100N and R-36M silos (RT-2M1/SS-X-27).

Topol'-M 15Zh55 Null

Bulava Russian solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile, equipped with up to ten multiple independently targeted warheads. The first post-Soviet Russian ballistic missile, it was designed to provide Russia's submarine-launched deterrent by the third decade of the 21st Century.

Yars Russian three stage ICBM.

Rubezh 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x 15Zh58MA + 1 x 15Zh58MB.

Yars 15Zh65M Russian three stage ICBM.

Family: ICBM. People: Nadiradze. Country: Russia. Spacecraft: Oscar, Start satellite, EKA, Gurwin, Ofeq 3, Zeya, Early Bird, Odin, NEAP. Launch Sites: Kapustin Yar, Plesetsk, Plesetsk LC167. Stages: MIHT-1, MIHT-2, MIHT-3. Bibliography: 193, 2, 296, 42, 455, 475, 476, 5, 552, 554, 6.
Photo Gallery

Topol-MTopol-M


ICBM-Derived LVsICBM-Derived LVs
The range of launch vehicles derived from decommissioned ballistic missiles offered for sale by Russia after the cold war.
Credit: © Mark Wade



1981 September 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC167. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • First launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1982 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 February 8 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 May 4 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 May 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 August 10 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1983 Q4? - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 Q3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 October 2 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1984 November 20 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 January 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 April 22 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 June 14 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 August 14 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 August 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 October 4 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 October 24 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1985 December 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1986 Nov - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1987 April 26 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 Jun - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 Jul - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 December 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 29 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 July 5 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 Oct - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 October 27 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 February 28 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 March 29 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 May 21 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 July 31 - . 12:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 8 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Perimetr-RTs.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 August 16 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 October 17 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Perimetr-RTs.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 November 1 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Perimetr-RTs.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 November 27 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 25 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Perimetr-RTs.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1990 December 25 - . 15:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 February 7 - . 08:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 April 5 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 June 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 August 19 - . 22:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1991 October 2 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 February 25 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1993 July 23 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 June 22 - . 08:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 September 23 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 November 10 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1994 December 20 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk Yu-1. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 April 14 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 June 6 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). or 1996 Jun 6?.

1995 September 5 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1995 October 10 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 April 17 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 July 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 October 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1996 November 9 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 July 8 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1997 October 3 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 September 16 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1998 October 22 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km (0 mi).

1998 December 8 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 June 3 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 September 3 - . 11:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 October 1 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1999 December 14 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 February 9 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 September 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 September 27 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC167. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M 15Zh55.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2000 October 11 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 February 16 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 Jul - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • MRV Test Kura - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 October 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2001 November 1 - . 15:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • MRV Test Kura - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Topol ICBM test launched from Plesetsk to Kamchatka..

2002 June 6 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M 15Zh55.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2002 October 12 - . 09:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2003 March 27 - . 09:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 February 18 - . 10:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Kura R&D payload? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Launched during a nationwide military exercise..

2004 April 20 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M 15Zh55.
  • Pacific operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 September 23 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava cold-launch test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Test of naval version of Topol M ICBM. A mass replica of a the new Bulava SLBM reached under 100 m altitude after being launched from the submerged SSBN Dmitry Donskoi..

2004 November 2 - . 09:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol ICBM Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 December 11 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Complex: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava cold-launch test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). A mass replica of a the new Bulava SLBM was ejected from its launch tube from the surfaced SSBN Dmitry Donskoi..

2004 December 24 - . 09:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M 15Zh55.
  • Kura (at 1003) - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2005 September 27 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava SLBM first flight. - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). SLBM Development - first flight of new SLBM. Launched from TK-208 Dmitry Donskoy in the White Sea Launch Area..

2005 November 1 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol M test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

    Evasive Warhead ICBM Test. The missile was said to have entered a lower suborbital trajectory than was standard, and the warhead to have made evasive maneuvers both in space and during re-entry. This was said to give the system an 87% chance of penetrating planned American ballistic missile defence systems.


2005 November 29 - . 07:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • PBS test 1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2005 December 21 - . 05:19 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). First submerged launch of the Bulava SLBM. Hit the designated impact area at Kura in the Kamchatka Peninsula..

2006 August 3 - . 10:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Kura (at 1104) - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2006 September 7 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Bulava SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

2006 October 25 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Bulava SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2006 December 24 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

2007 May 29 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
  • ICBM Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

    First test of a new Russian heavyweight, mobile, solid propellant ICBM. The multiple test warheads were said to have impacted on target 5,500 km down range in the Kura Test Range in the Kamchatka Peninsula. Although development must have been underway for some time, the launch was touted as a reply to American plans to install ABM system elements in the Czech Republic and Poland.


2007 June 28 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava SLBM test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). The warhead impacted on target in the Kamchatka Peninsula. This was the first successful launch after two consecutive failures..

2007 October 18 - . 05:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Kura OT - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 November 10 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava. FAILURE: Failure.
  • R&D - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

2007 December 8 - . 14:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Balkhash - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2007 December 25 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
  • Kura? - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 August 28 - . 10:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Kura R&D payload - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 September 18 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Kura - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 October 12 - . 07:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Kura OT - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2008 November 26 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
2008 November 28 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
2008 December 23 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV-1 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Class: Technology. Type: Technology satellite. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2009 April 10 - . 08:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol Test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Op Test.

2009 July 14 - . Launch Site: North Pole. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Sineva Test - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test.
  • St 1 fail (Kura) - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

2009 December 9 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava. FAILURE: Third stage went into a wild spiral maneuver, creating a tremendous celestial spectacle visible all over Scandinavia.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Bulava test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Failed Bulava launch. Third stage went into a wild spiral maneuver, creating a tremendous celestial spectacle visible all over Scandinavia..

2009 December 10 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol test - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. ICBM test, flew to impact area at Sary Shagan..

2010 October 7 - . 03:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV x 3 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). R&D test..

2010 October 28 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Operational test..

2010 October 29 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: TK-208. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV x 3 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). R&D test..

2010 December 5 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission, impacting in Sary Shagan range..

2011 June 28 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV x 6 - . Nation: Russia. Operational test; from the White Sea to the Kura test range in Kamchatka. This was the first launch from the new 955-class submarine K-535 Yuri Dolgorukiy..

2011 August 27 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV x 6 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Launched from the White Sea to an impact point in the Pacific Ocean..

2011 September 3 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission, launched from Plesetsk to the Kamchatka peninsula impact area..

2011 September 27 - . 07:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Rubezh. FAILURE: Failed at a few kilometers altitude. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi). Test mission of a new Russian ICBM type, launched from Plesetsk but failed at a few kilometers altitude..
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

2011 October 28 - . 03:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava test - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Launched from the White Sea to the Kura range..

2011 November 3 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol test - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Launched from Plesetsk to the Kura range..

2011 December 23 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava test - . Nation: Russia. Salvo test into Kura test range..

2011 December 23 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava test - . Nation: Russia. Salvo test into Kura test range..

2012 May 23 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Rubezh.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2012 June 7 - . 17:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Operational test mission..

2012 October 19 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • RV - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Operational test mission..

2012 October 24 - . 18:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Rubezh.
  • Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2013 June 6 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Rubezh.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

    R&D launch. New-generation Rubezh ('Frontier') missile, most likely impacting the Balkash test range at Sary Shagan. The new missile is suspected to be a derivative of the existing Topol solid fuel series of missiles; earlier launches were in September 2011 and May and October 2012.


2013 September 6 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: K-550. Launch Platform: K-550. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • Bulava RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Bulava missile launch from the submarine K-550 Aleksandr Nevskiy; meant to fly from the White Sea to the Kura range in Kamchatka, but the second stage failed..

2013 October 10 - . 13:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Experimental RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

    Flew an experimental reentry vehicle on a Topol launch from Kapustin Yar to the Balkash range at Sary Shagan on; the launch was observed by Mike Hopkins on board the ISS, orbiting several thousand km to the southeast. Ejecta in an upper stage rocket plume of some kind were illuminated by the Sun making an easily visible cloud.


2013 October 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol' RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Launched from Plesetsk to Kura. One of a series of missiles launched on the same day as part of a large scale Russian military exercise..

2013 December 24 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars 15Zh65M.
  • Yars RV-1 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Missile test.

2013 December 27 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol' RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Missile test.

2014 March 4 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol' RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Missile test.

2014 April 14 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
  • Yars RV x 4? - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Missile test. Four warheads launched towards the Kura impact zone (in Kamchatka)..

2014 May 8 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol' RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Military Exercise.

2014 May 20 - . 17:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol'-E RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Missile test.

2014 September 10 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-551. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test flight..

2014 October 29 - . 17:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RVs - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Bulava missile test flight from the Yuri Dolgorukiy submarine in the Barents Sea; multiple reentry vehicles flew a suborbital trajectory to the Kura target range in Kamchatka..

2014 November 1 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test flight..

2014 November 28 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-550. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RVs - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test flight..

2014 December 26 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
  • RV x 4? - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test flight..

2015 March 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Rubezh.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test flight..

2015 August 22 - . 15:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol'-E RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Test mission. Impacted Sary Shagan..

2015 October 28 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Yars.
  • 4 RVs - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted Kura, Kamchatka..

2015 October 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol RV - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted Kura, Kamchatka..

2015 November 14 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-155. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Type: Test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted in Kura, Kamchatka..
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Type: Test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted in Kura, Kamchatka..

2015 November 17 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol'-E RV - . Nation: Russia. Type: Reentry test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Reentry test mission. Impacted in Sary Shagan..

2015 December 24 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • Topol'-E RV? - . Nation: Russia. Type: Reentry test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Reentry test mission. Impacted in Sary Shagan..
  • Topol'-E RV? - . Nation: Russia. Type: Reentry test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Reentry test mission. Impacted in Sary Shagan..

2016 September 9 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Type: Test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted in Kura, Kamchatka..

2016 September 27 - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Type: Test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted in Kura, Kamchatka..

2016 October 12 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Vehicle: Topol'.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Type: Test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted in Kura..

2017 January 16 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol'. Launch Vehicle: Topol'-M.
  • RV - . Nation: Russia. Type: Test. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Test mission. Impacted in Kura..


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