Encyclopedia Astronautica
A



A.

A.

  • Complex of V-1000 anti-ballistic missile.

A.

  • Apollo (mission designator)

A Brief History of the HARP Project.

  • Richard K Graf's account of the Canadian 1960's project to launch satellites from a 16 inch gun...

A I Polyarniy.

A M Bondaryuk.

A M Isayev.

A M Lyulka (NPO Saturn).

A Rocket a Day Keeps the High Costs Away.

  • John Walker's classic 'modest proposal' to reduce launch costs.

A&A.

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

A/P 22S-2.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1960. The David Clark XMC-2-DC prototype, although still in need of substantial development, evolved into the MC-2 suit and then into a standardized Air Force high altitude, full pressure garment known as the A/P 22S-2.

A/P 22S-3.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1960. USAF version of the USN Mark IV suit (B. F. Goodrich and Arrow Rubber Company). Full pressure, two layers, oxygen regulator exterior of helmet, 12 torso sizes, 7 gloves sizes, 2 helmet sizes.

A/P22S-4.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1967. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-2, 8 sizes for use in bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. Evolved from the original MC-2 design.

A/P22S-6.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1975. Full pressure suit replacement for the A/P22S-4. 12 sizes, for bomber, reconnaissance and fighter aircraft.

A/P22S-6A.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1975. Modified A/P22S-6 suit to add urine collection device with other material and hardware changes.

A1.

  • German test vehicle. First in series of rockets leading to V-2. Exploded at Kummersdorf during a test run. Considered aerodynamically unstable (a stabilising flywheel was mounted forward) and no launch attempts were made.

A-1.

A-1 (R-1).

  • Single stage vehicle.

A-10.

  • Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,043/16,993 kg. Thrust 2,306.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds.

A-10.

  • Thiel Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 2306.8 kN. Study 1942. Planned for use in A-10. Unique dual-thrust chamber / single nozzle design, which was later shown to be not feasible technically. Isp=247s.

A-11.

  • Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 13,841.38 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. Masses estimated; dimensions scaled from drawing.

A12.

A-12.

  • Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,500,000/350,000 kg. Thrust 98,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. All values estimated.

A-135.

  • Complex of 51T6 and 53T6 anti-ballistic missiles.

A-135.

  • Two-tier Russian anti-ballistic missile system for the defence of Moscow, with both endoatmospheric and exoatmospheric interceptor missiles. After protracted development, the system was said to have gone into operation in 1995.

A-135.

  • Two-tier Russian anti-ballistic missile system for the defence of Moscow, with both endoatmospheric and exoatmospheric interceptor missiles. After protracted development, the system was said to have gone into operation in 1995.

A1C.

  • American space suit, tested 1965. For the initial Block I Apollo missions a modification of the Gemini G4C suit was to have been flown. After the death of the Apollo 1 crew on the pad, Block I missions were cancelled and the suit never flew.

A1P-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 8,300 kg (18,298 lb).

A1P-1.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1.

A1P-2.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 2.

A2.

  • German test vehicle. First flight test rocket in the series that led to the V-2. Two were built, dubbed Max and Moritz. Both were successfully flown.

A-2.

A2100.

  • Alternate designation for AS 2100 communications satellite.

A-2e.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Molniya 8K78M orbital launch vehicle.

A-2-e.

  • Library of Congress Designation of Molniya 8K78 orbital launch vehicle.

A2P-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 10,100 kg (22,267 lb).

A2P-1.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1.

A3.

  • German test vehicle. The A3 was the first large rocket attempted by Wernher von Braun's rocket team. It was equipped with an ambitious guidance package consisting of three gyroscopes and two integrating accelerometers. The rocket was intended as a subscale prototype for the propulsion and control system technology planned for the much larger A4. All of the launches were failures, and a total redesign, the A5, was developed.

A-35.

  • Complex of A-350Zh anti-ballistic missile.

A-35.

  • First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972.

A-35.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972.

A-350.

  • Alternate designation for A-350R missile.

A-350 Booster.

  • SKB-350 N2O4/UDMH rocket engine.

A-350 Sustainer.

  • SKB-350 N2O4/UDMH rocket engine.

A-350-1.

  • N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

A-350-2.

  • N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

A-350R.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Radiation-hardened version of the A-350.

A-350Zh.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Initial version of the A-350 missile.

A-350Zh, A-350R.

  • Missile article number for A-35 missile.

A-350Zh-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

A-350Zh-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

A-35M.

  • Complex of A-350R anti-ballistic missile.

A-35M.

  • Russian anti-ballistic missile. Improved version of the A-35 with radiation-hardened missiles and command centres, improved radars, and capability against tactical missiles fired from Europe against Moscow. Went into operation in 1978.

A3P-1.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. Polaris stage 1.

A3P-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 11,100 kg (24,471 lb).

A4.

  • Manufacturer's designation for V-2 short range ballistic missile.

A4.

  • The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today. It was ineffective as a weapon of war, but represented a quantum leap in technology. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets.

A-4.

  • German production version.

A-4.

  • Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,805/4,008 kg. Thrust 311.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 239 seconds. V-2 production version.

A-4.

  • Thiel Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 311.8 kN. Isp=239s. Used on V-2 missile. Work began June 1936. Interim design, but went into production. Used 18 x 1.5 tonne thrust chambers, feeding common mixing chamber. Tested from 1939, mass production 1943-1945.

A4b.

  • German intermediate range boost-glide missile. Winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. The A4b designation was used to disguise work on the prohibited A9 program.

A4H.

  • American space suit, tested 1963. ILC Dover and Hamilton Standard full pressure suit, Contained a secondary bladder and restraint with a wrist cuff/dam for NASA/HSD (1963-1964), modified A4H suit for NASA-AMES (1964-1965).

A5.

  • German test vehicle. Subscale test model of A4 (V-2). Replaced the A3 in this role after its unsuccessful test series. The A5 used the same powerplant as the A3, but had the aerodynamic form of the A4 and a new control system. 25 all-up versions were flown, some several times.

A6.

  • German intermediate range cruise missile. The A6 designation was applied to a version of the A5 subscale V-2 using alternate propellants. It also seems to have been applied to a manned, ramjet-powered version of the A9 winged V-2.

A-6.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 414.3 kN. Out of production. Isp=265s. Used on Redstone launch vehicle. First flight 1953. Developed from the XLR43-NA-1, an American version of the V-2 single-chamber engine tested in 1945.

A6-12.

  • Dushkin rocket engine. 39 kN. V-600. Developed 1955-62. Thrust variable 1500 - 4000 kgf.

A7.

  • German test vehicle. Subscale test model of the A9 rocket. Considered for use as a weapon as well.

A-7.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Hydyne rocket engine. 416.2 kN. Out of Production. Version of Redstone engine for Jupiter-C test vehicle, with Hydyne fuel and 140 seconds burn time. Flew 1956-1959. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust 370 kN at sea level. Isp=265s.

A7L.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1968. Hamilton Standard had overall development responsibility for the Apollo suit and associated portable life support system. A subcontract was awarded to International Latex Corporation for development of this suit.

A8.

  • German cruise missile. Planned stretched version of the V-2 with storable propellants. Never reached the hardware stage, but design continued after the war in France as the 'Super V-2'.

A9.

  • Alternate designation for A4b intermediate range boost-glide missile.

A9.

  • German manned rocketplane. Study 1944. Manned, winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. It would have been capable of delivering express cargo 600 km from the launch point within 17 minutes.

A-9.

  • Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,259/3,000 kg. Thrust 288.68 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. Winged version.

A-9.

  • Thiel Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 288.7 kN. Single chamber engine for V-2 series C, A9. Tested 1942-45. Isp=255s. Never went into production in Germany, but formed the basis for successful post-war American and French rocket engines.

A9/A10.

  • German intercontinental boost-glide missile. The A9/A10 was the world's first practical design for a transatlantic ballistic missile. Design of the two stage missile began in 1940 and first flight would have been in 1946. Work on the A9/A10 was prohibited after 1943 when all efforts were to be spent on perfection and production of the A4 as a weapon-in-being. Von Braun managed to continue some development and flight tests of the A9 under the cover name of A4b (i.e. a modification of the A4, and therefore a production-related project). In late 1944 work on the A9/A10 resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, but no significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b in January 1945.

A9/A10/A11.

  • German winged orbital launch vehicle. The A11 was planned at Peenemuende to use the A9/A10 transoceanic missile atop the tubby A11 stage to form the basis for launching the first earth satellite - or as an ICBM....

A9/A10/A11/A12.

  • German orbital launch vehicle. The A12 has been named as the designation for a true orbital launch vehicle, as sketched out at Peenemuende. It would have been a four-stage vehicle consisting of the A9+A10+A11+A12 stages. Caluclation suggest it could have placed 10 tonnes into low earth orbit.

A-925.

  • Alternate designation for 51T6 anti-ballistic missile.

A-925-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

A-925-2.

  • N2O4/UDMH rocket stage.

A9L.

  • American space suit, tested 1969. Two hard-shell, constant-volume suits entered development for the Apollo Applications Program.

AABS.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 17.779 kN. Aerospike Annular Booster and Sustainer. Pressure-fed. Booster thrust 3000 to 4000 lb vac; sustainer 1500-2000 lb vac, 257 sec specific impulse. Isp=285s.

AACB Class 1.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1965-1966 NASA and the Department of Defense jointly studied two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicles as a follow-on to existing expendable launchers. Following review of the three classes of alternative approaches, it was recommended that the immediate goal of the United States should be development of a partially reusable 'Class I' launch vehicle, which could be available by 1975 and would be competitive with existing expendable boosters. A fully reusable vehicle should only be pursued at a later date.

AACB Class 2.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The AACB Class II launch vehicle was a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Both stages would be lifting bodies and be powered by Lox/LH2 engines. The system would be operational by 1978 and place 9,100 kg of payload in orbit.

AACB Class 3.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The AACB Class III launch vehicle was an advanced concept use air-breathing stages, but still requiring two stages to achieve orbit. The joint NASA/USAF panel concluded that the technology did not yet exist to develop this concept, so it was only regarded as an option by 1982 at the earliest.

AADC.

  • AADC.

Aalborg.

  • Danish agency. University of Aalborg, Aalborg, Denmark.

AAO.

  • Anglo-Australian Observatory

AAP.

  • Apollo Applications Program

AAPO.

  • Apollo Applications Program Office

AAS.

  • American Astronautical Society

AAUSat.

  • Danish gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. University of Aalborg nanosat; carried a gamma ray burst detector for the Danish National Space Center.

AAVSO.

  • American Association of Variable Star Observers

Abbey.

  • Abbey, George Washington Sherman (1932-) American engineer, headed NASA space shuttle operations and astronaut selection 1976-2003; focus of tremendous staff demoralization. For some reason beloved by upper management, surviving both Challenger and Columbia disasters.

Abbott.

  • Abbott, Ira H (1906-1988) American aerodynamicist, at NASA 1929-1962; supervised the X-15, supersonic transport, nuclear rocket, and advanced reentry programs.

Abdali.

  • Pakistani single-stage solid propellant tactical ballistic missile. Indigenous Pakistani design, developed by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO).

Aberporth.

  • The Aberporth military test range is located on Cardigan Bay on the west coast of Wales. It already became associated with solid rocket tests during the Second World War. Development of surface-to-air missiles began there in 1948 and tests were made of re-entry and high-speed aircraft shapes in the 1960's. Due to the military nature of the site, the only sounding rocket launches have been to support military test operations. These included 40 known launches from 1959 to 1972.

ABL Snark JATO.

  • Hercules solid rocket engine.

ablation.

  • The removal of surface material from a body by vaporization, melting chipping, or other erosive process; specifically, the intentional removal of surface matter from a reentry body during high-speed movement through a planetary atmosphere to protect the remaining body from the heat generated by friction.

Able.

  • Alternate designation for Delta A rocket stage.

Able.

  • Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,884/429 kg. Thrust 34.69 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds. Engine for Vanguard was AJ10-37; for later Able models AJ10-41 and AJ10-42. Total of 21 stages built and delivered by Aerojet.

Able-Star.

  • Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,497/599 kg. Thrust 36.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. The Air Force requested increases in the propulsion system capabilities of the original Able upper stage design in an effort to meet their ever-expanding mission requirements. As a result, the stainless steel version of the basic Able engine was selected, and it was uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times (easily done with the stainless steel thrust chamber) - and this configuration was called Ablestar.

ABM.

  • Anti-ballistic missile

ABM Treaty.

  • The text of the ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which limited deployment of anti-ballistic missile systems to two sites in each country.

ABM-1.

  • Department of Defence designation for A-35 and V-1000 anti-ballistic missiles.

ABM-1A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of A-350Zh anti-ballistic missile.

ABM-1B.

  • Department of Defence designation of A-350R missile.

ABM-2.

  • Department of Defence designation of A-35M missile.

ABM-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 53T6 anti-ballistic missile.

ABM-4.

  • Department of Defence Designation of 51T6 anti-ballistic missile.

ABMA.

Abort Stage.

  • Alternate designation for Dynasoar AS manned spacecraft module.

Abrahamson.

  • Abrahamson, James Alan 'Abe' (1933-) American pilot astronaut, 1967-1969. Later Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative

Abramov, Anatoli.

  • Abramov, Anatoli Petrovich (1919-1998) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1966-1980 of Korolev design bureau. Specialised in launch complexes.

ABRES.

  • Advanced Ballistic Re-Entry System Project

ABRIXAS.

  • German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.04.28. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arcsecond resolution.

absorptivity.

  • A property of a material, characterizing its capability to absorb rather than transmit or reflect incident radiant energy.

Acaba.

  • Acaba, Joseph Michael (1967-) Hispanic-American geologist mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on.

Academy of Sciences Group 1 - 1967.

  • Requirement: scientists for lunar landing missions.

Academy of Sciences Group 1 Supplemental - 1968.

  • Requirement: senior scientist to command Academy of Sciences cosmonaut corps.

Academy of Sciences Group 2 - 1980.

  • Requirement: female scientist cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle.

ACC.

  • Air Combat Command

Acceleration.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Acceleration, Bath, Michigan, USA.

ACE.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1997.08.25.

ACES.

  • American space suit, operational 1995. The Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) replaced the Launch/Entry Suit (LES) from 1995 on. The ACES fulfilled the same functions as the LES.

ACES.

  • American anti-ballistic missile. SDIO/BMDO project, follow on to Arrow

ACES.

  • Indonesian agency. Asia Cellular Satellite System, Jakarta, Indonesia.

ACF.

  • French agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Aero Club de France, Paris, France.

Acheron.

  • French solid rocket engine.

Acid/Aniline 4000 Ibf thrust.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Launch thrust 17.6 kN. Development begun December 1946. Engine design and testing

Ackley.

  • Ackley, Robert N 'Bob' (1908-1972) American engineer. Head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program Ackley, son of a violin repairman, was head of Atlas missile testing in the earliest part of the program.

ACRA.

  • Romanian manufacturer of spacecraft. Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association, Romania.

ACRIMSAT.

  • American solar satellite. One launch, 1999.12.21. The NASA ACRIMSAT satellite was managed by JPL, and measured the integrated solar energy output from 0.2 to 2 microns. ACRIMSAT was built by Orbital Sciences.

ACRV.

  • Assured Crew Return Vehicle or Astronaut Crew Rescue Vehicle

ACS.

  • Attitude control system

Active.

  • Category of launch vehicles and spacecraft.

Acton.

  • Acton, Dr Loren Wilber (1936-) American solar physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-F.

Actor.

  • Category of persons.

ACTS.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.09.12. NASA experimental communications; Advanced Communications Technology Satellite.

AD.

  • Air density satellite (Explorer)

Adam.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1957. In early 1958 Wernher von Braun proposed launching an American aboard an Army Redstone on a suborbital mission into space before the end of 1959 at a cost of under $12 million.

Adamchuk.

  • Adamchuk, Nadezhda Ivanyeva (1970-) Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996. Botanist.

Adams.

  • Adams, Michael James 'Mike' (1930-1967) American test pilot astronaut. Died in crash of X-15 Flight 191 when spacecraft went out of control during reentry.

Adamson.

  • Adamson, James Craig 'Jim' (1946-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-28, STS-43. US Army

Adasko.

  • Adasko, Vladimir Iosifiyanovich (1933-1963) Russian engineer. Talented engineer of electro-mechanical systems. Director of VNIIEM, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics in 1991-1993.

ADCOM.

  • Air Defense Command

ADE.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.12.19 (Explorer 19) to 1968.08.08 (Explorer 39). 12 foot diameter. balloon; identical to Explorer 9; atmospheric density studies.

ADEOS.

  • Japanese earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1996.08.17 (ADEOS) and 2002.12.14 (Adeos 2). The polar orbiting ADEOS spacecraft was to perform Earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic remote sensing.

ADFRF.

  • Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, later DFRC, NASA facility

ADI.

  • Italian agency. ADI, Italy.

ADLER.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane-5 derived semi-reusable proposal of 1993. Expendable fuel tanks but recoverable propulsion/avionics module.

ADU.

  • Abort engine unit (Russian abbreviation)

Advanced Composition Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for ACE solar satellite.

Advanced Earth Observation Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ADEOS earth atmosphere satellite.

Advanced Land Observing Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for Daichi civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Advanced Launch System.

  • Alternate designation for ALS heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle.

Advanced Launch System Core.

  • Alternate designation for ALS rocket stage.

Advanced Manned System 1961.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1961. Six crew ballistic re-entry capsule. Orbital escape - abort capability. Mass per crew 548 kg.

Advanced Mariner.

  • American outer planets probe. need summary - see links

Advanced Orion.

  • American military naval signals intelligence and reconnaisance satellite. Highly classified, operational, first launch 1995.05.14.

Advanced Photovoltaic Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for APEX technology satellite.

Advanced Relay TEchnology MISsion.

  • Alternate designation for Artemis communications technology satellite.

Advanced Satellite Launch Vehicle.

  • Full name of ASLV all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

Advanced Scout.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Proposed upgrade of Scout proposed by the University of Rome with two strap-ons from the Ariane 4. Launch would have been from Italy's San Marco platform off Kenya. Further work cancelled in 1993.

Advanced Solid Rocket Motor.

Advanced Solid Rocket Motors.

  • Alternate designation for Shuttle ASRM winged orbital launch vehicle.

Advanced Tiros N.

  • American earth weather satellite. 10 launches, 1983.03.28 (NOAA 8) to 2009.02.06.

Advanced Vela.

  • American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1967.04.28 (Vela 7) to 1970.04.08 (Vela 11).

Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  • Alternate designation for Chandra x-ray astronomy satellite.

Advent.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Advent, Houston, Texas, USA.

AE.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1963.04.03 (Explorer 17) to 1975.11.20 (Explorer 55). Atmospheric research.

AEB.

  • Brazilian agency. Agencia Espacial Brasileira, Brazil.

AEC.

  • American agency overseeing development of rocket engines and rockets. Atomic Energy Commission, USA. Responsible for development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power applications. Became part of the newly-created Department of Energy in 1971.

AEC.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 66.695 kN. Advanced Expander Cycle Engine. Expander regenerator, pump-fed. Isp=481s.

AEC (1945-1971).

  • First Owner of AEC

AEDC.

  • Arnold Engineering Development Center (Air Force test organization and facilities)

AEHF.

  • The Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellite program was the next generation of global, highly secure, survivable communications system for all services of the US Department of Defense, replacing the Milstar series. The first was finally launched three years behind schedule at a cost that had doubled from the original $5 billion estimate.

AEIP.

  • Augmented Engine Improvement Program

Aelita.

  • Soviet Expeditions to the Red Planet

Aelita.

  • Russian infrared astronomy satellite. Cancelled 1982. The Aelita infrared astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation.

AEM.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1978.04.26, HCMM. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; produced thermal maps of atmosphere. Studied dust, liquid droplets in upper atmosphere.

Aeolus.

  • Australian test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aeolus Booster + 1 x Mayfly

Aeolus-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN.

AERCam.

  • American logistics spacecraft. 2 launches, 1997.11.19 (AERCam/Sprint) and (AERCam/Sprint). Remotely guided maneuvering spacecraft to be released and later retrieved from Shuttle or ISS. Purpose: examination of external surface of space vehicles.

Aeritalia.

  • Aeritalia. Italian agency.

AERO.

  • Aeroclub, France

Aero Dyne.

  • American manufacturer of rocket engines. Aero Dyne, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Aero High.

  • Australian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Gosling IV + 1 x Vela

Aero High-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 118 kg.

AeroAstro.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. AeroAstro Inc. , Herndon, Virginia, USA

Aerobee.

  • American sounding rocket. In late 1945 James Van Allen was assigned by John Hopkins University to survey sounding rocket requirements for upper atmosphere research. The V-2 was found to be too heavy and complex. In 1946 Van Allen decided that what was needed was a small rocket, derived from the Aerojet Wac Corporal and the Bumblebee missile developed under a US Navy program. This combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage was dubbed the Aerobee. Aerobees were launched for 53 m tall launch towers to provide the necessary stability until enough speed had been gained for the fins to be effective in controlling the rocket. Launch towers were built at White Sands, Fort Churchill, Wallops Island, and aboard the research ship USN Norton Sound. The Aerobee could take 68 kg to 130 km altitude.

Aerobee.

  • In late 1945 James Van Allen was assigned by John Hopkins University to survey sounding rocket requirements for upper atmosphere research. The V-2 was found to be too heavy and complex. In 1946 Van Allen decided that what was needed was a small rocket, derived from the Aerojet Wac Corporal and the Bumblebee missile developed under a US Navy program. This combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage was dubbed the Aerobee.

Aerobee.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Aerobee. Development begun December 1947. Research with high altitude vehicle as carriers of scientific information.

Aerobee 100.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 100

Aerobee 100.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 11.570 kN. Aerobee 100.

Aerobee 100-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/119 kg. Thrust 11.50 kN.

Aerobee 150.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150.

Aerobee 150 MI.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 150 MII.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 150 MII 20.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 150 MII 20-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Aerobee 150-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700/133 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Aerobee 150A.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee 150A

Aerobee 150A MII.

  • American sounding rocket.

Aerobee 150A MII-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Aerobee 150A-2.

  • Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 611/133 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 209 seconds. Nitric acid/Aniline propellants. Typical ideal dV=3839 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 1012 m/s.

Aerobee 170.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of a solid Nike booster paired with an Aerobee 150 liquid-propellant second stage.

Aerobee 170A.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Aerobee 150

Aerobee 170B.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Aerobee 150

Aerobee 200.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x AJ60-92

Aerobee 200 St2.

  • Alternate designation for AJ60-92 rocket stage.

Aerobee 200A.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x AJ60-92

Aerobee 300.

  • American sounding rocket. The Aerobee 300, also called the Sparrowbee, consisted of an Aerobee 150 or Aerobee 180 lower stage with a 20 cm diameter Sparrow rocket as an upper stage. The Sparrow would ignite at 35 km altitude at 53 seconds into the flight, and boost the payload to 10,000 kph, allowing it to coast up to 420 km apogee. The rocket was designed for studies of the sun above the atmosphere and was only fired from Fort Churchill (the White Sands range was too small to cover the possible impact points of the high-altitude rocket).

Aerobee 300A.

  • American sounding rocket. Aerobee 300A used a four-fin Aerobee 150A second stage rather than the older three-fin 150.

Aerobee 300A-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 272/153 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 167 seconds. Typical ideal dV=259 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 25 m/s.

Aerobee 350.

  • American sounding rocket. In March 1957 an Aerojet engineer conceived of the 'ultimate Aerobee', with the body diameter increased to 46 cm diameter and powered by four engines. The design found no takers until it was pitched to NASA in 1961 and development was authorised. The final configuration selected used a Nike Ajax missile booster, 56 cm in diameter, followed by the Aerobee 350, equipped with 4 Aerobee 150A engines. The rocket could take 65 kg to 480 km altitude or 455 kg to 240 km altitude.

Aerobee 350 St2.

Aerobee 350-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,000/1,050 kg. Thrust 72.00 kN.

Aerobee 75.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Aerobee 75-1.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/142 kg. Thrust 13.00 kN.

Aerobee AJ10-25.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25

Aerobee AJ10-27.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-27

Aerobee AJ10-27-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Aerobee AJ10-34.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34

Aerobee Hi.

  • American sounding rocket. Aerobee Hi was a development of the basic Aerobee with longer propellant tanks, improved materials, a better propellant fraction, and smaller fins. 9.3 m l x 0.39 m dia. The booster stage fired for 2.5 seconds and took the rocket to 270 m altitude and 820 kph. The upper stage then fired for 25 seconds, burning out at 40 km altitude travelling at 6400 kph. Thereafter the payload would coast up to 270 km altitude before falling back toward earth.

Aerobee Jr.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket rocket engine. 11.5 kN.

Aerobee RTV-A-1.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee RTV-A-1a.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25

Aerobee RTV-A-1a-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Aerobee RTV-A-1b.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee RTV-A-1c.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Aerobee RTV-N-10.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee RTV-N-10a.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-25

Aerobee RTV-N-10b.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-24

Aerobee RTV-N-10b-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Aerobee RTV-N-10c.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee AJ10-34

Aerobee RTV-N-10c-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Aerobee RTV-N-8.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee XASR-SC-1.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee XASR-SC-2.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Aerobee Booster + 1 x Aerobee XASR-1

Aerobee XASR-SC-2-2.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700/184 kg. Thrust 11.60 kN.

Aerobee-Hi.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Aerobee 150 sounding rocket.

Aerodynamicist.

  • Category of persons.

Aerofan.

  • Popular Name of R-17 short-range ballistic missile.

Aerojet.

Aerojet.

  • American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Aerojet, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Aerojet 2.

  • Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 2 N. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Isp=265s.

Aerojet 21.

  • Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.021 kN. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.60. Isp=285s.

Aerojet 445.

  • Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.445 kN. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Isp=309s.

Aerojet 50kW.

  • Redmond electric/xenon rocket engine. Effort 2001-2003 developed a 50 kW Hall thruster in parallel to NASA's in-house development of the NASA-457M thruster.

Aerojet 62.

  • Aerojet N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.062 kN. In Production. Mixture Ratio(O/F): 1.65. Isp=287s.

Aerojet Sr.

  • Alternate designation for Algol 1 Solid rocket engine.

Aerojet SRB.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 1270 kN. In production. Isp=275s. First flight 2002.

Aerokosmos.

  • Popular Name of Shtil-3A intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.

Aerolab.

  • American manufacturer of rockets. Aerolab, USA.

Aeronutronics.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Aeronutronics, USA.

Aeronutronics Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Aeronutronics' proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a cone-shaped vehicle 2.1 m in diameter with a spherical tip of 30 cm radius. It does not seem to have been seriously considered.

Aerophysics.

  • American manufacturer of rockets. Aerophysics, USA.

AEROS.

  • German earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.12.16 (Aeros 1) and 1974.07.16 (Aeros 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

AEROSAT.

  • Joint FAA-ESRO Aeronautical Satellite

Aerospace.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Aerospace Corp, El Segundo, CA, USA.

Aerospace Dongfanghong Satellite Ltd.

  • First Owner of DFH

Aerospaceplane.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Development project from 1958-1963 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would carry three crew and additional paylaod from any airfield to orbit and back

Aerospatiale.

Aerospatiale Matra.

Aerospatiale Tactical Missiles Div..

Aerospatiale VTVL.

  • French SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Aerospatiale vertical takeoff, vertical landing single stage to orbit study.

Aerospike Annular Booster.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1111.662 kN. Aerospike Typical Annular Booster . Pressure-fed. Thrust from 50,000 to 250,000 lbs at altitude. Isp=450s.

Aerospike Test Vehicle.

  • American manned spacecraft. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced a design for a minimum SSTO VTOVL vehicle in 1972. The vehicle had a gross liftoff mass of only 22 metric tons, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit.

Aerotherm.

  • American manufacturer. Aerotherm, USA.

Aerotojet.

  • Alternate designation for XCALR-2000A-1 Nitric acid-Amine rocket engine.

Aerovironment.

  • American manufacturer. Aerovironment, USA.

Aerozine-50.

  • A 50-50 mixture of hydrazine and UDMH developed for use in the Titan 2 missile. Copied in one Russian missile but otherwise straight UDMH used more commonly. Higher boiling point than UDMH.

AES.

  • Apollo Extension System

AES Lunar Base.

  • American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. AES (Apollo Extension Systems) was planned as the first American lunar base. It would involve minimal modification of Apollo hardware. The Apollo CSM would be modified for long duration lunar orbit storage.

AES Series.

  • American space suit, tested 1965. Developmental suit hybrids using laminated fabrics, rolling convolutes, toroidal joints, sealed bearings, and modular sizing. Versions by both AiResearch and Litton.

Aespt..

  • Aerospatiale, Toulouse, France

Aestus.

  • Friedrichshafen N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 29 kN. In production. Isp=324s. Upper stage engine for Ariane 5 developed 1988 - 1995. Original version could not be restarted; version for EPS L10 stage for Ariane 5V allowed multiple restarts. First flight 1996.

Aestus DASA/Rocketdyne.

  • Rocketdyne rocket engine. Dasa (Germany)/Rocketdyne Non-Toxic Shuttle OMS. Gas generator, pump-fed. Name later reapplied to storable propellant engine for Ariane 5.

Aestus-2.

  • Rocketdyne / DASA N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 60 kN. Production. Restartable upper-stage engine, began test firings at Lampoldshausen in February 2000.

AF.

  • Air Force

AF Academy.

  • USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, USA

Afanasyev.

  • Afanasyev, Viktor Mikhailovich (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-8, Mir EO-15, Mir EO-27, ISS EP-2. 555 cumulative days in space. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred toTsPK, 1987. Call sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city)

Afanasyev, Sergei.

  • Afanasyev, Sergei Aleksandrovich (1918-) Russian politician. First Minister of General Machine Building, in charge of the Soviet ballistic rocket and space industries, from 1965-1983.

AFB.

  • Air Force Base

AFCRL.

  • American agency. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Afghan AF.

  • Afghan AF.

Afghanistan.

  • Afghanistan

AFLC.

  • Air Force Logistics Command

AFMC.

  • Air Force Materiel Command

AFP-43.

  • American military technology satellite. 4 launches, 1964.01.19 (OPS 3367A) to 1964.06.18 (OPS 4467B). Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

AFP-675.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28. US Air Force space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

AFP-731.

  • Alternate designation for Misty nuclear detection surveillance satellite.

AFR.

  • Russian manufacturer. Astronautical Federation of Russia, Russia.

African.

  • Category of persons.

AFRL.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Air Force Research Laboratory, USA.

AFSC.

  • American agency. Air Force Systems Command, USA.

AFSPC.

  • Air Force Space Command

AFSWC.

  • Air Force Special Weapons Center

Agadzhanov.

  • Agadzhanov, Pavel Artemyevich (1923-) Russian officer. Deputy Chief for Scientific Research at Central KIK Tracking Centre, 1957-1971.

Agaltsov.

  • Agaltsov, Fillip Aleksandrovich (1900-1980) Russian officer. Air Force Deputy Commander-in-Chief 1958-1962. Directed the first selection of cosmonauts.

Agate.

  • The Agate was the first of the 'precious stone' series of French rockets leading to the Diamant satellite launcher. The single-stage vehicle used the NA801 Mammouth solid propellant rocket developed originally for the SSBT program. The purpose of the fin-stabilised unguided rocket was to test the recoverable instrument pod planned for later missile tests. The Agate R / VE110RR version was used to develop recovery procedures at sea.

Agate.

  • SEREB solid rocket engine. 190 kN.

AGE.

  • Aerospace ground equipment

Agena A.

  • Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,790/885 kg. Thrust 68.95 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds. The Agena space vehicle was used in large numbers during the 1960s and 1970s as upper stage with SLV-2 Thor, SLV-3 Atlas and SLV-5 Titan boosters to launch a variety of military and civilian payloads into orbit. The Agena itself was actually the first general-purpose satellite, and formed the core for many operational satellites and experimental space vehicles.

Agena B.

  • American space tug. 94 launches, (1960) to (1967). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena B; Thor Agena B.

Agena B.

  • Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,167/867 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds.

Agena D.

  • Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,821/673 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. One of the real workhorses of US space exploration, Agena was a restartable upper stage which was also employed as a spacecraft, the whole vehicle going into orbit. A mainstay of the US Air Force reconnaisance satellite program, it also boosted early NASA probes to the moon and planets. Agena played a key role in manned space flight as the target vehicle for rendezvous and docking manoeuvres in NASA's Gemini project. It

Agena D.

  • American space tug. 205 launches, (1963) to (1987). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena D; Thor Agena D; Titan 3B; Titan 34B.

Agency.

  • Agencies or institutions overseeing design, development, construction, or operation of space-related systems.

AGILE.

  • Italian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 2007.04.23. The Italian gamma-ray observatory satellite (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero) carried the GRID 0.

AGM-131A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of SRAM-2 air-to-surface missile.

AGM-28.

  • Department of Defence designation of Hound Dog missile.

AGM-28A.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

AGM-28B.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

AGM-48A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Skybolt air-to-surface missile.

AGM-69A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of SRAM air-to-surface missile.

AGM-86.

  • Department of Defence designation of ALCM missile.

AGM-86A.

  • American air-to-surface missile. Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy, full scale development begun in 1968, project cancelled 1973. Nuclear warhead.

AGM-86B.

  • American air-to-surface missile. The SCAD project was revived and the redesigned missile was designated the 'Air-Launched Cruise Missile'. Nuclear warhead.

AGM-86C.

  • American air-to-surface missile. Conventional warhead version of ALCM.

AGN.

  • Active Galactic Nucleus

Agnes.

  • CFTH-HB solid rocket engine.

Agnew.

  • Agnew, Spiro T (1918-1996) American politician. Vice President of the United States, 1968-1973.

Agni.

  • Two stage ballistic missile consisting of 1 x Agni + 1 x Prithvi.

Agni.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage ballistic missile consisting of 1 x Agni + 1 x Prithvi

Agni.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine. 700 kN.

Agni 1.

  • Indian single-stage short range ballistic missile.

Agni 2.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile. Program revived in 1998, assumed to be nuclear warhead-capable.

Agni 2-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 700.00 kN (157,366 lbf) thrust. Mass 11,500 kg (25,353 lb).

Agni 2-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,200 kg.

Agni 3.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Agni 3-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 1040.00 kN (233,801 lbf) thrust. Mass 33,000 kg (72,753 lb).

Agni 3-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. 314.00 kN (70,590 lbf) thrust. Mass 14,000 kg (30,865 lb).

Agni St2.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine.

Agni TD.

  • Indian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Agni TD-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,500 kg.

Agni-2.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine family.

Agni3.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine. 1040 kN.

Agni-3.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine family.

Agni3 S2.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine. 314 kN.

AGU.

  • American Geophysical Union

AHAFS.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1987. Advanced High Altitude Flight Suit. High pressure (0.40 bar) full pressure suit developed for the USAF to increase mobility at higher operating pressures.

AIAA.

  • American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics

AICBM.

  • Advanced Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, a planned 1966 successor to the Minuteman. Cancelled in 1967, with the Minuteman also outlasting such competitors as the Peacekeeper and SICBM, to remain in service to the mid-21st Century.

Aigle VE10.

  • The Aigle's simple mission was to allow test of the telemetry equipment that would be used on later instrumented warheads. The first version of the Aigle was a simple fin-stabilised solid rocket propelled by a Stromboli SEPR 737 loaded with 984 kg of 'Plastolite' propellant.

Aigle VE10A.

  • The VE10A used an improved, lightened version of the Stromboli booster.

Aimbetov.

  • Aimbetov, Aydyn Akanovich (1972-) Kazakh pilot cosmonaut, 2002-on.

AIMP.

  • Anchored Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (Explorer)

AIPS.

  • Astronomical Image Processing System

Air.

  • Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidiser.

Air.

  • Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.). As a monopropellant, used as an inert cold gas, held under pressure and released by valves to create thrust.

Air.

  • Air used as an inert cold gas, held under pressure and released by valves to create thrust.

Air augmented rocket.

  • Category of engines.

Air Drop Zone.

  • Category of launch sites.

Air Force Group 1 - 1960.

  • Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Vostok program.

Air Force Group 10 - 1989.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 11 - 1990.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1991.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonaut for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1996.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonaut for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 12 - 1997.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions.

Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1997.

  • Requirement: flight of representative of Russian Preisdent's office on Mir and ISS missions.

Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1998.

  • Requirement: flight of representative of Russian space forces on ISS missions.

Air Force Group 13 - 2003.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions.

Air Force Group 14 - 2006.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions.

Air Force Group 2 - 1963.

  • Requirement: astronauts for the Soyuz manned spaceflight program.

Air Force Group 2 Supplemental - 1964.

  • Requirement: experienced test pilot for the Soyuz manned spaceflight program.

Air Force Group 3 - 1965.

  • Requirement: pilots for planned Soyuz, Soyuz VI, Spiral, and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights.

Air Force Group 4 - 1967.

  • Requirement: engineers for planned Soyuz and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights.

Air Force Group 5 - 1970.

  • Requirement: test pilots for the Spiral spaceplane.

Air Force Group 6 - 1976.

  • Requirement: test pilots for the Buran program.

Air Force Group 7 - 1978.

  • Requirement: pilots for the Buran and Mir programs.

Air Force Group 8 - 1987.

  • Requirement: pilots for the Buran and Mir programs.

Air Force Ministry.

  • Air Force Ministry.

Air Launch.

  • American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Air Launch LLC, USA.

Air Ministry.

Air Turborocket.

  • Aerojet air augmented rocket rocket engine. Development begun 1950.

Air/Kerosene.

  • Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines. It is used to burn aviation-grade kerosene, commercial grade JP-4 or JP-5, their military equivalents, or special high-temperature blends such as those used in the SR-71.

Air/LH2.

  • Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidiser. Liquid hydrogen has not been used as a fuel for aircraft to date due to its big drawbacks - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. It is mainly proposed in air-breathing engines for high-speed scramjet aircraft, and mixed propulsion single-stage-to-orbit designs, where use of hydrocarbon propellants creates coking and other issues.

Air/Lox.

  • In the air augmented rocket concept, ram air intakes scoop in ambient air and augment the thrust of a conventional liquid oxygen powered rocket.

Air/Lox/LH2.

  • Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidiser. In this variant the motor converts to pure rocket propulsion, using on-board liquid oxygen for the final push to orbit.

Air/Slush LH2.

  • Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidiser. Slush hydrogen is formed by taking liquid hydrogen down to nearly the melting point. This produces a partly-solidified but still mobile version of the fuel with 20% greater density than liquid hydrogen itself. Proposed for use from the 1980's in air-breathing and rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit vehicles where maximization of fuel weight to empty weight is absolutely essential.

aircraft-launched.

aircraft-launched winged.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Airesearch.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Airesearch, USA.

AirLaunch Propane Engine.

  • Air Launch Lox/Propane rocket engine. 106.8 kN. Flow calibration, ignition and initial short duration tests completed in 2005 of this upper stage rocket engine with application to future small spacecraft launchers.

Air-launched.

  • Air-launched rockets from undocumented launch positions accounted for 103 launches from 1959 to 1983, reaching up to 70 kilometers altitude.

Air-Launched Cruise Missile.

  • Alternate designation for AGM-86B air-to-surface missile.

Air-Launched Miniature Vehicle.

  • Popular Name of ASAT anti-satellite missile.

Airlock Module.

  • Alternate designation for Skylab AM manned space station module.

AIRMAT.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1968. Inflatable; space suits required; ejection seat; requires development of flexible heat shield and new materials. Mass per crew 570 kg.

air-to-air.

  • Category of missiles.

air-to-surface.

  • Category of missiles.

AIS.

ait.

  • The ait vehicles were developed to support the USAF Airborne Intercept Technology program. They consisted of a Minuteman SR19AJ1 first stage (the basic ait version) or Thiokol Castor IVB first stage (designated ait-2), and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage. A front-end module housed the payloads, the control system, GPS, and inertial guidance electronics.

ait.

  • American target missile. The ait vehicles were developed to support the USAF Airborne Intercept Technology program. They consisted of a Minuteman SR19AJ1 first stage (the basic ait version) or Thiokol Castor IVB first stage (designated ait-2), and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage. A front-end module housed the payloads, the control system, GPS, and inertial guidance electronics.

ait-2.

  • American target missile. Version with a Thiokol Castor IVB first stage, and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage.

AJ.

  • Astronomical Journal

AJ10.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family, originally designed for the Vanguard, then developed into versions for the Able and Delta upper stages.

AJ10-101.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 34.3 kN. Isp=270s. Derivative of Vanguard second stage for use with Thor IRBM to produce satellite launch vehicle. First tests February 21, 1958. Flown through 1960.

AJ10-104.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 35.1 kN. Isp=278s. Stainless steel version of the basic Able engine, uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times First flight 1960.

AJ10-118.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 33.8 kN. Out of Production. Isp=271s. Engine originally developed for the Vanguard launch vehicle, and then for use on the Able and Delta upper stages and as the Apollo Service module engine. Flown 1957-1962.

AJ10-118D.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 33.7 kN. Isp=278s. Used on Delta B, Delta C, Delta D upper stages. First flight 1962.

AJ10-118E.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 35.1 kN. Isp=278s. Used on Delta E, Delta G, Delta J, Delta L, Delta M, Delta N upper stages. First flight 1965.

AJ10-118F.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 41.4 kN. Isp=306s. Used on Delta upper stage for Delta 0100, Delta 1000, N-2 boosters. First flight 1972.

AJ10-118G.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 43.414 kN. Delta G. Isp=314s.

AJ10-118H.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 43.414 kN. Delta H. Isp=319s.

AJ10-118J.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Delta J.

AJ10-118K.

  • Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 43.4 kN. Isp=321s. Pressure-fed engine, optimized for altitude operation, used in Delta K stage from 1989. Not regeneratively cooled; used a rubber modified silica phenolic ablative at the combustion flame front.

AJ10-131.

  • Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Subscale Apollo SPS. Subscale Apollo SPS

AJ10-137.

  • Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 97.5 kN. Apollo SPS. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as Apollo SM engine. Isp=312s.

AJ10-138.

  • Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 35.6 kN. Out of production. Originally developed for Vanguard and Able. Two used, thrust uprated from 3540 kgf to 3628 kgf, with higher specific impulse, in Transtage. Isp=311s. Flown 1964-1980.

AJ10-190.

  • Manufacturer's designation of OME N2O4-MMH rocket engine.

AJ10-196.

  • Aerojet rocket engine. 40.1 kN. Liquid Throttling Engine. Liquid Throttling Engine

AJ10-198.

  • Aerojet rocket engine. 13.330 kN. Kick Stage. Kick Stage

AJ10-24.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 17.8 kN.

AJ10-25.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 17.8 kN.

AJ10-27.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 17.8 kN.

AJ10-28.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/JP-X rocket engine. 156 kN. SNORT Sled. Development begun early 1950s. 35,000 Ibf thrust, 2-10 second duration. JP-X was a jet fuel / hydrazine mixture.

AJ10-33.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 509 kN. SMART Sled. Development begun early 1950s. 114,000 Ibf thrust, uncooled, ceramic lined, 3 chamber system

AJ10-34.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 17.8 kN.

AJ10-40.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 34.690 kN. Isp=270s. Minor modification of the Vanguard aluminum tube thrust chamber to meet the Able requirements. accomplished in the record time of only three months.

AJ10-51.

  • Aerojet rocket engine. 666 kN. Sled. Thrust variable to 33% indicated.

AJ11-21.

  • Aerojet rocket engine. 18.240 kN. Aerobee 150 & 170.

AJ11-6.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/aniline rocket engine. 17.8 kN. Typical ideal dV=3839 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 1012 m/s.

AJ23.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. The AJ23 was a series of high-performance staged combusion engine designs. None ever made it to production.

AJ23-127.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1010 kN. Booster. The AJ23 was a series of high-performance staged combusion engine designs. None ever made it to production. The -127 featured a gas generator cycle, 56 atm

AJ23-130.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR87-3 Lox-Kerosene rocket engine.

AJ23-131.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR91-3 Lox-Kerosene rocket engine.

AJ23-132.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR87-5 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-133.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR91-5 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-134.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR87-7 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-135.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR91-7 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-136.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR87-9 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-137.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR91-9 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-138.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR87-11 AJ23-138 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-139.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR87-11 rocket engine.

AJ23-140.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR91-11 N2O4-Aerozine-50 rocket engine.

AJ23-141.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 222.410 kN. Upper Stage. MIST - Staged Combustion.

AJ23-142.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 424.6 kN. Booster. ARES - Staged Combustion

AJ23-143.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2213.850 kN. Booster. Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 204 atm

AJ23-144.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 3020 kN. Booster (Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 4000 psi). Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 272 atm

AJ23-145.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 3020 kN. Booster (Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 4000 psi, LOX/RJ-5 or LH2, Single Stage). Pre-Development, Staged Combustion, 272 atm, LOX/RJ-5 or LH2, Single Stage

AJ23-146.

  • Manufacturer's designation of M-1 Lox-LH2 rocket engine.

AJ23-147.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 994.3 kN. Booster. Gas generator cycle, 55 atm

AJ24-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation of YLR45-AJ-1 Nitric acid-Kerosene rocket engine.

AJ-260.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine family, the largest monolithic solid rocket motors ever tested.

AJ-260-1/3.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 10,105 kN. Design concept 1960's. Isp=275s. Used on Saturn INT-05B launch vehicle.

AJ-260-2.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 17,695.3 kN. Study 1965. Isp=263s. 260 inch solid rocket booster half length. The version tested and also proposed for use as a first stage with the Saturn IVB.

AJ-260X.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 35,390.7 kN. Study 1967. Full length version of 260 inch motor tested in 1960's. Proposed for use in various Saturn and Nova configurations. Isp=263s.

AJ-260X 1/3.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 11,143 kN. Design concept 1960's. Isp=263s.

AJ26-62.

  • Aeroject designation for refurbished Kuznetsov NK-33 rocket engine.

AJ60.

  • Design announced on 3 October 2000 for a new cryogenic upper-stage engine aimed at the very large commercial spacecraft market.

AJ60-91.

  • Aerojet rocket engine. 72.324 kN. Aerobee 350. Aerobee motor. Four Chambers

AJ60-92.

  • Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700/131 kg. Thrust 22.60 kN.

AJ60-92.

  • Aerojet rocket engine. 22.565 kN. Aerobee 200.

AJ-60C.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 280 kN. Design 2000. Isp=470s. Design announced on 3 October 2000 for a new cryogenic upper-stage engine aimed at the very large commercial spacecraft market.

Ajax.

  • Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched, air-breathing, single stage to orbit, horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia.

Ajax.

  • Bell solid rocket engine. 11.6 kN.

AK.

  • Nitric acid (Russian abbreviation)

Akari.

  • Japanese infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2006.02.21, Astro F (Akari). Carried a 0.67m-diameter liquid-helium-cooled infrared telescope with detectors ranging from the near infrared to 60 and 170 micron channels in the far IR.

Akatsuki.

  • Venus-orbiting weather satellite with visible, infrared and ultraviolet cameras. Launched 2010.05.20,

Akbar.

  • Akbar, Taufik (1951-) Indonesian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986.

Akers.

  • Akers, Thomas Dale 'Tom' (1951-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-49, STS-61, STS-79.

Akhtopol.

  • Akhtopol

Akita.

  • Sounding rocket launch site for Kappa series, known to have been used for 81 launches from 1956 to 1990.

Akiyama.

  • Akiyama, Tohiro (1942-) Japanese journalist cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Kosmoreporter. First Japanese to fly in space.

Aksyonov.

  • Aksyonov, Vladimir Viktorovich (1935-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 22, Salyut 6 EP-6.

Aksyutin.

  • Aksyutin, Boris Rodionovich Russian Chief Designer of the Central Design Bureau for Heavy Machine Industry, TsKB TM, 1977-1988; designed much of the pneumatic and hydraulic equipment for launch pads and silos. From 1969, lead designer for silo-mounted command points.

Akunin.

  • Akunin, Vyacheslav Glebunivich (1928-1997) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Deputy Commander of Logistics for the Soviet Space Forces 1981-1986.

Akvamarin.

  • Popular Name of Rif-MA missile.

Al Aabed.

  • Iraqi intermediate range ballistic missile.

Al Abbas.

  • Iraqi modification of the R-17 with an 800-km range, achieved by reducing warhead weight to 125 kg, and increasing propellant load by 30 percent .

Al Amarah.

  • Al Amarah

Al Anbar.

  • Military testing range. Launch gantry located here for Tamouz satellite launcher, used for one known launch attempt in 1989. Probably destroyed in Gulf War.

     

     

     

     

     

     

Al Fatah.

  • Al Fatah

Al Hussein.

  • Iraqi modification of the R-17 that doubled the missile's range at the expense of more than halving the payload and accuracy.

Al Kahir.

  • Ballistic missile launch location known to have been used for 3 launches from 1962 to 1963, reaching up to 80 kilometers altitude.

Al Kahir.

  • Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Al Kahir-1.

  • Rocket stage used on Al Kahir missile.

Al Nikheb.

  • Al Nikheb

Al Raid.

  • Egyptian intermediate range ballistic missile.

Al Zafir.

  • Egyptian short range ballistic missile.

Al Zahar.

  • Egyptian short range ballistic missile. United Arab Republic neither confirmed nor denied reports of November 8 that it had successfully launched its first rocket. Dr. Eugen Saenger of the Stuttgart Jet Propulsion Institute in Germany denied any connection with the United Arab Republic program as charged by Israel.

Alabama-Birmingham.

  • American agency. University of Alabama-Birmingham.

Alacran.

  • Argentinan short range ballistic missile.

ALARR.

  • American air-launched test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F4D Phantom + 1 x Genie-Alarr

ALARR-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Alaska.

  • American agency. Alaska, USA.

Al-Bassam.

  • Al-Bassam, Abdul Moshin Hamad (1948-) Saudi Air Force pilot, alternate payload specialist to Al-Saud for STS-51G in April 1985. Graduated from King Faisal Air Academy, Riyadh. RSAF attache at the Saudi embassy in London.

Albatros.

  • Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages. Hydrofoil would have been propelled to launch speed by the launch vehicles rocket engines, using a 200 tonne fuel store in the hydrofoil. Advantages: launch from the Caspian Sea into a variety of orbital inclinations, variations in launch track possible to meet range safety requirements. Proposal of Alexeyev/Sukhoi OKBs.

Albatros Carrier Aircraft.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,250,000/210,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers and canards. Engine type and performance, empty weight estimated.

Albatros ICBM.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Albatros was an ICBM designed by NPO Mashinostroeniya under Chief Designer Gerbert Yefremov according to a decree of 9 February 1987. Like the Yuzhnoye Universal ICBM, it was to be built in enormous numbers in order to defeat any deployment by America of mass missile defences under their Strategic Defence Initiative. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the abandonment of SDI by the United States, the missile was cancelled.

Albatros Momentum Block.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000,000/1,800,000 kg. Unique hydrofoil launch stage for Albatros. Contains 200,000 kg propellants for acceleration by Albatros stage 1 motors to 50 m/s / 180 km/hr launch conditions. Designed by Alexeyev Hydrofoil/Ekranoplan OKB.

Albatros Raketoplan.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages.

Albatros Raketoplan.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 320,000/82,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers.

Albedo.

  • The ratio of the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected by a body to the amount incident upon it. This concept is identical with reflectance but should be distinguished from spectral reflectance.

Albring.

  • Albring, Werner (1914-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter.

Alcantara.

  • Sounding rocket and orbital launch site. Used for 53 known launches from 1990 to 2007. The launch complex for Brazil's indigenous VLS orbital booster was located here.

Alcantara HAD.

  • HAD launcher

Alcantara MRL.

  • MRL launcher

Alcantara RAG.

  • RAG launcher

Alcantara UL.

  • UL launcher

Alcantara VLS.

  • VLS launch complex.

Alcatel.

Alcatel Alenia Space.

ALCM.

  • Popular Name of AGM-86B air-to-surface missile.

ALCM.

  • American air-to-surface missile family. Major long-range standoff attack missile of the US Air Force's strategic bombers from the 1980's.

ALCM.

  • Air-Launched Cruise Missile, the major long-range standoff attack missile of the for USAF B-52 bombers. At the end of the Cold War the nuclear warheads were replaced with high explosives.

Alcohol.

  • Alcohol (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China used it as well. Better performance was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned.

Alcor.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 520/50 kg. Thrust 35.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. Masses, specific impulse estimated.

Alcor.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. Originally developed for the Air Force as a third Stage for the Athena sounding rocket; in some applications known as Zebra. One of its main attractions was a very high mass fraction First flight 1960.

Alcor 1B.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 42 kN.

Alcor IA.

  • Solid rocket stage. 49.00 kN (11,016 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Alcor IB.

  • Solid rocket stage. 42.00 kN (9,442 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Alcyone.

  • Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Aldan.

  • Launch System of A-35 missile.

Aldebaran.

  • American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Immense nuclear pulse launch vehicle proposed by Dandridge Cole.

Aldrich.

  • Aldrich, Rick American Engineer. White Knight crew chief.

Aldridge.

  • Aldridge, Edward Cleveland Jr 'Pete' (1938-) American politician payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986.

Aldrin.

  • Aldrin, Edwin Eugene 'Buzz' (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 12, Apollo 11. Second person on the moon.

Aleisk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Base for units deployed with 30 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M).

Aleksandrov.

  • Aleksandrov, Aleksandr Pavlovich (1943-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-2, Soyuz TM-3.

Aleksandrov, Aleksandr.

  • Aleksandrov, Aleksandr Panayotov 'Sasha' (1951-) Bulgarian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-2. Graduated from Air Force Academy, 1974. Candidate of technical sciences degree, 1983. Lieutenant Colonel, Bulgarian Air Force.

Aleksandrov, Anatoliy.

  • Aleksandrov, Anatoliy Petrovich (1903-1994) Russian scientist. President, Academy of Sciences, 1980-1986.

Alekseyev.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Alekseyev Design Bureau, Russia.

Alekseyev.

  • Alekseyev, Vladimir Borisovich (1933-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983.

Alekseyev, Eduard.

  • Alekseyev, Eduard Vikotorovich (1935-) Russian officer. Chief of 50 TsNII KS (50th Central Scientific Research Institute for Space Systems of the Space Forces) from 1988 to 1992.

Alekseyev, Nikolai.

  • Alekseyev, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1914-1980) Russian officer. Marshal of Communications Forces, 1970; Deputy Minister of Defence for Armaments 1970-1980.

Alekseyev, Semyon.

  • Alekseyev, Semyon Mikhailovich (1909-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1952-1973 of OKB Zvezda. Specialised in design of spacesuits and airlocks.

ALEM.

  • Apollo Lunar Exploration Mission

Alenia.

  • Italian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Alenia Spazio, Italy.

Alenia Aerospazio.

Alenia Difesa.

ALEXIS.

  • American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1993.04.25. ALEXIS was a small spacecraft built for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Its mission was to provide high resolution maps of low-energy astronomical x-ray sources.

Alfa.

  • Italy briefly flirted with the creation of an independent nuclear deterrent in the late 1960's. The Alfa project for an indigenous Italian submarine- and ship-launched ballistic missile was begun in 1971. Three Alfa test missiles with inert second stages were successfully launched in 1975-1976 from Salto di Quirra in Sardinia. The programme was abandoned at this stage, when Italy and its neighbours ratified the nuclear proliferation treaty.

Alfa.

  • Aeritalia solid rocket engine. 250 kN.

Alfa-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 250.00 kN (56,202 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,500 kg (14,330 lb).

Alflex.

  • Japanese spaceplane. Study 2000. Unmanned glider to test technology for Japanese HOPE spaceplane. Wing area 9.45 square meters.

ALFMED.

  • Apollo light-flash moving-emulsion detection

Algeria.

  • France conducted numerous space and missile launches from Algerian territory from 1947-1967. These facilities were abandoned as a condition of the agreement ending the Algerian Civil War. Algeria did not take concrete steps to return to space until the 1990's, when the decision was taken to participate in an international constellation of disaster-monitoring satellites.

Algol.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine family. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. First flight 1960.

Algol 1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,705/1,900 kg. Thrust 470.93 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 236 seconds. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. It had a nominal performance rating of 45 seconds duration and 45,000 kgf thrust. Variations included Algol I, I-D, II, II-A, II-B and possibly others. Another popular rating was 40KS-115,000 (52,000 kgf for 40 seconds), also known as Senior.

Algol 1.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 470.9 kN. Isp=236s. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. First flight 1960.

Algol 1D.

  • Solid rocket stage. 440.00 kN (98,916 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,700 kg (23,589 lb).

Algol 2.

  • CSD solid rocket engine. 564.2 kN. Isp=255s. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout X-3, Scout X-4; proposed as strap-on for Titan 3BAS2. First flight 1962.

Algol 2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600/1,650 kg. Thrust 564.25 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds.

Algol 2B.

  • Solid rocket stage. 400.00 kN (89,924 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,700 kg (23,589 lb).

Algol 2C.

  • Solid rocket stage. 436.00 kN (98,017 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,800 kg (23,810 lb).

Algol 3.

  • CSD solid rocket engine. 471.9 kN. Isp=284s. Used on Advanced Scout, Scout D, Scout F, Scout G. First flight 1972.

Algol 3.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,320/1,600 kg. Thrust 471.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 284 seconds.

Algol 3A.

  • CSD solid rocket engine. 464.7 kN. In Production. Isp=259s.

Algol 3A.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,732/2,030 kg. Thrust 464.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 259 seconds.

Algol ID.

  • CSD solid rocket engine. 440 kN.

Algol IIB.

  • CSD solid rocket engine. 400 kN.

Algol IIC.

  • CSD solid rocket engine. 436 kN.

Aliyev.

  • Aliyev, Ravshanbek (1962-) Kyrgyzstani pilot cosmonaut, 1996-2001. Kirgiz guest cosmonaut mission cancelled. Aliyev had been a Soviet military officer in charge of a transport squadron of the Transbaikal military district.

Alleghany.

  • American manufacturer. Alleghany Ballistics Laboratory, USA.

Allen.

  • Allen, Joseph Percival IV 'Joe' (1937-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-5, STS-51-A.

Allen, Andy.

  • Allen, Andrew Michael 'Andy' (1955-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-46, STS-62, STS-75. US Marine Corps

Alliant.

  • Alliant TechSystems.

Allison.

  • Allison, Rhea Hurrle nee Woltman (1928-) American pilot, one of the Mercury 13 female astroauts proposed in 1961, but never entered training.

all-solid.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra Terrestrial Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for Athlete lunar rover.

All-Union State Institute for Telemechanics and Communications.

Almaz.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Almaz.

  • Almaz Phase plans and flights - plus complete Almaz technical description!

Almaz.

  • Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Chelomei's Almaz space station was designed to conduct orbital research into the usefulness of manned observation of the earth.

Almaz.

  • The only manned military space station to have ever flown, it served only to prove that manned stations provided no cost-effective substitute to unmanned military satellites. Derivatives of the design continue in service into the 21st Century as modules of the Salyut, Mir, and International Space Stations.

Almaz.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets. Almaz Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia.

Almaz APOS.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1966. The initial Almaz program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases.

Almaz Engineer Group 1 - 1972.

  • Requirement: engineer for Almaz military space station missions.

Almaz Engineer Group 2 - 1973.

  • Requirement: engineer for Almaz military space station missions.

Almaz Engineer Group 3 - 1978.

  • Requirement: engineers for Almaz military space station missions.

Almaz NPO.

Almaz OPS.

  • Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown.

Almaz OPS-2.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1979. The initial Almaz military space station program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases.

Almaz-1B.

  • Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1993.

Almaz-1V.

  • Alternate designation for Almaz-1B civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Almaz-2.

  • Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1995. Plans for an even more sophisticated and capable civilian Almaz 2 spacecraft were made in the early 1990's. Almaz 2's payload mass of 6.

Almaz-K.

  • Alternate designation for Almaz-T civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Almaz-T.

  • Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. 3 launches, 1986.11.29 (Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure) to 1991.03.31 (Almaz 1). The results of the manned Almaz flights showed that manned reconnaissance from space was not worth the expense.

ALOS.

  • Code name for Daichi civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Alouette.

  • Canadian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1962.09.29 (Alouette 1) and 1965.11.29 (Alouette 2). Ionospheric research.

Alpaidze.

  • Alpaidze, Galaktion Yeliseyevich (1916-) Georgian-Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief of the Plesetsk launch centre, 1963-1975.

Alpex.

  • Japanese spaceplane. Study 2000. Kawasaki unmanned glider to test technologies for HOPE spaceplane. Wing area 7.57 square meters.

Alpha Lifeboat.

  • Russian manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1995. 1995 joint Energia-Rockwell-Khrunichev design for space station Alpha lifeboat based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor, cold gas thruster package. Five years on-orbit storage.

alpha particle.

  • The positively charged nucleus of a helium atom. Each alpha particle consists of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles are emitted by some of the radioactive substances, they are also found in cosmic radiation.

Alpha-FGB.

  • Alternate designation for ISS Zarya manned space station.

Alpha-SM.

  • Alternate designation for ISS Zvezda manned space station.

ALPO.

  • Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers

ALS.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), was a US Air Force funded effort in 1987-1989 to develop a flexible, modular, heavy-lift, high rate space launch vehicle that could deliver payloads to earth orbit at a tenth the cost of existing boosters. Such a vehicle was seen as essential to supporting the launch of the huge numbers of satellites required for deployment of the ‘Star Wars' ballistic missile defense system. With the end of the Cold War, Star Wars was abandoned. The projected launch rate without the Star Wars requirement could never pay back the $15 billion non recurring cost, and the program was ended.

ALS.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 780,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,477.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 435 seconds.

Alsat.

Al-Saud.

  • Al-Saud, Sultan Salman Abdel-aziz (1956-) Saudi prince, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G. First Arab in space.

ALSEP.

  • Apollo lunar surface experiments package

ALSOR.

  • American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x F-104A Starfighter + 1 x Viper I

ALSS Lunar Base.

  • American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. The ALSS (Apollo Logistics Support System) Lunar Base would require a new development, the LM Truck, to allow delivery of up to 4100 kg in payload to the lunar surface.

Altair.

  • Code name for Luch military communications satellite.

AltAir.

  • American air-launched target missile. Single-stage launch vehicle air dropped from a C-130 consisting of a surplus Minuteman SR19 stage and a payload section.

Altair.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets. Altair Design Bureau, Russia.

Altair 1.

  • Alternate designation for X-248 Solid rocket engine.

Altair 1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 238/30 kg. Thrust 12.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 256 seconds.

Altair 1A.

  • Alternate designation for X-248A Solid rocket engine.

Altair 1A.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 390/181 kg. Thrust 13.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds.

Altair 2.

  • Alternate designation for X-258 Solid rocket engine.

Altair 2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 275/37 kg. Thrust 22.24 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds.

Altair 3.

Altair 3.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 301/25 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds.

Altair GosNPO.

Altairis.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2026. Rocket utilizing liquid oxygen / kerosene propulsion, launched vertically and with the planned capability of sending seven tourists on a suborbital space trip.

altimeter.

  • An instrument that determines height above a reference level, commonly by measuring the change of atmospheric pressure, or by measuring vertical distance directly with a radar-type system.

Altitude Sounder.

  • Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1969. Used the KAUR-1 bus, which consisted of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior.

Altman.

  • Altman, Scott Douglas 'Scooter' (1959-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-90, STS-106, STS-109, STS-125.

Altus AFB.

  • Atlas F ICBM (SMS 577) base, 1962-1965. The 12 missiles here constituted America's ICBM deterrent force during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Altus AFB 577-1.

Altus AFB 577-10.

Altus AFB 577-11.

Altus AFB 577-12.

Altus AFB 577-2.

Altus AFB 577-3.

Altus AFB 577-4.

Altus AFB 577-5.

Altus AFB 577-6.

  • Atlas launch complex.

Altus AFB 577-7.

Altus AFB 577-8.

Altus AFB 577-9.

Alumizine.

  • Alumizine was a mixture of 43% aluminum powder suspended in anhydrous hydrazine with a gelling agent. The idea was to increase the heat of combustion due to the high enthalpy of formation of aluminum oxide as a combustion product, similar to the metallized kerosene ("Kerosol") tested by Saenger in the 30's. Alumizine was never flown and was only tested in static ground tests. A drum of alumizine exploded in California when it was not disposed of safely. The fuel was proposed for some pressure-fed 'big dumb booster' designs of the late 1960's.

ALV.

  • American sounding rocket. Family of small low-cost all-solid-propellant launch vehicles, which use numerous off-the-shelf components and require minimal ground support

ALV.

  • Family of small low-cost all-solid-propellant launch vehicles, which use numerous off-the-shelf components and require minimal ground support

A-Lyracom.

  • Alpha Lyracom, USA

AM.

  • Amplitude Modulation; or Airlock module (Skylab spacecraft component)

Amateur radio communications satellite.

  • Type of spacecraft.

Amelkina.

  • Amelkina, Dr Galina Vasilyevna (1954-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1983.

American Astronautics Corporation.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. American Astronautics Corporation, USA.

American Interplanetary Society.

American Rocket Society.

American Rocket Society.

  • American manufacturer of rockets. American Rocket Society, USA.

America's Space Prize.

  • Following the success of the Ansari X-Prize in motivating flight of the first commercial suborbital manned spacecraft, Robert Bigelow announced the 'America's Space Prize' - $ 50 million - to the first team to fly an orbital manned spacecraft that completes two missions safely and successfully by January 10, 2010.

Americom.

Americom.

Americom.

  • Communications satellite network.

Ames.

  • Ames, Milton B (1913-1992) American engineer, at NASA in leadership positions, 1936-1972.

Ames Mach 10 Demonstrator.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Ames proposed in 1957 to air-launch a high-wing designed hypersonic glider from a B-36 bomber. Early versions would use an XLR-99-powered booster stage and be capable of reaching Mach 6.

Ames, Charles.

  • Ames, Charles Stuart 'Charlie' (1915-1988) American engineer, son of an iron works machinist, Project Engineer on the MX-774 and early Atlas programs. He was remembered as rock-solid, smart, practical, able to obtain the best designs by trading off inter-departmental concepts.

Amine.

  • Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02.

Ammonia.

  • Ammonia (NH3) is a colourless gas and liquid with a strong irritating characteristic odour.

Ammonia.

  • Ammonia (NH3) is a colourless gas and liquid with a strong irritating characteristic odour. Ammonia (NH3) is a colourless gas and liquid with a strong irritating characteristic odour.

Ammonia+Alcohol.

  • Proposed as the propellant to be heated by a thermal nuclear reactor in one Soviet design of 1960.

Amos.

AMOS.

  • Israeli communications satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.16 (AMOS) to 2008.04.28 (Amos-2). 7 Ku-band transponders. Israeli indigenous communications satellite program.

AMPS.

  • Atmospheric, Magnetospheric Plasma-in-Space laboratory (Space Shuttle payload)

AMPS-1.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 80.032 kN. Advanced Maneuvering Propulsion System Booster. Pressure-fed. Isp=468s.

AMPTE.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.16 (CCE-1) to (Solar Cell Experiment). Charge Composition Explorer; detected tracer ions released into magnetosphere by IRM.

AMR.

  • Atlantic Missile Range

AMR DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 13 launches from 1958 to 1962, reaching up to 580 kilometers altitude.

AMRL.

  • Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories

AMROC.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. The AMROC corporation proposed to develop low-cost hybrid-propulsion orbital launch vehicles in the 1980's. Actual flight hardware did not go beyond a small test vehicle.

AMROC.

  • The AMROC corporation proposed to develop low-cost hybrid-propulsion orbital launch vehicles in the 1980's. Actual flight hardware did not go beyond a small test vehicle.

AMROC.

  • American Rocket Company, USA.

AMROC.

  • Lox/Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 31,000/5,900 kg. Thrust 931.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 284 seconds.

AMROC IRR.

  • American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Single stage vehicle.

AMROC IRR.

  • Lox/Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 12,200 kg. Thrust 315.00 kN.

AMSAT.

  • Citizen of the World agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Amateur Satellite Corp - Branches in various countries, International.

Amsat Echo.

  • American military communications satellite. One launch, 2004.06.29.

AMSAT-DL.

  • Amateur Satellite Corp., Germany

AMSAT-NA.

  • Amateur Satellite Corporation of North America, USA

AMSAT-R.

  • AMSAT-Russia

AMSC.

  • American Mobile Satellite Corp. , USA

AMS-H.

  • American tactical ballistic missile. Advanced Missile System - Heavy, US Army

AMSS - Austere Modular Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1975. North American Rockwell's 'Austere Modular Space Station' was in contrast to more grandious schemes in the mid-1970's.

AMU.

  • Astronaut maneuvering unit

AN.

  • Russian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Academy of Sciences (Russian abbreviation), Russia.

AN SSSR.

  • First Owner of AN

AN Ukraine.

  • AN Ukraine.

An-124.

  • Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded mass 430,000 kg. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, 900 kph at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

An-225.

  • Subsonic rocket carrier. Loaded/empty mass 600,000/216,000 kg. Thrust 1,387.07 kN. Specific impulse 9000 seconds. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

Ananoff.

  • Ananoff, Alexandre Franco-Russian aerospace and science writer who published the encylopedic L'Astronautique in March 1950. A leading advocate for spaceflight in France and also instrumental in the founding of the International Astronautical Federation.

Anders.

  • Anders, William Alison 'Bill' (1933-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 8. Member of first crew to orbit the moon.

Anderson.

  • Anderson, Michael Phillip (1959-2003) African-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-89, STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry.

Anderson, Clayton.

  • Anderson, Clayton Conrad (1959-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-15-1, STS-131.

Anderson, Lloyd.

  • Anderson, Lloyd Lynn Jr (1952-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1988-1989.

Anderson, Robert.

  • Anderson, Robert American engineer. President of Rockwell International during development of the space shuttle.

Andoya.

  • Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) is the world's northernmost permanent launch facility for sounding rockets and scientific balloons and is responsible for all scientific-related balloon and rocket operations in Norwegian territory. ARR provides complete services for launch, operations, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The range has conducted more than 650 rocket launches and hosted scientists and engineers from more than 70 institutes and universities.

Andoya Athena.

  • Black Brant launch complex.

Andoya Haugnes.

  • Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. Haugnes site

Andoya LC10.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Andoya LC5.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Andoya LC9.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Andoya U3.

  • S, Black Brant launch complex. Universal Launcher

Andreas.

  • Andreas, Gunter German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.

Andre-Deshays.

  • Haignere, Claudie nee Andre-Deshays (1957-) French biologist cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Cassiopee, ISS EP-2. Biologist, first French female astronaut. Was married to astronaut Jean-PIerre Haignere.

Andrews.

  • American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Andrews, USA.

Andrews ETOS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Earth-to-Orbit Segment booster for Andrews CEV architecture. Consisted of an Atlas V core, two Zenit-2 booster strap-ons, and a new-development Lox/LH2 upper stage.

Andreyev.

  • Andreyev, Boris Dmitriyevich (1940-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Off flight roster for medical reasons. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB

Andropov, Dmitri.

  • Andropov, Dmitri Grigoryevich (1932-) Russian officer. Chief of the Directorate for the Main Direction of Forces of NKS Space Forces from 1987 to 1989.

Andryushkov.

  • Andryushkov, Aleksandr Stepanovich (1947-2007) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992.

Angara.

  • Launch System of V-860P surface-to-air missile.

Angara.

  • Launch System of S-200 missile.

Angara.

  • The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change.

Angara.

  • The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change.

Angara 1.1.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The initial flight version would be the Angara 1.1, featuring a single URM core module with the existing Briz upper stage. Payload would be 2.0 tonnes to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). Other vehicle variants were numbered according to the number of URM's.

Angara 1.2.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. First planned upgrade of Angara, the 1.2 version would use a new Block I lox/kerosene upper stage. Payload would be 3.7 tonnes to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit.

Angara 3A.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 3A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use two universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters flanking one URM in the core, with a Lox/Kerosene upper stage. It could put 14 tonnes into low earth orbit

Angara 4A.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 4A had the same configuration as the Angara 1.2 but with a winged, recoverable URM. The booster would have 158 tonnes lift-off mass, and could place a 2.7 tonne payload into a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). The winged URM would have two jet engines and fly back to the Mirniy airfield at Plesetsk for recovery. One problem was that some abort profiles would require overflight of Norway. First flight of this version was predicted for 2003 in 1998.

Angara 5A.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 5A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use four universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters surrounding one URM in the core, with a Lox/LH2 upper stage. It could put 5.0 tonnes into geosynchronous orbit, or 8.0 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Angara A-2.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds. Two thrust levels. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 162 bar.

Angara Briz M.

  • Russian space tug. Study 2004. Upper stage / space tug - in development 2004. Launched by Angara launch vehicle family.. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1.

Angara Briz M.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,565/1,600 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325.5 seconds. Version proposed as Angara upper stage. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1.

Angara KVRB.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,300/3,500 kg. Thrust 73.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 461 seconds. Planned version for Angara. 5 restarts.

Angara Orel.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Orel, consisted of the Angara 3I plus an MKK spaceplane, similar to the MAKS. This would have a 431 tonne gross lift-off mass, with the spacecraft weighing 13.5 tonnes including a 4.2 tonne payload. This could be an eventual replacement of the Soyuz spacecraft for ferry of crews to space stations.

Angara Stage 1.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Product of Khrunichev. Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance.

Angara Stage 2.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 75,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Buildt by NPO Energia to Khrunichev design (their own design for Angara and Energia-M were rejected in favor of Khrunichev version). Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. Assumed that engine is throttled back to maintain constant 3-G acceleration.

Angara UM.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 140,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,094.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337.5 seconds. Can be throttled to 95%. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 257 bar.

Angele.

  • Angele, Wilhelm (1905-1996) German-American engineer. Avid amateur astronomer, control specialist in von Braun's Rocket Team. Became Head of Pilot Manufacturing Development Branch, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville.

Angstrom.

  • Unit of length employed to measure wave lengths of light. One Angstrom unit is one ten-thousandth of a micrometer or one ten-billionth of a meter. Ten Angstrom units make one nanometer.

Anhueng.

  • South Korean sounding rocket launch site, used from June 1993, known to have been used for 5 launches from 1993 to 2002, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Anik.

  • Telecommunications satellite system, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite provides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada. Operating entity - Telesat Canada.

Anik.

  • Canadian communications satellite. 2 launches, 1978.12.15 (Anik B1 (Telesat 4)) and (DRIMS). Function - telecommunications. Operating entity - Telesat Canada.

Anikeyev.

  • Anikeyev, Ivan Nikolayevich (1933-1992) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Left with Filatyev and Nelyubov after alcohol incident. After discharge, again served as Air Force pilot and then navigation officer for ground control services of the Soviet Air Force.

Aniline.

  • Aniline was used as a hypergolic fuel in several early rocket engines of the 1940's. It was used straight or with furfural alcohol to improve its cooling properties. It was quickly succeeded after the war by hydrazine in storable rocket applications. Aniline is a colourless, oily liquid which darkens on exposure to light or air. Its odour is weakly amine. Solubility is 3.5 g in 100 g water @ 20C. It is stable under ordinary conditions of use. Aniline ignites spontaneously in the presence of red fuming nitric acid, and with sodium.

Anisimov.

  • Anisimov, Dmitri Ivanovich (1931-) Russian officer. Major-General, Deputy Chief of 53-NIIP-MO for research, test, and scientific work 1974-1985.

Anna.

  • American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1962.05.10 (Anna 1A) and 1962.10.31 (Anna 1B).

Anna Plains.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 4 launches in 1997, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude.

Anokhin.

  • Anokhin, Sergei Nikolayevich (1910-1986) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1966-1968.

anomaly.

  • In general, a deviation from the norm, an irregularity, a malfunction.

ANS.

  • Dutch visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 1974.08.30. Astronomical Netherlands Satellite; lower than planned orbit.

Ansari.

  • Ansari, Anousheh nee Raissyan (1966-) Iranian-American engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-11. First female space tourist. First Iranian in space.

Anshakov.

  • Anshakov, Gennadiy Petrovich (1937-) Russian engineer. Designer of automated information systems for spacecraft, General Designer at TsKB Progress.

ANSI.

  • American National Standards Institute

Antarctica.

  • Antarctica

Antares.

  • Antares was a re-entry vehicle test booster. The first three stages lofted the fourth stage and RV model to 150 km altitude. The fourth stage then fired downward to ram the RV at Mach 7 into the atmosphere.

Antares.

  • French test vehicle. Antares was a re-entry vehicle test booster. The first three stages lofted the fourth stage and RV model to 150 km altitude. The fourth stage then fired downward to ram the RV at Mach 7 into the atmosphere.

Antares 1A.

  • Alternate designation for X-254 Solid rocket engine.

Antares 1A.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,225/294 kg. Thrust 60.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 256 seconds.

Antares 2.

  • Alternate designation for X-259 Solid rocket engine.

Antares 2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,400/300 kg. Thrust 93.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

Antares 3.

  • Government designation of Star 31 Solid rocket engine.

Antares 3A.

  • Alternate designation for X-259A Solid rocket engine.

Antares 3A.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,637/352 kg. Thrust 80.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

Antey NPO.

Antey-2500.

  • Russian surface-to-air missile. The Antey-2500 was a new generation of the S-300V, capable of shooting down re-entry vehicles of IRBMs of up to 2500 km range.

Antey-2500.

  • The Antey-2500 was a new generation of the S-300V, capable of shooting down re-entry vehicles of IRBMs of up to 2500 km range.

anti-ballistic.

  • Category of missiles and spacecraft.

Anti-Ballistic Missile Site.

  • Category of launch sites.

Antigua.

  • Tracking facility used for a series of NASA launches from May 1972 to January 1974. The sounding rocket launch location was known to have been used for 1042 launches from 1966 to 1992, reaching up to 79 kilometers altitude.

anti-satellite.

  • Category of missiles and spacecraft.

anti-satellite target.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Antonelli.

  • Antonelli, Dominic Anthony 'Tony' (1967-) American test pilot astronaut, 2000-on.

Antrix.

  • Indian manufacturer.

Anusat.

  • 40 kg imaging satellite from Anna University, Chennai, India. Launched 2009.04.20,

AO.

  • Engine Section (Russian abbreviation)

AO Gazco.

  • Russian agency. AO Gazco, Russia.

AO Infor.

  • Russian agency. AO Infor, Russia.

AO Kosmicheskaya Svyaz.

AOA.

  • Angle Of Attack; or Abort Once Around (Shuttle abort plan used in last stage of ascent, involving reaching earth orbit, flying once around the earth, and landing at Kennedy Space Center)

AOCS.

  • Attitude and Orbit Control System

AOIK.

  • AO Informkosmos, Russia

A-OK.

  • All-OK; Everything in good working order

AOMC.

  • Army Ordnance Missile Command

AP.

  • Ammonium perchlorate

Ap.J.

  • Astrophysical Journal

Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminised polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike.

Apache.

  • The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminised polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike.

APCS.

  • Attitude and Pointing Control System.

Apel.

  • Apel, Erich (1917-1965) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter.

APEX.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1994.08.03, P90-6 APEX.

Apex RV.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Study 2005. Spacehab's Apex design provided a family of launcher-neutral maneuverable spacecraft that could be used for resupply of the ISS and return of payloads to earth.

APGC.

  • American agency. Air Force Air Proving Ground Command.

Aphrodite.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. In July 1944, the USAAF implemented the idea to convert "war-weary" B-17 Flying Fortress bombers to radio-controlled assault drones. About 25 B-17s, mostly B-17F, were converted to BQ-7 configuration under program Aphrodite. The BQ-7 was to be flown from Great Britain against very hardened or heavily defended German targets - submarine pens or V-1 missile sites.

APL.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1963.09.28 (APL SN 39) to 1964.12.13 (APL SN 43). Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory built several satellites for the Air Force in the 1960's.

APL.

  • American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD, Laurel, Maryland, USA.

APM.

  • Attached Pressurized Module (a.k.a. Columbus)

apogee.

  • That point on the trajectory of an Earth-orbiting body which is most distant from the Earth. Also used in connection with orbits of celestial bodies around other celestial bodies.

Apogee Motor.

  • Manufacturer's designation of DFH-2 AKM Solid rocket engine.

Apollo.

  • The successful US project to land a man on the moon.

Apollo.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Apollo (ASTP).

  • Crew: Brand, Slayton, Stafford. First international joint manned space mission; first docking between two spacecraft launched from different countries. Crew nearly killed by toxic propellant vapours dumped into the cabin air supply during re-entry. Backup crew: Bean, Evans, Lousma.

Apollo 10.

  • Crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young. Speed record (11,107 m/s). Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon. LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of moon but did not land. Backup crew: Cooper, Eisele, Mitchell.

Apollo 11.

  • Crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Collins. First manned lunar landing. The end of the moon race and public support for large space programs. The many changes made after the Apollo 204 fire paid off; all went according to plan, virtually no problems. Backup crew: Anders, Haise, Lovell.

Apollo 12.

  • Crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon. Second manned lunar landing. Precision landing near Surveyor 3 that landed in 1967. Lightning struck the booster twice during ascent. Decision was made to press on to moon, despite possibility landing pyrotechnics damaged. Backup crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden.

Apollo 120 in Telescope.

  • American manned space station. Study 1968. Concept for use of a Saturn V-launched Apollo CSM with an enormous 10 m diameter space laboratory equipped with a 3 m diameter astronomical telescope.

Apollo 13.

  • Crew: Haise, Lovell, Swigert. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Fuel cell tank exploded en route to the moon, resulting in loss of all power and oxygen. Only through use of the still-attached LM as a lifeboat could the crew survive to return to earth. Backup crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young.Support crew: Brand, Lousma, Kerwin.

Apollo 14.

  • Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached. Backup crew: Cernan, Engle, Evans.Support crew: Chapman, McCandless, Pogue.

Apollo 15.

  • Crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. First use of lunar rover on moon. Beautiful images of crew prospecting at edge of Hadley Rille. One of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but survivable splashdown. Backup crew: Brand, Gordon, Schmitt.

Apollo 16.

  • Crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young. Second Apollo mission with lunar rover. CSM main engine failure detected in lunar orbit. Landing almost aborted. Backup crew: Haise, Mitchell, Roosa.

Apollo 17.

  • Crew: Cernan, Evans, Schmitt. Final Apollo lunar landing mission. First geologist to walk on the moon. Backup crew: Duke, Roosa, Young.

Apollo 18.

  • Crew: Gordon, Brand, Schmitt. Apollo 18 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in the moon's Schroter's Valley, a riverlike channel-way. The original February 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970.Support crew: Allen, Henize, Parker.

Apollo 19.

  • Crew: Haise, Pogue, Carr. Apollo 19 was originally planned to land in the Hyginus Rille region, which would allow study of lunar linear rilles and craters.The original July 1972 landing date was extended when NASA cancelled the Apollo 20 mission in January 1970.Support crew: England, Hartsfield, Peterson.

Apollo 20.

  • Crew: Roosa, Lind, Lousma. Apollo 20 was originally planned in July 1969 to land in Crater Copernicus, a spectacular large crater impact area. Later Copernicus was assigned to Apollo 19, and the preferred landing site for Apollo 20 was the Marius Hills or Tycho.

Apollo 204.

  • Crew: Chaffee, Grissom, White. The first manned flight of the Apollo CSM, the Apollo C category mission. Crew killed in a fire while testing their capsule on the pad on 27 January 1967, still weeks away from launch. Set back Apollo program by 18 months. Backup crew: McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart, Schirra, Eisele, Cunningham.

Apollo 205.

  • Crew: Cunningham, Eisele, Schirra. Planned second solo flight test of the Block I Apollo CSM on a Saturn IB. Cancelled after the Apollo 204 fire. Backup crew: Borman, Collins, Stafford.

Apollo 207.

  • Crew: McDivitt, Schweickart, Scott. Planned Apollo D mission. Two Saturn IB launches would put Apollo CSM and LM into orbit. CSM crew would dock with LM, test it in earth orbit. Cancelled after Apollo 204 fire. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young.

Apollo 503.

  • Crew: Borman, Collins, Anders. Cancelled Apollo E mission - test of the Apollo lunar module in high earth orbit. Lunar module was not ready. Instead mission flown only with CSM into lunar orbit only as Apollo 8. Backup crew: Conrad, Williams Clifton, Gordon.

Apollo 7.

  • Crew: Cunningham, Eisele, Schirra. First manned test of the Apollo spacecraft. Although the systems worked well, the crew became grumpy with head colds and talked back to the ground. As a result, NASA management determined that none of them would fly again. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young.

Apollo 8.

  • Crew: Anders, Borman, Lovell. First manned flight to lunar orbit. Speed (10,807 m/s) and altitude (378,504 km) records. Mission resulted from audacious decision to send crew around moon to beat Soviets on only second manned Apollo CSM mission and third Saturn V launch. Backup crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Haise.

Apollo 9.

  • Crew: McDivitt, Schweickart, Scott. First manned test of the Lunar Module. First test of the Apollo space suits. First manned flight of a spacecraft incapable of returning to earth. If rendezvous of the Lunar Module with the Apollo CSM had failed, crew would have been stranded in orbit. Backup crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon.

Apollo A.

  • American manned space station. Study 1961. Apollo A was a lighter-weight July 1961 version of the Apollo spacecraft.

Apollo A7L Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for A7L space suit.

Apollo ALSEP.

  • American lunar lander. 7 launches, 1969.07.16 (EASEP) to 1972.12.07 (ALSEP). ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) was the array of connected scientific instruments left behind on the lunar surface by each Apollo expedition.

Apollo Applications A9L Space Suit.

  • Alternate designation for A9L space suit.

Apollo ASTP Docking Module.

  • American manned space station module. One launch, 1975.07.15, Docking Module 2. The ASTP docking module was basically an airlock with docking facilities on each end to allow crew transfer between the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.

Apollo ATM.

  • American manned space station. Study 1966. The Apollo Telescope Mount began as a solar telescope built into the spaceframe of an Apollo lunar module.

Apollo CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)).

Apollo CM Escape Concept.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Escape capsule using Apollo command module studied by Rockwell for NASA for use with the shuttle in the 1970's-80's. Mass per crew: 750 kg.

Apollo CMLS.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Study 1966.

Apollo CSM.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions.

Apollo CSM Block I.

  • American manned spacecraft. The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions.

Apollo CSM Boilerplate.

  • American manned spacecraft. Boilerplate structural Apollo CSM's were used for various systems and booster tests, especially proving of the LES (launch escape system).

Apollo D-2.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1962. The General Electric design for Apollo put all systems and space not necessary for re-entry and recovery into a separate jettisonable 'mission module', joined to the re-entry vehicle by a hatch.

Apollo Direct 2-Man.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 75% scale 2-man Apollo command module.

Apollo Direct CM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Conventional spacecraft structures were employed, following the proven materials and concepts demonstrated in the Mercury and Gemini designs.

Apollo Direct RM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The retrograde module supplied the velocity increments required during the translunar portion of the mission up to a staging point approximately 1800 m above the lunar surface.

Apollo Direct SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. The Service Module housed the fuel cells, environmental control, and other major equipment items required for the mission.

Apollo Direct TLM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Final letdown, translation hover and landing on the lunar surface from 1800 m above the surface was performed by the terminal landing module. Engine thrust could be throttled down to 1546 kgf.

Apollo ELS.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The capabilities of a lunar shelter not derived from Apollo hardware were surveyed in the Early Lunar Shelter Study (ELS), completed in February 1967 by AiResearch.

Apollo Experiments Pallet.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Experiments Pallet was a sophisticated instrument payload that would have been installed in the Apollo CSM for dedicated lunar or earth orbital resource assessment missions.

Apollo Extension Systems.

Apollo L-2C.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's L-2C design was the basis for the Apollo spacecraft that ultimately emerged. The 2590 kg command module was a flat-bottomed cone, 3. 91 m in diameter, 2.67 m high, with a rounded apex.

Apollo LASS.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. In the LASS (LM Adapter Surface Station) lunar shelter concept, the LM ascent stage was replaced by an SLA 'mini-base' and the position of the Apollo Service Module (SM) was reversed.

Apollo LASS S-IVB.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. The Douglas Company (DAC) proposed the "Lunar Application of a Spent S-IVB Stage (LASS)". The LASS concept required a landing gear on a S-IVB Stage.

Apollo Lenticular.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The Convair/Astronautics alternate Lenticular Apollo was a flying saucer configuration with the highest hypersonic lift to drag ratio (4.4) of any proposed design.

Apollo LES.

  • American test vehicle. Flight tests from a surface pad of the Apollo Launch Escape System using a boilerplate capsule.

Apollo LES-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,500 kg. Thrust 690.00 kN.

Apollo LLRF.

  • American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. The Lunar Landing Research Facility. The huge structure (76.2 m high and 121.9 m long) was used to explore techniques and to forecast various problems of landing on the moon.

Apollo LLRV.

  • American manned lunar lander test vehicle. Study 1964. Bell Aerosystems initially built two manned lunar landing research vehicles (LLRV) for NASA to assess the handling characteristics of Apollo LM-type vehicles on earth.

Apollo LLTV.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LLRV manned lunar lander test vehicle.

Apollo LM.

  • American manned lunar lander. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17).

Apollo LM AS.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17).

Apollo LM CSD.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1965. The Apollo Lunar Module was considered for military use in the Covert Space Denial role in 1964.

Apollo LM DS.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 10 launches, 1968.01.22 (Apollo 5) to 1972.12.07 (Apollo 17).

Apollo LM Lab.

  • American manned space station. Study 1965. Use of the Apollo LM as an earth-orbiting laboratory was proposed for Apollo Applications Program missions.

Apollo LM Shelter.

  • American manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1968. The LM Shelter was essentially an Apollo LM lunar module with ascent stage engine and fuel tanks removed and replaced with consumables and scientific equipment for 14 days extended lunar exploration.

Apollo LM Taxi.

  • American manned lunar lander. Cancelled 1968. The LM Taxi was essentially the basic Apollo LM modified for extended lunar surface stays.

Apollo LM Truck.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1968. The LM Truck was an LM Descent stage adapted for unmanned delivery of payloads of up to 5,000 kg to the lunar surface in support of a lunar base using Apollo technology.

Apollo LMAL.

  • American manned space station. Study 1968.

Apollo LMSS.

  • American manned space station. Cancelled 1967. Under the Apollo Applications Program NASA began hardware and software procurement, development, and testing for a Lunar Mapping and Survey System. The system would be mounted in an Apollo CSM.

Apollo Logistics Support System.

Apollo LPM.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1968. The unmanned portion of the Lunar Surface Rendezvous and Exploration Phase of Apollo envisioned in 1969 was the Lunar Payload Module (LPM).

Apollo LRM.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. Grumman proposed to use the LM as a lunar reconnaissance module. But NASA had already considered this and many other possibilities (Apollo MSS, Apollo LMSS); and there was no budget available for any of them.

Apollo LRV.

  • American manned lunar rover. 3 launches, 1971.07.26 (LRV-1) to 1972.12.07 (LRV-3).

Apollo LTA.

  • American technology satellite. 3 launches, 1967.11.09 (LTA-10R) to 1968.12.21 (LTA-B). Apollo Lunar module Test Articles were simple mass/structural models of the Lunar Module.

Apollo Lunar Landing.

  • American manned lunar expedition. Begun in 1962; first landing on the moon 1969; sixth and final lunar landing 1972. The project that succeeded in putting a man on the moon.

Apollo M-1.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Convair/Astronautics preferred M-1 Apollo design was a three-module lunar-orbiting spacecraft.

Apollo Martin 410.

  • American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The Model 410 was Martin's preferred design for the Apollo spacecraft.

Apollo MET.

  • American lunar hand cart. Flown 1971. NASA designed the MET lunar hand cart to help with problems such as the Apollo 12 astronauts had in carrying hand tools, sample boxes and bags, a stereo camera, and other equipment on the lunar surface.

Apollo MSS.

  • American manned lunar orbiter. Study 1965. The Apollo Mapping and Survey System was a kit of photographic equipment that was at one time part of the basic Apollo Block II configuration.

Apollo R-3.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. General Electric's Apollo horizontal-landing alternative to the ballistic D-2 capsule was the R-3 lifting body. This modified lenticular shape provided a lift-to-drag ratio of just 0.

Apollo Rescue CSM.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. Influenced by the stranded Skylab crew portrayed in the book and movie 'Marooned', NASA provided a crew rescue capability for the first time in its history.

Apollo RM.

  • American logistics spacecraft. Study 1967. In 1967 it was planned that Saturn IB-launched Orbital Workshops would be supplied by Apollo CSM spacecraft and Resupply Modules (RM) with up to three metric tons of supplies and instruments.

Apollo SA-11.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Apollo SA-12.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Apollo SA-13.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Apollo SA-14.

  • From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. Cancelled in October 1963 in order to fly all-up manned Apollo CSM on more powerful Saturn IB.

Apollo SM.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)).

Apollo SMLL.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1966. North American Aviation (NAA) proposed use of the SM as a lunar logistics vehicle (LLV) in 1966. The configuration, simply stated, put a landing gear on the SM.

Apollo Spacecraft Systems Development Diaries.

  • Detailed chronologies of development of Apollo spacecraft systems, arranged by system and configuration.....

Apollo Telescope Mount.

  • Alternate designation for Skylab ATM manned space station module or Apollo ATM manned space station.

Apollo ULS.

  • American lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. An Apollo unmanned logistic system to aid astronauts on a lunar landing mission was studied.

Apollo W-1.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1962. Martin's W-1 design for the Apollo spacecraft was an alternative to the preferred L-2C configuration. The 2652 kg command module was a blunt cone lifting body re-entry vehicle, 3.45 m in diameter, 3.61 m long.

Apollo X.

  • American manned space station. Study 1963.

Apollo-I.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Apollo RM logistics spacecraft.

apolune.

  • That point in a lunar&endash;centric orbit which is most distant from the Moon.

APOS.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Almaz APOS manned space station.

APOS.

  • Advanced piloted orbital station (Russian abbreviation)

APPI.

  • Autonomous Points of Information Collection (Russian abbreviation)

Applications Technology Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for ATS-1 communications technology satellite.

Aprize.

  • Argentinan manufacturer of spacecraft. Aprize Satellite, Argentina.

AprizeSat.

  • American civilian store-dump communications satellite. 6 launches, 2002.12.20 (LatinSat 1) to 2009.07.29. Aprize's satellites were miniature spacecraft designed and optimized for data relay with very low power consumption.

APS.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1989. The Advanced Pressure Suit (APS) was a bladder type partial pressure suit designed and developed by Northrop and ILC Dover for the F-23 Advanced Tactical Fighter.

APS.

  • Ascent propulsion system (Apollo LM component); also auxiliary propulsion system

Apstar.

  • Asia-Pacific communications.

APT.

  • Chinese agency. APT Satellite Company (Asia Pacific Telecom), Hong Kong, China.

Apt.

  • Apt, Dr Jerome J III 'Jay' (1949-) American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-47, STS-59, STS-79.

Apt, Milburn.

  • Apt, Milburn (1924-1956) Jewish-American test pilot, killed in 1956 air catastrophe with X-2 # 1.

APU.

  • Auxiliary Power Unit

Aqua.

  • American earth sea satellite. One launch, 2002.05.04. Aqua was also designated the EOS-PM Earth Observing System satellite, joining EOS-AM/Terra. The CERES and MODIS instruments aboard Aqua were also carried on the Terra satellite.

Aquacade.

  • Code name for Rhyolite military naval signals reconnaisance satellite.

Aquarius.

  • American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Proposed expendable, water launch, single-stage-to-orbit, liquid oxygen/hydrogen, low-cost launch vehicle designed to carry small bulk payloads to low earth orbit. A unique attribute was that low reliability was accepted in order to achieve low cost.

Aquila.

Aquila.

  • Alternate designation for AMROC rocket stage.

AR1.

  • Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. 22.260 kN. Engine for FJ-4F naval interceptor.

AR2-3.

  • Rocketdyne h2o2/kerosene rocket engine. 29.341 kN. Future-X Demonstrator Engine. Gas generator, pump-fed. Heritage technology in evaluation for current applications. X-37 Reusable Upper Stage Vehicle. Isp=245s.

Arab States.

  • Arab States

Arabsat.

  • Telecommunications satellite.

Arabsat.

  • Arab agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Arab States.

Araks.

  • Alternate designation for Arkon-1 military surveillance satellite.

Arboleda.

  • Un. S. Arboleda, Colombia

ARC.

  • Ames Research Center (NASA); or Astrophysical Research Consortium

Arcas.

  • American sounding rocket. The Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with the support of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Primarily a meteorological rocket, the Arcas was first fired in July 1959. The single-stage version was designed to lift 5.4 kg to 64 km. For more demanding missions, several versions of boosted Arcas were developed, as well as a stretched Super Arcas motor.

Arcas.

  • The Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with the support of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Primarily a meteorological rocket, the Arcas was first fired in July 1959. The single-stage version was designed to lift 5.4 kg to 64 km. For more demanding missions, several versions of boosted Arcas were developed, as well as a stretched Super Arcas motor.

Arcas-Robin.

  • American sounding rocket.

Archambault.

  • Archambault, Lee Joseph 'Bru' (1960-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-117, STS-119. Grew up in Bellwood, Illinois. Flew 22 combat missions in F-117s during the Gulf War.

Architect.

  • Category of persons.

Arcon.

  • American sounding rocket. Similar to the Deacon and Cajun. Developed by the Atlantic Research Corp. for NRL. First used in 1958. Designed to lift 18 kg to 113 km. The two-stage vehicle consisted of two Arcon motors in tandem.

Arcon.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 4.5 kN.

Arcon booster.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 14 kN.

Arcon-0.

  • Solid rocket stage. 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf) thrust.

Arcon-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Arctic Ocean.

  • Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Arctic accounted for 9 launches from 1952 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

ARD.

  • French re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1998.10.21. The ARD was an 80 percent scale model of the Apollo Command Module, and a technology test for a possible International Space Station Crew Rescue Vehicle.

ARDC.

  • Air Research and Development Command

Arde.

  • American manufacturer. Arde, Norwood, NJ, USA.

Ardenne.

  • Ardenne, Manfred Baron von (1907-1997) German Professor. Atomic physicist; worked in the Soviet Union after World War II.

Arecibo.

  • Sounding rocket launch site near world's largest radio telescope, known to have been used for 40 launches from 1966 to 1998, reaching up to 375 kilometers altitude.

Arecibo HAD.

  • HAD launcher

Arecibo MRL.

  • MRL launcher

Arecibo VB.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Nike, Javelin, Apache launch complex. Vega Baja

Ares.

  • The design selected to boost America's Orion manned spacecraft into space in the 21st Century was a family of launch vehicles dubbed Ares. Originally sold as being derivatives of space shuttle technology, tinkering by NASA engineers and necessary changes during development quickly resulted in the designs being essentially all-new. After inevitable delays and cost escalation, the Ares was cancelled in 2010.

Ares.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The design selected to boost America's Orion manned spacecraft into space in the 21st Century was a family of launch vehicles dubbed Ares. Originally sold as being derivatives of space shuttle technology, tinkering by NASA engineers and necessary changes during development quickly resulted in the designs being essentially all-new. Following inevitable cost growth and schedule slippage, it was cancelled in 2010.

Ares.

  • French spaceplane. Study 1998. Small 7-meter long delta wing spaceplane, proposed by Aerospatiale, weighing 2,000 kg. Launched 2009.10.28,

Ares.

  • Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 440 kN. SSTO ICBM. Development 1968. Isp=370s. Advanced Rocket Engine System - single shaft turbopump, integrated single pressure vessel in a staged combustion cycle configuration.

Ares FBB.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The ARES ((Affordable REsponsive Spacelift) concept was of a reusable fly-back booster with expendable upper stages. The US Air Force began development of a demonstrator in May 2005, with a first flight date of 2010. It was felt that derivatives of the concept could support all space lift requirements of the USAF.

Ares I.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Shuttle-derived launch vehicle design selected by NASA Administrator Mike Griffin to boost the manned CEV Crew Exploration Vehicle into low earth orbit. A single five-segment version of the shuttle solid rocket booster would be mated with a Lox/LH2 upper stage powered by a single J-2S engine.

Ares I-2.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 158,500/20,500 kg. Thrust 1,304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 448 seconds. Second stage figures as of summer 2008. Dry mass includes 2500 kg for avionics bay.

Ares ICBM.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. The Ares single-stage, liquid-propellant ICBM was the objective of propulsion studies at both Aerojet and Rocketdyne.

Ares Mars Direct.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Ares launch vehicle was designed for support of Zubrin's Mars Direct expedition. It was a shuttle-derived design taking maximum advantage of existing hardware. It would use shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Boosters, a modified shuttle external tank for handling vertically-mounted payloads, and a new Lox/LH2 third stage for trans-Mars or trans-lunar injection of the payload. Ares would put 121 tonnes into a 300 km circular orbit , boost 59 tonnes toward the moon or 47 tonnes toward Mars. Without the upper stage 75 tonnes could be placed in low earth orbit.

Ares Stage 1.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 787,700/64,200 kg. Thrust 8,705.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 453 seconds. Core vehicle proposed by NASA for Project Constellation exploration of moon and Mars. It would use shuttle external tank tooling. All masses estimated.

Ares Stage 2.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 172,000/13,200 kg. Thrust 1,113.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 465 seconds. Second stage proposed later in design stage by NASA for launch of CEV into low earth orbit. All masses estimated.

Ares V.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA baseline heavy-lift vehicle to renew manned lunar exploration by 2020.

Argentina.

  • The Argentine Interplanetary Society was organized in the 1940's. In 1952 Argentina was one of the founding members of the International Astronautical Federation. From 1960 the Comision Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales (CNIE) worked with the Argentine Air Force's Instituto de Investigaciones Aeronauticas y Espaciales (IIAE) to develop indigenous sounding rockets and missiles. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to send an object into space using an indigenously-developed rocket. In the 1980's Argentina took part in a multinational effort to develop the Condor intermediate range missile. Under American pressure, the Condor Program was canceled in 1991, the IIAE and CNIE were dismantled, and further work on launch vehicles was banned. A new civilian space agency, CONAE was created, which concentrated on development of surveillance satellites for earth resource and environmental monitoring.

Argentine Air Force.

Argo.

  • Alternate Designation of Jason sounding rocket.

Argo.

  • American sounding rocket. Argo sounding rockets measured radiation caused by the Project Argus high altitude nuclear explosions. The missiles reached 800 km altitude, and were launched from Wallops Island, AMR, and Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico. The Argo A-1, also known as Percheron, consisted of a modified Sergeant plus 2 Recruits, and was later used on occasion by NASA's Langley Research Center. It could lift 180 kg to 177 km. The Argo D-4, D-8, and E-5 are listed under Javelin, Journeyman, and Jason.

Argo D-4.

  • Alternate Designation of Javelin sounding rocket.

Argo D-8.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Journeyman sounding rocket.

Argo E-5.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Jason sounding rocket.

Argon.

  • Code name for Zenit-6U military surveillance satellite.

Argon.

  • Code name for KH-5 military surveillance satellite.

ARGOS.

  • American ion engine technology satellite. One launch, 1999.02.23. ARGOS was the USAF Space Test Program P91-1 technology satellite by Boeing/Seal Beach.

Argus.

  • American sounding rocket. NASA Bios (biological investigation of space).

Ariane.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros.

Ariane.

  • First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros.

Ariane 1.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. First version of the Ariane launch vehicle.

Ariane 1-1.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 160,030/13,750 kg. Thrust 2,771.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds.

Ariane 1-2.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 37,130/3,625 kg. Thrust 720.97 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Ariane 2.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Basic three stage vehicle without solid rocket motor strap-ons. Payload to geosynchronous transfer orbit was 2,175 kg.

Ariane 2/3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Improved version of the Ariane 1. It featured increased thrust first and second stage engines, a 25% stretched third stage, 4 seconds specific impulse improvement in the third stage, a larger internal payload fairing volume, and introduced the Sylda payload carrier for dual payloads. The Ariane 3 version added two solid rocket motor strap-ons. Development was authorised in July 1980 and had a total cost of 144 million 1986 Euros.

Ariane 2010.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Projected version of Ariane 5 with improvements in engine and materials.

Ariane 2-1.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 160,030/13,750 kg. Thrust 2,880.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds.

Ariane 2-2.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 37,130/3,625 kg. Thrust 805.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Ariane 3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x PAP solid rocket boosters + Ariane 2 core.

Ariane 3-0.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,663/2,313 kg. Thrust 689.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Ariane 4.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. The ultimate Ariane development. Compared with the Ariane 2/3, the Ariane 4 featured stretched first (61%) and third stages, a strengthened structure, new propulsion bay layouts, new avionics, and the Spelda dual-payload carrier. The basic 40 version used no strap-on motors, while the Ariane 42L, 44L, 42P, 44P, and 44LP versions used varous combinations of solid and liquid propellant strap-on motors). Development was authorised in January 1982, with the objective of increasing payload by 90%. Total development cost 476 million 1986 ECU's.

Ariane 40.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage core vehicle with original Ariane H10 upper stage. A fully fueled Ariane core cannot lift off the ground without strap-on liquid or solid motors. When Ariane 4 is launched in this configuration, the propellant tanks of the first and second stages are not completely filled.

Ariane 40-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. 3 stage core vehicle with Ariane Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 40p.

  • 3 stage core vehicle with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 4-1.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 245,900/17,900 kg. Thrust 3,034.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

Ariane 42L.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 42L-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 42L but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 42P.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 solid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 42P-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 42P but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 42Pp.

  • As Ariane 42P but with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 44L.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 44L-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 44L but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 44LP.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket + 2 solid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 44LP-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 44LP but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 44Lplus.

  • As Ariane 44L but with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 44LPp.

  • As Ariane 44LP but with Ariane H10+ upper stage.

Ariane 44P.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 solid rocket strap-ons.

Ariane 44P-3.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. As Ariane 44P but with Ariane H10-3 upper stage.

Ariane 4L.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,772/4,493 kg. Thrust 752.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

Ariane 5.

  • The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000.

Ariane 5.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000.

Ariane 5 EAP.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 278,330/38,200 kg. Thrust 6,470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Increased propellant loading (+2.43 tonnes), lighter welded case (-1.6 tonnes) compared to earlier versions.

Ariane 5 EC-B.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. The ultimate evolved Ariane 5 funded as of the end of the millenium. A larger Lox/LH2 upper stage using the Vinci motor in place of the HM7B. The core remains the same. Result is an increase in GTO payload from 10.5 tonnes to 12.0 tonnes.

Ariane 5 EPC.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 186,000/12,700 kg. Thrust 1,114.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 434 seconds. 15.2 tonnes increased propellant by moving liquid oxygen bulkhead.

Ariane 5 EPS L10.

  • N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,750/2,750 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 324 seconds. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version.

Ariane 5 EPS L10.

  • German space tug. Study 2003. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Ariane 5V. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version.

Ariane 5 ESC A.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,500/2,100 kg. Thrust 64.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds. Uses engine and oxygen tank from Ariane 4 + new liquid hydrogen tank.

Ariane 5 ESC B.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,500/3,400 kg. Thrust 153.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 467 seconds. New upper stage for Ariane 5.

Ariane 5 ESC B.

  • German space tug. Study 2006. Upper stage / space tug - in production. New upper stage for Ariane 5.

Ariane 5 FLS.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Partially reusable concept of 1988 using Ariane 5 core with twin reusable flyback boosters.

Ariane 5 RRL.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Partially reusable concept of 1993 using Ariane 5 core with flyback booster stages with Russian engines (RD-120 or RD-701).

Ariane 5 V.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Version of the evolved Ariane 5 using a version of the EPS storable propellant stage instead of a new Lox/LH2 stage. Result is a payload to GTO of 8 tonnes. The use of the new Aestus restartable engine in the upper stage fitted the vehicle for space station logistics missions or launch of space probes requiring complex orbital maneouvres.

Ariane 5 Versatile.

  • Alternate designation for Ariane 5 V orbital launch vehicle.

Ariane 5 VTVL.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Partially reusable concept of 1995 using Ariane 5 core with vertical takeoff, vertical landing boosters.

Ariane 5-0.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 277,500/39,800 kg. Thrust 6,470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Solid rocket booster for Ariane 5. Nozzle expansion ratio increased from 9.7 to 11.0 after 1997. Chamber pressure 61.3 bar. HTPB propellant.

Ariane 5-2.

  • N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,500/2,700 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 324 seconds. Storable propellant, restartable upper stage for use with Ariane 5. Chamber pressure 10 bar; expansion ratio 83.0; propellant mix ratio 2.05. Empty mass without VEB payload fairing support ring and avionics is 1200 kg.

Ariane 5ECA.

  • French orbital launch vehicle, first version of the evolved Ariane 5. The solid booster motors propellant load was increased by 2.43 tonnes and the case was welded, for a weight saving in dry mass of 1.9 tonnes. The core was powered by an improved Vulcain 2 engine. The oxygen-rich cycle of the engine allowed the oxygen bulkhead to be moved within the stage, resulting in a 15.2 tonne increase in propellant in the core. A new Lox/LH2 upper stage, using the HM7B engine and oxygen tank from the Ariane 4 series, replaced the storable propellant EPS stage of earlier models. The result was an increase in payload to geoscynchronous transfer orbit from 6 tonnes to 10.5 tonnes.

Ariane 5ES.

  • Version of the Ariane 5 designed to orbit ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) resupply vehicle for the International Space Station.

Ariane 5G.

  • French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads.

Ariane 5Gp.

  • French orbital launch vehicle.

Ariane 5GS.

  • French orbital launch vehicle.

Ariane 6.

  • Manufacturer's designation for FLTP winged orbital launch vehicle.

Ariane H10.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,000/1,600 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds.

Ariane H10-3.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,310/1,570 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds.

Ariane H10plus.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,800/1,740 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds.

Ariane H155.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 170,800/12,700 kg. Thrust 1,114.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 430 seconds. Chamber pressure 108 bar; expansion ratio 45.0; propellant mix ratio 5.3.

Ariane H8.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,687/1,457 kg. Thrust 61.67 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 443 seconds. High energy upper stage for Ariane booster series.

Arianespace.

  • French agency. Arianespace SA, France.

Ariel.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1962.04.26 (Ariel 1) to 1979.06.02 (Ariel 6). Ionospheric studies; returned X-ray, ionospheric, cosmic ray data.

Aries.

  • American target missile. Space Vector Corporation developed and flew the Aries test vehicle (based on the Minuteman 1 second stage) for Strategic Defence Initiative payloads.

Arirang.

  • South Korean civilian surveillance satellite. Study 2015. South Korean indigenously-designed, multipurpose 1500 kg sun-synchronous orbit satellite, to be lofted by KSLV-III by 2015.

Arizona.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Arizona State University, USA.

Arizona State.

  • Arizona State University, USA

Arkon-1.

  • Russian military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.06.06 (Cosmos 2344) to 2002.07.25 (Cosmos 2392).

Arkos.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1996. Applied Mechanics' Arkos satellite was to have served as the geosynchronous anchor of the Marathon telecommunications network, while the highly elliptical Mayak spacecraft completed the system.

Armadillo Aerospace.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Armadillo Aerospace, USA.

Armenia.

  • Armenia

Armor.

  • Armor, James Burton Jr (1950-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1985.

Armsco.

  • South African agency. State Arms Procurement Agency, South Africa.

Armstrong.

  • Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 8, Apollo 11. First person to step onto the moon. Member of first crew to dock in space.

Armstrong Whitworth.

  • British manufacturer of spacecraft. Armstrong Whitworth, UK.

Armstrong Whitworth Waverider.

  • British manned spaceplane. Study 1960. The Armstrong Whitworth Waverider study of the 1950`s called for a two-crew waverider spacecraft powered by a second stage atop a British Blue Streak rocket.

ARMT.

  • Chinese manufacturer of rockets. ARMT, China.

Army Ballistic Missile Agency.

Army Research Laboratory.

  • Second Owner of BRL

Army-Navy-NASA.

  • Alternate designation for Anna earth geodetic satellite.

Arno.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Arno, USA.

Arnold.

  • Arnold, Henry H 'Hap' (1886-1950) American officer. Commander of the Army Air Forces in WW2

Arnold, Ricky.

  • Arnold, Richard Robert II 'Ricky' (1963-) American teacher mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on.

ARPA.

ARPA Taurus.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x TU-904 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 50 + 1 x Orion 38

ARPAT.

  • American sounding rocket.

ARPAT-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 244.00 kN.

ARR.

  • Norwegian agency. ARR, Tromso, Norway.

Array of Low-Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors.

  • Alternate designation for ALEXIS x-ray astronomy satellite.

Arrow.

  • The Arrow weapon system was a ground-based, ballistic missile defense system designed to protect Israel against ballistic missiles.

Arrow.

  • Israeli anti-ballistic missile. The Arrow weapon system was a ground-based, ballistic missile defense system designed to protect Israel against ballistic missiles.

Arrow.

  • GCR solid rocket engine. 10 kN.

Arrow 1.

  • Prototype and initial model Israeli Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile, originally an SDIO/BMDO project.

Arrow 1-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg.

Arrow 2.

  • Israeli theater missile defense weapon developed and manufactured using substantial American funding.

Arrow 2-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg.

Arrow St2.

ARS.

  • The ARS-2 was an improvement by the American Interplanetary Socity of the German Mirak design. It used liquid oxygen and gasoline propellants, and was successfully launched on 14 May 1933. Successive rockets refined the design.

ArSat.

  • Argentinan agency. ArSat, Argentina.

Arsenal.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Arsenal Design Bureau, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Arsenal NE Tug.

  • Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. In 1994-1995 KB Arsenal collaborated with NII PME MAI, NPO Lavochkin, and others in international group to study interplanetary flight using nuclear-electric and solar-electric engines. The final selected design was a nuclear-electric interplanetary tug.

Artemis.

  • European communications technology satellite. One launch, 2001.07.12. Artemis was a European Space Agency satellite to test new communications technologies.

Artemyev.

  • Artemyev, Oleg Germanovich (1970-) Latvian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on.

Article 105.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Spiral OS manned spaceplane.

Article 50.

  • Alternate designation for Spiral OS manned spaceplane.

Article R.

  • Alternate Designation of D-6 submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Artist.

  • Category of persons.

Artsebarsky.

  • Artsebarsky, Anatoli Pavlovich (1956-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-9.

ARTV.

  • American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. 3 launches, 1958.04.24 (ARTV 1) to 1958.07.23 (ARTV 3). Suborbital advanced reentry test vehicle.

Artyukhin.

  • Artyukhin, Yuri Petrovich (1930-1998) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 14. Member of first military space station mission.

Aryabhata.

  • Indian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1975.04.19. The Soviet Union assisted India in development of Aryabhata, its first satellite, named for the Indian astronomer. The satellite conducted scientific experiments on atmospheric research.

Arzamazov.

  • Arzamazov, Dr Gherman Semyonovich (1946-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1995. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems.

AS.

  • Apollo-Saturn. Used until mid-1967 as Apollo mission designations; thereafter used as working designations, although missions were assigned 'Apollo x' numbers. AS-100 series used the Saturn I booster; AS-200 series the Saturn-IB; and AS-500 the Saturn V.

AS 1000.

  • American communications satellite. 3 launches, 1975.12.13 (Satcom 1) to 1979.12.07 (RCA Satcom 3).

AS 2100.

  • American communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1996.09.08 (GE 1). Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized.

AS 3000.

  • American communications satellite. 25 launches, 1981.11.20 (RCA Satcom 4; RCA Satcom 3R) to 1996.01.14 (Koreasat 2).

AS 4000.

  • Manufacturer's designation for GPS Block 2R navigation satellite.

AS 4000.

  • American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1985.11.27 (Satcom K2) to 1998.02.04 (Inmarsat 3 F5). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters.

AS 5000.

  • American communications satellite. 4 launches, 1991.03.02 (Astra 1B) to 1992.06.10 (Intelsat K). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 20 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters.

AS 7000.

  • American communications satellite. 13 launches, 1993.12.16 (Telstar 401) to 1998.06.18 (Intelsat 805). 3-axis stabilized. Two large solar panels with 1-axis articulation.

As The Sun Sets.

  • Poem: as the sun sets, the mourners, hoarse,...

ASA.

  • Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched airbreathing single stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia.

ASA.

  • Astronomical Society of the Atlantic

ASAT.

  • American anti-satellite missile. The ASAT air-launched anti-satellite missile was developed by Vought in response to a 1977 Air Force requirement for a missile that could be launched from an F-15A fighter yet was capable of intercepting and destroying enemy satellites in low earth orbit. Four of five tests were successful before the program was cancelled in 1988.

ASAT-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

ASBM.

  • Air-launched strategic ballistic missile

ASC.

  • British military communications satellite. 3 launches, 1985.08.27 (ASC-1) to 1991.04.13 (ASC-2 / Spacenet F4).

ASC.

  • American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. ASC, USA.

ASCA.

  • Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. Study 2005. The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics was a high throughput spectroscopic observatory.

Ascamp.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x RTV Motor

ASCAN Commandments.

  • The Ten Commandments for ASCAN (Astronaut Candidates).

ASCC.

  • NATO ASCC Reporting Committee. Assigned code names (Badger, Kelt, Scarp etc) to Soviet and Chinese aircraft and missiles.

Ascender.

  • British manned rocketplane. Study 1992. The Bristol Spaceplanes Ascender of the 1990's was a sub-orbital manned spaceplane concept proposed by David Ashford.

Ascender.

  • British winged rocketplane. The Bristol Spaceplanes Ascender of the 1990`s was a sub-orbital manned spaceplane concept proposed by David Ashford. The Ascender spaceplane would use a small Viper tubojet engine as well as a main liquid fuel rocket engine. The Ascender would act as a technology demonstrator for the orbiter of the orbital Spacecab concept,.

Ascension.

  • Sounding rocket launch site located on an island in the South Atlantic near a NASA/USAF tracking station. Known to have been used for 1703 launches from 1963 to 2000, reaching up to 158 kilometers altitude.

Ascent Module.

Ascent Stage.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo LM AS manned spacecraft module.

ASCO.

  • Arab Satellite Communications Organization, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

ASD.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. ASD, USA.

ASE.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 88.926 kN. Advanced Space Engine. Staged combusion, pump-fed. Isp=473s.

Ashby.

  • Ashby, Jeffrey Shears 'Bones' (1954-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-93, STS-100, STS-112. Grew up near Evergreen, Colorado. Flew 33 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm.

Ashura.

  • Iranian two-stage solid-propellant missile, evidently using some Shahab systems and its re-entry vehicle.

ASI.

  • Italian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Agenzia Spaziale Italiano (Italian space agency), Italy.

Asia Pacific Space.

  • Asia Pacific Space.

Asiasat.

  • AsiaSat is a wholly owned subsidiary of Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Ltd., a company listed on both the Hong Kong (SEHK: 1135HK) and New York (NYSE: SAT) stock exchanges. AsiaSat's two major shareholders are China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC) and Société Européene des Satellites (SES), the operator of EuropeÌs premier ASTRA satellite system.

Asiasat.

  • Chinese agency. Asia Satellite Telecommunications Company, Hong Kong, China.

Asimov.

  • Asimov, Isaac (1920-1992) Jewish-American writer. Writer of science fiction and popular science.

ASLV.

  • Indian all-solid orbital launch vehicle.

ASLV-0.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600/2,963 kg. Thrust 502.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 253 seconds.

ASLV-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,800/2,900 kg. Thrust 702.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 259 seconds.

ASLV-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,400/800 kg. Thrust 304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds.

ASLV-3.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,710/650 kg. Thrust 90.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds.

ASLV-4.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 512/195 kg. Thrust 35.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds.

ASM-135A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of ASAT anti-satellite missile.

ASMP.

  • French cruise missile. Tactical nuclear. ASMP-A is improved version expected to enter service in 2008.

ASMS.

ASMU.

  • Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit.

Asp.

  • Sounding rocket (Atmospheric Sounding Projectile) originally designed against a US Navy Bureeau of Ships requirement to sample the mushroom clouds of nuclear explosions. Developed by Cooper Development Corporation for the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Flight test in 1956. Designed to lift 13.6 kg to 40 km.

Asp.

  • American sounding rocket. Sounding rocket (Atmospheric Sounding Projectile) originally designed against a US Navy Bureeau of Ships requirement to sample the mushroom clouds of nuclear explosions. Developed by Cooper Development Corporation for the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Flight test in 1956. Designed to lift 13.6 kg to 40 km.

Asp.

  • Solid rocket stage. 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

ASP.

  • Astronomical Society of the Pacific

Asp Apache.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Asp + 1 x Apache

Asp II.

  • American sounding rocket.

Asp II.

  • Cooper solid rocket engine. 26 kN.

Asp III.

  • American sounding rocket.

Asp III 4L-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Asp III-0.

  • Solid rocket stage. 15.00 kN (3,372 lbf) thrust.

Asp IV.

  • American sounding rocket.

Asp IV.

  • Solid rocket stage. 12.70 kN (2,855 lbf) thrust. Mass 94 kg (207 lb).

ASPO.

  • Apollo Spacecraft Program Office (NASA-MSC, Houston)

ASRM.

  • Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

ASROC.

  • Multiple-source solid rocket engine.

Asset.

  • American manned spaceplane. 6 launches, 1963.09.18 (ASSET 1) to 1965.02.23 (ASSET 6). One part of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane project was ASSET ( 'Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests') .

Asterix.

  • French technology satellite. One launch, 1965.11.26. First French satellite. Launched from Hammaguir (Algeria) in order to test the "Diamant" launching vehicle for the first time.

Asteroids.

  • Category of spacecraft.

ASTEX.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.10.17. Space Test Program; technology experiments.

ASTP.

  • Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system.

Astra.

  • First name of SES

Astra.

  • European TV broadcast.

Astrid.

  • Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1995.01.24. Sweden's third scientific satellite and first microsatellite, ASTRID carries an Energetic Neutral Atom analyzer, an Electron Spectrometer and two UV imagers for imaging the Earth's aurora.

Astrid.

  • American test vehicle. Single stage vehicle to demonstrate laser-pumped propulsion.

Astrid-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 0.40 kN (90 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb).

Astrid-2.

  • Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1998.12.10. Swedish Space Corporation's second microsatellite (based on Astrid-1) was slated to perform high resolution E-field and B-filed measurements in the Earth's auroral regions.

Astris.

  • German N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 23.3 kN. Isp=310s. Used on Europa launch vehicle. First flight 1964.

Astris.

  • N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,370/610 kg. Thrust 23.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds.

Astrium.

Astrium.

Astrium SAS.

Astrium-F.

  • Astrium, Friedrichshafen (former Dornier), Germany

Astrium-T.

  • Astrium, Toulouse (former Matra), France

Astro.

Astro.

Astro.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Douglas design of the early 1960's for a two-stage-to-orbit, winged, recoverable vehicle. Two versions were envisioned - a preliminary one the size of a DC-8 and a monster vehicle capable of delivering one million pounds payload to orbit. It was assumed at this scale that Lox/LH2 vehicles could achieve stage propellant mass fractions of 88% to 86%.

Astro.

  • Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1981.02.21 (SS-07 Hinotori) to 1993.02.20 (Asuka). X-ray experiments. Launching organization: ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science).

ASTRO E.

  • Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite. 2 launches, 2000.02.10 (ASTRO E) and 2005.07.10 (Suzaku). ASTRO-E was to be fifth in a series of Japanese astronomy satellites devoted to observations of celestial X-ray sources.

Astro IV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. A two-stage all-Lox/LH2 vehicle proposed for the USAF SLV-4 requirement. Ruled out because it did not use the large segmented solids then favored by the USAF and its think tanks.

Astro Space.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Astro Space, USA.

Astro-1.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 302,183/32,558 kg. Thrust 8,820.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds. Engines 1 x M-1 plus 2 x J-2

Astro-2.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 89,290/14,000 kg. Thrust 1,170.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. Engines 2 x RL-10 plus 1 x J-2

Astrobee.

  • American sounding rocket. Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee.

Astrobee.

  • Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee.

Astrobee 1500.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Aerojet Jr + 1 x Alcor

Astrobee 200.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor

Astrobee 500.

  • American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Asp

Astrobee 500-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN.

Astrobee D.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Astrobee D.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 8.9 kN.

Astrobee D-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 8.90 kN (2,001 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Astrobee F.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage solid-fueled dual-thrust rocket replacement for the Aerobee 150.

Astrobee F.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 36.4 kN.

Astrobee F-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 36.40 kN (8,183 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

Astrocommuter.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. The Lockheed Astrocommuter was a 1963 design for a manned space shuttle that would use the Saturn 1B as a first stage.

Astrofizika.

  • Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1978.12.23, Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth.

Astroliner.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 2002. The Kelly Space & Technology Astroliner Space Launch System was a two-stage-to-orbit, towed space launch concept.

Astroliner.

  • American air-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Kelly Space & Technology Astroliner Space Launch System was a two-stage-to-orbit, towed space launch concept. Towing an aerodynamic vehicle to an altitude of 6,000 m yielded higher system performance due to vacuum engine performance, reduced drag and gravity losses, and aerodynamic lift during flight.

Astron.

  • Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.03.23. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission.

Astronaut.

  • Category of persons, applied to those trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China.

Astronaut beach house.

  • Rickety house on the beach within the security area of the Kennedy Space Center that predated the space age. Never improved by NASA, it provided the premises for astronaut get-togethers, trysts, and parties with their families prior to launch.

Astronaut commandment.

  • Informal astronaut rules. Known commandments: 2. Thou shalt not bask in the glory of publicity. 3. Thou shalt not show weakness.

Astronaut crew quarters.

  • The cheerless, windowless, dormitory where the American astronauts stayed in quarantine for the last few days before their missions. Anomalies included a television that received the Playboy Channel, austere rooms decorated with pictures of exploding volcanoes, and thin walls that conveyed phone conversations from other astronauts in the fearful, sleepless nights before a launch.

Astronaut Statistics.

  • The right stuff - Who's flown the most hours in space? Who's the fastest man alive?

Astronautics.

  • American manufacturer. Astronautics, USA.

Astronomer.

  • Category of persons.

Astronomy.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Astrophysicist.

  • Category of persons.

Astrophysics Module.

  • Alternate designation for Kvant AM manned space station module.

Astroplane.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Martin concept of 1961 for a horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle that would be powered by nuclear magnetohydrodynamic engines.

Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero.

  • Alternate designation for AGILE gamma ray astronomy satellite.

Astrorocket-1.

  • N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 981,859/132,000 kg. Thrust 14,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. Delta wing configuration. LR87-derivative engines.

Astrorocket-2.

  • N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 151,927/23,500 kg. Thrust 2,150.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 345 seconds. X-20 Dynasoar configuration. LR87-derivative engines.

Astros.

  • German sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Sled-launched horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit. Essentially similar to FESTIP FSS-4

Astrotech.

  • American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Astrotech, USA.

Astrozond.

  • Soviet earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1982.09.18.

ASU.

  • Satellite constellation automatic control system (Russian designation)

ASUSAT.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2000.01.27. Arizona State University satellite with an Earth imager and an amateur radio transponder.

ASV-3.

  • Alternate designation for Asset manned spaceplane.

AT&T.

  • American Telephone and Telegraph Co., USA

ATACMS.

  • American short range ballistic missile. The ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System) is the U.S. Army's current short/medium-range tactical ballistic missile system.

ATACMS.

  • American short range ballistic missile family. US Army's short/medium-range tactical ballistic missile system from the 1990's.

ATACMS (Block 1).

  • Popular Name of Block 1 short range ballistic missile.

ATACMS (Block 1A).

  • Popular Name of Block 1A short range ballistic missile.

ATACMS (Block 2).

  • Popular Name of Block 2 short range ballistic missile.

ATACMS II.

  • American short range ballistic missile. ATACMS Block II is a derivative of the MGM-140 ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System). The Block II designation applies to ATACMS variants designed to deliver the BAT (Brilliant Anti-Tank) guided submunition.

Atar 9K.

  • SNECMA turbojet engine. 48 kN. Out of Production. Isp=2020s.

ATBM.

  • Alternate designation for Arrow 1 anti-ballistic missile.

ATC.

  • Air Training Command

ATCRE.

  • Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1280 kN. Study 1985. Isp=490s. Used on Sanger II launch vehicle.

ATDA.

  • Augmented target docking adapter

ATDRS.

  • Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite

ATE.

  • Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 20 kN. Developed 1990's. Advance technology engine for maneuvering stages. Isp=347s.

Atea.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Atea-1.

  • New Zealander sounding rocket. Single-stage New Zealand hybrid sounding rocket.

Atea-2.

  • New Zealander sounding rocket. Two-stage increased-diameter New Zealand hybrid sounding rocket.Payload: 25 kg (55 lb) to a 250 km altitude.

ATEF.

  • French agency overseeing development of rocket engines. ATEF, France.

Athena.

  • Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's.

Athena.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1996. In 1996 Robert Zubrin proposed a new version of a manned Mars flyby mission, dubbed Athena.

Athena.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's.

Athena H.

  • American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 4 x Recruit + 1 x Castor 4 + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x Alcor IA

Athena III.

Athena RTV.

  • American test vehicle. The Athena was designed to simulate the re-entry environment of an intercontinental ballistic missile and was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States.

Athena RTV.

  • The Athena was designed to simulate the re-entry environment of an intercontinental ballistic missile and was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States. The project was begun in February 1964 with the first of several hundred launches from Green River, Utah, to impact points in the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.

Athena-1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Basic version of the Athena with a Castor 120 first stage, Orbus second stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module.

Athena-2.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. The Athena-2 version featured a Castor 120 first stage, Castor 120 second stage, Orbus third stage, and OAM Orbital Adjustment Module.

Athena-3.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Planned but never flown heavier-lift version of Athena.

Athlete.

  • American lunar rover. Study 2005. Athlete was a Habot-inspired mobility system for doing cargo handling, assembly, maintenance, and servicing tasks on the moon. Each of the six limbs had a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator with a wheel at the end.

ATK GASL.

  • American manufacturer. ATK GASL, USA.

ATK Launch Vehicle.

  • Alternate Designation of ATK LV and ALV sounding rockets.

ATK LV.

  • American sounding rocket. Suborbital version.

Atkov.

  • Atkov, Dr Oleg Yuryevich (1949-) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-3.

Atlantic Ocean.

  • Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Atlantic accounted for 521 launches from 1947 to 1995, reaching up to 750 kilometers altitude.

Atlantic Research.

  • American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Atlantic Research, Gainesville, USA.

Atlantic Research Liquid Propellant Division (1987.

  • Second Owner of Bell

Atlantic Research Liquid Propellant Division (1987).

Atlantis.

  • Alternate designation for UR-500 launch vehicle.

Atlantis.

  • American manned spaceplane. 33 launches, 1985.10.03 to 2011.07.08. The space shuttle Atlantis was the fourth orbiter to become operational at Kennedy Space Center, and the last of the original production run.

Atlas.

  • The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career.

Atlas.

  • The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career.

ATLAS.

  • Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science

Atlas 3A.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas IIIA orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas 3B.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas IIIB orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas 3B DEC.

  • American orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas 3B SEC.

  • American orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas A.

  • American test vehicle. First test model of Atlas ICBM. Two booster engines, no sustainer, dummy warhead. 50% reliability in 8 flight tests.

Atlas A.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 81,647/7,230 kg. Thrust 1,517.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Atlas Able.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas with upper stage based on Vanguard second stage.

Atlas Able.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 114,495/4,200 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Atlas Agena A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D + 1 x Agena A upper stage. Agena originally called 'Hustler', based on engine for cancelled rocket-propelled nuclear warhead pod for B-58 Hustler bomber.

Atlas Agena B.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with improved, enlarged Agena upper stage.

Atlas Agena D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D with further improved and lightened Agena upper stage.

Atlas Agena D SLV-3.

  • Standardized Atlas booster with Agena D upper stage.

Atlas Agena D SLV-3A.

  • Uprated Atlas booster with Agena D upper stage.

Atlas Agena LV-3A.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,150/2,390 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Atlas Agena SLV-3.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,026/2,326 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas Agena SLV-3A.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,000/3,700 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas B.

  • American test vehicle. First all-up test version of the Atlas ICBM, with jettisonable booster engines and a single engine sustainer on core - a '1 1/2' stage launch vehicle.

Atlas B.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 107,610/3,980 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Atlas Burner 2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas SLV-3 + 1 x Star 37B upper stage.

Atlas Burner 2A.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37B + 1 x Star 26B upper stages.

Atlas C.

  • American test vehicle. Last development version of Atlas. Never deployed operationally or used for space launches.

Atlas C Able.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas C first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage.

Atlas CCB.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 306,914/22,461 kg. Thrust 4,152.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 338 seconds. Common Core Booster uses Glushko RD-180 engine and new isogrid tanks. Used in Atlas IV/USAF EELV, Atlas V. Includes 272 kg booster interstage adapter and 1297 kg Centaur interstage adapter.

Atlas Centaur.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. First test version of Atlas with Centaur upper stage.

Atlas Centaur D.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Centaur D upper stage.

Atlas Centaur G.

  • Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles using stretched, uprated Atlas core.

Atlas Centaur LV-3C.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with basic Centaur upper stage.

Atlas Centaur LV-3C.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,350/3,700 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Atlas Centaur SLV-3C.

  • Standardised SLV-3C Atlas booster with Centaur D upper stage.

Atlas Centaur SLV-3C/D.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 128,500/4,000 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas Centaur SLV-3D.

  • Fully developed version of Atlas with Centaur D-1A upper stage.

Atlas D.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Rocket used both as a space launcher and ICBM.

Atlas D.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 113,050/2,347 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Atlas D Able.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Version with Atlas D first stage, Able AJ10-101A second stage, Altair solid third stage.

Atlas E.

  • Popular Name of CGM-16E intercontinental ballistic missile.

Atlas E.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial fully operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance system from Atlas F. Deployed as missiles from 1960 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used over twenty years as space launch vehicles.

Atlas E Altair.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 20 upper stage.

Atlas E/F.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,826/4,926 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas E/MSD.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x MSD upper stage.

Atlas E/OIS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x OIS upper stage.

Atlas E/SGS-2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 48 + 1 x Star 48 upper stages.

Atlas E/SVS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas E + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages.

Atlas F.

  • Popular Name of HGM-16F intercontinental ballistic missile.

Atlas F.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Final operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance systems. Deployed as missiles from 1961 to 1966. After retirement, the ICBM's were refurbished and used for over thirty years as space launch vehicles.

Atlas F/MSD.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x MSD upper stage.

Atlas F/OIS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x OIS upper stage.

Atlas F/PTS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E upper stage.

Atlas F/SVS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas F + 1 x Star 37E + 1 x Star 37E upper stages.

Atlas F/Trident-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

Atlas G/H/I.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,536/4,236 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas H.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas H used the Atlas first stage developed for the Atlas G vehicle. It was flown without the Centaur upper stage.

Atlas I.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas I launch vehicle was derived from the Atlas G, and included the same basic vehicle components (Atlas booster and Centaur upper stage). Significant improvements in the guidance and control system were made with an emphasis on replacing analog flight control components with digital units interconnected with a digital data bus.

Atlas II.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than an Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. The original Atlas II model was developed to support the United States Air Force Medium Launch Vehicle II program. Its Centaur used RL10A-3-3A engines operating at an increased mixture ratio. The first Atlas II flew on 7 December 1991, successfully delivering AC-102/Eutelsat II F3 to orbit.

Atlas II.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,995/6,095 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas IIA.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas IIA was a commercial derivative of the Atlas II developed for the US Air Force. Higher performance RL10A-4 (or RL10A-4-1) engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A engines.

Atlas IIA.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 162,495/6,595 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas IIAS.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than the Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. Higher performance RL10A-4 or RL10A-4-1 engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A. The Atlas IIAS model added four Thiokol Castor IVA solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to the core Atlas stage to augment thrust for the first two minutes of flight.

Atlas IIAS.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,950/6,050 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Atlas IIIA.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 195,628/13,725 kg. Thrust 4,148.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. The American Atlas booster and sustainer engine arrangement was replaced by derivatives of Glushko engines developed for the Ukrainian Zenit launch vehicle. Not capable of single stage to single stage to orbit capability (an Internet spaceflight urban myth).

Atlas IIIA.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas IIIA was a development of the Atlas using Russian engines in place of the Rocketdyne MA-5 booster/sustainer group used on all previous models. It was the centerpiece of Lockheed Martin's strategy to remain a leader in the commercial launch services industry. However customers never materialized, and it was used for only two launches in 2002-2004 before being replaced by the Atlas V.

Atlas IIIB.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. This was the first version of the Atlas to fly using Russian RD-180 engines; and the last version to fly using the original balloon-tank concept for the first stage. It differed from the Atlas IIIA in use of a stretched, two-engine upper stage, and had a brief three-year operational career in 2002-2005 before being superseded by the Atlas V.

Atlas IIR; Atlas IIAR.

  • Alternate Designation of Atlas IIIA orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas IIRC; Atlas IIARC.

  • Alternate Designation of Atlas IIIB orbital launch vehicle.

Atlas LV-3B / Mercury.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas D modified for use in Project Mercury.

Atlas MA-2.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,050/3,050 kg. Thrust 1,517.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Atlas MA-3.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,174/3,174 kg. Thrust 1,644.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds.

Atlas MA-5.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,646/3,646 kg. Thrust 1,896.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds.

Atlas MA-5A.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,187/4,187 kg. Thrust 2,093.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds.

Atlas MA-5AS.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,632/5,632 kg. Thrust 2,093.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds.

Atlas SLV-3.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Standardized Atlas booster with no or small solid upper stage.

Atlas Target Docking Adapter.

  • American logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1966.06.01, Gemini 9 ATDA. An unpowered Gemini docking collar less the Agena rocket stage, launched one time by an Atlas when the Agena stage was not available. Fairing separation failed.

Atlas V.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas V launch vehicle system was a completely new design that succeeded the earlier Atlas series. Atlas V vehicles were based on the 3.8-m (12.5-ft) diameter Common Core Booster (CCB) powered by a single Russian RD-180 engine. These could be clustered together, and complemented by a Centaur upper stage, and up to five solid rocket boosters, to achieve a wide range of performance.

Atlas V.

  • The Atlas V launch vehicle system was a completely new design that succeeded the earlier Atlas series. Atlas V vehicles were based on the 3.8-m (12.5-ft) diameter Common Core Booster (CCB) powered by a single Russian RD-180 engine. These could be clustered together, and complemented by a Centaur upper stage, and up to five solid rocket boosters, to achieve a wide range of performance.

Atlas V 401.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V version with a 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and no strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 7,095 kg (15,642 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 4,950 kg (10,910 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 411.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and one strap-on solid booster. Payloads: 8,763 kg (19,320 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 6,075 kg (13,393 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 421.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and two strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 10,168 kg (22,416 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 7,000 kg (15,432 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 431.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 4-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and three strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 11,547 kg (25,458 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 7,800 kg (17,196 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 501.

  • Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and no strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 6,319 kg (13,931 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 3,970 kg (8,752 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 521.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and two strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 10,161 kg (22,401 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 6,485 kg (14,297 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V 531.

  • Atlas V 531

Atlas V 551.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas V with 5-m diameter payload fairing, single engine Centaur upper stage, and five strap-on solid boosters. Payloads: 20,520 kg (45,238 lb) to sun synchronous orbit; 8,700 kg (19,180 lb) to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Atlas V Growth Phase 1.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed growth variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with three parallel 3.8-m-diameter Common Core Boosters (CCB), a 5-m-diameter wide body version of the Centaur upper stage with a single-engine, and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. Another variant would use a stretched wide body version of the Centaur upper stage with 2 or 4 motors, allowing payloads of up to 13,500 kg to be lofted to earth escape velocity.

Atlas V Growth Phase 2.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed growth variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with three parallel 5-m-diameter wide-body Common Core Boosters (CCB), each with 1 or 2 RD-180 engines; a 5-m-diameter new Lox/LH2 stage with 2 or 4 engines with a total thrust of 180,000 kgf; and a 5 m diameter payload fairing.

Atlas V Growth Phase 3.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Proposed Saturn-V class variant of the heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle with five parallel 5-m-diameter wide-body Common Core Boosters (CCB), each with 1 or 2 RD-180 engines; a 7-m-diameter new Lox/LH2 stage; and a 7 m diameter payload fairing.

Atlas V Heavy.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Heavy-lift version of the Atlas V launch vehicle system with three parallel 3.8-m-diameter Common Core Boosters (CCB), and a stretched version of the Centaur upper stage (CIII), which could be configured as a single-engine Centaur (SEC) or a dual engine Centaur (DEC), and a 5 m diameter payload fairing. As of 2004 no work had been authorised to build Atlas V Heavy facilities at either Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg AFB.

Atlas V SRB.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,824/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,270.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. New SRB boosters in development for Atlas V. Empty mass, vacuum thrust, sea level Isp estimated.

Atlas Vega.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas-Vega consisted of an Atlas booster with a storable propellant upper stage. It was planned by NASA at its inception for deep space and planetary missions before the Atlas Centaur was available. Work had already begun when NASA discovered that the CIA and the US Air Force had an essentially identical launch vehicle (Atlas-Hustler, later called Atlas-Agena) in development for the highly classified Corona reconnaisance satellite program. Atlas-Vega was accordingly cancelled.

Atlas/Agena F/D.

  • Atlas F + 1 x Agena D upper stage.

Atlas/Trident E.

  • Atlas E + 1 x Trident upper stage.

Atlas/Trident F.

  • Atlas F + 1 x Trident upper stage.

Atlas-Hustler.

  • Alternate designation for Atlas Agena A orbital launch vehicle.

ATM.

  • Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab spacecraft component)

ATMDC.

  • Apollo Telescope Mount Digital Computer.

Atmosphere Explorer.

  • Alternate designation for AE earth atmosphere satellite.

Atmosphere sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator.

  • Alternate designation for ARD re-entry vehicle technology satellite.

Atmospheric Sounding Projectile.

  • Alternate designation for Asp sounding rocket.

ATO.

  • Abort To Orbit (Shuttle abort plan)

ATS.

  • The Applications Technology Satellite was a project with the purpose of improving other satellites, specifically to enhance the ability of existing and future satellites to provide weather, and communications data and air/sea navigation aids.

ATS 5 cm.

  • EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. 0.089 mN. Flown in 1968-1969. Isp=6700s. Thruster for the ATS-4 and ATS-5 tests; consisted of two contact ionization engines using cesium propellant.

ATS 8 cm.

  • EOS electric/cesium rocket engine. 4.5 mN. Flown in 1974. Isp=6700s.Thruster for the ATS-6 test; consisted of two electron bombardment engines using cesium propellant. The thruster anode diameter was 8 cm, and a cesiated tungsten neutralizer was used.

ATS-1.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1966.12.07, ATS 1. During its 18 year lifetime, ATS-1 examined spin stabilization techniques, investigated the geostationary environment, and performed several communications experiments.

ATS-2.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.04.06, ATS 2. ATS-2 was placed into an undesirable orbit due to a launch vehicle failure.

ATS-3.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1967.11.05, ATS 3. The goals for ATS-3 included investigations of spin stabilization techniques and VHF and C-band communications experiments.

ATS-4.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1968.08.10, ATS 4. A launch vehicle failure stranded ATS-4 in a much lower than planned orbit, making the satellite nearly useless.

ATS-5.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1969.08.12, ATS 5.

ATS-6.

  • American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1974.05.30, ATS 6. In addition to its technology experiments, ATS-6 became the world's first educational satellite.

ATSB.

  • Astronautic Technology (M) Sdn Bhd.

ATT.

  • American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. American Telephone and Telegraph, USA.

ATV.

ATV.

  • Agena target vehicle

ATV.

  • European logistics spacecraft and space tug. The Automated Transfer Vehicle was first proposed in the mid-1980s as a way to transport unmanned cargo to a Space Station. Operational in that role, first launch 2008.03.09. Studies for a manned version with a re-entry capsule conducted, but no funding for development.

ATV.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced designs for SSTO vehicles as early as 1960. The expendable vehicle had a gross listoff mass of only 22 tonnes, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit.

ATV ICC.

  • European space tug. Study 1985. The Integrated Cargo Carrier was located at the forward end of the ATV. It represented 60% of the total ATV volume and carried all of the cargo for resupplying the Station.

ATV SM.

  • European space tug. Study 1985. The unpressurized ATV Service Module included propulsion systems, electrical power (including solar arrays), computers, communications and most of the avionics.

Atwood.

  • Atwood, W Leland 'Lee' (1904-1999) Chief Engineer at North American Aviation, 1948-1971. Supervised development of Navaho, X-15, XB-70, Apollo, and Space Shuttle. Fought indifference of the CEO to spaceflight, made the company preeminent in rocket engines, manned spaecraft.

AU.

  • Astronomical Unit

Aubakirov.

  • Aubakirov, Toktar Ongarbaevich (1946-) Kazakh pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir Austromir. First Kazakh astronaut.

Aufderhaar.

  • Aufderhaar, Grant Clifford (1948-) American meteorologist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986.

Augustine.

  • Augustine, Norman R (1935-) American engineer. Chairman and CEO of the Martin Marietta Corporation in the 1980s.

Aulehner.

  • Aulehner, Sebastian (1918-) German Engineer. Worked at Peenemuende and at the Zentralwerk.

Aunon.

  • Auñón, Serena Maria (1976-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on.

AUOS.

  • Ukrainian technology satellite. 14 launches, 1976.06.19 (Intercosmos 15) to 2009.01.30 (Koronas-F). Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions.

AUOS.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Aura.

  • American earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2004.07.15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura was a NASA mission to study the Earth's ozone, air quality and climate.

AURA.

  • Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy

Aureole.

  • Alternate designation for DS-U2-GKA earth magnetosphere satellite.

Aureole.

  • Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras.

Aurora.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1967.06.29. Investigated aurora borealis.

Aurora X-Prize.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital spaceplane concept of Fundamental Technology Systems, Orlando, Florida.

Aurore.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Aurore.

  • SNECMA solid rocket engine. 10.5 kN.

Aurore-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 10.50 kN (2,360 lbf) thrust. Mass 50 kg (110 lb).

AUS 51.

  • Manufacturer's designation of RSA-3-3 Solid rocket engine.

Ausroc.

  • Australian low cost orbital launch vehicle. Proposed southern hemisphere launcher.

Aussat.

  • Australian communications.

Aussat.

  • Australian agency. Aussat, Australia.

Aussenstation.

  • German manned space station. Study 1951. H. H. Koelle's Aussenstation was a large circular structure consisting of 36 separate 5-m spheres arranged around a central hub, the whole structure rotating to provide an artificial gravity environment.

Austin.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. University of Texas at Austin, USA.

Australia.

  • First name of DSTO

Australia.

  • Australia

Austria.

  • Austria

Austrian AF.

  • Austrian AF.

Austrian Army.

  • Austrian Army.

Austrian Commercial Group - 1989.

  • Requirement: Austrian cosmonaut for commercially funded mission to Mir station.

Auto Landing Flight Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for Alflex spaceplane.

Auto Landing Pre-Experimental Aircraft.

  • Alternate designation for Alpex spaceplane.

Automated Transfer Vehicle.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ATV space station logistics spacecraft.

Avco.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Avco, USA.

Avco Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. AVCO's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a 690 kg, 2.

AVCS.

  • Advanced vidicon camera system .

Avdeyev.

  • Avdeyev, Sergei Vasilyevich (1956-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-12, Mir EO-20, Mir EO-26/-27. 747 cumulative days in space. Ten spacewalks. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO

Avduyevskiy.

  • Avduyevskiy, Vsevolod Sergeyevich (1920-) Russian scientist. First Deputy Director of TsNIIMash 1973-1987. Scientist at NII-1 1953-1973.

Aviator.

  • Category of persons.

Avibras.

  • Brazilian manufacturer of rocket engines. Avibras, Brazil.

AVUM.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 650/150 kg. Thrust 2.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315.2 seconds. The AVUM propulsion module was composed of a UDMH/NTO bipropellant main engine with a re-ignition capability and a cold gas attitude control system, based on two clusters of three thrusters, each having a 50 N thrust.

AW&ST.

  • Aviation Week and Space Technology (a.k.a. AvLeak)

AX-1C.

  • American space suit, tested 1965. Full pressure, Apollo Block II prototype suit for both IVA/EVA by the David Clark Company. Not put into production.

AX-5.

  • American space suit, tested 1985. The AX-5 high pressure, zero prebreathe hard suit was developed at NASA Ames Research Center in the 1980s. It achieved mobility through a constant volume, using a hard metal/composite rigid exoskeleton design.

AX5L.

  • American space suit, tested 1964. NASA Apollo suit prototype, rated for intravehicular activity only.

AXAF.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Chandra x-ray astronomy satellite.

AXAF.

  • Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility

AX-Series.

  • American space suit, tested 1964-68. Between 1964 and 1968 two hard suit assemblies were developed at NASA-ARC, identified as the AX-1 (Ames Experimental) and AX-2. These suits were the first to demonstrate multiple bearing technology.

Axster.

  • Axster, Herbert Felix (1899-1991) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter.

Axthelm.

  • Axthelm, Walter von (1907-) German Officer. Major general of the Flak Troops.

Ayame.

  • Japanese communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1979.02.06 (Ayame 1) and 1980.02.22 (Ayame 2). Experimental Communications Satellite (ECS). Communications and propagation experiments of satellite-communication systems.

Aymakhanov.

  • Aymakhanov, Mukhtar Rabatovich (1967-) Kazakh pilot cosmonaut, 2002-on.

Azerbaijan.

  • In Soviet times, Lakian cosmonaut Musa Khiramanovich Manarov, born in Baku, spent over 541 days in space. Space activities are currently operated within Azerbaijan by the Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency (ANASA). Their activities have mainly involved work with UN agencies to utilize space imagery for land resources mapping and disaster monitoring.

AZUR.

  • German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1969.11.08. German Research Satellite A; examined Van Allen belts, solar particles, aurora.

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