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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: N

N - Japanese license-built version of the American Delta launch vehicle. Gross mass: 131,330 kg (289,530 lb). Payload: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Thrust: 233,260.00 kN (52,438,930 lbf).
N (SI abbreviation) - newtons (SI abbreviation)
N Block V - Alternate designation for N-111-Ab rocket stage.
N D Kuznetsov - First name of Kuznetsov bureau.
N.5210 - Alternate name of AGM-22.
n.d. - Abbreviation for No date
N1 - The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. Status: Retired 1972. First Launch: 1969-02-21. Last Launch: 1972-11-23. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 2,735,000 kg (6,029,000 lb). Payload: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Thrust: 4,400,000.00 kN (989,100,000 lbf).
N-1 - Alternate designation for N1 1969.
N-1 - Alternate designation for N1.
N-1 - Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1982. First Launch: 1975-09-09. Last Launch: 1982-09-03. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 131,330 kg (289,530 lb). Payload: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Thrust: 2,287.50 kN (514,250 lbf).
N-1 11A52 - Alternate designation for N1 1969.
N-1 11A52 - The N1 launch vehicle as flown. These test vehicles did not exceed 2735 metric tons liftoff mass and 70 metric ton earth orbit payload capability. Four flight tests, all failures. First Launch: 1969-02-21. Last Launch: 1971-06-26. Number: 6 .
N1 1962 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of the N1 at the time of development go-ahead in 1962. The 75 metric ton payload was to consist of the Raskat dispenser, which would have delivered 17 multi-megaton nuclear warheads, essentially destroying the United States in a single launch. The design also supported the OS-1 heavy space station and TMK manned Mars flyby requirements - as opposed to any manned lunar landing project. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 2,110,000 kg (4,650,000 lb). Thrust: 33,927.50 kN (7,627,205 lbf).
N1 1962 - A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Earlier design for the Block A. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,384,000 kg (3,051,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 117,000 kg (257,000 lb). Thrust: 39,420.00 kN (8,861,960 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 1962 - B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 506,000 kg (1,115,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 13,778.00 kN (3,097,417 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 1962 - V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 193,000 kg (425,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 1,560.00 kN (350,700 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 1964 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle for the N1-L3 lunar landing mission as described in the draft project of 1964. Design requirement for the single-launch lunar-orbit-rendezvous lunar landing was 2750 metric tons liftoff mass and 95 metric tons low earth orbit payload. The actual N1 that flew in 1969 to 1972 had lighter first and third stages, but never demonstrated a full fuel load using superchilled propellants as planned in the draft project. Status: Development ended 1964. Gross mass: 2,750,000 kg (6,060,000 lb). Payload: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb). Thrust: 44,000.00 kN (9,891,000 lbf).
N1 1964 - A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. First stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Block A modified with six additional engines and propellant increased by 550 metric tons by using chilled propellants. Status: Development ended 1964. Gross mass: 1,942,000 kg (4,281,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 192,000 kg (423,000 lb). Thrust: 49,420.00 kN (11,110,050 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 1964 - B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Second stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Specific impulse estimate down one second from 1962 draft project. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. Status: Development ended 1964. Gross mass: 506,000 kg (1,115,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 13,700.00 kN (3,079,800 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 1964 - V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. Status: Development ended 1964. Gross mass: 193,000 kg (425,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Thrust: 1,560.00 kN (350,700 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 1969 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 2,735,000 kg (6,029,000 lb). Payload: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Thrust: 43,000.00 kN (9,666,000 lbf).
N1 Block A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 1,880,000 kg (4,140,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 130,000 kg (280,000 lb). Thrust: 50,300.00 kN (11,307,800 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 Block B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 560,700 kg (1,236,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 55,700 kg (122,700 lb). Thrust: 14,039.98 kN (3,156,313 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 Block D - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Block D as originally designed as a lunar crasher stage. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 18,200 kg (40,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb). Thrust: 83.30 kN (18,727 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 Block G - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty mass estimated. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 61,800 kg (136,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 446.00 kN (100,264 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 Block R - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Designed 1965-1971 as replacement for N-1 Blok D. Cancelled 1971 in favor of Blok Sr; revived and developed in 1974-1976. First static test Oct 12 1976. Two stages tested 1976-1977. Strangely never replaced Blok D on Proton. Status: Development ended 1971. Gross mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,300 kg (9,400 lb). Thrust: 73.50 kN (16,523 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
N1 Block S - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Designed 1965-1971 as replacement for N-1 Blok G. Cancelled in 1971 in favor of development of single stage, Block Sr. Status: Development ended 1971. Gross mass: 58,000 kg (127,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 8,000 kg (17,600 lb). Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
N1 Block Sr - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Upper stage developed 1971-1974 to support manned lunar expedition. Replaced Blok R/Blok S previously under development. Capable of five restarts and 11 days of flight. Could insert 24 metric tons into lunar orbit or 20 metric tons into geosynchronous orbit. Status: Development ended 1974. Gross mass: 77,900 kg (171,700 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,500 kg (25,300 lb). Thrust: 147.88 kN (33,245 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
N1 Block V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As flown. Status: Retired 1972. Gross mass: 188,700 kg (416,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,700 kg (30,200 lb). Thrust: 1,608.00 kN (361,492 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1 Block V-II - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. N1 improvement study, 1965. LOx/LH2 replacement for Block B second stage. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 805,000 kg (1,774,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 115,000 kg (253,000 lb). Thrust: 7,840.00 kN (1,762,500 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
N1 Block V-III - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. N1 improvement study, 1965. LOx/LH2 replacement for Block V third stage. Pursued into 1966 and later, but later efforts concentrated on Block S, R, and SR cryogenic stages. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 325,000 kg (716,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust: 2,350.00 kN (528,300 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
N-1 Delta - Alternate designation for N-1.
N1 Nuclear A - Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. A version of the N1 with a nuclear upper stage was studied by Korolev in 1963. It was concluded that the optimum design would allow a single N1 to launch a direct manned lunar landing and return. However for manned Mars missions, a nuclear electric engine was found to be much more efficient. This essentially killed further consideration of thermal nuclear upper stages within the bureau. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,400,000 kg (5,200,000 lb). Payload: 270,000 kg (590,000 lb). Thrust: 35,000.00 kN (7,868,000 lbf).
N1 Nuclear A stage - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 700,000 kg (1,540,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 250,000 kg (550,000 lb). Thrust: 6,860.00 kN (1,542,180 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
N1 Nuclear AF - Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. A variant of the first alternative considered in the 1963 nuclear N1 study. This was a 'high thrust' version of the Type A engine - apparently with higher propellant rate, lower specific impulse, and lower engine weight. Due to the very low density of the enormous liquid hydrogen upper stages, these immense vehicles would have been very ungainly (and had interesting stress problems during ascent!) Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,500,000 kg (5,500,000 lb). Payload: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Thrust: 35,000.00 kN (7,868,000 lbf).
N1 Nuclear AF stage - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 800,000 kg (1,760,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Thrust: 7,840.00 kN (1,762,500 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
N1 Nuclear V - Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Second primary alternative considered for the 1963 nuclear N1 study. The immense liquid hydrogen tank of the second nuclear stage would have dwarfed the N1 first stage mounted below it in the shadows. The extremely poor thrust to weight ratio of the Type V engine design compared to that of the Type A remains unexplained. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,600,000 kg (5,700,000 lb). Payload: 420,000 kg (920,000 lb). Thrust: 35,000.00 kN (7,868,000 lbf).
N1 Nuclear V stage - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,500,000 kg (3,300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 500,000 kg (1,100,000 lb). Thrust: 14,700.00 kN (3,304,600 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
N1 Nuclear V-B - Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. N1 with nuclear upper stage. This variant of the Type V nuclear engine used a very heavy radiation shield to protect the crew of any manned spacecraft payload. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 3,060,000 kg (6,740,000 lb). Payload: 360,000 kg (790,000 lb). Thrust: 35,000.00 kN (7,868,000 lbf).
N1 Nuclear V-Bioshield - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,000,000 kg (4,400,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 650,000 kg (1,430,000 lb). Thrust: 19,600.00 kN (4,406,200 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
N1/L3 mod. (11A52) - Russian orbital launch vehicle variant. First Launch: 1972-11-23. Last Launch: 1972-11-23. Number: 2 .
N11 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N11 would use the second, third, and fourth stages of the N1. This would give it a lift-off mass of 700 metric tons and a 20 metric ton payload into low earth orbit. It could replace Chelomei's Proton launch vehicle in the medium-lift role. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 700,000 kg (1,540,000 lb). Payload: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 10,610.00 kN (2,385,220 lbf).
N11 1963 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. A military variant of the N-11 which would use a powerful third stage, probably derived from the first stage of the 8K713 GR-1, to put up to 24 metric tons in low earth orbit. This was a competitor with Chelomei's UR-500K, which was selected instead for the heavy military payload mission. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 770,000 kg (1,690,000 lb). Payload: 24,000 kg (52,000 lb). Thrust: 10,610.00 kN (2,385,220 lbf).
N-11 1963 - V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Conjectural stage derived from GR-1 stage 1 to match total mass given of launch vehicle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 70,000 kg (154,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Thrust: 784.00 kN (176,250 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N-11 Block A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Derived from N1 Block B, with large number of engines and expansion ratio adjusted for sea level operation. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 485,000 kg (1,069,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 47,000 kg (103,000 lb). Thrust: 11,960.00 kN (2,688,710 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N-11 Block B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Derived from N1 Block V. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 192,000 kg (423,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 1,560.00 kN (350,700 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N111 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N111 would use the third and fourth stages of the N1, and the second stage of Korolev's R-9 ICBM. This would result in a lift-off mass of 200 metric tons and a five metric ton payload. It could replace the R-7 derived boosters (Vostok and Soyuz) in this payload category. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 215,900 kg (475,900 lb). Payload: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 2,325.50 kN (522,793 lbf).
N-111-A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Variant of N1 Block V for first stage use. Number of engines would have to be increased and reduced expansion ratio nozzles fitted for sea level use. Least attractive of N1 variants and seems not to have been pursued after draft project. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 192,000 kg (423,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 2,540.00 kN (571,010 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N-111-Ab - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Alternate weight breakdown. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb). Thrust: 2,694.37 kN (605,718 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N11GR - Russian orbital missile. This 1962 project was designed by Korolev's OKB as a competitor to Chelomei's UR-500 against the military GR-2 (Global Rocket 2) requirement. The N-11GR was an adaptation of the basic N-11, derived from the second and third stages of the N1 heavy booster. The GR-2 was to be a kind of enormous multiple-warhead FOBS (fractional orbit bombing system). Surrounding the top of the second stage of the rocket, like bullets in an enormous revolver, were six final stages derived from the 8K713 GR-1 last stage. Each stage had a 1,500 kg nuclear warhead. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 753,000 kg (1,660,000 lb). Payload: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 10,610.00 kN (2,385,220 lbf).
N-11GR - V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Orbital MIRV stage. Six of these stages clustered around Block B; each stage would have had a 1500 kg nuclear warhead. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 8,200 kg (18,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,700 kg (3,700 lb). Thrust: 88.20 kN (19,828 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1F - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1F would have been the definitive flight version of the N1, incorporating all changes resulting from the four flight tests of the vehicle, including the new Kuznetsov engines and 10% greater liftoff mass by using superchilled propellants in all stages. N1 8L would have been the first N1F configuration flight, with launch planned in the third quarter of 1975 at the time the project was cancelled. Status: Development ended 1974. Gross mass: 3,025,000 kg (6,668,000 lb). Payload: 105,000 kg (231,000 lb). Thrust: 44,400.00 kN (9,981,500 lbf).
N1F 1965 - A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Block A engine thrust increased but little additional propellant. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 1,940,000 kg (4,270,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 200,000 kg (440,000 lb). Thrust: 57,560.00 kN (12,940,000 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1F 1965 - B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased from 150 t each to 200 t and stretched propellant tanks. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 590,000 kg (1,300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb). Thrust: 15,600.00 kN (3,507,000 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1F 1965 - V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased and stretched propellant tanks with almost 50% increase. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 2,450.00 kN (550,780 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1F Block A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage. Status: Development ended 1974. Gross mass: 2,070,000 kg (4,560,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 126,230 kg (278,280 lb). Thrust: 49,675.50 kN (11,167,497 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1F Block B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Includes 3,500 kg for Stage 2-3 interstage. Status: Development ended 1974. Gross mass: 620,000 kg (1,360,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 55,700 kg (122,700 lb). Thrust: 14,040.00 kN (3,156,318 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1F Block V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Development ended 1974. Gross mass: 210,000 kg (460,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 13,700 kg (30,200 lb). Thrust: 1,608.00 kN (361,492 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1F Sr - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The final more modest version of the N1F replaced the fourth and fifth stages of the N1 with the single liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen Block Sr stage. Development of the Sr stage was from May 1971 until cancellation of the N1 project in May 1974. Status: Development ended 1974. Gross mass: 2,677,900 kg (5,903,700 lb). Thrust: 38,990.00 kN (8,765,300 lbf).
N1F-L3M - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1M was found to be too ambitious. The N1F of 1968 was instead penciled in to be the first Soviet launch vehicle to use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen high energy cryogenic propellants. The N1F would have only used the Block S and Block R fourth and fifth stages in place of the N1's Block G and Block D. Status: Development ended 1971. Gross mass: 2,773,000 kg (6,113,000 lb). Thrust: 43,295.50 kN (9,733,216 lbf).
N1M - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1M was to be the first Soviet launch vehicle to use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen high energy cryogenic propellants. It was designed to launch payloads in support of the LEK lunar expeditions (two cosmonauts on the surface), the DLB (long-duration lunar base), and heavy unmanned satellites into geosynchronous and interplanetary trajectories. As originally conceived, the advanced propellants would be used in all upper stages. However due to delays in Kuznetsov development of a 200 metric ton thrust LOx/LH2 engine, the final version used an N1 first stage, with a Block V-III second stage, and Blocks S and R third and fourth stages. Status: Development ended 1971. Gross mass: 2,348,000 kg (5,176,000 lb). Thrust: 43,295.50 kN (9,733,216 lbf).
N1M 1965 - A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Huge modification of Block A, almost double propellant capacity, engines increased from 175 metric tons thrust to 250 metric tons. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,800,000 kg (8,300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 375,000 kg (826,000 lb). Thrust: 85,300.00 kN (19,176,200 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1M 1965 - B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block B and thrust increased again to 280 metric tons per engine. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 620,000 kg (1,360,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Thrust: 21,960.00 kN (4,936,800 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1M 1965 - V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block V. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 355,000 kg (782,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). Thrust: 2,940.00 kN (660,930 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1-MOK - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Ultimate derivative of N1. Single-stage-to-orbit vehicle based on N1 Block A. Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 450 km / 97.5 degree MKBS orbit. Briefly described in RKK Energia official history and in some detail in Peter James' 1974 book Soviet Conquest from Space! Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 1,200,000 kg (2,600,000 lb). Thrust: 31,928.60 kN (7,177,835 lbf).
N1-MOK stage - Air/LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Ultimate derivative of N1 Block A: Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 400 kg MKBS orb Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 1,200,000 kg (2,600,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 300,000 kg (660,000 lb). Thrust: 15,600.00 kN (3,507,000 lbf). More at: Air/Lox/LH2
N1U 1965 - A - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 1,934,000 kg (4,263,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 195,000 kg (429,000 lb). Thrust: 49,420.00 kN (11,110,050 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1U 1965 - B - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 506,000 kg (1,115,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb). Thrust: 13,700.00 kN (3,079,800 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N1U 1965 - V - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 193,000 kg (425,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Thrust: 1,560.00 kN (350,700 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
N-2 - Licensed version of Delta built in Japan using both US and Japanese components. 4 stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1987. First Launch: 1981-02-11. Last Launch: 1987-02-19. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 132,690 kg (292,530 lb). Payload: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 2,287.50 kN (514,250 lbf).
N-2 (2) - American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor N + 1 x AJ10-118FJ Gross mass: 133,000 kg (293,000 lb). Thrust: 2,290.00 kN (514,810 lbf).
N-2 Star-37E - Japanese orbital launch vehicle. First Launch: 1981-02-11. Last Launch: 1986-02-12. Number: 7 .
N2O - Liquid nitrous oxide (N2O / dinitrogen monoxide / 'laughing gas') is the oxidizer of choice for hybrid rocket motors because it is benign, storable, and self-pressurizing to 48 atmospheres at 17 deg C.
N2O/C3H8 - N2O/C3H8 propellant. Liquid nitrous oxide (N2O / dinitrogen monoxide / 'laughing gas') and C3H8, propane, a commonly-available natural gas, were proposed in the 21st Century as a propellant combination for manned spacecraft.
N2O/Solid - N2O/Solid propellant. Liquid nitrous oxide (N2O / dinitrogen monoxide / 'laughing gas') is the oxidizer of choice for hybrid rocket motors because it is storable, and self-pressurizing to 48 atmospheres at 17 deg C. The combination of HTPB or PMMA solid fuel and N2O is benign, non-toxic, and non-explosive.
N2O4 - Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's.
N2O4/Aerozine-50 - N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant. Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Aerozine was a 50-50 mixture of hydrazine and UDMH developed for use in the Titan missile family; it had a higher boiling point than UDMH. This propellant combination was copied in one Russian missile but otherwise straight UDMH was used in Russia.
N2O4/Alumizine - N2O4/Alumizine propellant. Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Alumizine was a mixture of 43% aluminum powder suspended in anhydrous hydrazine with a gelling agent. The idea was to increase the heat of combustion due to the high enthalpy of formation of aluminum oxide as a combustion product, similar to the metallized kerosene ('Kerosol') tested by Saenger in the 30's. Alumizine was never flown and was only tested in static ground tests. A drum of alumizine exploded in California when it was not disposed of safely. The fuel was proposed for some pressure-fed 'big dumb booster' designs of the late 1960's.
N2O4/Hydrazine - N2O4/Hydrazine propellant. Hydrazine (N2H4) found early use as a fuel, but it was quickly replaced by UDMH, and this combination was not used in any production motors.
N2O4/Hydyne - N2O4/Hydyne propellant. Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application. This propellant combination was not used in any production rocket motors.
N2O4/Kerosene - N2O4/Kerosene propellant. This low-cost propellant combination was used in the Otrag low-cost modular rocket system, flight-tested 1977-1983.
N2O4/MMH - N2O4/MMH propellant. Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a storable liquid fuel that found favor in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.
N2O4/Pentaborane - N2O4/Pentaborane propellant. Pentaborane (B5H9) was considered as a high performance fuel in the US in the 1950's. Its development was pursued with some vigor by Glushko in Russia during the 1960's. But like the other fluorine and boron motors of the time, it presented too many handling and safety problems to be adopted as a flight engine.
N2O4/UDMH - N2O4/UDMH propellant. Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital maneuvering engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance.
N-4 - Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. Designated Proton 1 after launch; investigated ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. Status: Operational 1965. First Launch: 1965-07-16. Last Launch: 1966-07-06. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 8,300 kg (18,200 lb). Payload: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).
N-4 #1, 2, 3, 4 - Alternate name of Proton 1, 2, 3 (Proton-1 1, 2, 3, 4 / N-4 #1, 2, 3, 4).
N-6 - Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. Proton 4. Cosmic ray measurements. Study of the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Mass announced at time of launch 17,000 kg. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-11-16. Last Launch: 1968-11-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 16,000 kg (35,000 lb). Payload: 12,500 kg (27,500 lb).
NA - Abbreviation for Not available
NA 802 Soleil C - SEREB solid rocket engine. Thrust: 120.00 kN (26,970 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
NA 803 Soleil - SEREB solid rocket engine. Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
NA-704 - Alternate designation for Navaho SSM-A-2.
NA-704 Mark II - Manufacturer's designation of LR41 rocket engine.
NA-704 Mark III - Manufacturer's designation of XLR43-NA-1 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
NA801 - Manufacturer's designation of Mammouth rocket engine.
NA801 - SEREB solid rocket engine. Rubis stage 1. Status: Retired 1967. Gross mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 190.00 kN (42,710 lbf). More at: Solid
NA802 - Manufacturer's designation of Soleil Mammouth rocket engine.
NA803 - Manufacturer's designation of Soleil NA803 rocket engine.
NA-80x Family - Family of French test vehicles of the 1950's and 1960's.
NAA 75-110 - Manufacturer's designation of A-6 LOx-Alcohol rocket engine.
NAA HATV - North American's HATV proposal was an ogival single-stage-to-orbit vehicle, with tanks made from 18-8 stainless steel. In common with other HATV designs, the tanks had to be pressurized to maintain rigidity. Status: Design 1946. Gross mass: 45,350 kg (99,970 lb). Thrust: 1,034.00 kN (232,452 lbf).
NAA Manned Bombardment and Control Vehicle - American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In the early 1960's, one configuration studied by North American Aviation for the USAF space bomber study was this 12-m-diameter flying saucer design. Status: Study 1963.
NAA RTTOCV - NASA awarded a "Reusable Ten Ton Orbital Carrier Vehicle" contract worth $342,000 to North American Aviation. The final concept from 1963 was quite similar to Lockheed's System III design. The launch capability was 11,340 kg (25,000 lb) and the standard payload would have consisted of a small lenticular 12-man orbital transfer vehicle spaceplane for space station logistics and crew transfer. Status: Design 1963. Gross mass: 548,847 kg (1,210,000 lb). Payload: 11,340 kg (25,000 lb).
NACA - National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (later became NASA)
NADC - American manufacturer. NADC, USA.
Nadezhda - Ukrainian navigation satellite. Navigation / SAR Transponder satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 1982 - 2000. Used KAUR-1 bus. Status: Operational 1982. First Launch: 1982-06-29. Last Launch: 2002-09-26. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 820 kg (1,800 lb).
Nadezhda-M - Navigation / SAR Transponder satellite built by NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM), Russia. Launched 2002. Used KAUR-1 bus. First Launch: 2002-09-26. Last Launch: 2002-09-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb).
nadir - The direction vertically downward (opposite to zenith)
Nadiradize - Alternate name for Nadiradze Design Bureau.
Nadiradize - Russian manufacturer of solid propellant engines. Nadiradze Design Bureau, Russia.
Nadiradze, Aleksandr Davidovich - Russian chief designer. Director and Chief Designer of the Moscow Institute for Thermal Technology 1961-1987. Pioneering developer of Soviet solid propellant missiles. Born: 1914. Died: 1987-01-01.
Naduvaniy gazovoy ballon - Naduvaniy gazovoy ballon First Launch: 1991-05-30. Last Launch: 1991-05-30. Number: 1 .
Nagel - German Physician. Captain, Military, German expert in biological warfare during World War II.
Nagel, Steven Ray - American test pilot astronaut 1978-1995. Was married to astronaut Linda Godwin. Status: Deceased; Active 1978-1995. Born: 1946-10-27. Died: 2014-08-21. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 30.07 days.
Nahid 1 - Communications satellite built by Iranian Space Research Center for Iranian Space Agency (ISA), Iran. Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Nahuel - Geosynchronous satellite network.
Nahuel 1A - Communication satellite built by Dornier Satellitensysteme (prime), Aerospatiale (bus) for Nahuelsat, Argentina. Launched 1997. Used the Spacebus-2000 bus. First Launch: 1997-01-30. Last Launch: 1997-01-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,790 kg (3,940 lb).
Nahuelsat - Nahuelsat, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Argentina
Nahuelsat (1993) - Second name of ArSat.
NAIC - Abbreviation for National Air Intelligence Center
Naikaku Eisei Joho Senta - Alternate name for CSICE.
Nair, Paramaswaren Radhakrishnan - Indian physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1943-10-10.
NAL - National Aerospace Laboratory, Japan.
NAL test vehicle - Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicles. Status: Retired.
NAL-16 - Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1965-06-17. Last Launch: 1969-09-20. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
NAL-16 engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. NAL-16 first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Unfuelled mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf). More at: Solid
NAL-16-1 - Alternate name for NAL-16 engine.
NAL-25 - Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Retired 1969. First Launch: 1969-02-01. Last Launch: 1969-02-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
NAL-25 engine - Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. NAL-25 first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Number: 1 . More at: Solid
NAL-25-1 - Alternate name for NAL-25 engine.
NAL-7 - Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle with Mitsubishi solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1969-09-20. Last Launch: 1970-09-07. Number: 2 . More at: Solid
NAL-735 - Japanese test vehicle. Single stage vehicle. Status: Active. First Launch: 2002-07-14. Last Launch: 2005-10-09. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb).
NAL-735 engine - NASDA solid rocket engine. NAL-735 first stage. Status: Active. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb). Thrust: 250.00 kN (56,200 lbf). More at: Solid
NAL-735-1 - Alternate name for NAL-735 engine.
NAMFI - The NATO Missile Firing Installation is NATO's main Firing Range. It is located on the island of Crete, outside the town of Chania. First Launch: 2007-11-06. Last Launch: 2007-11-06. Number: 1 .
Nammo - Norwegian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Nammo Raufoss AS, Norway.
Nammo (Nordic Ammunition Group) Raufoss - Alternate name for Nammo.
Nampo -
Nano-JASMINE - Nano-Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration. Gross mass: 38 kg (83 lb).
Nanosail - American technology satellite. Launched 2008.08.03, Status: Operational 2008.
NanoSail D - Technology satellite for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2008-2010. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2008-08-02. Last Launch: 2010-11-20. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Nanosat - Nanosatellite by INTA, Spain. Status: Operational 2009. First Launch: 2009-07-29. Last Launch: 2009-07-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 22 kg (48 lb).
Nanosat - One of a pair of student-built nanosats for stereo cloud imagery. The satellites did not contact the ground after separation from the booster in a lower-than-planned orbit and their fate was unclear. Used the 3CSat bus.
Nanosat 01 - Spanish technology satellite. Experimental nanosat built by the Spanish space agency (INTA). Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-12-18. Last Launch: 2004-12-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb).
Nanosat 1 - Alternate name of Solar Blade (Nanosat 1).
Nanosat 1 - Alternate name of Constellation Pathfinder (Nanosat 1).
Nanosat 2 - Alternate name of ION-F (USUSat, Dawgstar, HokieSat / Nanosat 2).
Nanosat 3 - Alternate name of FASTRAC 1, 2 (Nanosat 3 / FO 69, 70 / FASTRAC-OSCAR 69, 70).
Nanosat 6 - Alternate name of Oculus-ASR (Nanosat 6).
Nanosat 6 - Alternate name of Violet (Nanosat 6).
Nanosat 7 - Alternate name of Prox 1 (Nanosat 7).
Nanosat 8 - Alternate name of M-SAT (MR-SAT, MRS-SAT, Nanosat 8).
Nanosat Launch Vehicle - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage, reusable, liquid oxygen/ethane propellant launch vehicle using aerospike engine technology and capable of delivering 10 kilograms to a 250-kilometer polar orbit. The NLV would provide low-cost, dedicated launch services to universities and other research organizations that traditionally depend on secondary payload opportunities to access space Status: Development. Payload: 10 kg (22 lb).
Nanosat SSTL - Alternate designation for SSTL-10.
Nanosat SSTL - Alternate manufacturer's designation for SNAP satellite bus.
NanoSatC-Br 1 - Science, magnetosphere satellite built by INPE Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS/CCR/INPE-MCT) (prime); ISIS (bus) for INPE Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS/CCR/INPE-MCT), Brazil. Launched 2014. Used the CubeSat (1U). Launched 2014. First Launch: 2014-06-19. Last Launch: 2014-06-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
NanoSatC-Br 2 - Science, ionosphere satellite built by INPE Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS/CCR/INPE-MCT) (prime); ISIS (bus) for INPE Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS/CCR/INPE-MCT). Used the CubeSat (2U). Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Nanosputnik - Russian technology satellite. Nanosatellite delivered by Progress M-52 to the International Space Station. 30 cm long, it was released from during a spacewalk on 28 March 2005. Status: Operational 2005. First Launch: 2005-02-28. Last Launch: 2005-02-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
NAOTS - F2H aircraft flying from this Naval Air Station launched Rockair sounding rockets in 1955, known to have been used for 5 launches, reaching up to 55 kilometers altitude.
NAR - Abbreviation for National Association of Rocketry
Narimanov, Georgiy Stepanovich - Russian engineer. Major-General, doctor of physics and mathematics, deputy chief of 4 NII-MO for scientific research (1959-1965). Born: 1922. Died: 1983-01-01.
Naro Space Center - Alternate name for Goheung.
Naro-1 - In 2005 it was announced that the KSLV-I would not fly until 2007. It was now a completely different vehicle, consisting of a first stage derived from the Russian Angara launch vehicle, and a solid propellant second stage of South Korean manufacture. First launch 2009.08.25. Status: Active. First Launch: 2009-08-25. Last Launch: 2013-01-30. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 140,000 kg (300,000 lb). Payload: 100 kg (220 lb). Thrust: 1,910.00 kN (429,380 lbf).
NARSSS - Egyptian agency. NARSSS, Egypt.
Naryad - Code name for IS-MU military anti-satellite system.
NASA - First name of JPL.
NASA - First name of Wallops.
NASA - First name of Clemson.
NASA - American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA.
NASA 747 - Boeing turbofan-powere swept wing airliner, modified to carry shuttle on its back. Also considered as launch aircraft for Manned Sortie Vehicle and air-launched Minuteman and Peacekeeper. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 109,000 kg payload, 37.2 m length x 24.0 m span at 538 kph at 5183 m. Status: Out of Production. Gross mass: 276,364 kg (609,278 lb). Unfuelled mass: 177,000 kg (390,000 lb). Payload: 109,000 kg (240,000 lb). Thrust: 835.23 kN (187,767 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
NASA ACRV - American manned spaceplane. Assured Crew Return Vehicle or Astronaut Crew Rescue Vehicle. Study 1986. The early Space Station proposals assumed the facility would be equipped with a 'safe haven' where the crew would wait for a rescue Shuttle in case of emergency. Status: Study 1986. Gross mass: 9,072 kg (20,000 lb).
NASA Ames - American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Ames, USA.
NASA Bermuda - Alternate name for Kindley.
NASA Cleveland - NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, USA.
NASA Europa Mission - Jupiter orbiter / Europa fly-by satellite built by, USA.
NASA Goddard - First name of NASA Greenbelt.
NASA Greenbelt - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Greenbelt, USA.
NASA Houston - American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Houston, Houston, USA.
NASA Huntsville - Army Ballistic Missile Agency, USA.
NASA Kennedy - American agency.
NASA Langley - American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Langley, USA.
NASA Lifting Body - NASA's Ames Research Center and Langley had promoted the idea of 'lifting bodies', rounded half-cones, for use as manned recoverable spacecraft. These provided lift for maneuver and recovery at an airfield after re-entry from orbit.
NASA Mark III - American space suit, tested 1992. The NASA Mark III was an advanced NASA space suit design of the 1990's. Status: tested 1992. Gross mass: 74 kg (163 lb).
NASA Mars Expedition 1971 - American manned Mars expedition. Study 1971. Final NASA Mars expedition before the 1980's. The spacecraft would use shuttle hardware, including SSME engines in the rocket stages. Status: Study 1971. Gross mass: 1,900,000 kg (4,100,000 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
NASA Mars Flyby 1965 - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Mars flyby mission designed by NASA Huntsville in 1965 to use existing Apollo hardware, allowing a manned flyby of Mars by 1975. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 600,000 kg (1,320,000 lb). More at: Lox/LH2
NASA Marshall - Second name of NASA Huntsville.
NASA PARD - First name of NASA Wallops.
NASA Shuttle 1978 - Alternate designation for VTOVL 1978.
NASA SSTO 1978 - American SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle family studied by NASA in the late 1970's. Expected breakthrouhs in lightweight cryogenic structures did not mateialize.
NASA Travel Orders - Shuttle astronauts traveled into space on government orders reading "ITINERARY: FROM HOUSTON, TX TO EARTH ORBIT". They received a per diem of only a few dollars a day - $30 to $50 extra on top of their base salary for a flight - since NASA was providing all "meals, transportation, and lodging".
NASA Wallops - American agency. Wallops Flight Facility (NASA), Wallops, USA.
NASA WFC - Second name of Wallops.
NASA-1 astronaut group, 1959 - Requirement: six pilots for the single-crew Mercury manned spacecraft. Originally a wide pool of candidates was going to be considered, but in December 1958 President Eisenhower ruled that military test pilots would form the candidate pool. Nickname: The Original Seven Date: 1959.
NASA-10 astronaut group, 1984 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Maggots. Named by Bill Shepherd, who dubbed them in their earliest group training in aircraft survival school, a term familiar to graduates of USMC boot camp. Date: 1984.
NASA-11 astronaut group, 1985 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Date: 1985.
NASA-12 astronaut group, 1987 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Gaffers (acronym for 'George Abbey Final Fifteen' - the last group selected with George Abbey as Director of Flight Crew Operations). The class motto: 'What's the rush?' since there was expected to be along wait for flights after the Challenger disaster. Date: 1987.
NASA-13 astronaut group, 1990 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Hairballs. As the 13th astronaut group, the 'unlucky' theme was discussed in designing an emblem for the group. A black cat was used on an early patch design rejected by NASA. This reminded some of hairballs and the group members adopted this as a nickname. Date: 1990.
NASA-14 astronaut group, 1992 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Hogs. Date: 1992.
NASA-15 astronaut group, 1995 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Flying Escargot. Originally dubbed the 'snails' by the Hogs, because they were supposed to be the class of 1994, but the announcement was delayed a year;. They renamed themselves with the better-sounding French equivalent. Date: 1995.
NASA-16 astronaut group, 1996 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Sardines (named because that's how packed they were; at 44 this was the largest ASCAN class of all time) Date: 1996.
NASA-17 astronaut group, 1998 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Penguins. Originally called the Dodos by the Sardines, after an extinct flightless bird; they renamed themselves after a flightless bird that eats fish... Date: 1998.
NASA-173GT - NASA Cleveland electric rocket engine. Two-Stage Hybrid Hall/Ion Thruster
NASA-18 astronaut group, 2000 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Bugs. Date: 2000.
NASA-19 astronaut group, 2004 - Requirement: pilot and mission specialists for post-ISS spaceflights to the moon and beyond Date: 2004.
NASA-2 astronaut group, 1962 - Requirement: pilots for the Gemini program and early Apollo missions. Nickname: The Next Nine Date: 1962.
NASA-20 astronaut group, 2009 - Requirement: pilot and mission specialists for post-ISS spaceflights to the moon and beyond. Nickname: The Chumps (unexplained; originally the Chimps, but perhaps the Chumps based on the unlikelihood they will ever fly in space). Date: 2009.
NASA-21 astronaut group, 2013 -
NASA-3 astronaut group, 1963 - Requirement: crew members for planned Apollo missions (then planned as 4 Saturn I missions in 1965, 2-4 Saturn IB missions in 1966, 6 Saturn V missions from 1967). Nickname: The Fourteen. Date: 1963.
NASA-4 astronaut group, 1965 - Requirement: scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and Apollo applications earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Scientists. Date: 1965.
NASA-400M - NASA Cleveland electric/krypton rocket engine. Developed to investigate high-power, high specific impulse Hall thruster operation in 2004. Date: 2003-on. Thrust: 1.02 N (0.23 lbf). More at: Electric/Krypton
NASA-457M - NASA Cleveland electric/xenon rocket engine. 50 kW Hall thruster developed 2001-on. Date: 2000-2004. More at: Electric/Xenon
NASA-5 astronaut group, 1966 - Requirement: pilot-astronauts for the Apollo Applications Program (then planned as 10 lunar landings after Apollo 11 and 30 Apollo flights to earth-orbit space stations). Nickname: The Original Nineteen Date: 1966.
NASA-6 astronaut group, 1967 - Requirement: additional scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Excess Eleven. Date: 1967.
NASA-7 astronaut group, 1969 - NASA was forced to take on seven pilot-astronauts from the cancelled USAF MOL military space station program. All of these men would have to wait to the shuttle era for space missions, but they all would eventually fly. Date: 1969.
NASA-8 astronaut group, 1978 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Recruit women and minorities to introduce diversity into the astronaut corps. Nickname: TFNG - Thirty-Five New Guys, also an obscene military phrase. Date: 1978.
NASA-9 astronaut group, 1980 - Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: 19+80 - The two European astronauts in the group were not considered by the Americans to be part of the 'official' group. This led to a scene at graduation. Date: 1980.
NASA-LANL Manned Mars Mission 1985 - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1985. Joint Los Alamos/NASA design for a quick Mars flyby mission using hardware planned for development by NASA in the 1990's. Status: Study 1985. Gross mass: 325,000 kg (716,000 lb).
NASAMS - Norwegian manufacturer. NASAMS, Norway.
NASA's Lost Boilerplate - The Story of BP-1227 - In 2002 the Encyclopedia Astronautica uncovered the forgotten story of the recovery of an Apollo capsule by the Soviet Union and it's return to the United States. The original March 2002 article provoked an early example of international group-research on the Internet, with a June 2002 update and with new information from the crewmembers of the USS Southwind in 2008. Now, 13 years later, Eddie Pugh's exhaustive research provides the definitive account of the event.
NASC - American manufacturer. NASC, USA.
NASDA - Japanese agency overseeing development of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. National Space Development Agency, Japan.
NASDA Japanese Experiment Module - Alternate name for ISS Japanese Experiment Module.
NASDA-1 astronaut group, 1985 - Requirement: Japanese astronauts for flights aboard Shuttle, ISS. Date: 1985.
NASDA-2 astronaut group, 1992 - Requirement: Japanese astronauts for flights aboard Shuttle, ISS. Date: 1992.
NASDA-3 astronaut group, 1996 - Requirement: Japanese astronauts for flights aboard Shuttle, ISS. Date: 1999.
Nash, J S - American test pilot. Flew the X-4 # 2. Status: Inactive.
NASM - Abbreviation for National Air and Space Museum
NASP - Abbreviation for National AeroSpace Plane
NASP (National Aerospace Plane) - Alternate designation for X-30.
NASP (National Aerospace Plane); Orient Express - Alternate designation for X-30 rocket stage.
Natal - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1965-04-01. Last Launch: 2013-06-26. Number: 301 .
Natal MAN - Skylark launch complex. MAN site First Launch: 1979-10-12. Last Launch: 1979-10-12. Number: 1 .
Natalia - Name of one Galileo Navsat.
National Aerospace Plane - Alternate designation for X-30.
National Center for Atmospheric Research - Alternate name for NCAR.
National Launch System - Alternate designation for NLS Core.
National Launch System - Alternate designation for NLS.
National Launch System - Alternate designation for NLS Semistage.
National Launch System - Alternate designation for NLS HLV stage.
National Launch System - Alternate designation for NLS HLV.
NationalSpace Research Development Agency, Nigeria - Alternate name for NSRDA.
NATIV - As part of its effort to develop what started out as an American version of the A9 boost-glide rocket, North American Aviation built seven Nativ subscale technology demonstrators. Status: Retired 1948. First Launch: 1948-05-26. Last Launch: 1948-11-01. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 11.60 kN (2,608 lbf).
NATIV-1 - Rocket stage used on Nativ test vehicle. Status: Retired 1948. Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Unfuelled mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Thrust: 12.00 kN (2,697 lbf).
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Europe. North American-European military alliance organization overseeing development of a military communications satellite network..
NATO 1 - British military communications satellite. Military communications. Military communication satellite built by Philco Ford Space & Reentry Systems Division for NATO, USA. Launched 1970-1971. Used Skynet-1 Bus. Status: Operational 1969. First Launch: 1969-11-22. Last Launch: 1971-02-03. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 243 kg (535 lb).
NATO 3 - British military communications satellite. Military communications. Military communication satellite built by Philco Ford Space & Reentry Systems Division for NATO, International. Launched 1976 - 1984. Used NATO-3 Bus. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-04-22. Last Launch: 1984-11-14. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb).
NATO 4A, 4B - Military communication satellite built by BAe => Matra Marconi for NATO, International. Launched 1991 - 1993. Used the ECS-Bus bus. First Launch: 1991-01-08. Last Launch: 1993-12-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,434 kg (3,161 lb).
NATO Missile Firing Installation - Alternate name for NAMFI.
Natsionalnie Kosmichne Agentstvo Ukrayni - Alternate name for NKAU.
Naugle, John E - American physicist, at NASA 1959-1981, developed projects to study the magnetosphere. Born: 1923-09-20. Died: 2013-01-23.
Nauka - Alternate name of MLM-U (Nauka).
Nauka - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. The Nauka containers were flown as piggy-back payloads aboard Zenit reconnaissance satellites. They served a dual purpose. Status: Operational 1968. First Launch: 1968-03-21. Last Launch: 1979-08-17. Number: 45 .
Nauka Cosmos - Alternate designation for independent-flight Nauka satellites released from Zenit missions.
Nautilus - American manned space station module. Study 2013. Inflatable pressurized habitat module for use in manned space stations, lunar, or interplanetary spacecraft or bases. Developed by Bigelow Aerospace using private funds. Status: Study 2013. Gross mass: 20,000 kg (44,000 lb).
Navaho - The Navaho intercontinental cruise missile project was begun just after World War II, at a time when the US Army Air Force considered ballistic missiles to be technically impractical. The Navaho required a large liquid propellant rocket engine to get its Mach 3 ramjet up to ignition speed. This engine, derived with German assistance from that of the V-2, provided the basis for the rockets that would later take Americans into space.

It turned out that mastering the guidance and materials technology needed for a Mach 3 cruise air vehicle was actually more difficult than for a Mach 22 ballistic missile. In the end, the Redstone, Thor, Jupiter, and Atlas rockets were flying before their equivalent-range Navaho counterparts. However the Navaho program provided the engine technology that allowed the US to develop these ballistic missiles rapidly and catch up with the Russians. Navaho also developed chem-milling fuel tank fabrication techniques, inertial and stellar navigation, and a host of other technologies used in later space vehicles. It put North American Aviation, and its Rocketdyne Division, in a leading position that allowed them to capture the prime contracts for the X-15, Apollo, and Space Shuttle projects, thereby dominating American manned spaceflight for the next seventy years. Status: Retired 1959.


Navaho G-26 - American intermediate range cruise missile. The Navaho G-26 was a 2/3 scale test version of the operational Navaho G-38. The Navaho program was cancelled on 13 July 1957, but already-built G-26 test missiles were flown to the end of 1958. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1956-11-06. Last Launch: 1958-11-18. Number: 11 . Gross mass: 71,881 kg (158,470 lb). Payload: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Thrust: 1,067.40 kN (239,961 lbf).
Navaho G-26 AV - Mach 3 ramjet test vehicle. Separates from booster at 14,600 m, Mach 3. Mach 2.75 cruise, 5,600 km range, payload 2500 kg in 2.59 m x 1.50 m compartment. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 29,478 kg (64,987 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,977 kg (21,995 lb). Payload: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Thrust: 66.70 kN (14,996 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
Navaho G-38 - American intercontinental cruise missile. The intercontinental-range Navaho G-38 was the ultimate development of the German A-9/A-10 concept. At the time the Navaho program was cancelled on 13 July 1957 missiles were in fabrication with first flight test planned by the end of 1958. Status: Development ended 1958. Gross mass: 131,540 kg (289,990 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Thrust: 1,801.20 kN (404,926 lbf).
Navaho G-38 AV - Ramjet-powered missile stage. Separates from booster at 21,600 m, Mach 3. Mach 3.25 cruise, 10,200 km range, payload 4545 kg in 3.76 m x 1.78 m weapons bay. Empty mass estimated. Status: Development ended 1958. Gross mass: 54,648 kg (120,478 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,512 kg (31,993 lb). Payload: 4,550 kg (10,030 lb). Thrust: 89.26 kN (20,066 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
Navaho G-38 Booster - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Burns out at altitude 21,600 m, Mach 3. Empty Mass estimated. Status: Development ended 1958. Gross mass: 76,870 kg (169,460 lb). Unfuelled mass: 16,780 kg (36,990 lb). Thrust: 2,048.16 kN (460,444 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Navaho I - Alternate designation for Navaho SSM-A-2.
Navaho II - Alternate designation for Navaho G-26.
Navaho III - Alternate designation for Navaho G-38.
Navaho SSM-A-2 - American intermediate range cruise missile. The first version of the Navaho developed in 1946-1950 was a Mach-3 ramjet vehicle with an integral rocket booster. Completion of the vehicle was cancelled in 1950 but the engine was used to power the Redstone ballistic missile. Status: Cancelled 1950. Gross mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb). Payload: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Thrust: 333.00 kN (74,861 lbf).
Navaho X-10 - American intermediate range cruise missile. Reusable, conventional airfield takeoff-and-landing aerodynamic test vehicle for Navaho missile. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1953-10-14. Last Launch: 1959-01-26. Number: 30 . Gross mass: 19,183 kg (42,291 lb). Payload: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Thrust: 97.00 kN (21,806 lbf).
Navaho X-10 stage - Air/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Aerodynamic test vehicle for Navaho missile; Max speed Mach 2.08; range 1320 km. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 19,183 kg (42,291 lb). Unfuelled mass: 11,700 kg (25,700 lb). Thrust: 96.95 kN (21,795 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
Navaho/X-15 - North American proposed several methods of taking the X-15 spaceplane to higher velocities and altitudes. One of these involved the use of one to three Navaho booster rockets, which could even place the X-15 into orbit. This incremental approach to manned spaceflight was not pursued - the Mercury and X-20 Dynasoar programs were favored instead. Status: Design 1959.
Naval Academy-OSCAR 84 - Alternate name of PSat A, B (ParkinsonSat A, B / NO 84 / Naval Academy-OSCAR 84).
Naval Air Ordnance Test Station - Alternate name for NAOTS.
Naval Center for Space Technology - Alternate name for NCST.
Naval Ordnance Lab - American manufacturer. Naval Ordnance Lab, USA.
Naval Ordnance Test Station - Alternate name for China Lake launch site.
Naval Propellant Plant - American manufacturer of rocket engines. Naval Propellant Plant, USA.
Naval surveillance radarsat - Category of spacecraft.
Naval Weapons Center - Second name of NAWC.
Navesnoy otsek - Alternate designation for Zarya NO manned spacecraft module.
Navid - Earth observation satellite with 400 m resolution built by Iran University of Science and Technology in Tehran. Status: Operational 2012. First Launch: 2012-02-03. Last Launch: 2012-02-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 50 kg (110 lb).
Navigation - Category of spacecraft.
Navigation technology satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Navigator - American outer planets probe. Study 1962. 1962 JPL concept for a dedicated spacecraft to be launched by a Saturn C-2 or RIFT booster on missions to Mercury and Jupiter. Never went beyond preliminary study stage. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Navigator bus - Satellite bus developed by Lavochkin 2000-2010 for use by a variety of earth-resource and scientific satellites. Operational, Dry mass 850 kg, propellant up to 540 kg, and payload up to 2600 kg. Solar panels provided 600-1100 watts maximum over a five-year designed operational life. Stabilized to within 2.5 deg by a hydrazine monopropellant system. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-01-20. Last Launch: 2011-07-18. Number: 2 .
Navspasur - Calibration satellite; AKA Long Rod. Part of Surcal series.
Navstar - Navigation satellite constellation, orbited from 1978-on. Several generations of satellites made up and then replenished the original constellation: GPS Block 2R, [GPS Block 2 and 2A], [GPS Block 2R], and [GPS Block 2F].
Navstar - Alternate designation for GPS Block 2F.
Navstar - Alternate designation for GPS Block 2 and 2A.
Navstar - Alternate designation for GPS Block 3.
Navstar - Alternate name of GPS (Navstar).
Navstar - The Navstar GPS (Global Positioning System) program was a joint service effort directed by the United States Department of Defense. Navstar GPS is a space-based radio-positioning system nominally consisting of a 24-satellite constellation that provides navigation and timing information to military and civilian users worldwide. In addition to the satellites, the system consists of a worldwide satellite control network and GPS receiver units that acquire the satellite's signals and translate them into position information. Originally envisioned as primarily a military system, GPS was found to have a wide variety of civilian applications, many of them never conceived by the original system's designers.
Navstar - Code name for GPS Block 1 navigation satellite.
Navstar-2 - Alternate name of GPS-2 (Navstar-2).
Navstar-2A - Alternate name of GPS-2A (Navstar-2A).
Navstar-2F - Alternate name of GPS-2F (Navstar-2F).
Navstar-2R - Alternate name of GPS-2R (Navstar-2R).
Navstar-2RM - Alternate name of GPS-2RM (Navstar-2RM).
Navstar-3 - Alternate name of GPS-3 (Navstar-3).
Navy Navigation Satellite - Alternate name for Transit.
Navy SLV - American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. The spacecraft for a US Navy lunar landing program that was to place a naval aviator on the moon by 1967. Status: Study 1961.
Navy vs Air Force - Navy pilots received by far the larger share of shuttle commander assignments throughout the program - why?
Navy-OSCAR 44 - Alternate name of PCSat 1 (Navy-OSCAR 44, NO 44).
Navy-OSCAR 61 - Alternate name of MAA (ANDE-MAA, NO 61, Navy-OSCAR 61).
Navy-OSCAR 62 - Alternate name of FCal (ANDE-FCal, NO 62, Navy-OSCAR 62).
NAWC - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division (formerly called Naval Weapons Center), USA.
Naxing - Naxing (a contraction of Nami Weixing 'Nanosatellite') was designed for high-tech experiments. The satellite was developed and will be used by the elite Qinghua University and the Aerospace Qinghua Satellite Technologies Co. Ltd. Used the CAST1000 bus.
Naxing 1 - Alternate name of NS 1 (Naxing 1).
Naxing 2 - Alternate name of NS 2 (Naxing 2).
Nayif 1 (FUNcube 5, EO 88, OSCAR 88) - Technology, education satellite for EIAST, American University of Sharjah (AUS), United Arab Emirates. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2017-02-15. Last Launch: 2017-02-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
NAZ-3 - Russian space emergency kit, operational 1968. The NAZ-3 emergency-landing kit was used in cosmonaut training in all seasons and extremes of temperature, and on all manner of terrain: mountains, steppes, tundra, desert, taiga, and in water. Status: operational 1968.
Nazeat 6H - Iranian solid-propellant unguided military rocket. 960 kg launch mass, range 100 km with 130 kg payload. Status: Active. First Launch: 2008-11-26. Last Launch: 2010-02-03. Number: 2 .
Nazeat-6 - Iranian-made artillery rocket with a range of 100 km.
NB20.170 - Satellite in the USAF OV1 technology series.
NB-52 - Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Boeing Bomber-swept wing. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 25,000 kg (19.1 m length x 6.7 m span) at 880 kph at 11,448 m altitude Status: Active. Gross mass: 177,273 kg (390,820 lb). Unfuelled mass: 70,545 kg (155,525 lb). Payload: 25,000 kg (55,000 lb). Thrust: 430.47 kN (96,774 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
NBC - National Broadcasting Corporation; or Nuclear-biological-chemical
NBN-Co 1A, 1B (Sky Muster 1, 2) - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for NBN Co Limited, Australia. Launched 2015 - 2016. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2015-09-30. Last Launch: 2016-10-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,440 kg (14,190 lb).
NBS - National Bureau of Standards (now NIST)
NC - Abbreviation for Nitrocellulose
NCAR - American agency.
NCS - Nigerian Communications Satellite Ltd, Nigeria.
NCST - Algerian agency. NCST, Algeria.
NCT - Alternate name of ST 5 (NCT).
NCube - Norwegian 1U Cubesat for ARR/NSC. Evidently was released from SSETI Express but no signal received.
Ncube 1, 2 - Technology satellite for Norwegian University of Technology and Science (NTNU), Narvik University College (HiN) and the Agricultural University of Norway (NLH), Norway. Launched 2005-2006. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. Launched 2005-2006. First Launch: 2005-10-27. Last Launch: 2006-07-26. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
NDRE - Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, Norway.
NDV - Abbreviation for NASP Derived Vehicle
NE - Northeast
NEAP - American asteroid probe. Study 2002. Near Earth Asteroid Prospector (NEAP) was SpaceDev's first conceived commercial deep-space mission. The mission was planned as the first deep-space mission defined and executed by a non-governmental entity. Status: Study 2002.
NEAR - American asteroid probe. NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) was the first spacecraft ever to orbit and then (improvisationally) land on an asteroid. Asteroid Orbiter / lander built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for NASA, USA. Launched 1996. Status: Operational 1996. First Launch: 1996-02-17. Last Launch: 1996-02-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 818 kg (1,803 lb).
Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous - Alternate designation for NEAR asteroid probe.
NEA-Scout - Satellite for NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA. Used the CubeSat (6U) bus. Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
Nebel, Rudolf - German rocket enthusiast. Worked for Oberth; helped found VfR; built largest prewar German test rockets. Work shut down by government in 1934. Did not work on rockets during WW2. Promoted civilian rebirth of German rocketry in 1950's. Born: 1894-03-21. Died: 1978-09-18.
NEC - Japanese manufacturer of spacecraft. Nippon Electric Corporation, Japan.
Nedaivoda, Anatoliy Konstantinovich - Russian engineer. Deputy General Director, Khrunichev State Scientific Industrial Research Centre. Worked at Khrunichev from 1965 on Proton launch vehicle and Salyut series of space stations. Manager and General Manager KB Salyut from 1994. Born: 1938.
Nedelin, Mitrofan Ivanovich - Russian officer. Deputy Minister of Defense 1955-1959. First Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1959-1964. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. Born: 1902-11-09. Died: 1960-10-24.
Nederlands Instituut voor Vliegfulgontwikkeling en Ruimtevaart - Alternate name for NIVR.
NEE - Cubesat from Ecuadorian Space Agency.
NEE 01 Pegaso - Technology satellite for EXA (Agencia Espacial Civil Ecuatoriana), Ecuador. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-04-26. Last Launch: 2013-04-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
NEE 02 Krysaor - Technology satellite for EXA (Agencia Espacial Civil Ecuatoriana), Ecuador. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-21. Last Launch: 2013-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Negai - 1U Cubesat for Soka University, Tokyo, released in parking orbit. Successful,
Negai✰ (Negai-Star, Negai-Boshi) - Technology satellite for Soka University, Japan. Launched 2010. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2010-05-20. Last Launch: 2010-05-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
Negai-Boshi - Alternate name of Negai✰ (Negai-Star, Negai-Boshi).
Negai-Star - Alternate name of Negai✰ (Negai-Star, Negai-Boshi).
Negev - Negev Desert test site. Military testing range. First Launch: 1990-12-21. Last Launch: 2000-04-06. Number: 3 .
Negev 5 - Israeli manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital balloon-launched ballistic spacecraft concept of IL Aerospace Technologies (ILAT), Israel. Status: Study 2004.
Nehlsen, Gerhard - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Nehrkorn, Horst - German ballistics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. Born: 1920.
NEK - Scientific-Experimental Complex (Russian abbreviation)
Nelli - Alternate name of Type 375.
Nelson, Anthony 'Tony' - American fictitious astronaut, featured in I Dream of Jeannie television program.
Nelson, Clarence William Jr 'Bill' - American congressman payload specialist astronaut 1985-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1986. Born: 1942-09-29. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 6.09 days.
Nelson, George Driver 'Pinky' - American astronomer mission specialist astronaut 1978-1989. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-1989. Born: 1950-07-13. Spaceflights: 3 . Total time in space: 17.11 days.
Nelyubov, Grigori Grigoriyevich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Discharged with Anikeyev and Filatyev after alcohol incident. Returned to Air Force duties in Siberia, underwent increasing depression, killed in 1966 when hit by a train. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1963. Born: 1934-03-31. Died: 1966-02-18.
Neman - Alternate name of Yantar-4KS1M (Neman, 17F117).
Neman - Code name for Yantar-4KS1 military surveillance satellite.
Nemesis - Alternate name for Quasar classified geostationary data relay satellite.
Nemesis 1, 2 (PAN, CLIO / P360) - SIGINT, COMINT satellite built by Lockheed Martin for NRO, USA. Launched 2009-2014. Used the A2100A bus. First Launch: 2009-09-08. Last Launch: 2014-09-17. Number: 2 .
NEMO - Earth observation satellite built by Space Systems/Loral, NRL for US Navy.
NEMO-AM - Earth observation satellite built by UTIAS for UTIAS (University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies); ISRO. Used Nemo-V1 bus. Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
NEMO-HD - Earth observation satellite built by UTIAS for UTIAS (University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies); Space-SI. Used Nemo-V2 bus. Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
Nenashev, Mikhail Ivanovich - Russian officer. Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Fourth Chief Directorate of the Ministry of Defense (1964-1987). Managed anti-missile and anti-satellite forces of the PVO. Born: 1918. Died: 1994-01-01.
Nenoksa - Primary missile testing range of the Russian Navy. The number of actual missile tests was in the hundreds. First Launch: 1969-03-01. Last Launch: 1997-11-19. Number: 31 .
NEOSSAT - Astronomy satellite built by Microsat Systems Canada Inc. (MSCI) for CSA, Canada. Launched 2013. Used Multi-Mission Microsatellite Bus. First Launch: 2013-02-25. Last Launch: 2013-02-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 65 kg (143 lb).
NEOSSat - Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite, joint Canadian Space Agency/DRDC mission to survey asteroids and space debris, with a 0.15m telescope. Used the Multi-Mission Microsatellite Bus bus.
NEP - Alternate name of SPP (NEP).
Nepobedimiy, Sergei Pavlovich - Russian Chief Designer of the Kolomna Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau.1965-1989, specialized in surface-to-air, tactical ballistic, and anti-tank missiles. Designed the world's only air-augmented ICBM, the Gnom, in the early 1960's.
Neptune - American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Sea-launched stage-and-a-half liquid oxygen / liquid natural gas orbital launch vehicle for passengers or payloads of up to 4.5 metric tons. Status: Design 2005. Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Neptune (Space Station) - American manned space station. Study 2008. A unique aspect of the Neptune stage-and-a-half commercial launch vehicle concept was that the main rocket structure, once in orbit, could act as a small space station. Status: Study 2008. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb). Payload: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Neptune engine - ONERA solid rocket engine. Second stage of OPd-56-39-22D vehicle. Status: Retired 1961. Gross mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 150 kg (330 lb). Thrust: 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf). More at: Solid
Neptune RQ-15 - American Maritime UAV.
Nerchinsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1965. Moved to Drovyanaya. Base for units deployed with 12 R-14 and perhaps R-12 missiles.
Neri Vela, Rodolfo - Mexican engineer payload specialist astronaut 1985. First Mexican astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1985-1985. Born: 1952-02-19. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 6.88 days.
NERV - Nuclear Emulsion Recovery Vehicle (high-altitude radiation experiment)
Nerva - Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application. NASA/AEC Project of the 1960's to develop Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. NERVA stages, launched by the Saturn V, would have been clustered in earth orbit to send manned expeditions to Mars. Developed up to flight article test before cancellation. Status: Development 1971. Gross mass: 178,321 kg (393,130 lb). Unfuelled mass: 34,019 kg (74,999 lb). Thrust: 867.41 kN (195,001 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva 12 GW - Notional nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1959. Used on Hyperion launch vehicle. Status: Study 1959. More at: Nuclear/LH2
NERVA 1mlbf - Notional nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. DAC Helios, DAC Helios ISI studies 1963. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 8,963.00 kN (2,014,962 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva 2 - American nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. Version of 1960's nuclear fission engine proposed in 1990's. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 872,878 kg (1,924,366 lb). Thrust: 13,693.80 kN (3,078,489 lbf).
Nerva 2 engine - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Developed 1950-74. Status: Developed 1950-74. Unfuelled mass: 11,860 kg (26,140 lb). Thrust: 867.40 kN (194,999 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva 2/NTR - American space tug. Study 2005. Upper stage / space tug - study completed 1991. Late 1980's update of 1960's Nerva design. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 158,400 kg (349,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Thrust: 333.00 kN (74,861 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva 2/NTR stage - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Design as revised in detail in 2005. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 158,400 kg (349,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 27,000 kg (59,000 lb). Thrust: 333.00 kN (74,861 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva Alpha - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Nuclear stage designed to fit into the space shuttle payload bay. Additional propellant modules could be added in orbit. Such propellant modules would have a mass of 23,181 kg, including 21,265 kg of usable propellant. Given go-ahead in 1972, it would have been flight tested by 1982. Status: Development 1972. Gross mass: 17,783 kg (39,204 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,969 kg (10,954 lb). Thrust: 71.70 kN (16,119 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva Alpha engine - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1972. The final Nerva Alpha flight engine reference configuration as documented at the end of its development. Status: Study 1972. Date: Designed 1972. Thrust: 71.70 kN (16,119 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva Gamma - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Improved version of the Alpha nuclear stage designed to fit into the space shuttle payload bay. Additional propellant modules could be added in orbit. Such propellant modules would have a mass of 23,181 kg, including 21,265 kg of usable propellant. Given an Alpha engine development program, it would have been flight tested by 1984. In addition to propulsion, it would provide 10 to 25 MWe power for missions of two to five years duration. Status: Development 1972. Gross mass: 18,643 kg (41,100 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,829 kg (12,850 lb). Thrust: 81.00 kN (18,209 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva Gamma engine - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1972. The final Nerva Gamma flight engine was an improved version of the Alpha, a small engine that could be launched together with its stage and a payload in a single space shuttle launch. Status: Study 1972. Date: Designed 1972. Thrust: 81.00 kN (18,209 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva NTR - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1991. Late 1980's update of 1960's Nerva design. Status: Study 1991. Unfuelled mass: 8,500 kg (18,700 lb). Thrust: 333.40 kN (74,951 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
NERVA/Lox Mixed Cycle - Notional nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1963. Used on RITA C launch vehicle. Status: Study 1963. Thrust: 24,126.00 kN (5,423,740 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nerva-1 - DoE nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Early version of Nerva engine proposed for use in Saturn and RIFT configurations in 1961. Status: Study 1961. Thrust: 266.00 kN (59,799 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
NESCOMN - NESCOM, Pakistan National Defense Complex
NESCOMP - NESCOM, Project Management Organization, Pakistan
Nesmeyanov, Aleksandr Nikolayevich - Russian scientist. President of the Academy of Sciences 1951-1961. Approved the first satellite project. Born: 1899-09-09. Died: 1980-01-01.
Nespoli, Paolo Angelo - Italian engineer mission specialist astronaut 1998-on. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1957-04-06. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 174.40 days.
Nesterenko, Aleksei Ivanovich - Russian officer. First Director of Nll-4 1946-1950. First Commander of Baikonur 1955-1958. Born: 1908-03-30. Died: 1995-07-18.
Netherlands - Netherlands
Nettersheim - German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 to 1957 in the ground support equipment group. Remained in France thereafter.
Nettuno - Alternate name of Sea Killer Mk.1.
Neu Ulm - US base in the 1980's for 43 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.
Neubauer, Karl - German expert in rocket designer during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Neubeck, Francis Gregory - American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969. Status: Inactive; Active 1965-1969. Born: 1932-04-11.
Neubert, Erich Walter - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1910-01-19. Died: 1999-09-01.
Neuhoefer, Kurt Kunibert Karlmann - Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1903-11-12. Died: 1973-02-01.
Neumeister, Lisa - Wife of a German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked as a translator for rocket engine developers in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Born: 1920-09-13.
Neurolab - Alternate designation for STS-90.
Neurolab - Name for specially-configured Spacelab.
Neurolab astronaut group, 1996 -
NEUTRON 1 - Satellite for University of Hawaii, Hawai`i Space Flight Laboratory, Honolulu, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
Neva - Alternate name of S-125.
Nevada Test Site - Nuclear test site. Sounding rockets and test vehicles have been launched in support of US nuclear weapons development from the site since the 1950's.
Nevada Test Site Area 26 - Castor-Orbus launch complex. Sounding rocket launcher First Launch: 1997-02-10. Last Launch: 1997-10-04. Number: 2 .
Neva-M - Alternate name of S-125M.
Neva-M1 - Alternate name of S-125M1.
new - Alternate designation for Agni 5.
New Dawn / Intelsat 28 - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for Intelsat, USA. Launched 2011. Used the Star-2.4 Bus bus. First Launch: 2011-04-22. Last Launch: 2011-04-22. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
New Frontiers 1 - Alternate name of New Horizons (New Frontiers 1).
New Generation Crewed - The world is facing a minimum five year period, beginning in 2011, when the venerable Russian Soyuz spacecraft will provide the only means of ferrying crews to the International Space Station. America's new Orion spacecraft, beset by delays, is unlikely to be arriving at the ISS until 2018 at the earliest - which was NASA's original date for retirement of the ISS. China has its slow-motion Shenzhou manned program, but so far they have shown no interest in involvement in the ISS program, or in sharing their hard-won independent space technology with outsiders.
New Horizons - American outer planets probe. New Horizons was the first spacecraft targeted on Pluto, the last unvisited body of the nine original planets known at the beginning of the space age. Pluto Flyby. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-01-19. Last Launch: 2006-01-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 478 kg (1,053 lb). Unfuelled mass: 401 kg (884 lb). Payload: 77 kg (169 lb). Thrust: 4.40 N (0.90 lbf).
New Horizons (New Frontiers 1) - Pluto flyby satellite built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) for NASA, USA. Launched 2006. First Launch: 2006-01-19. Last Launch: 2006-01-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 478 kg (1,053 lb).
New Launch System - Alternate designation for NLS.
New Launch System - Alternate designation for NLS HLV.
New Mexico - New Mexico State University, USA.
New Shepard - American manned spacecraft. Flight tests begun 2006. Vertical takeoff/vertical landing suborbital tourist spacecraft being developed by Blue Origin and scheduled to begin commercial operation in 2010. Status: Operational 2006. First Launch: 2006-11-13. Last Launch: 2016-10-05. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 20,569 kg (45,346 lb). Thrust: 1,020.00 kN (229,300 lbf). More at: H2O2/Kerosene
New Shepard Flight History - New Shepard Flight History
New Skies - Dutch agency. New Skies, Netherlands.
New Space Tourism - With governmental manned space programs flagging, it seemed by the 21st Century that only civilian investors, building systems for tourism, might keep manned spaceflight alive...
New Zealand - New Zealand
Newell, Homer E - American physicist, at NRL 1944-1958, NASA 1958-1973. Leading advocate of use of sounding rockets for atmospheric and space research. Born: 1915-03-11. Died: 1983-01-01.
Newman, James Hansen - American physicist mission specialist astronaut 1990-2008. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2008. Born: 1956-10-16. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 43.42 days.
Newton, Isaac - British scientist, single-handedly developed the principles and mathematical basis of physics. His work established the calculations necessary for celestial mechanics, the rocket engine, and other essential elements of space exploration. Born: 1642. Died: 1727-01-01.
Newton's Orbital Cannon - British gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Isaac Newton discussed the use of a cannon to attain orbit in 1687 in his Principia Mathematica - the very book that defined classical physics and provided the theoretical basis for space travel and rocketry. Newton used the following 'thought experiment' to explain the principle of orbits around the earth (see illustration):

Imagine a mountain so high that its peak is above the atmosphere of the earth. Imagine on top of that mountain a cannon, that fires horizontally. As more and more charge is used with each shot, the speed of the cannonball will be grater, and the projectile will impact the ground farther and farther from the mountain. Finally, at a certain speed, the cannonball will not hit the ground at all. It will fall toward the circular earth just as fast as the earth curves away from it. In the absence of drag from the atmosphere, it will continue forever in an orbit around the earth. Status: Design 1687.


NexStar 1, 2 - Communication satellite built by Dauria Aerospace for Aniara. Used ATOM-Bus. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb).
NEXT - Alternate designation for Shaviyt.
NEXT - Alternate designation for Shaviyt 1.
NEXT - Alternate name of Shavit.
NeXT - Alternate name of Astro H (NeXT, Hitomi).
NEXT - Alternate designation for Shavit 1.
NEXT - UM-NASA electric/xenon rocket engine. NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster, 40 cm diameter ion engine, double the beam extraction area of the NSTAR engine. Developed 1998-2003. Thrust: 0.24 N (0.05 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
Next Generation Delta 100 t - American orbital launch vehicle. Conceptual next generation Delta booster beyond Delta IV Heavy, equaling Saturn V of the 1960's in payload capability. The booster would use two parallel 7-m-diameter booster stages, a notional RS-XXX LOx/LH2 rocket motor, and a 7 m diameter upper stage and fairing. Payload fairings of 7 m diameter could be accommodated. Introduction would require new launch pads and booster assembly infrastructure, and a new factory to handle the larger-diameter tooling. Status: Study 2004. Payload: 91,000 kg (200,000 lb).
Next Generation Space Telescope - Manufacturer's designation for WST visible astronomy satellite.
Next Nine - Alternate name for NASA Group 2 - 1962.
Next Nine - Alternate name of NASA-2 astronaut group, 1962.
NEXTAR NX-300L - High resolution imaging satellite developed by NEC and managed by Japan Space Systems (formerly USEF, part of the Ministry of Trade and Industry) rather than by the main Japanese space agency JAXA. The ASNARO had 0.5m resolution on a 10 km nadir swath width. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-09-14. Last Launch: 2014-11-06. Number: 2 .
NextSat - Passive satellite portion of DARPA's Orbital Express satellite servicing experiment. Carried hydrazine for fluid transfer experiments, but no propulsion system. Attitude controlled by momentum wheels and magnetic torquer rods. . Used RS-300 bus.
NEXTSat 1 - Technology satellite for KAIST, South Korea. Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
NEXTSat/CSC - Remote Servicing Technology satellite built by Ball Aerospace for DARPA, USA. Launched 2007. Used the RS-300 bus. First Launch: 2007-03-09. Last Launch: 2007-03-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 224 kg (493 lb).
Nexus - American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Early 1960's recoverable launch vehicle proposed by Krafft Ehricke at General Dynamics. Perhaps the largest conventionally-powered launch vehicle ever conceived, it was designed to deliver 900 metric tons to low earth orbit. Status: Design 1962. Gross mass: 21,820,000 kg (48,100,000 lb). Payload: 450,000 kg (990,000 lb).
NF-104 - American manned rocketplane. Study 1959. The NF-104 aerospace trainer was a modified F-104A fighter, incorporating an LR-121 liquid fuel rocket engine in addition to the conventional J-79 turbojet engine. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
NFIRE - Near Field Infrared Experiment conducted by the US Missile Defense Agency. Its Track Sensor Payload included visible and short, medium and long wave infrared sensors to observe missiles launched from the ground. Used SA-200 bus.
NFIRE - Research satellite built by General Dynamics C4 Systems (Spectrum Astro), U.S. Air Force Resarch Laboratory for MDA, USA. Launched 2007. Used the SA-200S bus. First Launch: 2007-04-24. Last Launch: 2007-04-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 494 kg (1,089 lb).
NFIRE-KV - Research satellite for MDA.
NG - Abbreviation for Nitroglycerin
NGB - Balloon subsatellite (Naduvaniy gazovoy ballon). Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-05-30. Last Launch: 1991-05-30. Number: 1 .
NGC - Abbreviation for New General Catalog
NGD - Abbreviation for Nitroguanidine
NGMB - Alternate name of Road Runner/NGMB/SN-200.
NGST - Code name for WST visible astronomy satellite.
NHK - Japanese agency. Nippon Hoso Kyokai, Japan, Japan.
Nicaragua -
NicaSat 1 (LSTSAT 1) - Communication satellite built by CAST, Nicaragua. Used the DFH-4 Bus bus.
NICER - ISS astronomy, X-ray payload for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. Launched 2017. First Launch: 2017-06-01. Last Launch: 2017-06-01. Number: 1 .
Nichols, Kenneth D - American manager, involved in directing the guided missile research and development effort for the Secretary of Defense in the early 1950's. Born: 1907-11-13. Died: 2000-02-21.
NICMOS - Near Infrared Camera / Multi Object Spectrometer (HST upgrade)
Nicollier, Claude - Swiss test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1978-2007. First Swiss astronaut. Status: Inactive; Active 1978-2007. Born: 1944-09-02. Spaceflights: 4 . Total time in space: 42.50 days.
NIE - Abbreviation for National Intelligence Estimate
Nie Haisheng - Chinese pilot taikonaut 1998-on. Backup commander, Shenzhou 9 mission. Status: Active 1998-on. Born: 1964-09-08. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 19.42 days.
NIEIPDS - Scientific-Research and Experimental Institute of the Parachute Landing Service (Russian abbreviation)
NIEMI - Second name of Efremov Design Bureau.
N-IF 1965 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IF would be the first follow-on version with increased performance. The first stage engines would be increased in thrust from an average of 150 metric tons to 175 metric tons, and those in the second stage from 150 metric tons to 200 metric tons. The second and third stages would be substantially enlarged. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,950,000 kg (6,500,000 lb). Payload: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 51,500.00 kN (11,577,600 lbf).
N-IFV-III - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Then N-IFV-III would add the Block V-III cryogenic third stage to the first and second stages of the N-IF. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,000,000 kg (6,600,000 lb). Payload: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Thrust: 51,500.00 kN (11,577,600 lbf).
N-IFV-II-III - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. N-IFV-II, III would use only the first stage from the N-1F, and use new cryogenic second and third stages. This cryogenic second stage seems not to have been pursued beyond the study phase. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 3,250,000 kg (7,160,000 lb). Payload: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Thrust: 51,500.00 kN (11,577,600 lbf).
Nigcomsat - Nigerian commercial communications satellite series for NCS using the DFH-4 bus.
NIGCOMSAT 1, 1R - Communication satellite built by CAST for NigComSat LTD, Nigeria. Launched 2007 - 2011. Used the DFH-4 bus bus. First Launch: 2007-05-13. Last Launch: 2011-12-19. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5,150 kg (11,350 lb).
Nigeria - Nigeria
Nigeriasat - Alternate designation for MicroSat-100.
NigeriaSat 1 - Earth Observation satellite built by SSTL, Nigeria. Launched 2003. Used the Microsat-100 bus. First Launch: 2003-09-27. Last Launch: 2003-09-27. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
NigeriaSat 2 - Earth Observation satellite built by SSTL, Nigeria. Launched 2011. Used the SSTL-300 bus. First Launch: 2011-08-17. Last Launch: 2011-08-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 300 kg (660 lb).
NigeriaSat X - Alternate name of NX (NigeriaSat X).
Nihka - Bristol Aerospace solid rocket engine. Upper stages. Out of production. The Nihka rocket motor was developed specifically for the Black Brant X rocket system by Bristol Aerospace. Used on Black Brant 10 launch vehicle. First flight 1981. Status: Active. Date: 1980-1982. Gross mass: 399 kg (879 lb). Unfuelled mass: 70 kg (154 lb). Thrust: 50.50 kN (11,353 lbf). More at: Solid
NII - Scientific-Research Institute (Russian abbreviation)
NII 612 kgf - NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. experimental 612.25 kgf / 0.071 metric tons thrust / 0.031tf. Developed. Experimental thruster, 3 thrust levels by 4 valves: 6000 N, 0.7 N, 0.3 N. Specific impulse 326 - 286 sec. Status: Developed. Thrust: 6.00 kN (1,349 lbf). More at: N2O4/UDMH
NII KP - Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. NII KP, Russia.
NII Mash - Abbreviated name of NII Mashinostroyenia; Scientific Institute for Machine Building; Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Not to be confused with NPO Mashinostroyenia.
NII Mashinostroyenia - Full name of NII Mash.
NII Mashinostroyeniyanii - Alternate name for NII Mash.
NII RP - Scientific-Research Institute for Rubber Industry (Russian abbreviation)
NII TP - Scientific-Research Institute for Thermal Processes, Moscow., Russia (Russian abbreviation); or Scientific-Research Institute for Precision Instruments (Russian abbreviation)
NII-1 - Second name of Polyarniy Design Bureau.
NII-1 - First name of Dushkin.
NII-10 - Alternate name of Altair bureau.
NII-10 - First name of Altair Bureau.
NII-111 MSM - Alternate designation for Variant S.
NII-125 - Ukrainian manufacturer of rocket engines. NII-125, Ukraine.
NII-195 -
NII-20 GKRE - First name of Efremov Design Bureau.
NII-30 -
NII-5 -
NII-627 - First name of VNIIEM.
NII-648 -
NII-88 - First name of Korolev bureau.
NII-885 -
NII-94 -
NIIAP - Scientific-Research Institute for Automation and Instrument Building (Russian abbreviation)
NIIAU - Scientific-Research Institute for Aviation Equipment (Russian abbreviation)
NIIIT - Scientific-Research Institute for Measurement Technology (Russian abbreviation)
Niijima - Sounding rocket and test vehicle launch site. First Launch: 1963-08-10. Last Launch: 1965-11-22. Number: 18 .
NII-MO -
NIIP - Scientific-Research and Test Range; or Scientific-Research Institute for Instrument Building (Russian abbreviations)
NIIP Dolgoprudneisk NPP - Third name of Tikhomirov Design Bureau.
NIIP Priborostroeniya named for V V Tikhomirov - Second name of Tikhomirov Design Bureau.
NIIP-19 -
NIIP-5 - Alternate name for Baikonur.
NIIP-53 - Alternate name for Plesetsk.
NIIP-A - Alternate name for Sary Shagan.
NIIPM - Scientific-Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (Russian abbreviation)
NIITI -
NIITT - NII-TT, Russia, Russia
NII-TT - Third name of Nadiradze Design Bureau.
NIJ -
Nika-T - Russian materials science satellite. Study 1998. By the late 1990's the Foton Design Bureau anticipated testing a much more capable microgravity spacecraft as a follow-on to the successful Foton program. Status: Study 1998. Gross mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb).
Nike - American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicles consisting first of just the Nike booster were initially fired in the course of development of the Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile. Later it was used occasionally as a sounding rocket, but much more often as the boost stage of a multi-stage sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1953-10-23. Last Launch: 1977-11-19. Number: 240 . Gross mass: 709 kg (1,563 lb). Payload: 70 kg (154 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Ajax - American surface-to-air missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Ajax Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1952-02-25. Last Launch: 1958-06-05. Number: 1087 . Gross mass: 1,040 kg (2,290 lb). Payload: 140 kg (300 lb). Thrust: 223.00 kN (50,132 lbf).
Nike Ajax-2 - Alternate name for Ajax engine.
Nike Apache - American sounding rocket. The most popular sounding rocket introduced during the early 1960's was this two-stage, solid-propellant vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Apache upper stage. Status: Retired 1980. First Launch: 1958-03-18. Last Launch: 1980-11-28. Number: 893 . Gross mass: 728 kg (1,604 lb). Payload: 36 kg (79 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Asp - American sounding rocket. Rail-launched vehicle consisting of an Asp plus a Nike booster. This product of the Cooper Development Corporation was designed to lift 27 kg to 260 km. An improved version, the Aspan 300, was also developed. The Nike-Asp was sometimes ship-launched. Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1957-09-26. Last Launch: 1963-02-18. Number: 77 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Cajun - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle sounding rocket consisting of a Nike booster together with a Cajun upper stage. Aside from the Soviet MMR-06, the Nike-Cajun was the most often launched sounding rocket. The Cajun motor was developed for NASA in the 1950's by Thiokol, providing a more modern but still affordable replacement for the World War II-era Deacon. Status: Retired 1976. First Launch: 1956-07-06. Last Launch: 1976-10-06. Number: 761 . Gross mass: 698 kg (1,538 lb). Payload: 23 kg (50 lb). Thrust: 246.00 kN (55,303 lbf).
Nike Deacon - American test vehicle. Two-stage rocket using surplus Nike boosters and Deacon sounding rocket upper stage. The combination was much cheaper than Aerobee, and unlike Rockoon could be launched from fixed launchers in two and a half hours. It was used for 'falling sphere' air density studies, atmospheric soundings, and for heat transfer studies launched from NACA Wallops Island. Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1953-11-19. Last Launch: 1957-09-18. Number: 18 . Gross mass: 710 kg (1,560 lb). Payload: 23 kg (50 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Hawk - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Hawk Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1975-09-09. Last Launch: 1975-09-09. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Hawk-2 - Alternate name for Improved Orion engine.
Nike Hercules - Alternate designation for MIM-14A.
Nike Hercules - American two stage surface-to-air missile, replaced Nike Ajax, operational with the US and allied armies. Rocket stages later used in sounding rockets. Vehicle consisting of 1 x Hercules Booster + 1 x TX-30 Status: Active. First Launch: 1957-03-13. Last Launch: 1971-01-01. Number: 154 . Gross mass: 4,900 kg (10,800 lb). Thrust: 775.00 kN (174,226 lbf).
Nike Hercules 1810 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Hercules Booster + 1 x Ajax Cluster 1810. Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-01-13. Last Launch: 1955-04-06. Number: 4 .
Nike Hercules Korean modification - American surface-to-air missile. South Korea displayed a modification of the Nike Hercules with a new monolithic single-engine solid propellant stage of South Korean manufacture. The modification was believed to also have guidance changes allowing it to serve as a surface-to-surface missile. Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Nike Hercules R&D - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Hercules Booster + 1 x Ajax Cluster. Status: Retired 1958. First Launch: 1955-01-01. Last Launch: 1958-01-01. Number: 47 .
Nike Hercules-1 - Alternate name for XM-42.
Nike Hydac - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Hydac Status: Retired 1983. First Launch: 1966-09-20. Last Launch: 1983-06-16. Number: 105 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Improved Orion - American sounding rocket. Status: Active. First Launch: 1992-08-18. Last Launch: 2012-11-25. Number: 26 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb).
Nike Iroquois - American sounding rocket. Aerojet developed the Nike-Iroquois (also called Niro) to fulfill a US Air Force requirement for a low-cost sounding rocket with roll control and high structural strength. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1964-11-27. Last Launch: 1979-02-26. Number: 207 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Iroquois-2 - Alternate name for TE-388.
Nike J - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Hercules Booster + 1 x TX-30. Status: Retired 1970. First Launch: 1970-10-01. Last Launch: 1970-11-01. Number: 9 .
Nike Javelin - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Javelin Status: Retired 1978. First Launch: 1963-05-29. Last Launch: 1978-10-26. Number: 68 . Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Malemute - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Malemute Status: Retired 1974. First Launch: 1974-05-14. Last Launch: 1974-09-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Nike - American sounding rocket. 2-4 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + upper stages. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1956-06-07. Last Launch: 1979-10-29. Number: 19 . Gross mass: 1,392 kg (3,068 lb). Payload: 70 kg (154 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Nike Cajun - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1959. First Launch: 1959-04-01. Last Launch: 1959-04-01. Number: 1 .
Nike Nike Cajun 2 - Alternate designation for Nike Nike Cajun.
Nike Nike Deacon - Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x Deacon Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1954-04-29. Last Launch: 1954-04-29. Number: 1 . Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Nike Deacon 2 - Alternate designation for Nike Nike Deacon.
Nike Nike HPAG - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x HPAG Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1954-10-14. Last Launch: 1954-10-14. Number: 1 . Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Nike HPAG-3 - Alternate name for HPAG engine.
Nike Nike Recruit - American three-stage sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-01-01. Last Launch: 1960-12-01. Number: 2 .
Nike Nike T40 - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1954-10-14. Last Launch: 1954-10-14. Number: 1 . Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Nike T40 T55 - Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 Status: Retired 1956. First Launch: 1954-10-14. Last Launch: 1956-06-07. Number: 4 . Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Nike Tri-Deacon T40 - American test vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Nike + 3 x Deacon + 1 x T-40 Status: Retired 1955. First Launch: 1955-04-08. Last Launch: 1955-04-08. Number: 1 . Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Orion - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle. Payload 68 kg to 190 km or 204 kg to 90 km. The Nike motor had three equally spaced unmodified Ajax fins, and the Orion motor had four fins on the aft end arranged in a cruciform configuration to provide stability. The first stage Nike booster had an action time of 3.2 seconds. The second stage ignited 9 seconds after liftoff and had an action time of 32 seconds. Capability 68 kg payload to 190 kilometers or a 204 kg payload to 90 kilometers when launched from sea level at an 85 degree launch angle. Status: Active. First Launch: 1977-02-26. Last Launch: 2002-05-16. Number: 180 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Orion Improved - Alternate designation for Nike Improved Orion.
Nike Recruit - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1956-10-05. Last Launch: 1961-04-07. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Recruit Nike - Alternate designation for Nike Nike Recruit.
Nike T40 T55 - American test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x T-40 + 1 x T-55 Status: Retired 1957. First Launch: 1956-09-10. Last Launch: 1957-12-13. Number: 2 . Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike T40 T55 Nike - Alternate designation for Nike Nike T40 T55.
Nike T48 Ajax - Test version of Nike Ajax. Status: Retired 1954. First Launch: 1953-06-25. Last Launch: 1954-09-29. Number: 18 .
Nike Tomahawk - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Tomahawk upper stage. Payload 45 kg to 370 km or 115 kg to 215 km. Status: Retired 1995. First Launch: 1963-06-25. Last Launch: 1995-11-27. Number: 407 . Gross mass: 990 kg (2,180 lb). Payload: 45 kg (99 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Viper I - American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike + 1 x Viper I Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1960-02-04. Last Launch: 1960-09-30. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Thrust: 217.00 kN (48,783 lbf).
Nike Viper I-2 - Alternate name for 5.6KS5400.
Nike X201 Ajax - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x X-201 + 1 x Nike-490 Sustainer. Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1950-10-17. Last Launch: 1952-07-22. Number: 41 .
Nike Yardbird - American sounding rocket. Status: Retired 1961. First Launch: 1961-06-01. Last Launch: 1961-07-26. Number: 2 .
Nike Yardbird-2 - Alternate name for Yardbird.
Nike Zeus - American anti-ballistic missile. First anti-ballistic missile tested by US. Prototypes were deployed operationally from the mid-Pacific test base as nuclear-tipped ASAT missiles. Cancelled 1966; replaced by the Spartan missile. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1960-08-10. Last Launch: 1965-03-01. Number: 130 . Gross mass: 9,070 kg (19,990 lb). Thrust: 2,000.00 kN (449,600 lbf).
Nike Zeus 3 - American anti-ballistic missile. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-135 + 1 x TX-238 + 1 x TX-239 Gross mass: 10,300 kg (22,700 lb). Thrust: 2,002.00 kN (450,067 lbf).
Nike Zeus 3-3 - Alternate name for TX-239.
Nike Zeus A - American anti-ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-135 + 1 x Zeus A Status: Retired 1960. First Launch: 1959-08-26. Last Launch: 1960-06-22. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 2,002.00 kN (450,067 lbf).
Nike Zeus A-2 - Alternate name for Zeus A.
Nike Zeus DM-15S - American anti-ballistic missile. 3 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x TX-135 + 1 x TX-238 + 1 x TX-239. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1962-12-17. Last Launch: 1966-05-06. Number: 14 .
Nike Zeus-1 - Alternate name for TX-135.
Nike Zeus-2 - Alternate name for TX-238.
Nike-46 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike-46 + 1 x Nike-46 Sustainer. Status: Retired 1947. First Launch: 1946-09-24. Last Launch: 1947-01-24. Number: 12 .
Nike-47 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike-47 + 1 x Nike-47 Sustainer. Status: Retired 1947. First Launch: 1947-09-22. Last Launch: 1947-12-09. Number: 9 .
Nike-480 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x X-201 + 1 x Nike-47 Sustainer. Status: Retired 1948. First Launch: 1948-06-17. Last Launch: 1948-07-13. Number: 5 .
Nike-481 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Nike-46 + 1 x Nike-47 Sustainer. Status: Retired 1949. First Launch: 1948-06-15. Last Launch: 1949-05-20. Number: 20 .
Nike-482 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x X-201 + 1 x Nike-47 Sustainer. Status: Retired 1948. First Launch: 1948-08-10. Last Launch: 1948-09-27. Number: 4 .
Nike-484 - 2 stage vehicle consisting of 1 x X-201 + 1 x Nike-484 Sustainer. Status: Retired 1950. First Launch: 1950-01-23. Last Launch: 1950-04-20. Number: 16 .
Nike-Black Brant - Alternate designation for Black Brant 8.
Nike-Zeus - Alternate designation for Nike Zeus.
Nikitsky, Vladimir Petrovich - Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1967. Status: Inactive. Born: 1939-03-08.
Nikolaenok, Vladimir Adamovich - Russian officer. Colonel, Deputy Chief of 5 NIIP MO for space themes 1969-1976. Born: 1923.
Nikolayev, Andriyan Grigoriyevich - Chuvash-Russian pilot cosmonaut 1960-1982. First person to fly more than one day in space. Married Valentina Tereshkova, and fathered first child born to parents that had both flown in space. Status: Deceased; Active 1960-1982. Born: 1929-09-05. Died: 2004-07-03. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 21.64 days.
Nilesat - Nilesat SA, Egypt. Launched Egypt's first communications satellite.
Nilesat 101, 102 - Communication satellite built by Astrium for Nilesat, Egypt. Launched 1998 - 2000. Used the Eurostar-2000 bus. First Launch: 1998-04-28. Last Launch: 2000-08-17. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,827 kg (4,027 lb).
Nilesat 104 - Alternate name of Atlantic Bird 7( Eutelsat 7 West A (Nilesat 104).
Nilesat 201 - Communication satellite built by Thales Alenia Space for Nilesat, Egypt. Launched 2010. Used the Spacebus-4000B2 bus. First Launch: 2010-08-04. Last Launch: 2010-08-04. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb).
N-IM 1965 - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IM would mark an tremendous increase in vehicle size and was the ultimate pure liquid oxygen/kerosene version considered. The first stage engines would be increased to 250 metric tons thrust, without reducing reliability, through use of higher engine chamber pressure. Propellant load in the first stage would be almost doubled. Second stage engine thrust would increase to 280 metric tons each and the second and third stages again enlarged. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 4,950,000 kg (10,910,000 lb). Payload: 155,000 kg (341,000 lb). Thrust: 74,000.00 kN (16,635,000 lbf).
Nimbus - American earth weather satellite. Meteorology, experimental satellite built by RCA Astrospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1964 - 1966. Used Nimbus Bus. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-08-28. Last Launch: 1978-10-24. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 907 kg (1,999 lb).
Nimbus 4 - Meteorology, experimental satellite built by RCA Astrospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1970. Used Nimbus Bus. First Launch: 1970-04-08. Last Launch: 1970-04-08. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 619 kg (1,364 lb).
Nimbus 5 - Meteorology, experimental satellite built by RCA Astrospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1972. Used Nimbus Bus. First Launch: 1972-12-11. Last Launch: 1972-12-11. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb).
Nimbus 6 - Meteorology, experimental satellite built by RCA Astrospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1975. Used Nimbus Bus. First Launch: 1975-06-12. Last Launch: 1975-06-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 585 kg (1,289 lb).
Nimbus 7 - Meteorology, experimental satellite built by RCA Astrospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1978. Used Nimbus Bus. First Launch: 1978-10-24. Last Launch: 1978-10-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 832 kg (1,834 lb).
Nimbus B, 3 - Meteorology, experimental satellite built by RCA Astrospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 1968 - 1969. Used Nimbus Bus. First Launch: 1968-05-18. Last Launch: 1969-04-14. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 571 kg (1,258 lb).
Nimiq - Series of direct broadast satellites operated by Telesat Canada.
Nimiq 1, 2 - Communication (Direct Broadcasting) satellite built by Lockheed Martin for Telesat Canada, Canada. Launched 1999 - 2002. Used the A2100AX bus. First Launch: 1999-05-20. Last Launch: 2002-12-29. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb).
Nimiq 4 - Communication satellite built by Astrium for Telesat Canada, Canada. Launched 2008. Used the Eurostar-3000S bus. First Launch: 2008-09-19. Last Launch: 2008-09-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,850 kg (10,690 lb).
Nimiq 5 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Telesat Canada, Canada. Launched 2009. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2009-09-17. Last Launch: 2009-09-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,745 kg (10,460 lb).
Nimiq 6 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for Telesat Canada, Canada. Launched 2012. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2012-05-17. Last Launch: 2012-05-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb).
Nimrod - Israeli air-to-surface missile. Long range missile in production. Gross mass: 95 kg (209 lb). Payload: 15 kg (33 lb).
NIMS - Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (on Galileo)
N-IMV-III - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Then N-IMV-III would add the Block V-III cryogenic third stage to the first and second stages of the N-IM. This provided the second-highest performance of the variations considered and would certainly have been cheaper than the N-IFV-II, III. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 4,950,000 kg (10,910,000 lb). Payload: 185,000 kg (407,000 lb). Thrust: 74,000.00 kN (16,635,000 lbf).
N-IMV-II-III - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. N-IMV-II, III was the ultimate conventionally-powered N1 ever considered. It paired the monster N-1M first stage with new cryogenic second and third stages. Both liftoff thrust and payload of this vehicle would have been double that of the American Saturn V. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 5,200,000 kg (11,400,000 lb). Payload: 230,000 kg (500,000 lb). Thrust: 74,000.00 kN (16,635,000 lbf).
Ninigret State Park - Alternate name for Charlestown.
NIP - Scientific-Measurement Point (Russian abbreviation)
NIP-10 -
NIP-15 -
NIP-16 -
NIP-17 -
NIP-18 -
NIP-3 -
NIP-4 -
NIP-KIK -
Nippon Denshin Denwa Kabushiki-gaisha (NTT) - Alternate name for NTT.
Nippon Electric Corp., Space Div., Kamoi Works - Alternate name for NEC.
NIPR - Japanese agency. National Institute of Polar Research, Japan.
NIR - Abbreviation for Near InfraRed
NIRTI -
NISAR - Earth Science satellite built by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (L-Band SAR, reflector), ISRO (S-Band SAR, bus) for NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, ISRO, USA, India.
Nissaki-Karystos - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1966-05-15. Last Launch: 1966-05-20. Number: 9 .
Nissan - Japanese manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Nissan, Japan.
NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology (was NBS).
NITI - Scientific-Research and Technical Institute (Russian abbreviation)
Nitochkin, Aleksei Alekseyevich - Russian officer. Engineer at TsPI-31. Designed Baikonur launch range.
Nitric Acid - Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidizer of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidizer. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960.
Nitric acid/Amine - Nitric acid/Amine propellant. Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidizer of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidizer. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and performance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02.
Nitric acid/Ammonia - Nitric acid/Ammonia propellant. No rocket engines with this propellant combination entered production.
Nitric acid/Gasoline - Nitric acid/Gasoline propellant. Gasoline of various grades were used as fuel in the earliest rocket engines of Goddard and others. Once appropriate blends of kerosene were developed in the United States and Soviet Union, that became the hydrocarbon fuel of choice.
Nitric acid/Hydrazine - Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant. Problems which caused the abandoning of this propellant combination were the absence of reliable hypergolic ignition and unstable combustion. IRFNA (inhibited red fuming nitric acid)/UDMH and IRFNA/JP-X finally did prove satisfactory. No rocket engines with this propellant combination entered production.
Nitric acid/Hydyne - Nitric acid/Hydyne propellant. Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application. No rocket engines with this propellant combination entered production.
Nitric acid/JP-X - Nitric acid/JP-X propellant. The addition of approximately 40 per cent of UDMH to JP-4 resulted in a formulation (JP-X) which solved both the combustion and the ignition difficulties experienced with WFNA/ JP-4 and IRFNA/JP-4.
Nitric acid/Kerosene - Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant. This propellant combination, theoreticaly a very low-cost solution, proved to have ignition and stability problems. Finally the addition of approximately 40 per cent of UDMH to JP-4 resulted in a formulation (JP-X) which solved both the combustion and the ignition difficulties experienced with WFNA/ JP-4 and IRFNA/JP-4. However by then N2O4/UDMH was settled on as the optimum storable propellant combination.
Nitric acid/MMH - Nitric acid/MMH propellant. No engines using this combination were developed.
Nitric acid/Solid - Nitric acid/Solid propellant. Potential hybrid rocket combination, but less corrosive oxidizers (liquid oxygen, nitrous oxide) have been preferred for safety reasons.
Nitric acid/Turpentine - Nitric acid/Turpentine propellant. Combination used in early test rockets; no production engines resulted.
Nitric acid/UDMH - Nitric acid/UDMH propellant. Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidizer of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidizer. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines, normally in combination with N2O4 rather than nitric acid.
Nitrogen - Inert cold gas held under pressure and released by valves to create thrust.
Nitrogen gas - Inert cold gases held under pressure and released by valves to create thrust. Inert cold gases held under pressure and released by valves to create thrust.
Nitrogen+Helium - Inert cold gases held under pressure and released by valves to create thrust.
Nitrous oxide/Alcohol - Nitrous oxide/Alcohol propellant. Nitrous oxide has advantages as a rocket engine oxidizer in that it is non-toxic, stable at room temperature, easy to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight. Its disadvantage is that it must be stored as a gas, which make it more bulky than liquid oxidizers. Alcohol (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China. After better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned. Interest was renewed in the 21st Century as part of this non-toxic, storable propellant combination.
Nitrous oxide/Amines - Nitrous oxide/Amines propellant. Nitrous oxide has advantages as a rocket engine oxidizer in that it is non-toxic, stable at room temperature, easy to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight. Its disadvantage is that it must be stored as a gas, which make it more bulky than liquid oxidizers. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and performance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II.
Nitze, Paul H - American manager, director of the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, 1944-1946, senior defense department positions 1961-1969. Born: 1907-01-16. Died: 2004-10-19.
N-IU - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IU would be the initial production version of the N1 following the mad rush to make the lunar landings. It would have essentially the same payload but would be substantially re-engineered for sharply improved reliability, most notably with autonomously operating engines. It is interesting to note that four years before the disastrous first flight Korolev already foresaw the potential engine problems that would be the downfall of the project. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,750,000 kg (6,060,000 lb). Payload: 95,000 kg (209,000 lb). Thrust: 44,000.00 kN (9,891,000 lbf).
NIUSAT (Keralshree) - Earth observation satellite for Noorul Islam University (NIU), India. Gross mass: 12 kg (26 lb).
N-IUV-III - Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IUV-III would replace the N-IU's conventional third stage with a LOX/LH2 cryogenic third stage. This was seen at the time as the first step in exploitation of cryogenic technology in Russia. Although pursued for some time, this large stage never went into development. The more modestly-sized Block R, Block S, and Block SR instead were put into development in the early 1970's. Status: Study 1965. Gross mass: 2,900,000 kg (6,300,000 lb). Payload: 115,000 kg (253,000 lb). Thrust: 44,000.00 kN (9,891,000 lbf).
NIVR - Dutch manufacturer of spacecraft. NIVR, Netherlands.
Niwaka - Cubesat released from ISS Kibo module.
Niwaka - Alternate name of FITSat 1 (Niwaka).
Nixon, Richard M - American politician, President of the US 1969-1974; allowed the Apollo and Skylab programs to complete, but denied NASA funds for its enormous post-Apollo program. He set budget limitations resulting in a partially-reusable shuttle design. Born: 1913. Died: 1994-01-01.
Nizhniy Tagil - Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, much later 45 RT-2PM mobile missiles. First Launch: 1964-04-15. Last Launch: 1975-08-27. Number: 8 .
NJFA - One Cubesat of the Tianwing constellation, communicating via a Wifi router on the [Pujiang] spacecraft.
NJFA 1 (TW 1C) - Technology satellite for Shanghai Engineering Center for Microsatellites (SECM), China. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. First Launch: 2015-09-25. Last Launch: 2015-09-25. Number: 1 .
NJUST - Cubesat for the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NJUST), part of the Tianwang constellation, communicating via a Wifi router on the [Pujiang] spacecraft.
NJUST 1 (QB50 CN03) - Technology, atmosphere satellite for Nanjin University of Science and Technology (NJUST), China. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-04-18. Last Launch: 2017-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
NJUST 2 (TW 1B) - Technology satellite for Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2015-09-25. Last Launch: 2015-09-25. Number: 1 .
NK- - Kuznetsov engine (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
NK-15 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 1 (block A). Development ended 1964. On the basis of NK-9 the NK-15 was developed for the N-1 launcher. 30 were used on the Block A (Stage 1) of the N-1. First flight 1969. Status: Development ended 1964. Date: 1962-72. Number: 120 . Unfuelled mass: 1,247 kg (2,749 lb). Thrust: 1,544.00 kN (347,105 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-15F - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1966-1972. Engine had only a very short nozzle, the 24 engines around the periphery were to expand along a common central plug on the first stage of a studied N1 variant. Status: Development 1966-1972. Thrust: 2,180.00 kN (490,080 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-15V - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Development ended 1964. Developed from the NK-9. 8 engines, featuring high-expansion nozzles, used on N1 Stage 2. First flight 1969. Status: Development ended 1964. Date: 1962-72. Number: 32 . Unfuelled mass: 1,345 kg (2,965 lb). Thrust: 1,648.00 kN (370,485 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-15VM - Kuznetsov LOx/LH2 rocket engine. N-1 stage 2 (block B) replacement. Design 1972. Derivative of NK-15 with kerosene replaced by hydrogen. Canceled before hot-tests. Status: Design 1972. Date: 1965. Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
NK-19 - Alternate designation for NK-9V-11D54 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
NK-19 - Alternate designation for NK-9V.
NK-19 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 4 (Block G). Development ended 1964. Based on NK-9 engine. Originally developed for the modernized second stage of the R-9 (abandoned). Also to have been used on GR-1 / 8K713 Stage 2. First flight 1969. Status: Development ended 1964. Date: 1960-72. Number: 4 . More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-19, NK-21 - Alternate designation for NK-9V rocket engine.
NK-21 - Alternate designation for NK-9V.
NK-21 - Alternate designation for NK-9V-11D53 LOx-Kerosene rocket engine.
NK-21 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 3 (block V). Out of production. Based on NK-9 engine. Propellants kerosene T-1 / LOX. 4 engines used in N-1 stage 3 (block V). Used on N1 launch vehicle. First flight 1969. Status: Out of production. Date: 1962-72. Number: 16 . More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-231 - Kuznetsov turbofan engine. Tu-160. Development ended 1992. Turbofan engine used in Tu-160. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Status: Development ended 1992. Thrust: 226.50 kN (50,919 lbf). More at: Air/Kerosene
NK-31 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Upgraded version of engines for N-1 stage 4, with multiple ignition capability and increased operational lifetime. Mothballed in 1974. Proposed for Black Colt launch vehicle in 1993. Status: Study 1993. Date: 1969-74. Unfuelled mass: 722 kg (1,591 lb). Thrust: 402.00 kN (90,373 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-33 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1F stage 1 (block A), Kistler stage 1, Taurus II stage 1. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed in 1975 after the cancellation of the N1. Resurrected for Kistler, then for Taurus. Status: Mothballed 1975. Date: 1970-74. Unfuelled mass: 1,222 kg (2,694 lb). Thrust: 1,638.00 kN (368,237 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-33 LH2 Mod + 4 x LACE - Kuznetsov air augmented rocket engine. N1-MOK. Study 1974. Ultimate derivative of NK-9. Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. Status: Study 1974. Date: 1974. Thrust: 980.70 kN (220,470 lbf). More at: Air/Lox/LH2
NK-35 - Alternate designation for NK-15VM LOx-LH2 rocket engine.
NK-35 - Kuznetsov LOx/LH2 rocket engine. Design 1972. Derivative of the NK-15 with kerosene replaced by hydrogen. The engine was canceled before hot-tests. Proposed for the UR-700M Mars booster in 1972, but this was not approved either. Status: Design 1972. Date: 1972. Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
NK-39 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1F stage 3 (Block V). Development ended 1971. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed after the cancellation of the N1. Status: Development ended 1971. Date: 1969-74. Unfuelled mass: 631 kg (1,391 lb). Thrust: 402.00 kN (90,373 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-43 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1F stage 2 (Block B), Kistler stage 2. Development completed 1975. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed after the cancellation of the N1. Resurrected for Kistler. Status: Design 1975. Date: 1969-74. Unfuelled mass: 1,396 kg (3,077 lb). Thrust: 1,755.00 kN (394,539 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-9 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. R-9, GR-1 stage 1. Reached phase of stand testing in 1965, but then RD-111 selected. Later planned for 1st Stage of GR-1, but that rocket also cancelled. Date: 1959-65. Thrust: 441.30 kN (99,208 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-9V - Alternate designation for NK-21.
NK-9V - Alternate designation for NK-19.
NK-9V - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 2 / N-1 stage 3 / R-9 Stage 2. Developed for 2nd stage of the R-9 ICBM (alternative to RD-111 engine by OKB-456). NK-9 with increased expansion ratio. First flight 1965. Date: 1959-65. Thrust: 441.30 kN (99,208 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-9V-11D53 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 3 (block V). Out of Production. Modification of NK-9 engine for the N-1 lunar rocket. May be identical to NK-21 (stage 3). Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 449.00 kN (100,939 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NK-9V-11D54 - Kuznetsov LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 4 (block G). Out of Production. Modification of NK-9 engine for the N-1 lunar rocket. May be identical to NK-19 (stage 4). Status: Out of Production. Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
NKAU - Ukrainian agency. National Space agency overseeing development of Ukraine, Ukraine.
NKVD - People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Russian abbreviation)
NLDP - Abbreviation for National Launch Development Program
NLOS - American air-to-surface missile. Non-Line-Of-Sight missile. Canceled
NLS - University of Toronto demonstration of on-orbit formation flying using differential GPS. Used the Toronto Generic Nanosatellite Bus (Toronto GNB).
NLS - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. New (or National) Launch System (NLS) joint NASA/USAF studies began in 1989, following the demise of the ALS. They proposed development of a family of launch vehicles using a new STME engine to replace the existing ‘high cost' boosters derived from 1950's missile designs. The $12 billion nonrecurring cost was nearly that estimated for ALS, and this cost could not be recouped at projected launch rates. NLS was terminated in 1991. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 851,732 kg (1,877,747 lb). Thrust: 17,784.50 kN (3,998,115 lbf).
NLS Core - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 815,732 kg (1,798,381 lb). Unfuelled mass: 44,757 kg (98,672 lb). Thrust: 7,150.00 kN (1,607,380 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
NLS HLV - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NLS Heavy Lift Version. Lower cost expendable launch vehicle studied by NASA/USAF in late 1980's. Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 833,732 kg (1,838,064 lb). Thrust: 11,791.00 kN (2,650,722 lbf).
NLS HLV stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 833,732 kg (1,838,064 lb). Unfuelled mass: 62,757 kg (138,355 lb). Thrust: 14,310.00 kN (3,217,010 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
NLS Semistage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1991. Gross mass: 36,000 kg (79,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 36,000 kg (79,000 lb). Thrust: 14,310.00 kN (3,217,010 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
NM - Alternate name of UM (Prichal, NM, Progress-M-UM).
nm - nautical mile(s)
NMAC - Alternate name for Point Mugu.
NMARS - Alternate name of RAFT1 (NO 60, Navy-OSCAR 60) / MARScom (NMARS).
NMC - American agency. Naval Missile Center, Point Mugu, CA, USA.
NMTSat - Technology, magnetospheric Research satellite for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, USA. Used the CubeSat (3U) bus. Gross mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb).
NNS - Alternate name for Transit.
NNS - Alternate name of Triad 1 (TIP 1, NNS).
NNS - Alternate name of TIP 2, 3 (Triad, NNS).
NNS - Alternate name of Nova (NNS).
NNS 30110 - Alternate name of Transat (Transit-O 11, NNS 30110).
NO - Rendezvous electronics module (Russian abbreviation)
NO 44 - Alternate name of PCSat 1 (Navy-OSCAR 44, NO 44).
NO 60, Navy-OSCAR 60 - Alternate name of RAFT1 (NO 60, Navy-OSCAR 60) / MARScom (NMARS).
NO 61 - Alternate name of MAA (ANDE-MAA, NO 61, Navy-OSCAR 61).
NO 62 - Alternate name of FCal (ANDE-FCal, NO 62, Navy-OSCAR 62).
NO 84 - Alternate name of PSat A, B (ParkinsonSat A, B / NO 84 / Naval Academy-OSCAR 84).
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; American agency overseeing development of civilian weather satellites.
NOAA 15, 16, 17 (NOAA K, L, M) - Meteorology satellite built by Lockheed Martin Astro for NOAA, USA. Launched 1998 - 2002. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus. First Launch: 1998-05-13. Last Launch: 2002-06-24. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 2,232 kg (4,920 lb).
NOAA 18, 19 (NOAA N, N') - Meteorology satellite built by Lockheed Martin Astro for NOAA, USA. Launched 2005 - 2009. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus. First Launch: 2005-05-20. Last Launch: 2009-02-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,419 kg (3,128 lb).
NOAA 2, 3, 4, 5 / ITOS D, E, E2, F, G, H - Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro for NOAA, USA. Launched 1972 - 1976. Used TIROS-M Bus. First Launch: 1972-10-15. Last Launch: 1976-07-29. Number: 5 .
NOAA 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 (NOAA E, F, G, H, D, I, J) - Meteorology satellite built by RCA Astro => GE Astro => Martin Marietta => Lockheed Martin Astro for NOAA, USA. Launched 1983 - 1991. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus. First Launch: 1983-03-28. Last Launch: 1991-05-14. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 1,712 kg (3,774 lb).
NOAA E, F, G, H, D, I, J - Alternate name of NOAA 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 (NOAA E, F, G, H, D, I, J).
NOAA K, L, M - Alternate name of NOAA 15, 16, 17 (NOAA K, L, M).
NOAA KLM - Alternate designation for Advanced Tiros N earth weather satellite.
NOAA N, N' - Alternate name of NOAA 18, 19 (NOAA N, N').
NOAO - Abbreviation for National Optical Astronomy Observatories
Node 2, 3 (Harmony, Tranquility) - ISS node module built by Alenia Spazio for NASA, USA. Launched 2007 - 2010. First Launch: 2007-10-23. Last Launch: 2010-02-08. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 13,600 kg (29,900 lb).
Nodes 1, 2 - Technology satellite built by NASA Ames Research Center; Pumpkin (bus) for NASA Ames Research Center, USA. Launched 2015. Used the CubeSat (1.5 U) bus. First Launch: 2015-12-06. Last Launch: 2015-12-06. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
Nodong - North Korean Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. In production. Used in North Korean missiles and Taepodong 1 satellite launcher. Derived from Isayev designs developed for Scud missiles and SLBM's of the Makeyev bureau. First flight 1998. Status: Out of production. Number: 5 . Thrust: 144.00 kN (32,372 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/UDMH
Nodong 1 - North Korean intermediate range ballistic missile. Single stage vehicle, basis for Iranian Shahab 3 and Pakistani Ghauri. Status: Active. First Launch: 1990-05-01. Last Launch: 2016-03-17. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 14,500 kg (31,900 lb). Payload: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf).
Nodong 1 stage - Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,100 kg (33,290 lb). Status: Active. Gross mass: 15,100 kg (33,200 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Thrust: 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf). More at: Nitric acid/UDMH
Noeggerath, Wolfgang O - German expert in rocket fuel during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Noguchi, Soichi - Japanese engineer mission specialist astronaut 1996-on. Status: Active 1996-on. Born: 1965-04-15. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 177.13 days.
noise level - The level of any undesired disturbance within a useful frequency band.
NOL - Naval Ordnance Laboratory
Nomad - American earth rover. Tested 1998. NOMAD was an unmanned rover developed by the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University to evaluate and demonstrate a robot capable of long distance and long duration planetary exploration. Status: Tested 1998. Gross mass: 770 kg (1,690 lb).
Nomad - Government designation of G-1 engine LF2-Hydrazine rocket engine.
nominal - Occurring or performing as intended in pre-mission planning.
NOMSS - National Operational Meteorological Satellite System .
None - Indicates that the stage shown is a propellant tank. The engine on another stage is drawing propellants from this tank. Performance shown is for that of the engine on the other stage. First flight 1964. Status: In production.
Nonweiler Waverider - British manned spaceplane. Study 1951. The Nonweiler Waverider of the 1950`s was the original caret wing waverider concept. Developed by Professor Terence R F Nonweiler, of Queen's University, Belfast. Status: Study 1951.
Noordung, Herman - Slovenian Austrian Army Scientist. Noordung was a pseudonym for Captain Herman Potocnik of the Austrian Imperial Army. In 1928 he expanded the ideas of Hermann Oberth in a seminal book, The Problem of Space Travel, focused on the engineering aspects of space stations. Born: 1892. Died: 1929-01-01.
NORAD - North American Air Defense Command
Nord - Nord Aviation, France. French manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines.
Nord satellite - Russian communications satellite. Study 1992. The Lavochkin NPO proposed the Nord highly elliptical communications systems in 1992. Nord was described as a 4-satellite network of 2,300-kg spacecraft launched by the Rus booster. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 2,300 kg (5,000 lb). Payload: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Nordiska Satellite AB - Alternate name for NSAB.
Nordsieck, Kenneth Hugh - American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1984-1990. Status: Inactive; Active 1984-1990. Born: 1946-02-09.
Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Forskningsrad - Alternate name for NTNF.
Noriega, Carlos Ismael - American computer scientist mission specialist astronaut 1994-2005. Grew up in Santa Clara, California. Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2005. Born: 1959-10-08. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 20.05 days.
NORINCO - Chinese manufacturer. NORINCO, China.
Norma - Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Semi-reusable vertically launched two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The flight profile featured a reusable flyback booster launched from a modular launch platform, an expendable second stage with a reusable orbiter that would have landed vertically. Development cost estimated at $13 billion. Status: Study 1997.
NORSAT 1 - Science, technology, traffic monitoring satellite built by UTIAS (University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies) (bus); Norsk Romsenter (payload) for Norsk Romsenter. Used Generic Nano satellite Bus (GNB). Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb).
NORSAT 2 - Technology, traffic monitoring satellite built by UTIAS (University of Toronto, Institute for Aerospace Studies) (bus); Norsk Romsenter (payload) for Norsk Romsenter, Norway. Used Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB). Gross mass: 15 kg (33 lb).
Norsk Romsenter - Norwegian agency. Norsk Romsenter, Norway.
North American - First name of Seal Beach.
North American - American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. North American, Palmdale, El Segundo. Downey, CA, USA
North American Air Augmented VTOVL - North American Aviation's air-augmented vertical takeoff & landing single-stage-to-orbit RLV from 1963 would have used external burning ramjets which, according to preliminary studies would reduce the gross liftoff mass of a VTVL SSTO by up to 30%. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 13,607,000 kg (29,998,000 lb). Payload: 453,600 kg (1,000,000 lb).
North American Aviation (1944) - First name of Rocketdyne.
North Atlantic Drop Zone - Alternate name for Cape Canaveral AMR DZ.
North Ossetia - Possible Iskander launch point. First Launch: 2008-08-08. Last Launch: 2008-08-08. Number: 1 .
North Pole - North polar submarine launch area. First Launch: 1995-08-25. Last Launch: 2009-07-13. Number: 3 .
North Pyongan - North Korean missile launch position.
North Truro - Nike-Hydac launch site located at North Truro Air Force Station on Cape Cod, used 1969-1970. First Launch: 1969-12-01. Last Launch: 1969-12-01. Number: 1 .
North, Warren J - American engineer, at NASA 1947-1985. Oversaw training of Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and shuttle astronauts. Born: 1922-04-28. Died: 2012-04-10.
Northrop - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Northrop, USA.
Northrop ALSS Rover - American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. Northrop completed Molab Studies under a Apollo Logistic Support Systems contract in March 1964. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 3,170 kg (6,980 lb).
Northrop Grumman - Second name of Grumman.
Northrop Grumman - First name of Northrop.
Northrop Grumman Space Technology - Second name of TRW.
Northrop LBEC - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1976. Northrop, building on its work on the HL-10 and M2-F3 lifting bodies, proposed a lifting body three-crew lifeboat. The piloted spacecraft would use a parasail for recovery. Status: Study 1976. Gross mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). More at: Solid
Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV-1 - American lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV-1 unmanned lunar rover design of January 1963 had 3 wheels, rigidly mounted, and a range of 80 km. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 540 kg (1,190 lb).
Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV-1A - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV-1A crewed rover of January 1963 had 4 tracks and a range of 2900 km on a 27 day traverse. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,200 kg (22,400 lb).
Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV3 RV4 - American lunar rover. Study 1963. The unmanned portion of the January 1963 Northrop Lunar Logistic System had 4 articulated wheels and a range of 240 km. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 680 kg (1,490 lb).
Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV5 - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. This Northrop Lunar Logistic System design of January 1963 was a 3 wheel open cart and had a range of 30 km with a crew of 2. It could also tow the RV6 50 kg, 2 to 4 wheeled dolly or trailer. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 180 kg (390 lb).
Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV7 - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV7 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. The one-crew vehicle was designed for scooping and dozing operations. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 11,340 kg (25,000 lb).
Northrop LSS Lunar Rover RV8 - American manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The Northrop Lunar Logistic System RV8 was a lunar rover design of January 1963. Dual single-crew vehicles were designed to be operated separately or together as a system. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,670 kg (12,500 lb).
Northrop Molab - American manned lunar rover. Study 1964. The Northrop Molab lunar rover design of March 1964 had 4 wheels, each a flexible torus or controlled flexible disc. It could accommodate a crew of 2 on a 14 day traverse. Status: Study 1964. Gross mass: 3,080 kg (6,790 lb).
Northrop Project 7969 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Northrop's proposal for the Air Force initial manned space project was a boost-glide vehicle based on work done for the Dynasoar project. Status: Study 1958. Gross mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb).
Northrop sled 4000 lbf thrust - Aerojet rocket engine. Development begun 1948. Date: 1948. Thrust: 17.60 kN (3,957 lbf).
Norway - Norway
Nose-Cone-Test - American re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Suborbital.
Nosov, Aleksandr Ivanovich - Russian officer. Chief of launch command of Baikonur 1955-1958. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. Born: 1913-03-27. Died: 1960-10-24.
NOSS - US Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite to track and surveil ships at sea worldwide.
NOSS - US Navy Ocean Surveillance Satellite to track and surveil ships at sea worldwide. Built by Naval Research Laboratory (#1, 2); Martin Marietta (#3 - 9). Launched 1976 - 1987. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-04-30. Last Launch: 1987-05-15. Number: 14 . Gross mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb).
NOSS-2 - American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. 5 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 59) to 1996.05.12 (USA 122). New generation of NOSS naval reconnaissance satellites. Ocean Surveillance satellite built by Lockheed, Martin Marietta for NRO, US Navy, USA. Launched 1990 - 1996. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-06-08. Last Launch: 1996-05-12. Number: 4 .
NOSS-2 subsatellite - American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. 6 launches, 1990.06.08 (USA 60) to 1991.11.08 (USA 77). Status: Operational 1990.
NOSS-3 - American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. Operational, first launch 2001.09.08. Ocean Surveillance satellite built by Lockheed Martin for US Navy, USA. Launched 2001 - 2017. Status: Operational 2001. First Launch: 2001-09-08. Last Launch: 2017-03-01. Number: 8 . Gross mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb).
NOSS-Subsat - American military naval signals reconnaissance satellite. Detected the location of naval vessels using radio interferometry. Ocean Surveillance Launch Dispenser satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) (#1, 2); (#3 - 9) for, USA. Launched 1976 - 1987. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-04-30. Last Launch: 1987-05-15. Number: 25 .
NOTS - Alternate designation for China Lake.
NOTS - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, CA, USA.
NOTS 100A - NOTS solid rocket engine. Used on Blue Scout Junior launch vehicle. First flight 1960. Solid propellant rocket stage. Masses, specific impulse estimated. Status: Retired 1970. Number: 31 . More at: Solid
NOTS 124 stage series -
NOTS 124-C - NOTS solid rocket engine. X-17 HTV third stage. Status: Retired 1955. Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb). More at: Solid
NOTS 3SM - NOTS solid rocket engine. Project Pilot 1 fifth stage. Status: Retired 1958. Unfuelled mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Thrust: 700 N (150 lbf). More at: Solid
NOTS 401A - NOTS solid rocket engine. Status: Retired 1973. More at: Solid
NOTS 401A Sandhawk - American test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x NOTS 401A + 1 x Sandhawk Gross mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
NOTS 551 - Alternate designation for NOTS Mod 551-B.
NOTS 8 - NOTS solid rocket engine. Project Pilot 1 fourth stage. Status: Retired 1958. Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb). Unfuelled mass: 3.00 kg (6.60 lb). Thrust: 5.10 kN (1,147 lbf). More at: Solid
NOTS Mod 551-B - NOTS solid rocket engine. Terrier/551 second stage. Status: Retired 1966. Gross mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Unfuelled mass: 85 kg (187 lb). More at: Solid
NOTS-1 - NOTS solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. Status: Out of production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 1,033 kg (2,277 lb). Unfuelled mass: 194 kg (427 lb). Thrust: 53.40 kN (12,005 lbf). More at: Solid
NOTS-3 - NOTS solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. Caleb third stage. Status: Out of production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6.00 kg (13.20 lb). Thrust: 2.26 kN (508 lbf). More at: Solid
NOTS-4 - NOTS solid rocket engine. Out of production. Used on Caleb launch vehicle. First flight 1960. Caleb fourth stage. Status: Out of production. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb). Thrust: 700 N (150 lbf). More at: Solid
NOTS500 - Alternate designation for Caleb.
NOTS551 - Alternate designation for Terrier/551.
NOTS-EV-1 - Alternate name of Pilot 1 stage (NOTS-EV-1).
Nouadhibou - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1973-06-30. Last Launch: 1973-06-30. Number: 1 .
Nova - Nova was NASA's ultimate launch vehicle, studied intently from 1959 to 1962. Originally conceived to allow a direct manned landing on the moon, in its final iteration it was to put a million-pound payload into low earth orbit to support manned Mars expeditions. It was abandoned in NASA advanced mission planning thereafter in favor of growth versions of the Saturn V. Status: Cancelled 1964.
Nova - Code name for TIP navigation satellite.
Nova (NNS) - Navigation satellite built by RCA for US Navy, USA. Launched 1981 - 1988. Used Transit-Bus, Gravity Stabilized. First Launch: 1981-05-15. Last Launch: 1988-06-16. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 170 kg (370 lb).
Nova 0 stage series -
Nova 1 stage series -
Nova 2 F-1 Module - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Short Nova building block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,134,000 kg (2,500,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 77,000 kg (169,000 lb). Thrust: 15,121.00 kN (3,399,336 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova 2 stage series -
Nova 3 stage series -
Nova 4 J-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Nova third stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 771,000 kg (1,699,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 63,000 kg (138,000 lb). Thrust: 3,559.00 kN (800,095 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova 4 stage series -
Nova 4L - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Earliest NASA Nova design, using only 4 F-1's, capability less than later Saturn designs. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 3,084,600 kg (6,800,300 lb). Payload: 68,000 kg (149,000 lb). Thrust: 33,712.00 kN (7,578,759 lbf).
Nova 4S - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using a cluster of 4 x 240 inch solid motors used as first stage; upper stages as Nova 7S and 8L. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 7,675,760 kg (16,922,150 lb). Payload: 197,300 kg (434,900 lb). Thrust: 88,531.60 kN (19,902,695 lbf).
Nova 59-4-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty Mass Estimated. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 2,177,000 kg (4,799,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 136,000 kg (299,000 lb). Thrust: 38,697.00 kN (8,699,431 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova 59-4-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Empty Mass Estimated. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 590,000 kg (1,300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 45,000 kg (99,000 lb). Thrust: 7,560.00 kN (1,699,550 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova 59-4-3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Empty Mass Estimated. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 168,000 kg (370,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb). Thrust: 1,421.00 kN (319,453 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova 59-4-4 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Empty Mass Estimated. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 68,000 kg (149,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 353.00 kN (79,357 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova 5S - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using segmented solid motors in first and second stages. Five six segment motors in first stage; four four segment motors in second stage, equivalent to 9 x F-1 first stage and 4 x F-1 second stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 10,076,200 kg (22,214,200 lb). Payload: 176,000 kg (388,000 lb). Thrust: 126,772.00 kN (28,499,479 lbf). More at: Solid
Nova 60-8-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Mass estimated based on total LV weight. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 3,628,000 kg (7,998,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb). Thrust: 61,928.00 kN (13,921,968 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova 60-8-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Mass estimated based on total LV weight. J-2-powered version of this stage also proposed. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 680,000 kg (1,490,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 54,000 kg (119,000 lb). Thrust: 10,669.00 kN (2,398,486 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova 60-8-3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Mass estimated based on total LV weight. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 23,000 kg (50,000 lb). Thrust: 892.00 kN (200,529 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova 7S - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using a cluster of 7 x 160 inch solid motors used as first stage; upper stages as Nova 4S and 8L. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 7,492,760 kg (16,518,700 lb). Payload: 197,300 kg (434,900 lb). Thrust: 87,342.40 kN (19,635,353 lbf).
Nova 8L - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Most capable NASA Nova design, studied in June 1960 just prior to selection of Saturn for moon landing. Used a three stage configuration of eight F-1 engines in stage 1, two M-1 engines in stage 2, and one J-2 engine in stage 3. Similar to the Saturn C-8 except in the use of M-1 engines. Unlike other modular Nova designs of the time, this one had the unitary stage construction of Saturn. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 4,752,200 kg (10,476,800 lb). Payload: 181,000 kg (399,000 lb). Thrust: 53,984.10 kN (12,136,108 lbf).
Nova 8L Mod - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova concept where first two stages use short Nova building blocks with 2 F-1's in each block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2. Typical of early Nova designs with F-1's in both first and second stages. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 6,621,000 kg (14,596,000 lb). Payload: 150,000 kg (330,000 lb). Thrust: 52,727.50 kN (11,853,614 lbf).
Nova 9L - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. NASA Nova design using clustered small diameter tanks; 9 x F-1 first stage and 4 x F-1 second stage; compared with solid Nova using five six segment solid motors in first stage and four four segment motors in second stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 5,227,200 kg (11,524,000 lb). Payload: 176,000 kg (388,000 lb). Thrust: 59,318.00 kN (13,335,216 lbf).
Nova 9L-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 2,721,000 kg (5,998,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 181,000 kg (399,000 lb). Thrust: 68,048.00 kN (15,297,798 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova 9L-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,814,000 kg (3,999,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 125,000 kg (275,000 lb). Thrust: 30,243.00 kN (6,798,896 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova 9L-3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 363,000 kg (800,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 36,000 kg (79,000 lb). Thrust: 5,334.00 kN (1,199,130 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova 9L-4 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 118,000 kg (260,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 1,775.00 kN (399,035 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova A - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 4 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 4 J-2 engine/modules in second stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,866,600 kg (4,115,100 lb). Payload: 68,000 kg (149,000 lb). Thrust: 26,688.60 kN (5,999,836 lbf).
Nova A-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,342,000 kg (2,958,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 73,000 kg (160,000 lb). Thrust: 30,616.00 kN (6,882,750 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova A-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 403,000 kg (888,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 29,000 kg (63,000 lb). Thrust: 5,334.00 kN (1,199,130 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova A-3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 40,000 kg (88,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Thrust: 313.00 kN (70,365 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova B - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Convair/Ehricke Nova design using standard tank/engine modules of 4.9 m diameter in both first and second stages; 6 F-1 engine/modules in first stage, 6 J-2 engine/modules in second stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 2,806,400 kg (6,187,000 lb). Payload: 112,000 kg (246,000 lb). Thrust: 40,024.40 kN (8,997,843 lbf).
Nova B-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,995,000 kg (4,398,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 45,914.00 kN (10,321,877 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova B-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 614,000 kg (1,353,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 38,000 kg (83,000 lb). Thrust: 10,228.00 kN (2,299,345 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova B-3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 63,000 kg (138,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 5,000 kg (11,000 lb). Thrust: 451.00 kN (101,388 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova C - American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova A as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 1,887,600 kg (4,161,400 lb). Payload: 68,000 kg (149,000 lb). Thrust: 26,688.60 kN (5,999,836 lbf).
Nova C-3 - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 61,000 kg (134,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 9,000 kg (19,800 lb). Thrust: 264.00 kN (59,349 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nova D - American nuclear orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova vehicle using Nova B as first two stages, nuclear spacecraft with jettisonable tanks as upper stage. Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 2,839,400 kg (6,259,800 lb). Payload: 112,000 kg (246,000 lb). Thrust: 40,024.40 kN (8,997,843 lbf).
Nova D-3 - Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1960. Gross mass: 96,000 kg (211,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 264.00 kN (59,349 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nova DAC 2-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 4,943,000 kg (10,897,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 311,000 kg (685,000 lb). Thrust: 102,293.00 kN (22,996,381 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova DAC 2-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,633,000 kg (3,600,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 113,000 kg (249,000 lb). Thrust: 13,346.00 kN (3,000,300 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova DAC ISI - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono design for Nova using LH2/LOx in both stages. Improved Specific Impulse chemical stage uses many engines feeding into single large nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,325,400 kg (11,740,400 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 64,134.40 kN (14,417,987 lbf).
Nova DAC ISI-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 3,084,000 kg (6,799,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 142,000 kg (313,000 lb). Thrust: 70,146.00 kN (15,769,448 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova DAC ISI-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,696,000 kg (3,739,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 107,000 kg (235,000 lb). Thrust: 33,754.00 kN (7,588,201 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova DAC-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 4,213,000 kg (9,288,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 194,000 kg (427,000 lb). Thrust: 97,840.00 kN (21,995,300 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova DAC-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,268,000 kg (5,000,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 143,000 kg (315,000 lb). Thrust: 26,683.00 kN (5,998,577 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova GD-B - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using existing engines. Recoverable engine package; separation at 3,398 m/s at 76,200 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 30 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,473,600 kg (23,090,300 lb). Payload: 338,000 kg (745,000 lb). Thrust: 124,530.10 kN (27,995,480 lbf).
Nova GD-B-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable engine package; separation at 3,398 m/s at 76,200 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 30 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 9,070,000 kg (19,990,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 635,000 kg (1,399,000 lb). Thrust: 142,451.00 kN (32,024,258 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova GD-B-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 998,000 kg (2,200,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 75,000 kg (165,000 lb). Thrust: 10,669.00 kN (2,398,486 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova GD-E - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using 325 inch solid motors as first stage, M-1 engines in second stage. Recoverable solid motors, separation at 1,972 m/s at 53,000 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 3 61 m diameter parachutes 610 km downrange. Recovery of solid motors foreshadowed same approach on shuttle 15 years later. Masses estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 19,596,600 kg (43,203,100 lb). Payload: 458,000 kg (1,009,000 lb). Thrust: 249,940.20 kN (56,188,792 lbf).
Nova GD-E-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 4,535,000 kg (9,997,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 363,000 kg (800,000 lb). Thrust: 26,683.00 kN (5,998,577 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova GD-F - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using new 3.5 million kgf LOx/Kerosene engines in first stage. Recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 12,018,800 kg (26,496,900 lb). Payload: 454,000 kg (1,000,000 lb). Thrust: 136,984.30 kN (30,795,296 lbf).
Nova GD-F-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 9,977,000 kg (21,995,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 680,000 kg (1,490,000 lb). Thrust: 148,031.00 kN (33,278,692 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova GD-F-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,497,000 kg (3,300,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 91,000 kg (200,000 lb). Thrust: 13,346.00 kN (3,000,300 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova GD-H - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using 1 1/2 stage arrangement and new 2.4 million kgf LOx/LH2 engines. Recoverable booster 4 engine package would separate at 2,980 m/s at 87,800 m altitude; splashdown under 4 46 m diameter parachutes 1,000 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 9,365,800 kg (20,648,000 lb). Payload: 454,000 kg (1,000,000 lb). Thrust: 115,618.00 kN (25,991,960 lbf).
Nova GD-H-0 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable booster engine package 'half stage' of a 1 1/2 stage arrangement. Separation at 2,980 m/s at 87,800 m altitude; splashdown under 4 46 m diameter parachutes 1,000 km downrange. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 295,000 kg (650,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 295,000 kg (650,000 lb). Thrust: 109,402.00 kN (24,594,547 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova GD-H-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 8,526,000 kg (18,796,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 172,000 kg (379,000 lb). Thrust: 30,685.00 kN (6,898,262 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova GD-J - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Nova design using recoverable LOx/RP-1 stage of ballistic shape with 3 million kgf engines; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,431,800 kg (22,998,100 lb). Payload: 454,000 kg (1,000,000 lb). Thrust: 116,526.40 kN (26,196,177 lbf).
Nova GD-J-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage of ballistic shape; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 8,617,000 kg (18,997,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 680,000 kg (1,490,000 lb). Thrust: 124,044.00 kN (27,886,200 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova GD-J-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,270,000 kg (2,790,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 91,000 kg (200,000 lb). Thrust: 13,346.00 kN (3,000,300 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova GD-S - Alternate name for 325 in solid.
Nova MM 14A - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using 4 300 inch solids as first stage, 5 M-1 in second stage. Operational date would have been April 1973 Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 14,789,000 kg (32,604,000 lb). Payload: 481,000 kg (1,060,000 lb). Thrust: 226,334.49 kN (50,882,017 lbf).
Nova MM 14A-1 - Alternate name for 300 inch solid.
Nova MM 14A-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been April 1973. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 3,401,000 kg (7,497,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 295,000 kg (650,000 lb). Thrust: 33,352.00 kN (7,497,827 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM 14B - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using 4 280 inch solids as first stage, 4 M-1 in second stage. Operational date would have been February 1973 Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 11,805,000 kg (26,025,000 lb). Payload: 373,000 kg (822,000 lb). Thrust: 166,003.41 kN (37,319,051 lbf).
Nova MM 14B-1 - Alternate name for 280 inch solid.
Nova MM 14B-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been February 1973. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,721,000 kg (5,998,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 245,000 kg (540,000 lb). Thrust: 26,683.00 kN (5,998,577 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM 1B - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using existing engines; 14 F-1A in the first stage, 2 M-1 in the second. Operational date would have been December 1972 Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 9,187,000 kg (20,253,000 lb). Payload: 330,000 kg (720,000 lb). Thrust: 112,117.60 kN (25,205,039 lbf).
Nova MM 1B-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been December 1972. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 7,430,000 kg (16,380,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 454,000 kg (1,000,000 lb). Thrust: 125,770.00 kN (28,274,220 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova MM 1B-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been February 1973. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,361,000 kg (3,000,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 122,000 kg (268,000 lb). Thrust: 13,346.00 kN (3,000,300 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM 1C - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using existing engines; 18 F-1A in the first stage, 3 M-1 in the second. Operational date would have been February 1973 Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 11,516,800 kg (25,390,100 lb). Payload: 444,000 kg (978,000 lb). Thrust: 144,157.50 kN (32,407,895 lbf).
Nova MM 1C-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been February 1973. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 8,943,000 kg (19,715,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 590,000 kg (1,300,000 lb). Thrust: 161,710.00 kN (36,353,850 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova MM 1C-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been February 1973. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,041,000 kg (4,499,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 163,000 kg (359,000 lb). Thrust: 20,015.00 kN (4,499,550 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM 24G - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova design using new high pressure LH2/LOx engines; 18 in the first stage in a plug nozzle arrangement, 2 in the second. Operational date would have been December 1974. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 6,619,400 kg (14,593,200 lb). Payload: 447,000 kg (985,000 lb). Thrust: 80,053.70 kN (17,996,788 lbf).
Nova MM 24G-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been December 1974. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,043,000 kg (2,299,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 136,000 kg (299,000 lb). Thrust: 10,228.00 kN (2,299,345 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM 33 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova single stage to orbit design with 24 new high pressure LH2/LOx engines in the first stage in a plug nozzle arrangement. Operational date would have been April 1975. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 11,055,400 kg (24,372,900 lb). Payload: 472,000 kg (1,040,000 lb). Thrust: 134,213.00 kN (30,172,282 lbf).
Nova MM 33-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been April 1975. SSTO - payload 1,042,000 lbs. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,489,000 kg (23,124,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 626,000 kg (1,380,000 lb). Thrust: 156,876.00 kN (35,267,127 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM 34 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Nova 1 1/2 stage design with 4 new 3 million kgf LH2/LOx engines in the jettisonable booster section and a single 3 million kgf sustainer. Operational date would have been June 1976. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,990,200 kg (24,229,200 lb). Payload: 531,000 kg (1,170,000 lb). Thrust: 133,512.70 kN (30,014,849 lbf).
Nova MM 34-0 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been June 1976. Booster stage (engines only). Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb). Thrust: 122,749.00 kN (27,595,072 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM 34-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been June 1976. Sustainer stage (required 4-engine booster stage). Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,126,000 kg (22,324,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 544,000 kg (1,199,000 lb). Thrust: 30,685.00 kN (6,898,262 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM R10E-2 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable version of most exotic Martin Nova variant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operational date would have been October 1980. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 9,189,200 kg (20,258,700 lb). Payload: 596,000 kg (1,313,000 lb). Thrust: 140,540.00 kN (31,594,640 lbf).
Nova MM R10E-2 stage - Air/LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been October 1980. Expendable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 8,474,000 kg (18,681,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,188,000 kg (2,619,000 lb). Thrust: 140,539.00 kN (31,594,424 lbf). More at: Air/Lox/LH2
Nova MM R10R-2 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable version of most exotic Martin Nova variant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operational date would have been October 1980. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 9,154,600 kg (20,182,400 lb). Payload: 423,000 kg (932,000 lb). Thrust: 140,540.00 kN (31,594,640 lbf).
Nova MM R10R-2 stage - Air/LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been October 1980. Recoverable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 8,647,000 kg (19,063,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,361,000 kg (3,000,000 lb). Thrust: 140,539.00 kN (31,594,424 lbf). More at: Air/Lox/LH2
Nova MM S10E-1 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been October 1977. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 11,022,600 kg (24,300,600 lb). Payload: 588,000 kg (1,296,000 lb). Thrust: 133,421.60 kN (29,994,369 lbf).
Nova MM S10E-1 stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been October 1977. SSTO; expendable. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,317,000 kg (22,745,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 635,000 kg (1,399,000 lb). Thrust: 160,672.00 kN (36,120,502 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM S10E-2 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable single stage to orbit Nova using conical shape, 30 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been November 1977. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,999,200 kg (24,249,000 lb). Payload: 581,000 kg (1,280,000 lb). Thrust: 133,421.60 kN (29,994,369 lbf).
Nova MM S10E-2 stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been November 1977. SSTO; expendable; payload 1,283,000 lbs. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,302,000 kg (22,712,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 639,000 kg (1,408,000 lb). Thrust: 160,672.00 kN (36,120,502 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM S10R-1 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been June 1978. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,966,800 kg (24,177,600 lb). Payload: 414,000 kg (912,000 lb). Thrust: 133,421.60 kN (29,994,369 lbf).
Nova MM S10R-1 stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been June 1978. SSTO; recoverable. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,470,000 kg (23,080,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 816,000 kg (1,798,000 lb). Thrust: 160,672.00 kN (36,120,502 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM S10R-2 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using conical shape, 30 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been July 1978. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,959,200 kg (24,160,900 lb). Payload: 381,000 kg (839,000 lb). Thrust: 133,421.60 kN (29,994,369 lbf).
Nova MM S10R-2 stage - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1978. SSTO; recoverable; payload 842,000 lbs. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 10,502,000 kg (23,152,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 839,000 kg (1,849,000 lb). Thrust: 160,672.00 kN (36,120,502 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM T10EE-1 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; expendable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been November 1976. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 6,623,400 kg (14,602,000 lb). Payload: 462,000 kg (1,018,000 lb). Thrust: 80,033.40 kN (17,992,224 lbf).
Nova MM T10EE-1-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been November 1976. Expendable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 4,944,000 kg (10,899,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 317,000 kg (698,000 lb). Thrust: 96,379.00 kN (21,666,861 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM T10EE-1-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been November 1976. Expendable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,125,000 kg (2,480,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 136,000 kg (299,000 lb). Thrust: 11,032.00 kN (2,480,092 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM T10RE-1 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been January 1977. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 6,616,400 kg (14,586,600 lb). Payload: 427,000 kg (941,000 lb). Thrust: 80,033.40 kN (17,992,224 lbf).
Nova MM T10RE-1-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been January 1977. Recoverable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 4,979,000 kg (10,976,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 454,000 kg (1,000,000 lb). Thrust: 96,379.00 kN (21,666,861 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM T10RR-2 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 24 modules exhausting to a zero length plug nozzle; reusable second stage with a toroidal plug nozzle engine. Operational date would have been December 1976. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 11,704,800 kg (25,804,600 lb). Payload: 479,000 kg (1,056,000 lb). Thrust: 157,506.70 kN (35,408,915 lbf).
Nova MM T10RR-2-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been December 1976. Recoverable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 9,089,000 kg (20,037,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 680,000 kg (1,490,000 lb). Thrust: 176,686.00 kN (39,720,592 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM T10RR-2-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been December 1976. Recoverable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 2,041,000 kg (4,499,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 181,000 kg (399,000 lb). Thrust: 20,015.00 kN (4,499,550 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM T10RR-3 - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; reusable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been July 1977. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 7,248,800 kg (15,980,800 lb). Payload: 419,000 kg (923,000 lb). Thrust: 90,514.00 kN (20,348,356 lbf).
Nova MM T10RR-3-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,517,000 kg (12,162,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 680,000 kg (1,490,000 lb). Thrust: 109,000.00 kN (24,504,000 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM T10RR-3-2 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 1,229,000 kg (2,709,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 136,000 kg (299,000 lb). Thrust: 12,052.00 kN (2,709,397 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova MM-1 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Operational date would have been December 1974. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 5,040,000 kg (11,110,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 317,000 kg (698,000 lb). Thrust: 95,261.00 kN (21,415,524 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova NASA - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Nova vehicle most often illustrated in the popular press and histories. As in other early concepts, this NASA design of 1959/1960 used F-1 engine in both first and second stages. Resulting performance and total liftoff mass was equivalent to later Saturn V. Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 3,152,400 kg (6,949,800 lb). Payload: 132,000 kg (291,000 lb). Thrust: 39,865.10 kN (8,962,031 lbf).
Nova NASA-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 2,268,000 kg (5,000,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 113,000 kg (249,000 lb). Thrust: 45,914.00 kN (10,321,877 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova NASA-2 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 499,000 kg (1,100,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust: 7,640.00 kN (1,717,540 lbf). More at: Lox/Kerosene
Nova NASA-3 - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Study 1959. Gross mass: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Thrust: 2,667.00 kN (599,565 lbf). More at: Lox/LH2
Nova Solid 4 - Alternate name for 200 inch solid segment x 4.
Nova Solid 6 - Alternate name for 200 inch solid segment x 6.
Nova-1 DAC - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono design for Nova using LOx/RP-1 in first stage, existing engines. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 7,026,400 kg (15,490,500 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 85,079.10 kN (19,126,543 lbf).
Nova-2 DAC - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Douglas/Bono design for Nova using LH2/LOx in both stages. Status: Study 1963. Gross mass: 7,121,400 kg (15,699,900 lb). Payload: 454,500 kg (1,002,000 lb). Thrust: 86,076.00 kN (19,350,654 lbf).
Novator - Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Novator NPO, Russia.
Novaya Zemlya - Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1961, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude.
Novitskiy, Oleg Viktorovich - Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Lieutenant Colonel, VVS and PVO 4th Army Status: Active 2006-on. Born: 1971-10-12. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 143.68 days.
Novogrudok - Base for units deployed with twelve R-12 missile launchers.
Novosibirsk - Headquarters of an RVSN Division from 1961. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM launchers. Later operated 64 heavy ICBM (R-36M) silos.
Now To Begin - Poem: here, no angels sing, nor winged cherubim, nor seraphim that hover over a god's throne...
Nowak, Lisa Marie Caputo - American test pilot mission specialist astronaut 1996-2007. US Navy test pilot. Status: Inactive; Active 1996-2007. Born: 1963-05-10. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.78 days.
Nowak, Max Ernst - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1908-09-28. Died: 1998-07-24.
Nozomi - Alternate name of Planet B (Nozomi).
Nozomi - Japanese Mars orbiter. Status: Operational 1998. First Launch: 1998-07-03. Last Launch: 1998-07-03. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 258 kg (568 lb). Unfuelled mass: 234 kg (515 lb).
NP - Nitronium perchlorate
NPG - Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1986. A later version of the 37K design for military experiments, the NPG Retained Payload, would be mounted in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel. Status: Cancelled 1986. Gross mass: 7,150 kg (15,760 lb).
NPO - Scientific-Production Association (Russian abbreviation)
NPO Energia - Fourth name of Korolev bureau.
NPO Energomash imeni V P Glushko - Third name of Glushko bureau.
NPO Mashinostroyenia - Third name of Chelomei bureau.
NPO Mashinostroyeniya - Alternate name for Chelomei bureau.
NPO Molniya - Alternate designation for Molniya bureau.
NPO PM - Third name of Reshetnev bureau.
NPO Saturn - Third name of Lyulka bureau.
NPO Yuzhnoye - Third name of Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.
NPOE - NPO Energia (Energia Scientific/Production Organization), Russia
NPOE-11 astronaut group, 1994 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 1994.
NPOE-4 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 4 - 1973.
NPOE-4 astronaut group, 1978 - Requirement: engineers for Apollo-Soyuz and Soyuz 7K-S missions. Date: 1973.
NPOE-5 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 6 - 1980.
NPOE-5 astronaut group, 1980 - Requirement: female engineer cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle. Date: 1980.
NPOE-6 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 7 - 1984.
NPOE-6 astronaut group, 1984 - Requirement: engineers for Mir missions. Date: 1984.
NPOE-7 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 8 - 1985.
NPOE-7 astronaut group, 1985 - Requirement: engineers for Mir missions. Date: 1985.
NPOE-8 - Alternate name for Energia Engineer Group 9 - 1987.
NPOE-8 astronaut group, 1987 - Requirement: engineers for Mir missions. Date: 1987.
NPOE-9 astronaut group, 1989 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the Mir space station. Date: 1989.
NPOES 1, 2 - Meteorology satellite built by Northrop Grumman Space Technology (ex TRW) for NASA, NOAA, DoD. Gross mass: 0 kg (0 lb).
NPO-M - NPO Mashinostroyeniye, Russia (Russian abbreviation)
NPP - NPP Preparatory Project weather satellite, using payloads from the cancelled National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System. The NPP provided a stopgap until more capable satellites were orbited and used the BCP-2000 bus.
NPP / Suomi NPP / JPSS 1 - Meteorology satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NASA, NOAA, USA. Launched 2011. Used the BCP-2000 bus. First Launch: 2011-10-28. Last Launch: 2011-10-28. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,976 kg (4,356 lb).
NPS - Cubesat for the US Navy Postgraduate School, with a solar cell exposure experiment.
NPS-2 - Rocketdyne nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Nuclear Deep Space. Nuclear. Liquid hydrogen turbopumps, feed systems, and nozzles developed for KIWI-A, KIWI-B, Nerva, Phoebus IA, MFS-1, MFS-2, MFS-3, and Rover nuclear development systems. Date: 1966. More at: Nuclear/LH2
NPSat1 - Technology satellite built by NPS for USAF STP (Space Test Program). Gross mass: 86 kg (189 lb).
NPS-SCAT - Technology satellite built by NPS for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 2013. Used the CubeSat (1U) bus. First Launch: 2013-11-20. Last Launch: 2013-11-20. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
NR- - Nudelman gun (designation numbering series) (Russian abbreviation)
NRAO - Abbreviation for National Radio Astronomy Observatory
NRCC - Canadian agency. National Research Council Canada, Canada.
NRL - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA.
NRL Viking - GE Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf). More at: Lox/Alcohol
NRL-PL 137 - Technology satellite for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1966. First Launch: 1966-03-18. Last Launch: 1966-03-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 41 kg (90 lb).
NRL-PL 150B - Radar Calibration satellite for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-31. Last Launch: 1967-05-31. Number: 1 .
NRL-PL 170 - Calibration satellite for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1971. First Launch: 1971-02-17. Last Launch: 1971-02-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
NRL-PL 176 - Technology satellite for Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), USA. Launched 1969. First Launch: 1969-09-30. Last Launch: 1969-09-30. Number: 1 .
NRO - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. National Reconnaissance Office, USA.
NRO L-21 - Alternate name of NROL-21 (NRO L-21, USA 193).
NROL - Designation of series of classified NRO Quasar satellites.
NROL 111 - Satellite built for NRO, USA.
NROL 76 (USA 276) - Satellite built by Ball Aerospace for NRO, USA. Launched 2017. First Launch: 2017-05-01. Last Launch: 2017-05-01. Number: 1 .
NROL launches - NROL launches
NROL-21 (NRO L-21, USA 193) - Experimental radar satellite built by Lockheed Martin for NRO, USA. Launched 2006. First Launch: 2006-12-14. Last Launch: 2006-12-14. Number: 1 .
N-ROSS - Earth observation, oceanography satellite built by GE Astro-Space or Lockheed for US Navy. Used the TIROS-N Bus bus.
NS - Normal stabilization (Russian abbreviation); or Neutron Star
NS 1 (Naxing 1) - Technology satellite built by CAST, China. Launched 2004. First Launch: 2004-04-18. Last Launch: 2004-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 25 kg (55 lb).
NS 2 (Naxing 2) - Technology satellite for Tsinghua University, China. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 20 kg (44 lb).
NS20 - Alternate designation for Pluton.
NSA - American agency. National Security Agency (Ft. Meade, MD), Fort Meade, MD, USA
NSAB - Swedish agency. Nordiska Satellit AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
N-SAT 110 (JCSat 110, JCSat 7, Superbird 5 D) - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for Space Communications Corporation (SCC), JSAT Corporation, Japan. Launched 2000. Used the A2100AX bus. First Launch: 2000-10-06. Last Launch: 2000-10-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,531 kg (7,784 lb).
N-SAT-110 - Alternate designation for Superbird 5. Used the AS 2100 bus. Jointly owned by SCC (Space Communications Corporation of Tokyo) and Jsat (Japan Satellite Systems). SCC controlled the vehicle on orbit. The satellite carried 24 Ku-band transponders.
NSC - Abbreviation for National Security Council
NSF - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. National Science Foundation, USA.
nSIGHT 1 (QB50 AZ02) - Technology, atmosphere, earth observation satellite for SCS-Space, South Africa. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-04-18. Last Launch: 2017-04-18. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
NSM - Norwegian anti-ship missile. In development. Operational in 2004. Gross mass: 363 kg (800 lb).
NSO - Abbreviation for National Solar Observatory
NSPO - Taiwanese manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. National Space Program Office, Taiwan.
NSPO Booster - Taiwan-NSPO solid rocket engine. Sounding Rocket first stage. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). More at: Solid
NSPO Sustainer - Taiwan-NSPO solid rocket engine. Sounding Rocket second stage. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). More at: Solid
NSRDA - Nigerian agency. National Space R&D agency overseeing development of Nigeria, Nigeria.
NSROC - NASA Sounding Rocket Operations Contract
NSS - Designation for series of communications satellites operated by Dutch New Skies Satellites, an Intelsat spinoff.
NSS 12 - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for SES New Skies, Netherlands. Launched 2009. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 2009-10-29. Last Launch: 2009-10-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,620 kg (12,380 lb).
NSS 6 - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for New Skies, Netherlands. Launched 2002. Used the A2100AXS bus. First Launch: 2002-12-17. Last Launch: 2002-12-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,700 kg (10,300 lb).
NSS 7 - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin for New Skies, Netherlands. Launched 2002. Used the A2100AXS bus. First Launch: 2002-04-16. Last Launch: 2002-04-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,692 kg (10,344 lb).
NSS 703 - Alternate name of Intelsat 7 (701, 702, 703, 704, 705, 709) / NSS 703.
NSS 8 - Communication satellite built by Boeing for SES New Skies, Netherlands. Launched 2007. Used the BSS-702 bus. First Launch: 2007-01-30. Last Launch: 2007-01-30. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 5,920 kg (13,050 lb).
NSS 806 - Alternate name of Intelsat 8A (805, 806) / NSS 806.
NSS 9 - Communication satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for SES New Skies, Netherlands. Launched 2009. Used the Star-2 Bus bus. First Launch: 2009-02-12. Last Launch: 2009-02-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,230 kg (4,910 lb).
NSSDC - Abbreviation or acronym for National Space Science Data Center
NSTAR - NASA Cleveland electric/xenon rocket engine. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program developed this 2.3 kW ion engine as primary propulsion for the Deep Space 1 comet and asteroid rendezvous probe, flew 1998. Thrust: 0.0920 N (0.0200 lbf). More at: Electric/Xenon
N-STAR - Communications satellite network.
N-Star a, b - Communication satellite built by Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) for NTT-DoCoMo, Japan. Launched 1995 - 1996. Used the SSL-1300 bus. First Launch: 1995-08-29. Last Launch: 1996-02-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb).
N-Star c - Communication satellite built by Lockheed Martin (prime), Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) (Bus) for NTT-DoCoMo, Japan. Launched 2002. Used the Star-2 Bus bus. First Launch: 2002-07-05. Last Launch: 2002-07-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1,620 kg (3,570 lb).
N-Star d - Alternate name of JCSat 9 (JCSAT 5A, N-Star d).
NSTP-Sat - TBD satellite built by Hughes for NASA, USA. Used the HS-386 bus.
NTIS - National Technical Information Service, Department of Commerce
NTK - Scientific-Technical Committee (Russian abbreviation)
NTNF - Norwegian agency. Royal Norwegian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Norway.
NTR - Nuclear Thermal Rocket(ry)
NTS - Alternate designation for Nevada Test Site.
NTS - Alternate name of CanX 6 (NTS).
NTS - American navigation technology satellite. Demonstrated navigation technologies. Navigation satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1974. Status: Operational 1974. First Launch: 1974-07-14. Last Launch: 1977-06-23. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 362 kg (798 lb).
NTS (Russian abbreviation) - Scientific-Technical Council (Russian abbreviation)
NTS 2 (P76-4) - Navigation satellite built by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for USAF STP (Space Test Program), USA. Launched 1977. First Launch: 1977-06-23. Last Launch: 1977-06-23. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 431 kg (950 lb).
NTS 3 - Navigation satellite built by, USA.
NTT - Japanese agency. Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, Japan.
NU - Abbreviation for Nitrourethane
Nuclear 12 Gw - Notional nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Helios A, Helios C study 1960. Nuclear second stage. Status: Study 1960. Thrust: 2,892.00 kN (650,147 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nuclear 14 Gw - Notional nuclear/LH2 rocket engine. Study 1960. Nuclear second stage Used on Helios B launch vehicle. Status: Study 1960. Thrust: 3,334.00 kN (749,513 lbf). More at: Nuclear/LH2
Nuclear detection surveillance satellite - Category of spacecraft.
Nuclear Falcon - Alternate name of Falcon AIM-26B.
Nuclear Falcon - Alternate name of Falcon AIM-26A.
Nuclear Falcon AIM-26 - Hughes 1950's USAF air-to-air missile.
Nuclear Powered Payloads - Nuclear Powered Payloads
nuclear pulse - Category of engines.
Nuclear Thermal - Nuclear thermal engines use the heat of a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant. Although early Russian designs used ammonia or alcohol as propellant, the ideal working fluid for space applications is the liquid form of the lightest element, hydrogen. Nuclear engines would have twice the performance of conventional chemical rocket engines. Although successfully ground-tested in both Russia and America, they have never been flown due primarily to environmental and safety concerns. For operations in the atmosphere, some aircraft and missile designs of the 1950's would use the heat of the reactor to directly warm ambient air, resulting in an unlimited source of fuel and virtually unlimited range for the aircraft.
Nuclear/Air - Nuclear/Air propellant. Nuclear thermal engines use the heat of a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant. For operations in the atmosphere, some aircraft and missile designs of the 1950's would use the heat of the reactor to directly warm ambient air, resulting in virtually unlimited range for the aircraft. Environmental contamination problems could not be solved and these projects were abandoned in both the USA and USSR in the 1960's.
Nuclear/Ammonia - Nuclear/Ammonia propellant. Nuclear thermal engines use the heat of a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant. Although early Russian designs used ammonia or an ammonia/alcohol mixture as propellant, the ideal working fluid for space applications is the liquid form of the lightest element, hydrogen. Although successfully ground-tested in both Russia, they have never been flown due primarily to environmental and safety concerns.
Nuclear/Ammonia+Alcohol - Nuclear/Ammonia+Alcohol propellant. Nuclear thermal engines use the heat of a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant. Although early Russian designs used ammonia or an ammonia/alcohol mixture as propellant, the ideal working fluid for space applications is the liquid form of the lightest element, hydrogen. Although successfully ground-tested in both Russia, they have never been flown due primarily to environmental and safety concerns.
Nuclear/LH2 - Nuclear/LH2 propellant. Nuclear thermal engines use the heat of a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant. The ideal working fluid for space applications is the liquid form of the lightest element, hydrogen. Nuclear engines would have twice the performance of conventional chemical rocket engines. Although successfully ground-tested in both Russia and America, they have never been flown due primarily to environmental and safety concerns. Liquid hydrogen's drawbacks, especially for long-duration missions to Mars, for which nuclear thermal engines were mainly considered: it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks and the need for solar shielding and reliquefaction systems to ensure the hydrogen would stay liquid during the long trip to Mars and back. There were also many operational issues regarding getting the engine into operation and shutting it down - it was a long process. The Russians solved some of these issues by using the engine as a power source during the cruise to Mars and back.
nuclear-powered - Category of engines and launch vehicles
Nudelman bureau - Russian manufacturer of airborne weaponry, Moscow, Russia.
Nudelman, Aleksandr Emmanuelovich - Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1965-1987 of OKB8-16. Pre-eminent designer of aircraft guns in the Soviet Union. Adapted his aircraft designs for self-defense space guns for Kozlov's Soyuz VI and Chelomei's Almaz spacecraft. Born: 1912. Died: 1996-08-02.
Nudol - Russian direct-ascent anti-satellite / anti-ballistic missile.
NUDT Changsha - NUDT Changsha.
NUDT-Phone-Sat - A 1 kg satellite built around the motherboard of an Android smartphone. Deployed four Xingchen 100 gram picosats. The overall experiment was to control a cluster of satellites. AKA Zhineng hao shouji weixing, Smart Phone Satellite.
NUDT-PhoneSat (CAS 3I, Kaituo 1B) - Technology satellite for National University of Defense Technology (NUDT), CAMSAT, China. Launched 2015. First Launch: 2015-09-19. Last Launch: 2015-09-19. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 1.00 kg (2.20 lb).
NUDTSat (QB50 CN06) - Technology, atmosphere satellite for National University of Defense Technology (NUDT), China. Launched 2017. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. First Launch: 2017-05-25. Last Launch: 2017-05-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
NUMSAT 1 - Alternate name of Bird B, G, J, M, N (BRAC Onnesha, ANUSAT 1, NUMSAT 1).
NUSAT - American military target satellite. Air traffic control radar calibration. Technology satellite, USA. Launched 1985. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-04-29. Last Launch: 1985-04-29. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
nuSat 1, ..., 6 (Aleph-1 1, ..., 6) - Earth observation satellite for Satellogic S.A., Argentina. Launched 2016. First Launch: 2016-05-30. Last Launch: 2016-05-30. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 37 kg (81 lb).
Nustar - Hard X-ray observatory with ten-meter mast. Air dropped in Kwajalein Drop Zone. Used SA-200 bus.
NuSTAR (SMEX 11) - Astronomy, X-ray satellite built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for NASA, USA. Launched 2012. Used the LEOStar-2 bus. First Launch: 2012-06-13. Last Launch: 2012-06-13. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 360 kg (790 lb).
NUTS - Technology, atmospheric research satellite for NTNU, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norway. Used the CubeSat (2U) bus. Gross mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb).
NX (NigeriaSat X) - Training, Earth Observation satellite built by SSTL for NASRDA, Nigeria. Launched 2011. Used the SSTL-100 bus. First Launch: 2011-08-17. Last Launch: 2011-08-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
NYBBSat 1 - Alternate name of Silkwave 1 (NYBBSat 1).
Nyberg, Karen Lujean - American scientist mission specialist astronaut 2000-on. Status: Active 2000-on. Born: 1969-10-07. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 180.02 days.

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