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Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: E
E - Designation for Samos series of reconnasiance satellites.
E-1 - Rocketdyne LOx/Kerosene rocket engine. Study 1957. Developed by USAF in late 1950's. Cancelled and decision to go direct to 1,500,000 lbf F-1 as next step. Booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Status: Study 1957. Date: 1957. Thrust: 1,884.59 kN (423,673 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
E-1 - Alternate name for Luna E-1.
E-1A - Alternate name for Luna E-1A.
E-2A - Alternate name for Luna E-3.
E-3 - Alternate name for Luna E-3.
E-6 - Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6 lunar lander.
E-6LF - Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6LF lunar orbiter.
E-6LS - Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6LS lunar orbiter.
E-6M - Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6M lunar lander.
E-6S - Manufacturer's designation for Luna E-6S lunar orbiter.
EA - Russian manned Mars lander. Studied 1978-1986. Mars landing craft originally designed for aborted 1972 Aelita Mars study by OKB-1, and revived in the 1980's for new Energia-launched Mars expedition studies. Status: Study 1978. Gross mass: 60,000 kg (132,000 lb).
EA 1941 - First French liquid fuel rocket. Developed in the 1931-1942, tested in 1945. Status: Retired 1945. First Launch: 1945-03-15. Last Launch: 1945-07-18. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Payload: 25 kg (55 lb). Thrust: 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf).
EA 1946 - Alternate designation for Eole.
EA500 - Konsortium Evropa-Amerika 500, Russia
eAc - American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. eAc, USA.
EADS - French manufacturer of rockets. EADS, France.
EADS - Second name of Friedrichshafen.
EADS Astrium - British manufacturer of spacecraft. EADS Astrium, UK.
EAFB - Abbreviation for Edwards Air Force Base
Eagle - American military strategic defense satellite. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-05-19. Last Launch: 1997-10-22. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 180 kg (390 lb).
Eagle SLV - Alternate designation for Scorpius.
Eagle S-Series - Alternate designation for Eaglet.
Eagle X-Prize - American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of Vanguard Spacecraft of Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Status: Study 2004.
Eaglet - American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. E'Prime Aerospace of Titusville, Florida, conceived of a family of launch vehicles, called the Eagle S-series, using rocket stages from the LGM-118A Peacekeeper ICBM. The smallest vehicle, the Eaglet, could launch 580 kilograms into LEO. A somewhat larger version, the Eagle, could put 1,360 kilograms into LEO. Both vehicles would use Peacekeeper solid propellant lower stages and liquid propellant upper stages. Status: Study 2001-2006. Payload: 580 kg (1,270 lb).
EAL/ODS - External airlock / orbiter docking system, carried in the shuttle bay on missions requiring docking with the Mir space station. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-06-27. Last Launch: 1998-06-02. Number: 10 .
EAP - Experimental Aerospace Plane. - Alternate designation for Tu-2000 EAP.
EAP - Experimental Aerospace Plane. - Alternate designation for Tu-2000 stage rocket stage.
Eareckson - Eareckson Air Station. Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1975-05-05. Last Launch: 1989-07-01. Number: 701 .
EARL - German winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff / horizontal landing two-stage launch vehicle study from the 1980s. Status: Study 1988.
EARL I - German winged orbital launch vehicle. A larger Earl 14 configuration was studied, but the study centered on the Earl 5 / 18 / 7 configurations. The second stage was mounted on top of the booster. Earl 5 and 7 had winged second stages, with payloads to low earth orbit of 5380 kg to 7180 kg. Earl 14 featured an expendable upper stage which increased payload to 18,000 kg. Status: Study 1987. Gross mass: 270,000 kg (590,000 lb). Payload: 5,380 kg (11,860 lb). Thrust: 4,200.00 kN (944,100 lbf).
EARL II - German winged orbital launch vehicle. Later EARL version from 1990. Parallel staging, both stages winged and recoverable. Expendable upper stage for heavy-lift missions. Status: Study 1990.
Early Bird - American civilian surveillance satellite. Civilian earth resources / intelligence photo-imaging program. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-12-24. Last Launch: 1997-12-24. Number: 1 .
Early Bird - First commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, stationed over the Atlantic; used the Intelsat 1 bus. First Launch: 1997-12-24. Last Launch: 2000-11-20. Number: 2 .
Early Lunar Access - American manned lunar base. Study 1993. Early Lunar Access (ELA) was a "cheaperfasterbetter" manned lunar mission study, carried out by General Dynamics in 1992-93. Status: Study 1993.
Early Lunar Shelter - Alternate designation for Apollo ELS manned lunar habitat.
Early Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition - Alternate designation for EMPIRE Lockheed.
Early Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition - Alternate designation for EMPIRE Aeronutronic.
Early Manned Planetary - Interplanetary Roundtrip Expedition - Alternate designation for EMPIRE General Dynamics [EMPIRE General Dynamics] or [EMPIRE General Dynamics] manned mars flyby studies.
Early Rocketry - Category of launch vehicles.
Early Soviet Lunar Lander - Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1958. Painting of early Soviet concept of a lunar lander. This was similar to Von Braun designs popular in the 1950's. Status: Study 1958.
Early Spring - American military anti-satellite system. Studied from 1960, officially cancelled, but possibly developed further as a black program. Early Spring was a conventional ASAT launched by Polaris missiles from US Navy ballistic missile submarines. Status: Study 1960.
Early Warning - Category of spacecraft.
EarlyBird - Alternate name for Early Bird.
Earth - Category of spacecraft.
Earth Entry Module - Alternate designation for EEM manned spacecraft module.
Earth environment sat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth Explorer - Alternate name for SWARM.
Earth geodetic sat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth land resource sat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth micrometeoroid sat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth Radiation Budget Satellite - Alternate designation for ERBS earth magnetosphere satellite.
Earth resources radarsat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth Resources Satellite - Alternate designation for ERS earth magnetosphere satellite.
Earth Return Vehicle Reference Version 1.0 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1993. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 246,274 kg (542,941 lb).
Earth Return Vehicle Reference Version 3.0 - American manned spacecraft. Study 1996. Status: Study 1996. Gross mass: 147,472 kg (325,120 lb).
Earth rover - Category of spacecraft.
Earth seasat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth seismology sat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth weathersat - Category of spacecraft.
Earth/Space - American manufacturer.
Earthquake Monitoring Satellite - Chinese earth seismology satellite. Study 1998. Chinese scientists announced on 18 May 1998 that they were designing an earthquake early warning satellite system, including a constellation of 10 small satellites in low earth orbit. Status: Study 1998.
EarthWatch - First name of DigitalGlobe.
EASE - Alternate name for EASE/ACCESS.
EASE/ACCESS - Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (EASE/ACCESS), a pair of space shuttle experiments on STS-61-B. The experiments studied how quickly astronauts would become proficient at assembling space structures during extravehicular activity, how quickly they would become fatigued, and to explore various construction and maintenance techniques. The EASE structure consisted of six 29-kg aluminum beams which were assembled into a 3.7 m tetrahedral truss structure. ACCESS consisted of 93 struts which were assembled into a triangular tower. Status: Operational 1985. First Launch: 1985-11-27. Last Launch: 1985-11-27. Number: 1 .
EASEP - Early Apollo scientific experiments package (Apollo 11
Easiest - Alternate name for MOOSE.
East German AF - East German AF.
East Quoddy - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1970-03-07. Last Launch: 1972-07-10. Number: 8 .
East Windsor - American manufacturer. East Windsor, East Windsor, New Jersey, USA.
EBH LV - German orbital launch vehicle. The EBH (Engel - Bödewaldt - Hanischlaunch) vehicle was a 1949 manned design which would had a gross launch mass of 220 metric tons and delivered a payload of 3 metric tons to a 557-kilometre orbit Status: Design 1949. Gross mass: 220,000 kg (480,000 lb). Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Thrust: 6,000.00 kN (1,348,800 lbf).
E-Bird - Designation of series of communications satellites launched by Eutelsat.
EC - Abbreviation for Ethyl centralite
EC47 - Alternate designation for Polaris A1.
Echo - American passive communications satellite. The Echo satellites were NASA's first experimental communications satellite project. Status: Operational 1960. First Launch: 1960-05-13. Last Launch: 1960-08-12. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 66 kg (145 lb).
Echo 2 - American passive communications satellite. Passive communications satellite; balloon; 1st joint US/USSR space mission. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-01-25. Last Launch: 1964-01-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 256 kg (564 lb).
Echostar - Echostar Communications Corp. , USA. Communications satellite operator; communications satellite series for PanAmSat using various satellite buses.
ECS - Abbreviation for Environmental Control System
ECS/OTS - European communications satellite. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-09-13. Last Launch: 2001-02-07. Number: 20 . Gross mass: 1,490 kg (3,280 lb).
ED-140 - Glushko rocket engine. 68 kN. Glushko built this experimental engine, the next phase of the German Lilliput concept, in 1951. Configuration led to the successful RD-107 engines of the R-7.
EDA - Ethylenediamine NH2(CH2)2NH2 was considered for use as a rocket fuel in the late 1950's but never found an actual production application.
Edelson - American engineer. Worked at Comsat 1969-1982. NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications 1982-1988. Born: 1926-07-31. Died: 2002-01-06.
EDIN05 - American winged orbital launch vehicle. In February 1976 this version of the shuttle was proposed. A single liquid rocket booster under the external tank would replace the two solid rocket boosters. Status: Study 1976.
EDO - Shuttle payload bay Extended Duration Orbiter pallet which provided 167 kg of additional liquid hydrogen and 1417 kg of liquid oxygen. These were utilized by the shuttle's fuel cells, providing electricity, oxygen, and water sufficient to extend shuttle mission duration to 21 days. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-06-25. Last Launch: 1997-11-19. Number: 12 . Gross mass: 3,571 kg (7,872 lb).
Edse - German expert in rocket fuels during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
EDUSAT - Technology satellite built by the Universita di Roma la Sapienza. Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-08-17. Last Launch: 2011-08-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 10 kg (22 lb).
Edwards - Edwards Air Force Base, originally known as Muroc Field, is the main test flight center for the US Air Force. It has been used since the 1940's for flight test of advanced aircraft, rocketplanes, and air-dropped aerospace vehicles launched from B-29, B-50, B-52, F-15, 747 or L-1011 carrier aircraft. First Launch: 1931-02-21. Last Launch: 2013-05-01. Number: 385 . Duration: 8.83 days.
Edwards AFB DZ - Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 3 launches in 1959, reaching up to 117 kilometers altitude.
Edwards RW04/22 - X-15 launch complex. Runway First Launch: 1959-03-10. Last Launch: 2013-05-01. Number: 349 .
Edwards RW18/36 - Runway
Edwards TL1 - Minuteman tethered launch test silo First Launch: 1959-09-15. Last Launch: 1960-05-07. Number: 7 .
Edwards TL2 - Minuteman tethered launch test silo First Launch: 1960-03-04. Last Launch: 1960-03-04. Number: 1 .
Edwards, Joe - American test pilot astronaut 1994-2000. Grew up in Lineville and Roanoke, Alabama. Flew combat missions over Lebanon in 1983 Status: Inactive; Active 1994-2000. Born: 1958-02-03. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 8.83 days.
EEG - Abbreviation for Electroencephalogram
EEM - American manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Re-entry at extreme velocities from manned interplanetary missions. Status: Study 1968. Gross mass: 7,900 kg (17,400 lb).
EER - American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. EER Systems Inc. , USA
EER Aries - American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Aries launched to promote a commercial launch vehicle of entirely different configuration. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 87,407 kg (192,699 lb). Payload: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Thrust: 1,704.70 kN (383,232 lbf).
EER Systems Inc. Aerospace Div. - Alternate name for EER.
EES - American space suit, operational 1980. The initial series of shuttle flights were equipped with specially adapted SR-71 ejection seats for the two crew. Status: operational 1980.
EFA-30 - French pressure suit, operational 1965. French partial pressure capstan suit using full pressure buffet protective helmet. Status: operational 1965.
Efir - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. Science. Adaptation of the Vostok spacecraft. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-03-10. Last Launch: 1985-12-27. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb).
Efremov - Russian manufacturer of anti-aircraft missiles.
EG&G - EG&G.
EGAO - Egyptian General Aero Organization
Eglin - This US Air Force proving ground and missile test range, based in Valparaiso, Florida and extending over a vast expanse of the Gulf of Mexico, was founded in 1935, In early 1946 the First Experimental Guided Missiles Group was activated at Eglin. The highly-instrumented Eglin Gulf Test Range supported flight tests of Bomarc, Matador, Quail, and Hound Dog cruise missiles. Both the military and NASA used Eglin to support launch of sounding rockets in support of their programs. The actual number of missile tests was many times greater than listed here. First Launch: 1958-07-14. Last Launch: 1980-12-12. Number: 472 .
Eglin A-11 - Site A-11, Santa Rosa Island First Launch: 1959-03-10. Last Launch: 1960-07-27. Number: 6 .
Eglin A-15 - Tomahawk Sandia, Honest John launch complex. Site A-15, Santa Rosa Island First Launch: 1980-12-04. Last Launch: 1980-12-12. Number: 7 .
Eglin D-3 - Viper launch complex. Site D3, Cape San Blas
EGO - Eccentric (orbiting) Geophysical Observatory
EGRESS - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1972. The EGRESS space escape system was based on the proven Encapsulated Ejection Seat System developed for the B-58 bomber in the 1960's. Status: Study 1972. Gross mass: 370 kg (810 lb). Propellants: Solid.
EGRET - Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (on CGRO)
EGRS - Alternate name for SECOR.
EGS - Japanese earth geodetic satellite. Experimental Geophysical Payload; new launch vehicle test flight. EGS (Ajisai). Improvement of the accuracy of domestic geodetic triangulation network. Status: Operational 1986. First Launch: 1986-08-12. Last Launch: 1986-08-12. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 685 kg (1,510 lb).
Egypt - Egypt
Egyptian Army - Egyptian Army
Egyptsat - MisrSat/Egyptsat carried an imaging payload for Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences. Used the MS-1 bus.
EHH - Radar monitoring subsatellites released on Keyhole reconnaissance missions.
Ehrhardt - German expert in rockets during World War II. Worked in America at Wright Field after the war.
Ehricke - Visionary German-American engineer. Protégé of Thiel at Peenemuende; early concepts for nuclear and LOx/LH2 engines. Left von Braun team, developed Centaur at Convair 1956-1964. Prolific output of advanced concepts, but poor program manager. Born: 1917-03-24. Died: 1984-12-01.
Ehricke 4-man orbital station - American manned space station. Study 1954. In 1954 Ehricke postulated a four-man design that might serve a number of different purposes, depending upon altitude and orbital inclination. Status: Study 1954.
EHTV - Alternate designation for Sanger II-1 rocket stage.
Eichler - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Eidis - Russian engineer. Chelomei's First Deputy General Designer 1965-1985, leading development and production of the Almaz space station and TKS manned spacecraft. Earlier headed development of cruise missiles at NII-642 from 1952 and at Chelomei from 1958. Born: 1913-10-03. Died: 2004-10-13.
Einhorn - American NASA Bureaucrat. Raymond Einhorn was a former General Accounting Office auditor who joined NASA in 1960 as its director of audits. He served in this position throughout the 1960s.
EIS - Secret payload for the National Reconnaissance Office; thought to be an imaging spy satellite of the EIS/Enhanced CRYSTAL type. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-11-28. Last Launch: 2013-08-28. Number: 7 .
EIS/OES - American space suit, tested 1970. Developmental 0.54 bar Emergency Intravehicular Suit (EIS) and Orbital Extravehicular Suit (OES) programs were conducted by NASA in the 1970's. Status: tested 1970.
Eisele - American test pilot astronaut 1963-1972. Died of a heart attack. Status: Deceased; Active 1963-1972. Born: 1930-06-23. Died: 1987-12-01. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 10.84 days.
Eisele, Karl - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war.
Eiseler - German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. Born: 1913-10-08.
Eisenhardt - German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Born: 1905-06-07. Died: 1986-12-10.
Eisenhower - President of the United States, 1953-1961; began development of Jupiter, Thor, Atlas, Titan, Polaris, and Minuteman - the foundation of US access to space. His distrust of the military led him to create NASA to handle space programs. Born: 1890-10-14. Died: 1969-03-28.
EJASA - Abbreviation or acronym for Electronic Journal of the Astronomical Society of the Atlantic
EKA - Russian technology satellite. Eksperimentalniy Kosmicheskiy Apparat - dummy of test satellite. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-03-28. Last Launch: 1995-03-28. Number: 1 .
EKA - Alternate name for Start satellite.
EKO - Manufacturer's designation for Tellura earth land resources satellite.
Ekol - Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1992. The Lavochkin NPO designed a variety of remote sensing spacecraft based on a new 3-axis controlled satellite bus. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 3,500 kg (7,700 lb).
Ekologia - Alternate designation for Tellura earth land resources satellite.
EKR - Alternate designation for EKR Stage 2.
EKR - Russian intermediate range cruise missile. B Chertok of NII-8 took the preliminary German R-13 cruise missile design and elaborated it, including consideration of the key problem of long-range automatic astronavigation. By 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental design, the EKR. I Lisovich had developed a prototype astronavigation system that met the necessary specifications, and solution of basic problems in use of steel and titanium hot airframe technology had been solved at VIAM (All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials) and MVTU Bauman Institute. An expert commission in 1953 examined the EKR design and felt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev. Status: Study 1953. Gross mass: 7,874 kg (17,359 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf).
EKR Ramjet - Bondaryuk ramjet engine. EKR Stage 2. Study 1953. Study for an experimental winged cruise missile. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles. Status: Study 1953. Date: 1953-54. Thrust: 6.13 kN (1,378 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
EKR Stage 1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. First stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Boosted second stage to ramjet ignition conditions. Status: Study 1953. Gross mass: 6,390 kg (14,080 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,564 kg (3,448 lb). Thrust: 107.33 kN (24,129 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
EKR Stage 2 - Ramjet test vehicle stage. Second stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Range 730 km with flight time of 927 seconds. Lift to drag 2.51, wing area 3.31 square meters. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles. Status: Study 1953. Gross mass: 1,484 kg (3,271 lb). Unfuelled mass: 1,167 kg (2,572 lb). Thrust: 6.13 kN (1,378 lbf). Propellants: Air/Kerosene.
Ekran - Russian communications satellite. Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite. Status: Operational 1976. First Launch: 1976-10-26. Last Launch: 1988-05-06. Number: 21 . Gross mass: 1,970 kg (4,340 lb).
Ekran-M - Russian communications satellite. Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3). Status: Operational 1987. First Launch: 1987-01-30. Last Launch: 2001-04-07. Number: 6 . Gross mass: 1,976 kg (4,356 lb).
Ekspress - Russian communications satellite. The Ekspress series communications satellite closely resembled the Gals spacecraft and shared a similar spacecraft bus. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-04-17. Last Launch: 2000-04-17. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb).
Ekspress series - Series of Russian communications satellites.
Ekspress-1000 - Status: Operational 2011. First Launch: 2011-02-26. Last Launch: 2015-09-14. Number: 13 .
Ekspress-2000 - Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-12-26. Last Launch: 2014-10-21. Number: 2 .
El Arenosillo - Spanish sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1966-10-15. Last Launch: 1994-04-16. Number: 351 .
El Segundo - American manufacturer. El Segundo, El Segundo, CA, USA.
Elas - Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Elas, Russia.
Elbrus - Alternate designation for R-17.
Elbrus (Elbrus - tallest mountain in Europe) - Alternate name for Soyuz T-5.
ELDO - European agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. European Launcher Development Organisation, Europe.
ELDO A - European orbital launch vehicle. Three stage version of the Europa vehicle. Status: Retired 1966. First Launch: 1966-05-23. Last Launch: 1966-11-14. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 104,600 kg (230,600 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 1,000.00 kN (224,800 lbf).
ELDO A - Alternate designation for Europa I.
ELDO-1 - Alternate name for Europa-1.
Electric - The many versions of electric engines use electric or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized elements to high velocity, creating thrust. The power source can be a nuclear reactor, thermal-electric generator, or solar panels. Electric engines can operate only in space, and provide very high specific impulse, but at very low thrust:weight ratios. Therefore electric spacecraft can reach very high velocities, but at long travel times.
Electric/Ammonia - Electric/Ammonia propellant. Ammonia is used as the propellant in an electric arcjet motor, where it is heated rather than ionized. It was used as the propellant in the ESEX Arcjet 2.0 N engine, flown in space in 1999.
Electric/Cesium - Electric/Cesium propellant. An engine were cesium propellant is ionized and electrically accelerated to produce thrust. No electric engines reached the operational stage using it.
Electric/Krypton - Electric/Krypton propellant. An engine were krypton propellant is ionized and electrically accelerated to produce thrust. No electric engines reached the operational stage using it.
Electric/LH2 - Electric/LH2 propellant. Liquid hydrogen used as the propellant in an electric arcjet or resistojet motor, where it is heated rather than ionized. The power source can be a nuclear reactor, thermal-electric generator, or solar panels. Liquid hydrogen had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks, and making long-term storage difficult. Its use in electric engines, which by definition were low-thrust and long-duration, meant that no electric engines reached the operational stage using this propellant.
Electric/Mercury - Electric/Mercury propellant. The many versions of electric engines use electric or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized elements to high velocity, creating thrust. The power source can be a nuclear reactor or thermal-electric generator, or solar panels. Mercury was used in several early electric engines tested in space, but Xenon was preferred and used in later applications.
Electric/Teflon - Electric/Teflon propellant. The use of a pulsed plasma thruster using solid teflon as a propellant resulted in an all-solid state, high performance thruster with no moving parts. Developed by Aerojet Redmond but no production application to date.
Electric/Xenon - Electric/Xenon propellant. The many versions of electric engines use electric or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized elements to high velocity, creating thrust. The power source can be a nuclear reactor or thermal-electric generator, or solar panels. Xenon became the propellant of choice for production electric engines in both Russia and the United States in the 1990's and 21st Century.
Electro-Optical Systems, Inc. - Alternate name for EOS.
electrophoresis - The movement of molecules or other very small particles through a fluid under the action of an external electric field. Positively charged particles (metallic oxides, basic dyestuffs) migrate to the cathode, and negatively charged particles (metals, sulfur, metallic sulfides, acid dyestuffs) migrate to' the anode.
Elekon - Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. Status: Study 1993. Gross mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb).
Elektro - Russian earth weather satellite. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994. Status: Operational 1994. First Launch: 1994-10-31. Last Launch: 1994-10-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,580 kg (5,680 lb).
Elektron - Simultaneous study of the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts, cosmic rays and upper atmosphere by two spacecraft in different orbits.
Elektron-A - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-01-30. Last Launch: 1964-07-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 340 kg (740 lb).
Elektron-B - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-01-30. Last Launch: 1964-07-10. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 444 kg (978 lb).
Elf - Russian technology satellite. Study 1998. Elf was a micro satellite platform developed by KB Arsenal. With a platform weight of 80 kg it could provide 20 W power to 30 kg instrument payloads. Status: Study 1998. Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb).
Elgava - Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.
ELINT - Alternate designation for JB-8.
Elisa - Quartet of electronic intelligence satellites, which succeed Essaim as France's space-based SIGINT demonstrator. Like Essaim, Elisa consists of four Myriade microsatellites equipped with electronic intelligence instruments to intercept radar transmissions.
ELiTeBus - O3b satellites launched as part of a constellation for broadband internet distribution. Status: Operational 2013. First Launch: 2013-06-25. Last Launch: 2014-12-18. Number: 12 .
Ellsworth AFB - Titan I and Minuteman ICBM base 1962-1994. Ellsworth hosted the unique 'Long Life' test of a Minuteman ICBM in 1965. This was the only launch of an ICBM from an operational inland US missile site. First Launch: 1965-03-01. Last Launch: 1977-04-14. Number: 2 .
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Elmendorf AFB - Elmendorf AFB
Elmendorf AFB LCS - Site Summit LS1, Battery B. First Launch: 1960-11-20. Last Launch: 1964-01-21. Number: 5 .
E-LRALT - Status: Active. First Launch: 2012-10-25. Last Launch: 2012-10-25. Number: 1 .
ELSS - Extravehicular life support system
ELV - Abbreviation for Expendable Launch Vehicle
Elyasberg - Russian officer. From 1968 Head of the Institute for Space Research of the Academy of Sciences. Colonel, Lenin Prize laureate, doctor of technical science, professor, scientific consultant to 4-NII-MO 1959-1968. Born: 1914. Died: 1988-01-01.
Emad - Iranian IRBM announced 2015; improved version of Shahab 3 with precision guidance and a claimed CEP of 500 m at a range of 1700 km. Status: Active. First Launch: 2015-10-11. Last Launch: 2015-10-11. Number: 1 .
Emamshahr - Iranian military testing range. In use for flight test of the Shahab 3 IRBM from 1998.
Emba - Sounding rocket launch location. First Launch: 1967-06-21. Last Launch: 1970-03-01. Number: 4 .
Embratel - Brazilian agency. Embratel, Brazil.
Emeraude - Alternate designation for Diamant-1 rocket stage.
Emeraude VE121 - Emeraude was a step toward larger liquid propellant launch vehicles, building on the Veronique and Vesta experience. It burned 12.8 metric tons nitric acid/turpentine pressure-fed propellants in 91 seconds. The engine was gimbaled for pitch and yaw control, with aerodynamic fins controlling roll. In anticipation of the next step, Saphir, a dummy Topaze stage topped the vehicle to confirm aerodynamic characteristics. The first three launches were failures due to propellant sloshing. This was remedied in the later tests. Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1964-06-15. Last Launch: 1965-05-13. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 18,200 kg (40,100 lb). Payload: 395 kg (870 lb). Thrust: 275.00 kN (61,822 lbf).
Emergency Earth Orbital Escape Device - Alternate designation for Lockheed EEOED manned rescue spacecraft.
Emerson Electric - American manufacturer. Emerson Electric, USA.
Emilie - CFTH-HB solid rocket engine. Grannos first stage. Status: Retired 1969. Gross mass: 80 kg (176 lb). Unfuelled mass: 32 kg (70 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Emissary - Alternate designation for Safir Iran technology satellite.
Emissivity - A property of a material, characterizing its capability to emit electromagnetic radiation as a consequence of its inherent thermal energy.
EMKB Novator - Second name of Lyulev Design Bureau.
EMKS - System for fine orientation of a space station (Russian abbreviation)
Emma - French test vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Emma Booster + 1 x Emma Status: Retired 1963. First Launch: 1963-02-19. Last Launch: 1963-10-10. Number: 8 .
Emma-0 - Alternate name for SEPR P191.
Emma-1 - Alternate name for SEPR P163.
Emme - American NASA Historian. Eugene M. Emme became the NASA chief historian in 1959 and served until his retirement in 1979. Previously he had been a historian with the Air University of the U.S. Air Force. Born: 1919-11-03. Died: 1985-06-01.
Emmerich - American engineer. Project engineer for the Atlas-Mercury manned launch vehicle. Born: 1924-03-21. Died: 2004-02-10.
EMPIRE Aeronutronic - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Aeronutronic's Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 170 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a single launch of a Nova booster. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 170,000 kg (370,000 lb). Thrust: 1.78 kN (401 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
EMPIRE General Dynamics - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. General Dynamics' manned Mars orbiter spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 900 metric tons and would be launched into low earth orbit with a two launches of a Nova booster or eight launches of a Saturn V. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 900,000 kg (1,980,000 lb). Thrust: 1.78 kN (401 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
EMPIRE Lockheed - American manned Mars flyby. Study 1962. Lockheed's manned Mars flyby spacecraft design of 1962 had a total mass of 100 metric tons. Status: Study 1962. Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Thrust: 1.78 kN (401 lbf). Propellants: Nuclear/LH2.
Empresa Argentina de Soluciones Satelitales S.A. - Alternate name for ArSat.
eMRBM - Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-09-10. Last Launch: 2015-11-01. Number: 2 .
EMSS - Electromechanical Stabilization System for a space station, using gyrodynes (Russian abbreviation)
EMU - Abbreviation for Extravehicular Mobility Unit
ENCAP - American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1970. The ENCAP encapsulated bailout-from-orbit concept consisted of a folded heat shield. The astronaut would exit his stranded spacecraft and strap into the seat. Status: Study 1970. Gross mass: 266 kg (586 lb). Propellants: Solid.
End Hall Thruster - UM-NASA electric/LH2 rocket engine. 1 kW arc jet, ran on H2, N2, or a mixture, at about 12A, 1 kW, peak around 600s Isp, (20-30% efficiency). Propellants: Electric/LH2.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-108 ISS EO-4.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-108.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-111.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-97.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-89.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-99.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-72.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-113.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-113 ISS EO-6.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-77.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-100.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-111 ISS EO-5.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-126.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-57.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-54.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-134.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-59.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-88.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-61.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-127.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-130.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-123.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-67.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-69.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-118.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-68.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-47.
Endeavour - Alternate designation for STS-49.
Endeavour - American manned spaceplane. merican manned spaceplane. Built as a replacement after the loss of the Challenger; named after the first ship commanded by James Cook. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-05-07. Last Launch: 2011-05-16. Number: 25 . Gross mass: 116,277 kg (256,346 lb). Unfuelled mass: 103,865 kg (228,983 lb). Payload: 24,990 kg (55,090 lb). Thrust: 53.37 kN (11,997 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/MMH.
Endeavour/Falcon - Alternate name for Apollo 15.
Energia - Alternate designation for Energia satellite.
Energia - Version of the Energia using the core vehicle without the Buran spaceplane. Status: Retired 1988. First Launch: 1987-05-15. Last Launch: 1987-05-15. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 2,524,600 kg (5,565,700 lb). Payload: 88,000 kg (194,000 lb). Thrust: 35,129.90 kN (7,897,516 lbf).
Energia - The Decision - Summary of the meeting of the Soviet Military-Industrial Commission on 13 August 1974 - in which the fate of the N1 was sealed and the decision process leading to Energia-Buran was begun...
Energia as known to the West in 1988 - Author's Note: This article dates from ca. 1988. It provides an indication of what was known at that period....
Energia Control Sat - Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1984. This satellite would consist of a 33 metric ton equipment bus and a 17 metric ton rocket stage. It would be placed in a 600 km / 97 degree orbit for arms control and environment monitoring. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 33,000 kg (72,000 lb).
Energia Core - Alternate designation for Vulkan 1.
Energia Core - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 905,000 kg (1,995,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 85,000 kg (187,000 lb). Thrust: 7,848.12 kN (1,764,328 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Energia Ecosat - Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1992. Status: Study 1992. Gross mass: 10,000 kg (22,000 lb).
Energia Engineer Group 1 - 1966 - Requirement: engineers for planned Soyuz and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights. Date: 1966.
Energia Engineer Group 1 Supplemental - 1967 - Requirement: engineers for lunar flyby and landing missions. Date: 1967.
Energia Engineer Group 10 - 1989 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the Mir space station. Date: 1989.
Energia Engineer Group 11 - 1992 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the Mir space station. Date: 1992.
Energia Engineer Group 12 - 1994 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 1994.
Energia Engineer Group 13 - 1996 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 1996.
Energia Engineer Group 14 - 1997 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 1997.
Energia Engineer Group 14 Supplemental - 1998 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 1998.
Energia Engineer Group 14 Supplemental - 1999 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 1999.
Energia Engineer Group 15 - 2003 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 2003.
Energia Engineer Group 16 - 2006 - Requirement: engineer-cosmonauts for ISS missions. Date: 2006.
Energia Engineer Group 17 - 2010 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 2010.
Energia Engineer Group 18 - 2010 - Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station. Date: 2010.
Energia Engineer Group 2 - 1967 - Requirement: engineers for lunar landing missions. Date: 1967.
Energia Engineer Group 3 - 1972 - Requirement: engineers for Apollo-Soyuz international space docking mission. Date: 1972.
Energia Engineer Group 4 - 1973 - Requirement: engineers for Apollo-Soyuz and Soyuz 7K-S missions. Date: 1973.
Energia Engineer Group 5 - 1978 - Requirement: engineers for Mir space station missions. Date: 1978.
Energia Engineer Group 6 - 1980 - Requirement: female engineer cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle. Date: 1980.
Energia Engineer Group 6 Supplemental - 1983 - Requirement: all-female crew to visit Mir space stations for propaganda purposes on International Women's Day. Date: 1983.
Energia Engineer Group 7 - 1984 - Requirement: engineers for Mir missions. Date: 1984.
Energia Engineer Group 8 - 1985 - Requirement: engineers for Mir missions. Date: 1985.
Energia Engineer Group 9 - 1987 - Requirement: engineers for Mir missions. Date: 1987.
Energia EUS - LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Upper stage designed for use with Energia to boost payloads to geosynchronous, lunar, or planetary trajectories. Status: Out of production. Gross mass: 77,000 kg (169,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Thrust: 1,962.03 kN (441,081 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Energia Geostationary Platform - Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1984. Energia could place observation platforms of 18 to 21 metric tons in geostationary orbit. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb).
Energia Group Special Selection - 1977 - Requirement: general designer to supervise training of spaceplane flight-test cosmonauts Date: 1977.
Energia Lunar Expedition - Russian manned lunar base. Study 1988. In 1988, with development of the Buran space shuttle completed, Glushko ordered new studies on a lunar based that could be established using the Energia booster. Status: Study 1988.
Energia M - Alternate designation for Energia M-1.
Energia M - Launch vehicle originally designed in the 1980's to fulfill the third generation 20-30 metric tons to orbit launcher requirement. It was an adaptation of the Energia launch vehicle, using two strap-on booster units instead of four, and a reduced-diameter core using a single RD-0120 engine instead of four. In the 1990's a structural test article was built and it was proposed that several Energia-M's be launched for commercial customers using surplus Energia components. No buyers came forward for the untested design. Status: Development ended 1993. Gross mass: 1,022,800 kg (2,254,800 lb). Payload: 34,000 kg (74,000 lb). Thrust: 16,015.80 kN (3,600,495 lbf).
Energia M-1 - Core stage of Energia-M. LOx/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Status: Development ended 1993. Gross mass: 272,000 kg (599,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 28,000 kg (61,000 lb). Thrust: 1,960.00 kN (440,620 lbf). Propellants: Lox/LH2.
Energia Nuclear Waste Disposal - Russian burial satellite. Study 1984. The entire inventory of high-level nuclear waste (100 metric tons) would be permanently disposed of in a solar orbit at 1. 2 AU between Earth and Mars using 10 to 15 launches of the Energia launch vehicle. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 50,000 kg (110,000 lb).
Energia Orbital Debris Remover - Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. A 15 metric ton maneuverable satellite, consisting of an engine unit and a satellite collection mechanism, would maneuver at geosynchronous altitude in orbits with inclinations of between 0 and 14 degrees. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
Energia Ozone Replenishment Satellite - Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The eroding ozone layer of the earth would be replenished using a constellation of space-based lasers that would bombard the stratosphere at 30 km altitude for 30 years. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb).
Energia Polar City Illuminator - Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The Energia launch vehicle could be used to launch 100 orbital reflectors to provide light to cities located in the polar regions. Status: Study 1984. Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Energia RCS - Alternate name for Block D.
Energia satellite - Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. Status: Operational 1972. First Launch: 1972-04-07. Last Launch: 1978-07-02. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 5,886 kg (12,976 lb). Payload: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb).
Energia Strapon - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Essentially identical to Zenit stage 1. Status: Retired 1988. Gross mass: 355,000 kg (782,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb). Thrust: 7,906.10 kN (1,777,362 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Energia/Buran - Alternate designation for Buran launch vehicle.
Energia-Buran - Alternate designation for Vulkan.
Energiya - RKK Energia im. S.P. Korolev, Kaliningrad-Korolev, Russia
Energiya/Buran - Alternate designation for Buran launch vehicle.
Enevoldson - American test pilot. Flew the X-24B. Status: Inactive. Born: 1932-06-15.
Engel - German rocket pioneer and SS member. In his career developed rockets in France, Egypt, and Germany. Born: 1912-08-10. Died: 1993-11-23.
Engine Specifications - Definition of Terms - What do all those technical terms mean?
Engine unit - Alternate designation for Voskhod KDU manned spacecraft module.
Engineer Commercial Group - 1990 - Date: 1990.
Engineering Test Satellite - Alternate designation for ETS technology satellite.
England - American geophysicist mission specialist astronaut 1967-1988. Status: Inactive; Active 1967-1988. Born: 1942-05-15. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 7.95 days.
Engle - American test pilot astronaut 1966-1986. Status: Inactive; Active 1966-1986. Born: 1932-08-26. Spaceflights: 5 . Total time in space: 9.35 days.
Enhanced Microsat SSTL - Alternate manufacturer's designation for MicroSat-100 spacecraft bus.
Eniwetok - Eniwetok Proving Grounds. Nuclear test site. Sounding rockets were launched from here to monitor nuclear blast effects and fallout. First Launch: 1957-09-25. Last Launch: 1958-08-01. Number: 7 .
Enomoto - Japanese businessman cosmonaut, 2002-2006. Status: Inactive; Active 2002-2006. Born: 1971-04-22.
Enterprise - American manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Enterprise was the first Space Shuttle Orbiter. It was rolled out on September 17, 1976. Status: Study 1974. Gross mass: 68,027 kg (149,973 lb).
Environmental Aeroscience Corporation - Alternate name for eAc.
Environmental Sciences Research Satellite - Alternate designation for ESRS earth magnetosphere satellite.
Envisat - European earth resources radar satellite. The European Space Agency's Envisat polar platform was originally envisaged as an automated polar orbiting segment of the Space Station. Status: Operational 2002. First Launch: 2002-03-01. Last Launch: 2002-03-01. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 7,911 kg (17,440 lb). Unfuelled mass: 7,611 kg (16,779 lb).
Enzian - German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II but abandoned in 1945 in favor of Wasserfall. Status: Cancelled 1945.
EO- - Long duration crew of a space station. (Russian abbreviation)
EO-1 - American earth land resources satellite. The Earth Orbiter 1 satellite was part of NASA's New Millennium Program. Status: Operational 2000. First Launch: 2000-11-21. Last Launch: 2000-11-21. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 566 kg (1,247 lb).
EOIM - Effects of Oxygen Interactions with Materials experiment. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-31. Last Launch: 1992-07-31. Number: 1 .
Eole - Alternate designation for Eole satellite.
Eole - French test vehicle. Second missile developed by Jean-Jacques Barre and end of that lineage. Status: Retired 1952. First Launch: 1952-11-22. Last Launch: 1952-11-24. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 3,400 kg (7,400 lb). Payload: 275 kg (606 lb). Thrust: 100.00 kN (22,480 lbf).
Eole satellite - French earth weather satellite. Experimental weather satellite; received meteorological data from balloon network. Status: Operational 1971. First Launch: 1971-08-16. Last Launch: 1971-08-16. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 84 kg (185 lb).
EOM Bag - End of Mission bag. Before leaving for the pad, each astronaut's clothes, purses, and wallets were packed in an EOM bag. These would be delivered to the astronauts at the landing site or to their grieving spouses in the event of a shuttle loss.
EOPAP - Abbreviation or acronym for Earth and ocean physics applications program
EOR - Earth-orbit rendezvous. Most commonly used to refer to the technique of assembling components for a lunar expedition in low-earth-orbit using multiple launches from earth, followed by rendezvous and docking of the expedition components in earth orbit.
EORSAT - Naval forces monitoring. Determines position of enemy naval forces through detection and triangulation of their electromagnetic emissions (radio, radar, etc.)
EOS - Electro-Optical Systems, Queanbeyan, NSW, Australia.
EP - Alternate name for NOSS-Subsat.
EP- - Visiting crew of a space station (Russian abbreviation) or Educational Publication (NASA)
EPAS - Apollo-Soyuz Experimental Flight - Soviet name for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. (Russian abbreviation)
EPE - American solar satellite. Radiation and solar wind data. Status: Operational 1961. First Launch: 1961-08-16. Last Launch: 1964-12-21. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 42 kg (92 lb).
EPG - Alternate name for Eniwetok.
ephemeris - Periodical publication which lists the predicted positions of celestial bodies at regular intervals, and the times of astronomical occurrences. It also contains other data of interest to astronomers.
EPKM - Fourth Academy solid rocket engine. Chinese kick stage for use on CZ-2E for launch of Asiasat-2 and Echostar-1. Diameter increased to 1.7 m in comparison to basic 1.4 m diameter motor. Spin stabilized. First flight 1990. Solid propellant rocket stage. Perigee kick motor for putting CZ-2E payloads into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Thrust, burn time estimated. Specific impulse calculated based on motor payload/delta v performance and masses. Status: Out of production. Date: Late 1980's. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 5,985 kg (13,194 lb). Unfuelled mass: 541 kg (1,192 lb). Thrust: 189.99 kN (42,712 lbf). Propellants: Solid.
EPO - Experiments Program Office (also EXPO)
Epona - Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Belisama + 1 x Belisama Status: Retired 1968. First Launch: 1968-03-06. Last Launch: 1968-03-06. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 100 kg (220 lb).
Epona-1 - Alternate name for Belisama engine.
EPOS - Experimental Piloted Orbital Aircraft (Russian abbreviation)
EPOS - Alternate designation for Spiral 50-50.
Epps - American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. Status: Active 2009-on. Born: 1970-11-03.
E'Prime Aerospace - American manufacturer of rockets. E'Prime Aerospace, USA.
EPS - Abbreviation for Electrical Power System
Epsilon - Japanese low-cost solid propellant launch vehicle. Uses the H2A's solid rocket booster SRB-A3 as its first stage. Second stage uses the M-34c solid motor, an improved version of the third stage of the old ISAS M-V rocket. Third stage is the KM-V2b, derived from the KM-V2 kick motor used as the insertion stage for the Hayabusa probe in 2003. Final stage is a new liquid propulsion Post-Boost System (PBS) with 8 x 50N thrusters. Status: Active. First Launch: 2013-09-14. Last Launch: 2013-09-14. Number: 1 .
EPU - Experimental pneumatic unit (Russian abbreviation)
Equator-S - German earth magnetosphere satellite. German geophysics satellite. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-12-02. Last Launch: 1997-12-02. Number: 1 .
Equipment Module - Alternate designation for Gemini EM manned spacecraft module.
ER - Eastern Range (was ETR). Facilities located around Cape Canaveral and its downrange tracking stations; or Engineering Report.
ERAP - Abbreviation for Earth resources aircraft program
ERAU - Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
ERBS - American earth magnetosphere satellite. ERBS was part of the NASA's three-satellite Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), designed to investigate how energy from the Sun is absorbed and re-emitted by the Earth. Status: Operational 1984. First Launch: 1984-10-05. Last Launch: 1984-10-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 226 kg (498 lb).
ERDA - Energy Research and Development Agency
ERDL - US Army Engineer Research and Development Laboratory
Erdmann - German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Stayed in Germany after the war. Died in the Netherlands. Born: 1916. Died: 2002-01-01.
EREP - Earth resources experiment package (Skylab experiment)
ergometer - A device for measuring energy expended or work done.
Eridan - French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of two Stromboli motors in tandem. Status: Retired 1979. First Launch: 1968-09-26. Last Launch: 1979-11-14. Number: 16 . Gross mass: 2,127 kg (4,689 lb). Payload: 130 kg (280 lb). Thrust: 90.00 kN (20,232 lbf).
Eridan - Alternate designation for Geo-IK earth geodetic satellite.
Eridanus - Alternate name for Soyuz TMA-12.
ERINT - American anti-ballistic missile. Extended-Range Interceptor, Patriot improvements, SDIO/BMDO project Status: Study.
ERIS - American anti-ballistic missile. Flight test vehicle for Exoatmospheric Re-Entry Interceptor Subsystem, an anti-ballistic missile hit-to-kill interceptor warhead. The ERIS vehicle itself consisted of surplus Minuteman ICBM second and third stages. Status: Retired 1992. First Launch: 1991-01-28. Last Launch: 1992-03-13. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 14,000 kg (30,000 lb). Thrust: 200.00 kN (44,960 lbf).
ERNO - Third name of Bremen.
ERNO - First name of DASA.
EROS - Israeli commercial sun-synchronous orbit imaging satellite series owned by ImageSat (an Israeli-led company registered in the Netherlands Antilles) and built by IAI using the Ofeq 3 design.
ERS - American earth magnetosphere satellite.merican earth magnetosphere satellite. Environmental Research Satellites were especially designed for piggyback launching from large primary mission vehicles. Status: Operational 1962. First Launch: 1962-09-17. Last Launch: 1967-04-28. Number: 7 . Gross mass: 45 kg (99 lb).
ERS - Alternate name for JERS.
ERS 1-2 - European earth resources radar satellite. The primary mission of Europe's ERS-1 and -2 was to perform remote sensing of the Earth's oceans, ice caps, and coastal regions. Status: Operational 1991. First Launch: 1991-07-17. Last Launch: 1995-04-21. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 2,450 kg (5,400 lb).
ERTA - Alternate designation for ERTA stage.
ERTA - Russian space tug. Study 1992. ERTA (Elecktro-Raketniy Transportniy Apparat) was a nuclear-electric space tug designed to be boosted on medium boosters and provide both propulsion and electrical power for unmanned planetary probes. Status: Study 1992.
ERTA stage - Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. At the beginning of the 1990's a new type of nuclear generator was studied, that would have a capacity of 150 kW in the transport role and provide 10-40 kW to power spacecraft systems while coasting. This was designated ERTA (ElecktroRaketnovo Transportnovo Apparat). Status: Study 1994. Gross mass: 21,000 kg (46,000 lb). Unfuelled mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb). Thrust: 5.39 N (1.21 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Xenon.
ERTS - Abbreviation for Earth Resources Technology Satellite
ERTS - Environmental Resources Technology Satellite; alternate name for Landsat 1-2-3.
ESA - European Space Agency, overseeing development and operation of rockets and spacecraft for its member states. Successor to ESRO (European Space Research Organisation).
ESA ACRV - European manned spacecraft. Study 1992. As Hermes gradually faded into oblivion, the European Space Agency started to take a closer a look at cheaper and less complicated manned space capsules. Status: Study 1992.
ESA Group 1 - 1992 - Requirement: ESA astronauts for Mir, Shuttle, and ISS missions. Date: 1992.
ESA Group 3 - 1998 - Requirement: ESA astronauts for Mir, Shuttle, and ISS missions. Date: 1998.
ESA Group 3 - 2009 - Astronaut training group. Date: 2009.
ESA MTFF-Derived Space Station - European manned space station. Study 1987. Back in the heady days of 1987, Europe was making plans to build an autonomous space station derived from the Columbus Man-Tended Free-Flying (MTFF) platform as the next logical step after Space Station Freedom. Status: Study 1987.
ESA Polar Platform - European manned space station. Study 1986. Britain initially expressed strong interest in developing an unmanned Polar Platform for Earth observation as part of the European Columbus package. In 1986 the platform was scheduled for a 1995 launch. Status: Study 1986.
ESA Space Suit - European space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit for the European Space Agency (ESA), produced by Dornier, Dassault, Zodiac, et. al., 0.40 bar. Status: tested 1995.
ESA-Geos - European earth magnetosphere satellite. Magnetospheric research. European Space Agency satellite. Status: Operational 1977. First Launch: 1977-04-20. Last Launch: 1978-07-14. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 573 kg (1,263 lb).
ESBM - Alternate name for SRM-1.
Escafandra Estratonautica - Spanish pressure suit. Spanish Colonel Don Emilio Herrera Linares designed and built a full pressure suit in 1935, which was to have been used during an open-basket balloon stratospheric flight scheduled for early 1936. Status: Tested 1935.
ESEX Arcjet - Redmond electric/ammonia rocket engine. In Production. Electric Propulsion Space Experiment) program begun 1989 under the then Air Force Astronautics Lab. Flew once in 1999 on board the ARGOS satellite. Status: In Production. Thrust: 2.00 N (0.40 lbf). Propellants: Electric/Ammonia.
Eshail - Communications satellite jointly owned by Eutelsat and Eshailsat, a spinoff of ictQATAR, the Qatari Supreme Council of Information and Communications Technology. The satellite's name was Arabic for Canopus. Used the FS-1300 bus.
ESIEESPA - ESIEES school, Paris
ESIS - Abbreviation for European Space Information System
Esnault-Pelterie - French engineer. Pioneering spaceflight theoretician. French rocketry and spaceflight pioneer. A leading advocate of space travel, his speeches and writings created only limited enthusiasm for rocketry in France prior to WW2. Born: 1881. Died: 1957-12-06.
ESO - Abbreviation for European Southern Observatory
ESP - Extravehicular support package
ESPAStar-1 - National Security satellite bus for use in ?LEO or GEO orbit and launch by ?Antares or other launch vehicles. Lifetime ?1-5 years and delivery possible ?22-24 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 500W Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 250 kg (550 lb).
ESPAStar-2 - ?National Security satellite bus for use in ??LEO or GEO orbits and launch by ?Antares or other launch vehicles. Lifetime ?1-7 years and delivery possible ?22-24 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 1.5kW Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb).
Espenlaub - German Engineer. Glider pilot and technical designer of sail and power planes. Born: 1900. Died: 1972-01-01.
ESRANGE - Alternate name for Kiruna.
ESRO - Alternate designation for ESA.
ESRO - European technology satellite. The ESRO series were small Scout-launched probes of near-earth space. Status: Operational 1967. First Launch: 1967-05-30. Last Launch: 1972-11-22. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 85 kg (187 lb).
ESRO X-Ray Observatory Satellite - Alternate designation for Exosat x-ray astronomy satellite.
ESRS - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Environmental Sciences Research Satellite. Status: Operational 1964. First Launch: 1964-06-25. Last Launch: 1964-06-25. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 79 kg (174 lb).
ESS - Abbreviation for Experiment Support System
ESSA - American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Environmental Science Services Administration, USA.
Essaim - The Essaim demonstrator was a system of several micro-satellites (Essaim means 'swarm' in French) for 'analysis of the electro-magnetic environment of the Earth's surface' (electronic intelligence). DGA, the French Ministry of Defense's procurement agency, developed the project. The system also comprised a ground control segment and a ground station for data processing. It was called a 'demonstrator' since the mission's objective was to assess the operational capability of such a system, paving the way for the next generation. The Essaim satellites were based on EADS Astrium's Myriade multipurpose micro-satellite. In early 2000, the DGA awarded the contract for the development, manufacturing of this turnkey system of micro-satellites and associated ground segment. Under the contract, EADS Astrium was also responsible for personnel training and system operations during the three-year life duration of the program.
ESSP - Alternate name for GRACE.
Estafeta - Russian military communications satellite. Study 1982. Military nuclear powered communications satellite. Development approved by the Soviet VPK Military-Industrial Commission on 8 January 1982. Status: Study 1982.
ESTCube - 1U Cubesat by the Estonian Student Satellite Program led by the University of Tartu. Space test of the electric solar wind sail. Successful. First Estonian satellite
ESTEC - Dutch manufacturer of spacecraft. European Space Tech. Centre, Noordwijk, Netherlands
Estonia - Estonia
Estrela do Sul - Communications satellite for PanAmSat using the FS-1300 bus.
ET - (Shuttle) External Tank
ET Doors - Two heat-tile covered doors on the belly of shuttle where the plumbing connections between the external tank and the shuttle's three SSME engines penetrated the vehicle. After separation of the external tank, failure of these doors to close would mean death during reentry.
Etalon - Russian earth geodetic satellite. Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection. Status: Operational 1989. First Launch: 1989-01-10. Last Launch: 1989-05-31. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 1,415 kg (3,119 lb).
ETLA - Abbreviation for Extended Three Letter Acronym
ETR - Eastern Test Range (later ER). Facilities located around Cape Canaveral and its downrange tracking stations.
ETS - Japanese technology satellite. Status: Operational 1975. First Launch: 1975-09-09. Last Launch: 1994-08-28. Number: 6 .
ETS - Manufacturer's designation for Kakehashi communications satellite.
ETS-7 - Japanese rendezvous technology satellite. Hikoboshi. Technology satellite, to accomplish remote automatic rendezvous and docking. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-11-27. Last Launch: 1997-11-27. Number: 1 .
ETS-7 Target - Japanese rendezvous technology satellite. Orihime. Attached to Hikoboshi. Docking target for ETS-7. Status: Operational 1997. First Launch: 1997-11-27. Last Launch: 1997-11-27. Number: 1 .
ETV - Japanese test vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x LE-3 Status: Retired 1975. First Launch: 1974-09-02. Last Launch: 1975-02-05. Number: 2 . Gross mass: 39,400 kg (86,800 lb). Thrust: 1,932.00 kN (434,330 lbf).
Eumetsat - European Meteorological Satellite Organization, Europe.
Eurasisa - Turkish agency. Eurasisa, Turkey.
Eurasspa - Chinese agency. Eurasspa, China.
Eureca - European materials science satellite. Microgravity experiments; deployed from one shuttle mission, left in earth orbit for extended periods, and retrieved and returned to earth on a later shuttle flight. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-07-31. Last Launch: 1992-07-31. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 4,491 kg (9,900 lb).
Eurockot - Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Eurockot GmbH, Russia.
EUROL - Eurolaunch (DLR/SSC)
Euromir 94 - Alternate name for Soyuz TM-20 Euromir 94.
Euromissile - Euromissile, France/Germany.
Europa - Alternate designation for Europa I.
Europa - Alternate name for STV.
Europa I - European orbital launch vehicle. Europe's first space launcher. The first stage was a British Blue Streak IRBM, the second stage the French Coralie, and the third stage the German Astris. All orbital launch attempts failed due to unreliability of the third stage. The project was cancelled after withdrawal of British support and replaced by the Ariane. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1967-08-04. Last Launch: 1970-06-12. Number: 5 . Gross mass: 104,670 kg (230,750 lb). Payload: 200 kg (440 lb). Thrust: 1,500.00 kN (337,200 lbf).
Europa II - European orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version of the Europa vehicle, adding a P068 fourth stage. Status: Retired 1971. First Launch: 1971-11-05. Last Launch: 1971-11-05. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 111,700 kg (246,200 lb). Payload: 1,160 kg (2,550 lb). Thrust: 1,512.00 kN (339,911 lbf).
Europa-1 - LOx/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 89,406 kg (197,106 lb). Unfuelled mass: 6,997 kg (15,425 lb). Thrust: 1,672.67 kN (376,031 lbf). Propellants: Lox/Kerosene.
Europa-2 - N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. . Status: Retired 1971. Gross mass: 11,894 kg (26,221 lb). Unfuelled mass: 2,099 kg (4,627 lb). Thrust: 274.00 kN (61,597 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/UDMH.
Europe - Europe
European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company EADS N.V. - Alternate name for EADS.
European eXperimental Test Vehicle - Alternate designation for EXTV.
European Mars Mission - European manned Mars expedition. Study 2005. In 2005 the Mars Society Germany proposed a European Mars Mission (EMM) that could be launched using an improved version of the Ariane 5 booster. Status: Study 2005. Gross mass: 120,000 kg (260,000 lb).
European Remote Sensing Satellite - Alternate designation for ERS 1-2 earth resources radar satellite.
European Retrievable Carrier - Alternate designation for Eureca materials science satellite.
European Rocketplanes - Category of spacecraft.
European Space Agency - Alternate designation for ESA space suit space suit.
European Space Stations - Category of spacecraft.
EuropeStar - Europe*Star Ltd, London, UK; and series of communications satellites launched for the company.
Eurosam GIE - French manufacturer. Eurosam GIE, France.
Eurostar - Series of communications satellites for Worldspace.
Eurostar 1000 - French communications satellite. The Eurostar 1000 platform was the first generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecoms applications. Status: Operational 1990. First Launch: 1990-10-30. Last Launch: 1992-04-15. Number: 4 . Gross mass: 1,370 kg (3,020 lb).
Eurostar 2000 - French communications satellite. Status: Operational 1988. First Launch: 1988-03-11. Last Launch: 2006-11-08. Number: 24 . Gross mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Eurostar 3000 - French communications satellite bus. Operational. Third generation of Matra Marconi Space GEO satellite platforms serving mainly commercial telecommunications applications. Status: Operational 2004. First Launch: 2004-08-04. Last Launch: 2015-11-10. Number: 39 .
EUTE - Alternate name for FS-1300.
eutectic - In certain ranges of metal alloys there is one is mixture which melts at a lower temperature than any other alloy in the series. Such an alloy is termed the eutectic.
Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization, Europe. Operates regional geostationary telecommunication satellites for European countries.
EUV - Abbreviation for Extreme UltraViolet
EUVE - American ultraviolet astronomy satellite. The EUVE Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer mission mapped space in the 70- to 760-angstrom portion of the spectrum and conducted detailed ultraviolet examinations of selected celestial targets. Status: Operational 1992. First Launch: 1992-06-07. Last Launch: 1992-06-07. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 3,275 kg (7,220 lb).
EVA - Extravehicular activity; spacewalk.
EVA 2000 - Russian space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit effort between ESA and USSR to upgrade the Orlan DMA. Status: tested 1995.
Evans - American pilot astronaut 1966-1977. Status: Deceased; Active 1966-1977. Born: 1933-11-10. Died: 1990-04-17. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 12.58 days.
Everest - American test pilot. Flew 161 combat missions in WWII, shooting down six enemy aircraft. Flew the X-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Status: Inactive.
EW - Abbreviation for Early Warning
Ewald - German engineer cosmonaut 1990-2002. Status: Inactive; Active 1990-2002. Born: 1956-12-18. Spaceflights: 1 . Total time in space: 19.69 days.
EWatch - EarthWatch, Longmont, USA
exactEarth - Alternate name for ExactView.
ExactView - Series of commercial surveillance satellites for exactEarth. Carried Automatic Identification System (AIS) for the identification and location of maritime vessels.
EXAMETNET - Experimental InterAmerican Meteorological Rocket Network)
Excalibur - Alternate designation for Excalibur Target System.
Excalibur - American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Excalibur was a subscale version of Sea Dragon proposed by Truax Engineering in the 1990's. It featured the same attributes as Sea Dragon: low cost design (pressure fed engines), LOx/Kerosene first stage (combustion chamber pressure 24 atmospheres) and LOx/LH2 second stage (chamber pressure 5 atmospheres). Guidance would be by a combined Inertial/GPS system. An even smaller Excalibur S vehicle would prove the concept and place 500 kg in orbit. Status: Design 1992. Gross mass: 2,366,500 kg (5,217,200 lb). Payload: 55,000 kg (121,000 lb). Propellants: Solid.
Excalibur Model S - American sea-launched orbital launch vehicle. Two recoverable pressure-fed stages. Status: Design 1998. Payload: 500 kg (1,100 lb).
Excalibur Target System - The Canadian-made Excalibur Target System was a boosted dart ballistic rocket whose flight could be tailored to simulate various threats for anti-tactical ballistic missile (TBM) system tests. The solid-propellant launched the dart segment to the necessary angle and velocity for the mission. The dart then separated from the booster. It carried a sophisticated electronic RFSAS Radio Frequency Signature Augmentation System, which electronically enlarged the target's radar cross-section to mimic the larger missile appropriate to the mission. Status: Active. First Launch: 1999-07-01. Last Launch: 2005-07-04. Number: 11 . Propellants: Solid.
Excess Eleven - Alternate name for NASA Group 6 - 1967.
ExoCube - 3U Cubesat by California Polytechnic. Sun synchronous orbit; 0600 GMT local time of the descending node.
Exos - Alternate designation for Exos sounding rocket.
EXOS - Japanese earth ionosphere satellite. Optical investigations of ionosphere. EXOS-C (OHZORA). Status: Operational 1978. First Launch: 1978-02-04. Last Launch: 1989-02-21. Number: 4 .
Exos sounding rocket - American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M-6 + 1 x Nike + 1 x Recruit Status: Retired 1965. First Launch: 1958-06-26. Last Launch: 1965-11-02. Number: 10 . Gross mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Thrust: 365.00 kN (82,055 lbf).
Exosat - European x-ray astronomy satellite. EXOSAT was a space research satellite of the European Space Agency. Status: Operational 1983. First Launch: 1983-05-26. Last Launch: 1983-05-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 510 kg (1,120 lb).
ExoStar - ?Interplanetary Exploration satellite bus. Lifetime ?7-10 years and delivery possible ?36-42 months after receipt of order. Electrical system solar cells, average power 250W Status: In development 2016. Gross mass: 210 kg (460 lb).
exothermic - A process which releases rather than absorbs, heat energy.
Exotic - Category of engines.
Expansion-Deflection 10k - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Expansion-Deflection Booster (10,000 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1961. Thrust: 44.46 kN (9,996 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Expansion-Deflection 50k - Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. Expansion-Deflection Booster (50,000 lb thrust). Pressure-fed. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. Date: 1961. Thrust: 222.33 kN (49,981 lbf). Propellants: N2O4/Aerozine-50.
Experiment Satellite I - Alternate designation for Shiyan civilian surveillance satellite.
Experimental Geophysical Satellite - Alternate designation for EGS earth geodetic satellite.
Experimental Spacecraft System - Alternate designation for XSS rendezvous technology satellite.
Exploration HLLV - American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Numerous NASA studies in the late 1980's and 1990's came to the same conclusion as the Nova studies of the 1960's - to get to Mars, an extremely heavy lift launch vehicle was needed to assemble Mars expeditions in low earth orbit. A nominal heavy list vehicle with a payload of at least 140 metric tons into a Space Station Freedom orbit would have to be developed for such missions. Status: Study 1989. Payload: 156,900 kg (345,900 lb).
Explorer - Series of satellites launched by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the exploration of the space environment (micrometeoroids, charged particles, radiation, etc.) from both earth orbital and heliocentric orbital locations.
Explorer - Alternate name for Explorer series.
Explorer A - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Discovered Van Allen radiation belts. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-02-01. Last Launch: 1958-03-26. Number: 3 . Gross mass: 5.00 kg (11.00 lb).
Explorer B - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer 4. Mapped project Argus radiation. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-07-26. Last Launch: 1958-07-26. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 8.00 kg (17.60 lb).
Explorer C - American earth magnetosphere satellite. Explorer 5. Status: Operational 1958. First Launch: 1958-08-24. Last Launch: 1958-08-24. Number: 1 . Gross mass: 17 kg (37 lb).
Explorer-1 - Montana State University 1U Cubesat. Carried one of Van Allen's original Geiger tubes.
EXPO - Experiments Project Office (also EPO)
EXPRESS - Alternate name for Ekspress.
Express 1 - Japanese materials science satellite. EXPRESS RV. At first thought not to have reached orbit. Later reentry vehicle was discovered in Ghana having reentered and deployed its parachute on Jan 15. Status: Operational 1995. First Launch: 1995-01-15. Last Launch: 1995-01-15. Number: 1 .
Extended Length Tank Thor - Alternate designation for Delta Thor ELT rocket stage.
Extended Length Tank Thor MB-3 - Alternate designation for H-1-1 rocket stage.
Extended Length Thor RS-27 - Alternate designation for Delta Thor RS27 rocket stage.
Extended Mission Gemini - American manned spacecraft. Study 1965. A McDonnell concept for using Gemini for extended duration missions. The basic Gemini would dock with an Agena upper stage. Status: Study 1965.
External Airlock/Orbiter Docking System - Full name of EAL/ODS.
External Tank - Alternate designation for Shuttle Tank rocket stage.
Extra ELT Thor - Alternate designation for Delta Thor XLT rocket stage.
Extra ELT Thor+ - Alternate designation for Delta Thor XLT-C rocket stage.
Extravehicular Activity Maneuvering Unit - Alternate designation for Gemini EMU space suit.
Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer - Alternate designation for EUVE ultraviolet astronomy satellite.
EXTV - French winged orbital launch vehicle. This was to be a reusable winged rocket-powered atmospheric reentry demonstrator capable of reaching speeds of Mach 4 to 10 in the atmosphere. The aim was for ESA to build up experience in reuse operations and high-speed atmospheric flight in the 2003-2007 period. The demonstrator would weigh two metric tons and have a range of 1500 kilometers. It would be able to land on a conventional runway. Dassault and Aerospatiale Matra were to merge their VEHRA and ARES projects to produce a single design. Ares estimated cost was 550 million dollars. Status: Design 1999.
Eyesat - Experimental Interferometric Microsatellite built by Interferometrics Inc, of Chantilly, Virginia. The satellite was equipped with Oscar amateur radio equipment, constructed by AMRAD, a non-profit organization of radio amateurs.
Eyharts - French test pilot cosmonaut 1990-on. Status: Active 1990-on. Born: 1957-04-28. Spaceflights: 2 . Total time in space: 68.90 days.
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