Encyclopedia Astronautica
M



m.
  • meter (SI abbreviation)

M=1, =2, etc..

  • Revolution in which rendezvous is to take place

M1.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars M1 mars orbiter.

M1.

  • Ames' original design for a blunt lifting body. Technical details are for single-crew version proposed in 1958 as a lower-cost alternate to Dynasoar.

M-1.

  • Alternate designation of S-25 missile.

M-1.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 5335.9 kN. Study 1961. Isp=428s. Engine developed 1962-1966 for Uprated Saturn and Nova million-pound payload boosters to support manned Mars missions. Reached component test stage before cancellation.

M-10.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 737 kN.

M-100.

  • Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28.

M-100.

  • Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28.

M-100 (A-1).

  • Russian sounding rocket.

M-100-100.

  • Russian solid rocket engine.

M-100-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

M-100-300.

  • Russian solid rocket engine.

M-100A.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Special modification, only fired twice on 1976-11-10 and 1976-12-22.

M-100B.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Model calibrated with Western sounding rockets and part of the World Meteorological Network. 1,730 launched from 1976-01-07 to 1990-12-.

M-100B-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

M-11.

  • Alternate designation for DF-11 short range ballistic missile.

M112.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 13 kN.

M-13.

  • Alternate designation for Mu-3S-1 rocket stage.

M-13.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 1262.4 kN. Isp=263s. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969.

M-13TVC.

  • Solid rocket stage. 1020.00 kN (229,305 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,200 kg (75,398 lb).

M14.

  • Alternate designation for Pershing 1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

M14.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 3780.3 kN. Isp=276s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997.

M19.

  • Alternate designation for Pershing 1A intermediate range ballistic missile.

M-2.

  • Launch System of V-753 surface-to-air missile.

M-2.

M-20.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine family.

M-20.

  • Alternate designation for Sergeant missile.

M-20.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 285 kN.

M-20.

  • Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,900 kg (21,826 lb).

M-22.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 285 kN.

M-22.

  • Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,800 kg (21,605 lb).

M-23.

  • Alternate designation for Mu-3S-2 and J-1-2 rocket stages.

M-23-J.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 524.8 kN. In development. Isp=282s. Used on J-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1996.

M-23-Mu.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 524 kN. Isp=285s. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969.

M24.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 1245.3 kN. Isp=288s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997.

M-24.

  • Alternate designation for M-V-2 rocket stage.

M26.

  • Department of Defence Designation of MLRS tactical ballistic rocket.

M-28.

M-29.

M2b.

  • Version of M2 lifting body proposed in 1958 as an alternate to the Dynasoar winged glider configuraiton.

M2-F2.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1966. The least stable of the lifting body designs. The 'flying bathtub' had a rounded belly / flat top layout as opposed to the flat belly / rounded top of the other designs.

M2-F3.

  • American manned spaceplane. 43 launches, 1966.07.12 to 1971.12.21 . The crashed M2-F2 was rebuilt as the M2-F3 with enlarged vertical stabilizers. Maximum speed achieved was Mach 1.6, top altitude 21,800 m.

M-3.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine family.

M-30.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 128 kN.

M31, M13, M57, etc.

  • Refers to number in catalog of nebula compiled by the astronomer Messier

M33-20-4.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine. 286 kN. Isp=247s. Used as apogee kick motor on Delta D, LT Thor Agena D, Scout X-1, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4, TA Thor Agena B, TA Thor Agena D. First flight 1960.

M34.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 294.2 kN. Isp=301s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997.

M-34.

  • Alternate designation for M-V-3 rocket stage.

M-3A.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 61 kN.

M-3A.

  • Solid rocket stage. 61.00 kN (13,713 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

M-3B.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,590/310 kg. Thrust 132.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds.

M-3B-J.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 132.1 kN. In development. Isp=294s. Used on J-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1996.

M-3B-Mu.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 132.1 kN. Isp=294s. Used on Mu-3S launch vehicle. First flight 1969.

M-40.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Buran intercontinental cruise missile.

M-40.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 26.5 kN.

M-42.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1957. Several variants of the Myasishchev Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile M-42 cruise stage were studied.

M-44.

  • Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle.

M47 + M32, M51 + M34, M15 motors.

  • Alternate designation for Little John tactical ballistic rocket.

M-48.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1958. In 1958 the VVS (Soviet Air Force) requested development as quickly as possible of high-speed aerospace vehicles.

M50.

  • Alternate designation for MGR-1B tactical ballistic rocket.

M-51.

  • Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Intercontinental cruise missile based on M-50 manned bomber. Subsonic cruise with Mach 2 dash into the target area.

M55.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

M55/TX-55/Tu-122.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine. 792 kN. In production. Isp=262s. Proposed as strap-on booster for Saturn IB-C, Saturn INT-14, Saturn INT-15, Saturn INT-19 variants. First flight 2000.

M55A1.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine. 792 kN.

M55E1.

  • American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x M55E1 + 1 x SR19AJ1

M56.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,170/466 kg. Thrust 228.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. Second stage of Minuteman I. Used as first stage of Aries sounding rocket and various SDI targets in 1980's.

M56A-1.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine. 228.5 kN. Out of Production. Used in Aries. Isp=297s.

M57A1.

  • Hercules solid rocket engine. 76 kN.

M5E1.

  • Hercules solid rocket engine. 195.6 kN. Nike booster motor. The interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Nike in sounding rocket applications and lip-fit into the second stage nozzle.

M-6.

  • Hercules solid rocket engine. 365 kN. Taurus rocket motor originally developed for the Army Honest John tactical missile. In sounding rocket applications the interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Taurus.

M6 Honest John.

  • Alternate designation for HJ Nike-1 rocket stage.

M6, M30, M31.

  • Alternate designation for MGR-1A tactical ballistic rocket.

M-7.

  • Chinese short range ballistic missile. Surface-to-surface derivative of the HQ-2 air defense missile. US designation is CSS-8. Exported to Iran as Tamdar & Tondar in Iran.

M-71.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars M-71 mars lander.

M-73.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Mars M-73 mars lander.

M-9.

  • Alternate designation for DF-15-1 rocket stage.

M-9.

  • Export version of the DF-15 intermediate range ballistic missile.

MA-.

  • Mercury-Atlas. Designation series for Mercury spaceflights.

Ma Zizhong.

  • Ma Zizhong Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Ma was a PLAAF regiment Deputy Party Commissar when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971.

MA-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation of XLR89-1 Lox-Kerosene rocket engine.

MA-2.

  • Manufacturer's designation of assembly of XLR89-5 Lox-Kerosene rocket engines.

MA-3.

  • Manufacturer's designation of assembly of LR89-5 and LR105-5 Lox-Kerosene rocket engines.

MA-5.

  • Manufacturer's designation of assembly of LR89-7 and LR105-7 Lox-Kerosene rocket engines.

MA-5A.

  • Manufacturer's designation of assembly of RS-56-OBA and RS-56-OSA Lox-Kerosene rocket engines.

MA-5A.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2100 kN. Out of Production. Isp=296s. Atlas Engine System, an updated version of the MA-5, included replacments with selected RS-27 components for sea-level Isp increase of 4 secs. First flight 1991.

MABES.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 1986.08.12. MABES (Jindai). Experiment on the levitation of the magnetic bearing flywheel under zero-g condition.

Mabuhay.

  • Mabuhay Comms Corp, Manila., Philippines

MAC.

  • McDonnell Aircraft Corporation

Mace.

  • Alternate Designation of Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mace.

  • Popular Name of CGM-13A intermediate range cruise missile.

Mace.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. Intermediate range cruise missile. Only Cape Canaveral launches are listed here, but over 30 launches were also conducted from Launch Area Able-51 by Det 1, 4504th CCTW at Holloman AFB, New Mexico from October 1959 throurgh 1963.

Mace.

  • Intermediate range cruise missile family.

Mace.

  • Mace, Timothy Kristian Charles (1955-) British engineer cosmonaut, 1989-1998. Was married to the daughter of former Soviet Cosmonaut V Zholobov.

Mace South Korea.

  • Mace/Matador operating location 1956-1966.

Mace Taiwan.

  • Mace/Matador operating location 1956-1966.

Mace-B.

  • Popular Name of CGM-13B intermediate range cruise missile.

Machine Production Scientific Production Assn.

  • Russian manufacturer. Machine Production Scientific Production Association, Russia.

Machinski.

  • Machinski, Dr Georgi Vladimirovich (1937-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1974. Worked at the IMBP in Moscow. Left cosmonaut group for medical reasons after being injured in an automobile accident. He resumed work at the IMBP, reaching the position of senior-scientist.

MacLean.

  • MacLean, Steven Glenwood (1954-) Canadian physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-52, STS-115. Selected Aug 1996; he had been PayloadSpecialist on STS-52 Mission LAGEOS-2 (responsible for the Space Visions System).

Macleay.

  • Macleay, Lachlan 'Mac' (1931-) American pilot astronaut, 1965-1969.

MacNabb.

  • MacNabb, Byron Gordon (1910-1997) American engineer. Headed Convair operations at Cape Canaveral throughout development flight test of the Atlas.

MACRO.

  • Monopoles, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory

MACSAT.

  • American military communications satellite. 2 launches, 1990.05.09 (Macsat 1; M-1) and (Macsat 2; M-2).

Macuh Laboratories.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Macuh Laboratories, USA.

Macuh Suit.

  • American space suit, tested 1962. Closed cell foam suit concept by Macuh Laboratories, USAF/NASA study, report MLTRD-62-13.

Maetzke.

  • Maetzke, Helmut German expert in rocket development during World War II. As of January 1947, living in Heidelberg, Schillerstr. 50.

Magdeburg.

  • Rudolf Nebel's subscale prototype for a man-carrying rocket was flown eight times in 1933. Further tests were prohibited by the Nazi government. This would be the largest German rocket launched until the A3 in 1937.

Mage 1.

  • SEP solid rocket engine. 19.4 kN. Out of production. Orbital circularization motor. Isp=295s. First flight 1979.

Mage 1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 369/34 kg. Thrust 19.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

Mage 2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 530/40 kg. Thrust 45.48 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

Mage 2.

  • SEP solid rocket engine. 45.5 kN. Orbital circularization motor for Advanced Scout, Ariane 2/3. Isp=293s. First flight 1984.

Magellan.

  • American Venus probe. One launch, 1989.05.04. The primary objectives of the Magellan mission were to map the surface of Venus with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and to determine the topographic relief of the planet.

Magilton.

  • Magilton, Gerard Edward 'Jerry' (1942-) American engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Worked with RCA Astro Electronics Division. Backup for Robert Cenker (STS-61C). Program manager for on-orbit performance, Martin Marietta Astro Space in Princeton, New Jersey.

Magion.

  • Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1978.10.24 (Magion 1) to 1996.08.29 (Magion 5). The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth.

Magnetosphere.

  • The region around the Earth above about 160 km (90 naut. mi.) and below the magnetopause (about 15 earth radii in the solar direction, and at least 40 earth radii in the antisolar direction ) . Inside the magnetosphere, the Earth's magnetic field is dominant; outside, the interplanetary magnetic field dominates.

Magnetosphere sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Magnum.

  • American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Notional NASA/MSFC heavy lift booster design, using no shuttle components but instead new technologies from the EELV and RLV programs that supposedly would reduce launch cost by a large factor. A composite core vehicle powered by RS-68 engines was flanked by two shuttle liquid rocket boosters. Baseline launch vehicle used in most NASA manned lunar and Mars mssion studies 1996-2004.

Magnum.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1985.01.24 (USA 8) to 1990.11.15 (USA 67). Shuttle-launched geostationary ELINT satellite model that replaced Rhyolite/Aquacade.

Magnum Core.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 830,000/70,000 kg. Thrust 9,112.38 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 453 seconds. Alternative configurations used 2 to 3 RS-68 engines

Magnus.

  • Magnus, Sandra Hall (1964-) American materials scientist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-112, ISS EO-18-1.

Magnus, Kurt.

  • Magnus, Kurt (1912-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Gyroscope technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946.

Magsat.

  • American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1979.10.30. Measured near-Earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies.

Magyari.

  • Magyari Bela (1949-) Hungarian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1980. Graduated from Gyorgy Kilian military pilot school, 1969. Graduated from Budapest Technical University, 1986. Aeronautical engineer and pilot, Hungarian Air Force. Involved in space research work.

MAI.

  • Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia.

MAI Hall thruster.

  • MAI electric rocket engine. 1.35 kW Hall thruster

Mak.

  • Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere.

Makarov.

  • Makarov, Oleg Grigoryevich (1933-2003) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1, Salyut 6 EP-1, Salyut 6 EO-5. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch.

Makarov, A M.

  • Makarov, Aleksandr Maksimovich Russian engineer. From 1961-1986 Director of the Yuzhnoye Machinery Factory and General Director of PO Yuzhmash.

Makat.

  • Tactical missile base, known to have been used for 34 launches from 1961 to 1965, reaching up to 460 kilometers altitude.

Makeyev.

  • Makeyev, Viktor Petrovich (1924-1985) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1985 of SKB-385. Leading designer of tactical and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Innovations included submerged engines, stellar-updated inertial navigation, and extendible nozzles.

Makeyev.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Makeyev Design Bureau, Kolomna, Russia.

Makeyev (1976).

Makrushin.

  • Makrushin, Valeri Grigoryevich (1940-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1987. Studied from 1957 to 1963 at Leningrad Institute of Aircraft Design (LIAP). Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Returned to NPO Mashinostroenniye.

MAKS.

  • The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988. But development MAKS was cancelled in 1991. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990's that development funding could be found. However this did not materialise.

MAKS.

  • Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988 and consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled in 1991. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. A 9,000 kgf experimental engine with 19 injectors was tested. There were 50 test burns proving the separate modes and a smooth switch between them. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990's that development funding could be found. However this did not materialise. MAKS was to have flown by 1998.

MAKS Orbiter.

  • Lox/Kerosene/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,600/18,600 kg. Thrust 3,618.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 437 seconds. Empty mass without 9300 kg payload.

MAKS Orbiter.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Reached advanced stage of development testing and prototype construction when project was cancelled in 1988. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the OK-M studies NPO Molniya conducted with NPO Energia.

MAKS Tank.

  • Lox/Kerosene/LH2 rocket stage. Mass 248,100 kg (546,967 lb).

MAKS-D.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines. An unmanned prototype of the MAKS would be fitted out with RD-120 Lox/Kerosene engines. Launched from atop the An-225, the MAKS-D would reach an altitude of 80 to 90 km and a speed of Mach 14 to 15.

Maksim.

  • Maksim, Yu P Russian military officer.

Maksimenko.

  • Maksimenko, Valery Yevgenyevich (1950-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1991.

Maksimov.

  • Maksimov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1923-1990) Russian officer. Deputy Chief of TsKIK. Later Commander of GUKOS / UNKS 1979-1989.

MAKS-M.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable unpiloted verion of MAKS, similar to Interim HOTOL. Air launched from An-225. MAKS was found to have superior payload, lower non-recurring cost and technical risk. MAKS-M would require new materials. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 7.0 m long x 4.6 m diameter.

MAKS-T.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. All cargo version of MAKS. Air-launched heavy-lift launcher would use an expendable second stage with a payload container. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 13.0 m long x 5.0 m diameter.

Malaface.

  • French tactical ballistic missile.

Malaysia.

  • Malaysia

Maldives.

  • Maldives

Malemute.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Malenchenko.

  • Malenchenko, Yuri Ivanovich (1961-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-16, STS-106, ISS EO-7, ISS EO-16. Call sign: Agat (Agate). 514 cumulative days in space.

Malenkov.

  • Malenkov, Georgi Maksimiliyanovich (1902-1988) Russian politician. First Chairman of Special Committee 2 1946-1947. Oversaw missile program.

Malerba.

  • Malerba, Franco Egidio (1946-) Italian biologist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-46. First Italian astronaut. ESA; STS-46 Mission TSS-1.

Malhotra.

  • Malhotra, Ravish (1943-) Indian pilot cosmonaut, 1982-1984. Indian Air Force test pilot, stationed at the Bangalore space test center. Later worked for Dynamatic Technologies. Brigadier General (Air Commodore), Retired.

Malina.

  • Malina, Frank J (1912-1981) American engineer, one of the inventors of the American liquid fuel rocket at CalTech in the 1930's. Led development of the WAC-Corporal rocket, but uninterested in military projects. Moved to Paris to work with UN and later was an artist.

Malinovskiy.

  • Malinovskiy, Rodion Yakovlevich (1898-1967) Russian officer. Minister of Defence 1957-1967. Opponent of piloted space programs.

MALLIR.

  • Manned Lunar Landing Involving Rendezvous

Malmstrom AFB.

  • Minuteman ICBM base.

Malmstrom AFB Missile Site A-01.

Maloy.

  • Maloy, Travis L (1915-2006) American engineer. Manager of flight test and launch operations for the Atlas.

Malyshev.

  • Malyshev, Yuri Vassilyevich (1941-1999) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-6, Salyut 7 EP-3.

Malyshev, Vyecheslav.

  • Malyshev, Vyecheslav Aleksandrovich (1902-1957) Russian politician. Minister of Medium Machine Building 1953-1955. First manager of the Soviet defence industry.

Malyutka.

  • Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1944. The Malyutka rocket point interceptor was designed by Polikarpov beginning in 1943.

Mammouth.

  • French solid rocket engine. 190 kN. 1900 kg 'Plastolite' propellant. Empty mass estimated. Originally developed as the booster for the SSBT missile. Isp=180s. Used on Agate launch vehicle. First flight 1961.

Man Out Of Space, Easiest.

  • Alternate designation for MOOSE manned rescue spacecraft.

Manager.

  • Category of persons.

Manakov.

  • Manakov, Gennadi Mikhailovich (1950-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-7, Mir EO-13. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK cosmonaut detachment 1987. Call sign: Vulkan (Volcano).

Manarov.

  • Manarov, Musa Khiramanovich 'Mussachi' (1951-) Lakets-Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-3, Mir EO-8. 541 cumulative days in space. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute with an engineering diploma in 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Later a Director of Smolsat.

Manchester.

  • Manchester.

Mandel.

  • Mandel, Carl Heinz (1908-1982) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II, member of von Braun rocket team. As of 1960, Head of Gyro and Stabliizer Branch, Guidance and Control Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Madison, Alabama.

Man-high.

  • American manned balloon. Study 1955. Project Manhigh was established in December 1955 to obtain scientific data on the behavior of a balloon in an environment above 99% of the earth's atmosphere and to investigate cosmic rays and their effects on man.

Man-In-Space-Soonest.

  • The beginning of the Air Force's Man-In-Space-Soonest program has been traced back to a staff meeting of General Thomas S Power, Commander of the Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) in Baltimore on 15 February 1956. Power wanted studies to begin on manned space vehicles that would follow the X-15 rocketplane. These were to include winged and ballistic approaches - the ballistic rocket was seen as being a militarily useful intercontinental troop and cargo vehicle.

Man-In-Space-Soonest.

  • On 25 June 1958 preliminary astronaut selection for the Man-In-Space Soonest project was made. The project was cancelled when NASA was formed in and took responsibility for all manned space flight on 1 August 1958.

Man-In-Space-Soonest - 1958.

  • To provide pilots for the USAF Project 7969 MISS "Man-In-Space-Soonest" manned spacecraft. On 25 June 1958 the Air Force completed a preliminary astronaut selection for the project. The list was prioritized according to the weight of the pilot due to the low payload available. The 150-175 pound group consisted of test pilots Bob or Robert Walker, Scott Crossfield, Neil Armstrong, and Robert Rushworth. In the 175 to 200 pound group were William Bridgeman, Alvin White, Iven Kincheloe, Robert White, and Jack McKay. It was the first astronaut selection in history.

Manke.

  • Manke, John A (1931-) American NASA test pilot 1962-1981. Flew record 42 lifting body rocketplane missions.

Manned.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned balloon.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Circumlunar.

  • Boosting a manned spacecraft on a loop around the moon, without entering lunar orbit, allows a trip to be made near the moon with a total low earth orbit mass of as little as 20 tonnes. This was attractive during the space race as a manned mission that could be accomplished early with limited booster power. Gemini, Apollo, and Soyuz were all supposed to have made circumlunar flights. Only Soyuz reached the circumlunar flight-test stage under the L1 program. Any L1 manned missions were cancelled after the Americans reached lunar orbit with Apollo 8. The idea was resurrected in 2005 when a $100 million commercial flight around the moon was proposed, again using Soyuz.

Manned Earth Reconnaissance.

  • Alternate designation for Project Mer manned spacecraft.

Manned Flying System.

  • Alternate designation for MFS manned lunar flyer.

Manned lunar base.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned lunar flyer.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned lunar habitat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned lunar lander test vehicle.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Mars expedition.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Mars flyby.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking.

  • Alternate designation for MORAD manned spacecraft.

Manned Orbital Research Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for MORL manned space station.

Manned Orbiting Facility.

  • American manned space station. Study 1974. NASA carried out a number of space station studies while the Shuttle was being developed in the mid-1970s.

Manned Orbiting Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for MOL manned space station.

Manned Orbiting Laboratory Suit, 1963.

Manned Orbiting Shuttle Escape System.

  • Alternate designation for MOSES manned rescue spacecraft.

Manned Reusable Capsule.

Manned Space Firsts.

  • Who did what when ? -- a list of manned space firsts...

Manned Space Flight Center.

Manned space station.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned spacecraft.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned spacecraft module.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned spaceflight.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Upper Reusable Payload.

  • Alternate designation for MURP manned spaceplane.

Manned Venus Orbiting Mission.

  • American manned Venus orbiter. A 1967 a NASA study examined requirements for a manned Venus orbiter. It concluded such a mission could be mounted by 1975 using Apollo technology.

Manned Vulkan-launched version.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Lunokhod LEK manned lunar rover.

Manno.

  • Manno, Vittorio (1938-) Italian Physicist. Vittorio Manno is an Italian physicist who was a senior scientist at ESA's Science Directorate from 1972-1989. From 1989-1995, Manno served as the scientific attaché at the Italian Embassy in Vienna.

Mantz.

  • Mantz, Michael Ray (1953-) American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1982-1987.

Manufacturer.

  • Manufacturers of space-related hardware.

Many Thanks!.

  • Contributors and acknowledgements.

Manzovka/Ussuriysk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1970, probably operating R-12 launchers. In the 1950's the base for originally fielded two R-1 launchers, followed by eight R-5 launchers.

MAP.

  • American infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 2001.06.30. NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe was placed at the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrangian point 1.

MAP Group 1 - 1981.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 2 - 1983.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 3 - 1984.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 4 - 1985.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 5 - 1989.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAPO.

  • tris(1-(2-methyl) aziridinyl) phosphine oxide

Mapping and Survey System.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo MSS manned lunar orbiter.

MAQSAT.

  • European technology satellite. 4 launches, 1997.10.30 (MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT) to 2005.02.12 (Maqsat 3). MAQSATs were mass model and technology satellites built by Kayser-Threde, Munich, and lofted during the test flights of the Ariane 5.

Mar Chiquita.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 69 launches from 1968 to 1976, reaching up to 430 kilometers altitude.

Marambio.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 7 launches from 1975 to 1982, reaching up to 400 kilometers altitude.

MARC 13A1.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 17 kN.

MARC 14A1.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 12 kN.

MARC 14B1.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 84 kN.

MARC 2B1.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 1.5 kN.

MARC 2C2.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 1.5 kN.

MARC 42A1.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 12.2 kN.

MARC 60A.

  • ARC solid rocket engine. 1.5 kN.

Marconi.

  • British manufacturer. Marconi, UK.

MARECS.

  • Geostationary maritime communications satellites, which form part of INMARSAT's world-wide maritime communications satellite network. The program began as the experimental Maritime Orbital Test Satellite (Marots) in 1973, but was subsequently changed to an operational system resulting in a name change, a satellite redesign, and delayed development. Marecs is operated by ESA for Inmarsat.

Marine Observation Satellite.

  • Japanese earth sea satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.19 (MOS-1) to 1990.02.07 (MOS-1b). The MOS 1A and 1B satellites, also known as Momo 1A and 1B, were Japan's first Earth resources satellites.

Mariner.

  • Mariner spacecraft were built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for early exploration of the nearby planets. The Mariner series became the first spacecraft to return significant data on the surface and atmosphere conditions of Venus, Mars, and Mercury.

Mariner 10.

  • American Mercury probe. One launch, 1973.11.03.

Mariner 1-2.

  • American Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.07.22 (Mariner 1) to 1962.08.27 (Mariner 2). The world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft.

Mariner 3-4.

  • American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.05 (Mariner 3) to 1964.11.28 (Mariner 4). This spacecraft completed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface.

Mariner 5.

  • American Venus probe. One launch, 1967.06.14. Mariner 5 was a refurbished backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 Mars mission converted to fly a Venus mission.

Mariner 6-7.

  • American Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1969.02.25 (Mariner 6) to 1969.03.27 (Mariner 7). Mariner 6 and 7 comprised a dual-spacecraft mission to Mars.

Mariner 8-9.

  • American Mars orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.05.09 (Mariner H) to 1971.05.30 (Mariner 9). The Mariner Mars 71 mission was planned to consist of two spacecraft on complementary missions.

Mariner Mark II.

  • Manufacturer's designation for CRAF comet probe.

Mariner R.

  • American Venus probe. Study 1961. Planned 1961 JPL crash program to beat the Soviet Union in launching the first probe to another planet.

Marisat.

  • American communications satellite. 3 launches, 1976.02.19 (Marisat 1) to 1976.10.14 (Marisat 3). Maritime communications.

Mark.

  • Mark, Hans (1929-) German-American physicist, Secretary of the Air Force 1979-1981, NASA deputy administrator 1981-1984.

Mark 1 Mod III.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1956. While the USAF concentrated on partial pressure suits, the US Navy worked on omni-environmental full pressure suits to combine altitude and immersion protection.

Mark I ELSS.

  • American space suit, tested 1958-59. The USAF Mark I Extravehicular and Lunar Surface Suit was tested during 1958-59, and led to subsequent development of more refined and satisfactory RX-series "Moon Suits" for NASA.

Mark IV Model 3 Type I.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. )roduction suit which US Navy aircrew wore on high altitude flights during its cold weather operations.

Mark IV USAF.

  • Manufacturer's designation for A-P 22S-3 space suit.

Mark Ridge Suit.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1933. The first full pressure suit was made by a London diving suit firm for the American balloonist Mark Ridge.

Marka.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 12 launches from 1983 to 1984, reaching up to 75 kilometers altitude.

MAROTS.

  • ESRO Maritime Orbital Test Satellite

Marpost.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 2000. In December 2000 Leonid Gorshkov of RKK Energia proposed a manned Mars orbital expedition as an alternative to Russian participation in the International Space Station.

Marquardt.

  • Van Nuys, CA, USA.

Marquardt Space Sled.

  • Alternate designation for Space Sled space suit.

Mars.

  • Soviet Mars probes were intended to photograph Mars on flyby trajectories, followed by Mars orbit, landing, and Phobos reconnaisance missions. Essentially all of the series failed.

Mars.

  • Russian tactical ballistic rocket.

Mars.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars 1975.

Mars 1986.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Studied 1978-1986. NPO Energia resumed study of a Mars project once development began of the new Energia booster in place of the cancelled N1.

Mars 1989.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 yet another Mars project was proposed by NPO Energia.

Mars 1994.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1994. Soviet / Russian design for a Mars expedition powered by RD-0410 bi-modal nuclear thermal engines. A crew of five would complete the trip to Mars and back in 460 days.

Mars 1M.

  • Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1960.10.10 (Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure.) to 1960.10.14 (Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure.). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory.

Mars 2MV-1.

  • Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.08.25 (Sputnik 19) to 1962.09.01 (Sputnik 20).

Mars 2MV-2.

  • Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.09.12, Sputnik 21.

Mars 2MV-3.

  • Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.11.04, Sputnik 24. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars.

Mars 2MV-4.

  • Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1962.10.24 (Sputnik 22) to 1962.11.01 (Mars 1). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory.

Mars 3MV-4A.

  • Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.30 (Zond 2) to 1965.07.18 (Zond 3). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space.

Mars 5M.

  • Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1978. The 5M was a second attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1974 to 1978.

Mars 5NM.

  • Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1974. The 5NM was the first attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1970 to 1974.

Mars Climate Orbiter.

  • Alternate designation for MCO mars orbiter.

Mars Confectionery.

  • Mars Confectionery.

Mars Cycler.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1989. As part of a space infrastructure, it was proposed that four space stations be placed in cyclical orbits. These would allow departures for a six-month journey to Mars every 26 months.

Mars Direct.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. In 1991 Martin Marietta and NASA Ames (Zubrin, Baker, and Gwynne) proposed 'Mars Direct' - a Mars expedition faster, cheaper, and better than the standard NASA plan.

Mars Evolution 1988.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988 NASA made four case studies of a rapid response to the threat of a Soviet manned expedition to Mars.

Mars Evolution 1989.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 NASA's Mars Evolution case study examined one approach to develop a permanent, largely self-sufficient Mars outpost with significant scientific research capability.

Mars Excursion Module.

  • Alternate designation for MEM manned mars lander.

Mars expedition.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars Expedition 88.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1988. In 1988, in response to a perceived Soviet plan to start a new space race to Mars, NASA made in depth case studies of a rapid US response.

Mars Expedition 89.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. The primary objective of the 1989 Mars Expedition case study was to determine how to accomplish a single human expedition to the surface of Mars as early in the 21st century as practical.

Mars Expedition NASA Lewis 1960.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. The first NASA study of a manned Mars expedition outlined an opposition-class, nuclear thermal rocket powered spacecraft that would take seven astronauts to the planet's surface for 40 days.

Mars Expeditionary Complex.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MEK manned mars expedition.

Mars Expeditions.

  • Since Wernher von Braun first sketched out his Marsprojekt in 1946, a succession of designs and mission profiles were seriously studied in the United States and the Soviet Union. By the late 1960's Von Braun had come to favour nuclear thermal rocket powered expeditions, while his Soviet counterpart Korolev decided that nuclear electric propulsion was the way to go. All such work stopped in both countries in the 1970's, after the cancellation of the Apollo program in the United States and the N1 booster in the Soviet Union.

Mars Exploration Rover.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MER mars lander.

Mars Express.

  • European Mars orbiter. One launch, 2003.06.02. The European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter, designed to be built more quickly than any other comparable planetary mission, was a resounding success.

Mars Flyby.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars flyby probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars Global Surveyor.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1996.11.07. Mars Global Surveyor was a polar orbiting spacecraft designed to monitor Martian global weather and provide comprehensive maps of surface topography and the distribution of minerals.

Mars lander.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars M1.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. 5 launches, 1996.11.16 (Mars-96 (Mars 8)) to (Mars-96 (Mars 8)).

Mars M-69.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.03.27 (M-69 s/n 521) to 1969.04.02 (M-69 s/n 522). Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars.

Mars M-71.

  • Russian Mars lander. 3 launches, 1971.05.10 (Cosmos 419) to 1971.05.28 (Mars 3). Mars spacecraft built by Lavochkin for 1971 campaign. The spacecraft consists of a bus/orbiter module and an attached descent/lander module.

Mars M-73.

  • Russian Mars lander. 4 launches, 1973.07.21 (Mars 4) to 1973.08.09 (Mars 7). The M-73 spacecraft series was built for 1973 Mars missions.

Mars Observer.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1992.09.25. Mars Observer was a NASA mission to study the surface, atmosphere, interior and magnetic field of Mars from Martian orbit.

Mars Odyssey.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 2001.04.07, 2001 Mars Odyssey. Mars Odyssey had the primary science mission of mapping the amount and distribution of chemical elements and minerals that make up the Martian surface.

Mars orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars orbiter.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars Oz.

  • Australian manned Mars expedition. Study 2006. 2001 design study by the Mars Society Australia that incorporated many innovative elements to produce a minimum-mass non-nuclear Mars expedition concept.

Mars Pathfinder.

  • American Mars rover. 3 launches, 1996.12.04 (Mars Pathfinder) to (Mars Pathfinder). Mars lander with surface rover. Landed a mini-rover to the Mars surface. Test of airbag and rover technologies. First successful Mars landing mission since Viking.

Mars Piloted Orbital Station.

  • Alternate designation for Marpost manned mars expedition.

Mars Polar Lander.

  • American Mars lander. One launch, 1999.01.03. The Mars Polar Lander had the mission of studying Martian volatiles (frozen water and carbon dioxide) and climate history. The Martian polar regions were the best places to conduct these studies.

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 2005.08.12. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was the first spacecraft designed from the beginning for aerobraking to place it into the desired orbit around Mars.

Mars rover.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars Science Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for MSL mars rover.

Mars Science Laboratory.

  • American Mars lander. need summary - see links

Mars Semi-Direct 1991.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1991. Mars Semi-Direct was a NASA concept bridge between Zubrin's Mars Direct and NASA's Design Reference Mission 1.0. It was essentially a low-cost version of Boeing's STCAEM.

Mars Society.

  • Mars Society.

Mars Society Mission.

  • American manned Mars expedition. Study 1999. In 1999 the Mars Society, noting certain defects in NASA's Design Reference Mission, requested California Institute of Technology to develop an alternative scenario to meet these concerns.

Mars Surveyor.

  • A series of lower-cost missions devoted to the mapping of Mars from Mars orbit. Designed to accomplish at less cost the mission assigned to the failed Mars Observer.

Mars Together.

  • Russian Mars orbiter. Study 1994. In 1994-95, RKK Energia, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory analyzed the project 'Mars Together'.

Mars via Solar Sail.

  • British manned Mars expedition. Study 1982. In 1982 a minimum-mass approach to a Mars expedition was proposed, using aerocapture at Mars and the use of a long-duration solar sail cargo transport.

Marshall.

  • Marshall, Frank (1930-) American engineer. Part of the Atlas management team; headed the Golden Ram program that cleared the Atlas missile for operations.

Marshall Islands.

  • Bigen Island, Aur Atoll, Marshall Islands

Marshburn.

  • Marshburn, Thomas Henry 'Tom' (1960-) American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on.

Marsokhod.

  • Russian manned Mars rover. Study 1961. Surface transports were part of all Soviet Mars expeditions.

Martian Piloted Complex.

  • Alternate designation for MPK manned mars expedition.

Martin.

  • Martin, John American Test pilot. Douglas test pilot.

Martin.

  • American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956), Denver, CO, USA.

Martin Astrorocket.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter and booster.

Martin Astrorocket.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1962. Early two-stage-to-orbit shuttle study, using storable propellants, Dynasoar-configuration delta wing orbiter.

Martin HATV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin HATV 1946 design used a single Aerojet engine of unconventional design to achieve single-stage-to-orbit performance.

Martin Marietta.

Martin Marietta (1961-1995).

Martin Marietta Astro Space (1993-1996).

Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956).

Martin Marietta SDV.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The Martin Marietta Class I SDV would lead to the Shuttle-C, using the shuttle aft fuselage with SSME engines to power a cargo canister into orbit.

Martin Plan C.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Titan C orbital launch vehicle.

Martin Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. Martin's proposal for the Air Force manned space project was a zero-lift vehicle launched by a Titan I with controlled flight in orbit. The spacecraft would be boosted into a 240 km orbit for a 24 hour mission.

Martin, John.

  • Martin, John J American engineer, at NASA 1984-1985.

Martin, Richard.

  • Martin, Richard (1928-) American engineer. Structural dynamicist for all versions of the Atlas.

Martlet.

  • In 1962-1967 Canada's Gerard Bull led development of the Martlet system for gun-launched access to space. The program was cancelled before the objective of gun launch to orbit was attained.

Martlet.

  • Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. In 1962-1967 Canada's Gerard Bull led development of the Martlet system for gun-launched access to space. The program was cancelled before the objective of gun launch to orbit was attained.

Martlet 1.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet One Flight Vehicle was designed in mid-1962 as a first generation test vehicle for the HARP project. The primary role of the Martlet One was to test the fundamental technologies that were to be used in the Martlet Two vehicle. These included the internal ballistics of the 16" L45 smooth-bored gun system, the pusher plate/ laminated plywood sabot system and the ability to receive radio telemetry from a gun launched vehicle in flight.

Martlet 2.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 2 series were the primary 16" gun-launched sub-orbital flight vehicles used during the High Altitude Research Program (HARP). Martlet 2's were used to conduct extensive research at altitudes of up to 180 km with some 200 flights being conducted between 1963 and 1967. The very low cost per flight, about $3,000, made it ideal for a wide variety of applications.. Typical mission payloads included chemical ejection to produce an observable atmospheric trail and assorted sensors with multi-channel telemetry.

Martlet 2-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Martlet 2G.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. This derivative of the Martlet 2 gun-fired suborbital space probe achieved a higher scientific payload through use of a lighter sabot. 12 were flown before the program was ended.

Martlet 2G-1.

  • Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Martlet 2G-1 was the absolute minimum gun-launched satellite vehicle. Conceived when the HARP project was under threat, it was a seven-inch diameter, two-stage solid propellnat vehicle that would be sabot-launched from the HARP 16 inch gun. Its total payload in orbit would have been just two kilogrammes - ideal for today's planned nano-satellites. Unfortunately even this minimum orbital launch vehicle could not be demonstrated before the program was shut down.

Martlet 2G1-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 130 kg (287 lb).

Martlet 2G1-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 41 kg (90 lb).

Martlet 3.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Single stage, gun-launched vehicle.

Martlet 3-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Martlet 3A.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3A was the first serious attempt to produce a sub-calibre, gun-launched, rocket-assisted, vehicle for the 16 inch gun system. The basic design criteria for the Martlet 3A was to gun launch a vehicle containing a rocket motor that could provide a velocity boost equal to or greater then the initial gun-launch velocity.

    The theoretical performance of the Martlet 3A was for an 18 kg payload to be carried to an altitude of some 500 km at gun-launch accelerations of 12-14,000 g's and gun launch velocities in the range of 2100 m/sec (similar to the Martlet 2 series maximum launch parameters).

Martlet 3B.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. Once the fundamental design flaws of the Martlet 3A vehicle were identified the system was redesigned and a new vehicle, the Martlet 3B, was created.

    The Martlet 3B vehicle was similar in design to the 3A vehicle but sported several design changes intended to improve the system performance. The first major change was to replace the aluminium airframe with a alloy steel airframe in the hopes the stronger material would lead to higher mass fractions. Other improvements included the use of a larger diameter rocket motor (increasing the outer diameter to 8 inches / 20 cm) and the use of six fixed fins instead of the 3A's four fins.

Martlet 3D.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3D concept was intended to serve as a sub-orbital vehicle capable of lifting heavy payloads to satellite altitudes. The Martlet 3D was simply the first stage of the Martlet 4 vehicle ( Martlet 4A) with the two upper stages and the satellite payload being replaced with a single large payload.

Martlet 3E.

  • Canadian sounding rocket. The Martlet 3E vehicle was designed to take advantage of the portability of the HARP 7 inch guns. Unlike the big fixed 16 inch guns the 7 inch HARP guns, were portable and could be relocated to conduct launches from a wide variety of sites. It was soon determined that a gun-launched rocket vehicle for the 7 inch gun would have a similar performance to the Martlet 2 glide probe launched from the fixed 16 inch guns. Launch costs would also be about the same.

Martlet 3E.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 61 kg (134 lb).

Martlet 4.

  • Canadian gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. The Martlet 4 was ultimate goal of the HARP program - a gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. Two versions were considered: a preliminary version with two solid propellant upper stages, and a later model with two liquid propellant upper stages. Payload of the liquid propellant version would have reached 90 kg. The initial version was in an advanced stage of suborbital flight test when the HARP program was cancelled in 1967.

Martlet 4-1.

  • Bull solid rocket engine. 67.7 kN. Development ended 1966. Isp=300s. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle.

Martlet 4-2.

  • Bull solid rocket engine. 20.6 kN. Development ended 1966. Isp=300s. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle.

Martlet 4-3.

  • Bull solid rocket engine. 5.390 kN. Development ended 1966. Isp=300s. Used on Martlet 4 launch vehicle.

Martlet 4A.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 890/155 kg. Thrust 67.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martlet 4B.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 230/45 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martlet 4C.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90/20 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martlet 4i-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 655/114 kg. Thrust 67.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martlet 4i-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 183/35 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martlet 4i-3.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53/10 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martlet 4L-2.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 243/46 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martlet 4L-3.

  • N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 58/9 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Martynov.

  • Martynov, Ivan Moiseyevich (1921-) Russian officer. Major-General. Deputy Chief and Chief of the Political Units for the KIK space tracking forces in 1969-1980.

Maryland.

  • American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. University of Maryland, USA.

Mass spectrometer.

  • An instrument which determines the masses of atoms and molecules.

Massey.

  • Massey, Sir Harrie S W (1908-) British physicist, chairman of the British National Space Research Committee in the early 1960s.

Massimino.

  • Massimino, Michael James (1962-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-109, STS-125.

Mastracchio.

  • Mastracchio, Richard Alan 'Rick' (1960-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-106, STS-118, STS-131.

Masum.

  • Masum, Mohammad Dauran Ghulam (1954-) Afghani pilot cosmonaut, 1988-1988.

Matador.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile. Glenn L. Martin Co. surface-to-surface cruise missile (Matador / Project MX-771).

Matador.

  • Martin surface-to-surface cruise missile family.

Matador.

  • Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Matador M-16.

  • American turbojet engine, cruise motor for Matador M-16.

Matagorda Island.

  • Launch site for sounding rockets and commercial launch vehicles. Good site for southerly launches into a variety of orbits but no tracking facilities. Known to have been used for at least 2 launches in 1981 - 1982.

Materials.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Materials science satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Materials scientist.

  • Category of persons.

Matheis.

  • Matheis, Fritz (1916-) German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946.

MATI.

  • Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. MATI, Russia.

Matienzo.

  • Base Matienzo, Antarctica

Matinchenko.

  • Matinchenko, Aleksandr Nikolayevich (1927-1999) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1972.

Matra.

Matra Aerospace Fairchild Space (1989).

MATRA BAe Dynamics.

MATRA BAe Dynamics.

MATRA BAe Dynamics (Hawker Siddeley).

Matra Marconi.

  • French manufacturer of spacecraft. Matra Marconi, France.

Matra Marconi Space.

Matra Marconi Space.

Matra Marconi Space-France.

Matra/British Aerospace.

Matthes.

  • Matthes, Franz (1909-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Chemist; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2.

Matthiesen.

  • Matthiesen, Dr David Henry (1958-) American materials scientist payload specialist astronaut, 1994-1995.

Mattingly.

  • Mattingly, Thomas Kenneth II 'Ken' (1936-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 16, STS-4, STS-51-C.

Mature First Generation Soviet Space Systems.

  • Mature First Generation Soviet Space Systems

Maul.

  • Austrian manufacturer of rockets. Maul, Austria.

Maul Camera Rocket.

  • German sounding rocket. Maul conceived of using powder rockets to launch film cameras for military reconnaissance in 1901, beginning an 11 year development process.

Mauritania.

  • Mauritania

Mauritius.

  • Mauritius

Maus.

  • Maus, Hans Hermann (1905-1999) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter.

Mavr.

  • Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1963. A variation of the TMK-1 scenario by Maksimov's unit would still use a single N1 launch. However a flyby of Venus would be undertaken on the return voyage from Mars.

Max Faget: Master Builder.

  • James Oberg's tribute to the 'American Korolev'...

Max-Planck-Institut.

  • German manufacturer of spacecraft. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany.

Maxus.

  • The MAXUS micrograviy program was a collaboration between Sweden and Germany. The single-stage vehicle developed for the program used a Castor 4B motor, the largest fired from Western Europe.

May.

  • May, Eugene F American Test Pilot. Douglas test pilot.

Mayak.

  • Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. New family of modular medium-sized launch vehicles proposed by the Ukraine in 2005. No known development or production funding was forthcoming.

Mayak.

  • Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 the Applied Mechanics NPO announced that it was developing a successor to the Molniya series of spacecraft.

Mayflower.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital seaplane-spacecraft of Advent Launch Services of Houston, Texas. Reached the stage of engineering tests by 2003.

Mayfly.

  • WRE solid rocket engine family.

Mayfly-300.

  • WRE solid rocket engine. 62 kN.

Mayfly-600.

  • WRE solid rocket engine. 190 kN.

Maynard.

  • Maynard, Owen (1924-2000) Canadian-American enginner, at NASA 1960-1970, a key systems engineering figure during the Apollo program, credited with laying out the lunar module and designing the Apollo mission sequence.

Mayo.

  • Mayo, Itzhak (1954-) Jewish-Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut, 1997-2000.

Mayport DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 5 launches from 1993 to 2003, reaching up to 794 kilometers altitude.

Mazlat.

  • American manufacturer. Mazlat Ltd (IAI/AAI, USA.

Mazur.

  • Mazur, Yevgeni Vasilyevich (-1982) Russian government official. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1982.

MB.

  • Manned Base

MB.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket.

MB.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

MB/EE-150.

  • Brazilian short range ballistic missile.

MB/EE-350.

  • Brazilian short range ballistic missile.

MB/EE-600.

  • Brazilian intermediate range ballistic missile.

MB-1.

  • Manufacturer's designation of LR79-7 Lox-Kerosene rocket engine.

MB-1.

MB-1.

  • American pressure suit, tested 1957. MB-1 & 2 were experimental test pilot's partial pressure suits using the K-1 helmet.

MB-1.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine. 156 kN.

MB-3.

  • Manufacturer's designation of MB-3-1 Lox-Kerosene rocket engine.

MB-3 Press Mod.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 755.1 kN. Test 1962. Isp=285s. Used on Sea Horse launch vehicle.

MB-3-1.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 760.6 kN. Out of production. Designed for booster applications. Gas generator, pump-fed. Isp=285s. Boosted Delta A, B, C, Thor Able-Star. First flight 1960.

MB-3-3.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 866.7 kN. Out of Production. License built in Japan for H-1. Isp=290s. First flight 1964.

MB-35.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 156 kN. Design 2004. Isp=467s. Mitsubishi / Boeing joint project for an engine for Delta IV cryogenic upper stages. Expander bleed, pump-fed.

MB-3-J.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of production. Launch thrust 755.89 kN. N Booster . Gas generator, pump-fed. Joint MHI (Japan) / Rocketdyne project, evolved from MB-3. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1975.

MB-45.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 200 kN. Design 2004. Isp=467s. Mitsubishi / Boeing joint project for an engine for Delta IV cryogenic upper stages, announced February 2000.

MB-60.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 266.7 kN. Design 2004. Isp=467s. Mitsubishi / Boeing joint project for an engine for Delta IV cryogenic upper stages. Expander bleed, pump-fed.

MBB.

  • German manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm GmBh, Munich, Germany.

MBB-ATC500.

  • MBB lox/lh2 rocket engine. 441.3 kN. Study 1969. Isp=460s. Used on Beta launch vehicle.

MBC.

  • Japanese agency. Mobile Broadcasting Corp, Japan.

MBR.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. 'Sealed unit' liquid propellant ICBM proposed by Reshetnev in 1960.

MBT.

  • MBT

MB-XX.

  • Alternate designation for MB-60 Lox-LH2 rocket engine.

MC-1.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1956. Modified S-2 partial pressure capstan suit with chest breathing bladder, 12 sizes, high altitude, fighters and bombers, smaller capstan in torso area, pressure gloves, K-1 or MB-5 helmet, David Clark Company.

MC-2.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. The XMC-2 full pressure suit developed in the mid-1950s jointly by Wright Field personnel and the David Clark Company for X-15 pilots.

MC-3.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1957. A capstan partial pressure suit with horizontal shoulder zipper, sewn breaklines, no anti-G, height/weight sizing criteria, used on bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, came in 12 sizes.

MC-3A.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-3 suit with vertical shoulder laces and adjustable break lines. Produced by David Clark and Berger Brothers. MA-2 helmet by ILC Dover.

MC-4A.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1958. A modified MC-4 with height/weight fit for fighter aircraft, anti-G suit. Suits produced by David Clark, Berger Brothers and Seymour Wallace.

McArthur.

  • McArthur, William Surles Jr 'Bill' (1951-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-58, STS-74, STS-92, ISS EO-12. US Army. Grew up in Wakulla, North Carolina.

McArthur, Megan.

  • McArthur, Katherine Megan (1971-) American scientist mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on.

McAuliffe.

  • McAuliffe, Sharon Christa Corrigan (1948-1986) American teacher payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-51-L. Was to have been the first teacher in space. Died in Challenger accident.

McBride.

  • McBride, Jon Andrew (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-41-G. Heavyset Navy pilot with a talent for playing to a crowd. Flew 64 combat missions in Vietnam. Later ran in, but lost, the Republican primary for governor of West Virginia.

MCC.

  • Mission Control Center

McCandless.

  • McCandless, Bruce II (1937-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-31. Made first untethered space walk.

McCone.

  • McCone, John A (1902-1991) American manager, director of the Central Intelligence Agency 1961-1965, during initial exploitation of satellite reconnaisance systems.

McConnell AFB.

  • Titan 2 ICBM base.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 01.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 02.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 03.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 04.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 08.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 10.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 11.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 12.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 14.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 15.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 16.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 17.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 18.

McCool.

  • McCool, William Cameron 'Willie' (1961-2003) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry.

McCulley.

  • McCulley, Michael James (1943-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-34.

McDivitt.

  • McDivitt, James Alton 'Jim' (1929-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on Gemini 4, Apollo 9. Flew 145 combat missions during the Korean War.

McDonald.

  • McDonald, Frank B (1925-) American scientist, at NASA 1959-1989. Served as project scientist on nine NASA satellite programs, NASA Chief Scientist 1982-1987.

McDonnell.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. McDonnell, St Louis, USA.

McDonnell.

  • McDonnell, James S (1899-1980) American engineer, president of McDonnell Aircraft 1939-1972. His innovative fighter designs were initially unsuccessful, but the F-4 and F-15 were the premier US fighters after 1960. Contractor for the Mercury, Gemini , and MOL spacecraft.

McDonnell Douglas.

  • American manufacturer. McDonnell Douglas, USA.

McDonnell Douglas (1994 to 1997).

McDonnell Douglas Huntington Beach.

McDonnell Project 7969.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1958. McDonnell's design for the Air Force initial manned space project was a ballistic vehicle coordinated with Faget's NACA proposal and resembling the later Soviet Soyuz descent module.

McDonnell Spaceplane 1963.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1963. In June 1962 NASA funded studies with several contractors on Operations and Logistics for Space Stations.

McDonnell-Douglas ILRV.

  • American winged orbital launch vehicle. The McDonnell-Douglas ILRV design featured fold-out wings for improved low-speed lift-to-drag ratio during final descent and landing. All of the vehicle's propellants were moved outside the orbiter into two large hydrogen tanks and two smaller oxygen tanks. The original concept was sized for an 11,340kg, 9.44m x 4.57m payload.

McDonnell-Douglas ILRV.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 215,000/95,254 kg. Thrust 16,242.82 kN. High-pressure Lox/Lh2 engine.

McDonnell-Douglas ILRV Drop Tanks.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank for ILRV design.

McElroy.

  • McElroy, Neil H (1904-1972) American manager, secretary of defense 1957-1959.

McKay.

  • McKay, John Barron (1922-1975) American NASA test pilot, 1952-1971. Flew into space on X-15 Flight 150, but seriously injured in an X-15 crash in 1962.

McKay, Michael.

  • McKay, Michael John (1963-) Canadian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1992-1995.

McKinsey.

  • McKinsey.

McLean.

  • American manufacturer. McLean, McLean, USA.

McMaster.

  • McMaster.

McMonagle.

  • McMonagle, Donald Ray 'Don' (1952-) American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-39, STS-54, STS-66.

McMurdo.

  • McMurdo Station, Ross Ice Shelf, New Zealand Antarctic Territory

McMurdo Station.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 28 launches from 1962 to 1963, reaching up to 69 kilometers altitude.

McMurtry.

  • McMurtry, Thomas C (1935-) American test pilot, US Navy and Lockheed 1958-1967. NASA test pilot and administrator at NASA Dryden, 1967-1999. Flew among many other aircraft the X-24 lifting body and 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft.

McNair.

  • McNair, Dr Ronald Erwin (1950-1986) African-American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-B, STS-51-L. Died in Challenger accident.

McNamara.

  • McNamara, Robert S (1916-) American Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and Johnson, 1961-1968. Supported offloading manned space to NASA, killed X-20 Dynasoar, Blue Gemini, and SAINT. Created MOL as substitute.

MCO.

  • American Mars orbiter. One launch, 1998.12.11, Mars Climate Orbiter. The Mars Climate Orbiter was to have accomplished mapping and weather studies of Mars and served as a relay for data from the Mars Polar Lander.

MD-620.

  • Dassault N2O4/UDMH rocket engine.

MDA.

  • American agency. Missile Defense Agency, USA.

MDAC.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. , USA

MDD.

  • American manufacturer. MDD, USA.

MDF.

  • Manipulator Development Facility. Simulator at Houston to train astronauts in use of the RMS (Remote Manipulator System), the shuttle robot arm. It included a full-sized mockup of the 16-m-long arm suspended by wires to simulate weightlessness, a full sized cargo bay, and helium-buoyed balloons representing shuttle payloads with their grappling fixtures.

MDPB.

  • American manned space station module. Study 2015. Propulsion module for space stations based on Bigelow Nautilus inflatable habitats.

MDS.

  • Malfunction detection system

MDS.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2002.02.04. MDS (Mission Demonstration Satellite) was a technology demonstrator to flight-qualify commercial subsystems.

MDSSC.

  • American agency. McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Corp, USA.

Me-.

  • Messerschmitt (German aircraft designation series); or megacycles

Me-163.

  • German winged rocketplane. The rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me-163 was the world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter and represented the culmination of Alexander Lippisch's years of research in rocketplanes, tail-less aircraft, and delta wings. As a weapon, the Me-163 had tremendous speed but very limited range. However the concepts developed by Lippisch contributed to the Space Shuttle and Buran orbiters of a quarter century later.

Me-163.

  • German manned rocketplane. Flown 1941-1945. The world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter. Awesome performance, but killed more of its pilots than the enemy.

Meade.

  • Meade, Carl Joseph (1950-) American test pilot mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-38, STS-50, STS-64.

Measat.

  • Malaysian communications satellite project.

Mech.

Mechanical Astronaut.

  • Mechanical Astronaut, Mercury American phantom cosmonaut. The MAS was an electronic mannequin that could 'inhale' and 'exhale' man-like quantities of gas, heat, and water vapor. It flew twice (MA 3 launch abort 1961.04.25 and one orbit on MA-4 1961.09.13).

Mech-K.

  • Code name for Almaz-T civilian surveillance radar satellite.

Meck Island.

  • Meck Island

MECO.

  • Main Engine CutOff

Medaris.

  • Medaris, John Bruce (1902-1990) American US Army officer, commanded Army Ballistic Missile Agency in the 1950's during development of Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn I.

Medium earth orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Medium Range Target Vehicle.

  • Popular Name of ait-2 target missile.

Medved.

  • Early ballistic missile operating base, 1953-1960, for units deployed with two R-2 launchers, later eight R-5 missiles.

Mega Rover.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1992. The Mega Rover was conceived to support a crew of six over thousands of kilometers of traverses. Variants had masses as great as 45 metric tons, exclusive of the descent and landing system.

Megsat.

  • Italian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.28 (Megsat-0) and 2000.09.26 (MegSat-1). The first private Italian satellites, Megsats were microsatellites designed to transmit scientific and commercial data.

MegSat.

  • Italian manufacturer of spacecraft. MegSat, Gruppo Meggiorin, Brescia, Italy.

MEI.

  • Experimental Design Bureau of the Moscow Power Institute (Russian abbreviation)

Meier, Otto.

  • Meier, Otto (1918-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Laboratory Department.

Meischeider.

  • Meischeider, Herbert German expert in rocket research during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Wolfenbuettel b/Braunschweig, Flotostr. 4.

MEK.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. The Mars Expeditionary Complex (MEK) was designed to take a crew of from three to six to Mars and back with a total mission duration of 630 days.

Melanie.

  • Solid rocket stage. 38.00 kN (8,543 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Melanie.

  • SEPR solid rocket engine. 11.1 kN. Out of production. 22 kg propellant. Empty mass estimated. Isp=227s. Used on Berenice launch vehicle. First flight 1962.

Melanie-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

Melco.

  • Japanese manufacturer of spacecraft. Melco, Japan.

Melnick.

  • Melnick, Bruce Edward 'Mel' (1949-) American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41, STS-49.

Melnikov.

  • Melnikov, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1919-1996) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1960-1974 at Korolev design bureau. Specialised in engines, including Blok D.

Melnikov.

  • Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Melnikov Design Bureau, Russia.

Melroy.

  • Melroy, Pamela Ann (1961-) American test pilot astronaut 1995-2009. Flew on STS-92, STS-112, STS-120. Grew up in Pittsford, New York. US Air Force test pilot.

Melusine.

  • CFTH-HB solid rocket engine.

Melvill.

  • Melvill, Michael Winston 'Mike' (1941-) South African-American test pilot rocketplane pilot. Flew on SpaceShipOne Flight 15P, SpaceShipOne Flight 16P.

Melvin.

  • Melvin, Leland Devon 'Lee' (1964-) African-American engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-122, STS-129.

MEM.

  • American manned Mars lander. Study 1967. The Mars Excursion Module was designed by North American for the Marshall Spaceflight Center in an October 1966-August 1967 study.

MEMS.

  • American communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 2000.01.27 (Picosat 1) to (Picosat 2). DARPA/Aerospace Corp. MEMS (Micro Electro-mechanical Systems) were 0.

Menaka II.

  • Indian sounding rocket. Related to RH-125.

Menaka II-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. 1.30 kN (292 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb).

Meng Senlin.

  • Meng Senlin (1947-) Chinese pilot taikonaut, 1971, but program cancelled less than a year later. Joined PLA in 1965. He was a PLAAF squadron commander when selected. Selected as Chinese astronaut in March 1971.

Mengel.

  • Mengel, John T (1918-) American physicist, at USN 1942-1958. Developed tracking systems for Vanguard. At NASA 1958-1973, in charge of tracking and data systems.

Menke.

  • Menke German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the pump and metering group at LRBA from 1947-1955. Then emigrated to Brazil.

MEO.

  • Medium earth orbit

MEP.

  • Ministry of Electronics Industry (Russian abbreviation)

MEPSI.

  • American tether technology satellite. One launch, 2002.11.24. MEPSI (Micro-Electromechanical-based Picosat Satellite Inspection Experiment) consisted of two 1 kg boxes attached to each other by a 15-m tether.

MER.

  • American Mars lander. 2 launches, 2003.06.10 (Spirit (Mars Exploration Rover A, MER-2)) to 2003.07.08 (Opportunity (Mars Exploration Rover B, MER-1)). NASA's rover mission design for the 2003 Mars launch opportunity.

MER-6.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Blue Scout ERCS strategic communications missile.

MERA.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Two-stage small meteorological sounding rocket, consisting of two identical solid rocket motors in tandem, stabilised by fins, topped by a payload dart with instrumentation.

MERA-1.

  • Rocket stage used on MERA test vehicle.

Merbold.

  • Merbold, Dr Ulf Dietrich (1941-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-42, Mir Euromir 94.

Merchez.

  • Merchez, Marianne (1960-) Belgian physician cosmonaut, 1992-1995. Was married to astronaut Maurizio Cheli.

Mercury.

  • American manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). America's first man-in-space project. The capsule had to be as small as possible to match the orbital payload capability of America's first ICBM, the Atlas.

Mercury.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 9 launches in 1957, reaching up to 30 kilometers altitude, for support of nuclear tests.

Mercury.

  • Proposed as propellant for some ion motors.

Mercury.

  • Mercury was America's first man-in-space project. Setting the precedent for the later Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle programs, any capsule configuration proposed by the contractors was acceptable as long as it was the one NASA's Langley facility, and in particular, Max Faget, had developed. McDonnell, at that time a renegade contractor of innovative Navy fighters that had a history of problems in service, received the contract. The capsule had to be as small as possible to match the payload capability of America's first ICBM, the Atlas, which would be used for orbital missions. The resulting design was less than a third of the weight of the Russian Vostok spacecraft, and more limited as a result.

Mercury.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mercury & Gemini Spacecraft Systems Development Diaries.

  • Detailed chronologies of development of Mercury & Gemini spacecraft systems, arranged by system and configuration.....

Mercury 13 - 1961.

  • Group of 13 female pilots who passed astronaut physical testing in 1961 to prove that women were also qualified for spaceflight. NASA never considered them, maintaining that astronauts had to be qualified test pilots (all of whom were white males). Nickname: The Mercury Thirteen

Mercury Balloon Flight Tests.

  • In January 1959, balloon flights were planned for the Mercury spacecraft. These would occur from July 1959 to January 1961. Final flights would be manned tests of up to 24 hours duration, with recovery of the capsule at sea. Cancelled May 1959.

Mercury Capsule.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9). Reentry capsule.

Mercury ECS.

  • Mercury ECS Development Diary

Mercury ELINT.

  • American military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 3 launches, 1994.08.27 (USA 105) to 1998.08.12 (Mercury ELINT). Class of heavy signals intelligence satellites introduced at the end of the 1990's.

Mercury Escape Tower.

  • Mercury Escape Tower Development Diary

Mercury Heat Shield.

  • Mercury Heat Shield Development Diary

Mercury MA-10.

  • Crew: Shepard. Planned second one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled as too risky after Mercury MA-9 achieved objective, but only after failure of many spacecraft systems. Backup crew: Cooper.

Mercury MA-11.

  • Crew: Grissom. Planned third one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled as too risky after Mercury MA-9 achieved objective, but only after failure of many spacecraft systems. Backup crew: Schirra.

Mercury MA-12.

  • Crew: Schirra. Planned fourth one-day Mercury flight. Cancelled mid-1962 in order to move on to Gemini.

Mercury MA-6.

  • Crew: Glenn. First US manned orbital mission, three orbits. False landing bag deploy light led to reentry being started with retropack left in place. It turned out the indicator light was false, but a spectacular reentry ensued. Backup crew: Carpenter.

Mercury MA-7.

  • Crew: Carpenter. Second US manned orbital mission. Excessive fuel use and pilot error led to late re-entry, and landing 300 km past the intended point. Capsule ran out of orientation fuel during re-entry. Backup crew: Schirra.

Mercury MA-7 Delta 7.

  • Crew: Slayton. Planned second US manned orbital flight. Cancelled 18 March 1962 when astronaut's minor heart condition became public. Backup crew: Schirra.

Mercury MA-8.

  • Crew: Schirra. Most successful American manned space flight to that date, six orbits, returning to earth precisely, with astronaut aboard recovery ship 40 minutes after landing. Speed record (7,850 m/s). Backup crew: Cooper.

Mercury MA-9.

  • Crew: Cooper. Final Mercury mission, After 22 orbits, virtually all capsule systems failed. Nevertheless the astronaut was able to manually guide the spacecraft to a pinpoint landing. Backup crew: Shepard.

Mercury MA-9A.

  • Crew: Cooper. Planned Mercury six-orbit mission. Canceled and NASA moved directly to an 18-orbit mission due to astronaut shortage and change in concept (flights no longer used just to train astronauts). Backup crew: Shepard.

Mercury Mark I.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Proposed derivatives of the basic one-crew Mercury capsule for investigation of earth orbit rendezvous, lifting re-entry and land landing.

Mercury MR-3.

  • Crew: Shepard. First American in space, less than a month after Gagarin, but only on a 15 minute suborbital flight. First manual orientation of a manned spacecraft. Backup crew: Grissom.

Mercury MR-3A.

  • Crew: Shepard. After booster problems on Mercury MR-2, von Braun insisted on a further unmanned booster test. This proved to be unnecessary. If NASA had overruled Von Braun, Shepard would have been the first man in space, beating Gagarin's flight by three weeks. Backup crew: Grissom.

Mercury MR-4.

  • Crew: Grissom. Suborbital flight; second American in space. Hatch blew after splashdown; capsule sank; astronaut barely saved before drowning. Backup crew: Glenn.

Mercury MR-5.

  • Crew: Glenn. Planned Mercury suborbital flight. After Soviet full-day orbital flight in August 1961, NASA's suborbital hops looked pathetic. Further suborbital Mercury flights were cancelled. Backup crew: Slayton.

Mercury MR-6.

  • Crew: Slayton. Planned Mercury suborbital flight. Cancelled July 1961; delays in Redstone flights meant Atlas orbital flights were imminent.

Mercury Parachute.

  • Mercury Parachute Development Diary

Mercury probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mercury Retropack.

  • American manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1960.01.21 (Mercury LJ-1B) to 1963.05.15 (Mercury MA-9).

Mercury Retrorockets.

  • Mercury Retrorockets Development Diary

Mercury Space Suit.

  • American space suit, operational 1960. The Mercury spacesuit was a custom-fitted, modified version of the Goodrich U.S. Navy Mark IV high altitude jet aircraft pressure suit.

MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging mission.

  • Alternate designation for Messenger mercury probe.

Mercury-Jupiter 2 (MJ-2).

  • Human astronaut was considered briefly for Mercury-Jupiter flights before use of the Jupiter booster on Mercury was cancelled in July 1959 on cost grounds.

Meridian.

  • Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Operational, first launch 2006.12.24.

Merk, Ernst.

  • Merk, Ernst Helmut (1911-2005) German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland.

Merkur.

  • Alternate designation for Tekos materials science satellite.

Merlin.

  • SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. For the Falcon booster family.

Merlin 1A.

  • SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 378.040 kN. First stages. Hardware. Isp=300s. Completed development in early 2005. Pintle injector concept. Replaced by Merlin 1C. First flight 2006.

Merlin 1C.

  • SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 614.7 kN. First stages. Hardware. Isp=304s. Regeneratively cooled; turbo-pump also provided high pressure kerosene for the hydraulic actuators. Actuated turbine exhaust nozzle provided roll control. First flight 2008.

Merlin 1V.

  • SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 411.4 kN. Hardware. Isp=342s. Upper stage version of the Merlin developed for the Falcon 9 second stage. Based on the Merlin 1C and using a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber. First flight 2009.

MESA.

  • Modularized equipment stowage assembly (Apollo LM component)

Mesbah.

  • Iranian technology satellite. Study 2006. Technology satellite with imaging and communications payloads. Planned as the operational payload of the Iranian Shahab-3 orbital launch vehicle. The satellite would be cube-shaped, 50 cm on a side.

Mesbah-2.

  • Iranian civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 2005.10.27, Sinah-1. Prototype of a store-forward communications system satellite for survivable communications. To be launched by a foreign launch vehicle, originally slated for 2005.

Meshcheryakov.

  • Meshcheryakov, Ivan Vasiliyevich (1922-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief 50-TsNII KS military space research institute 1983-1988.

Mesquito.

  • Single stage solid propellant sounding rocket capable of reaching 95 km altitude.

Messenger.

  • American Mercury probe. One launch, 2004.08.03. NASA probe, launched in 2004 with the challenging mission of comprehensively mapping Mercury from orbit between March 2011 and March 2012.

Messerschmid.

  • Messerschmid, Dr Ernst Willi (1945-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A.

Messerschmitt.

  • First Owner of MBB

Messrschmitt.

  • Messrschmitt, Willy German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Augsburg.

MET; METS.

  • Mobile equipment transporter; modularized equipment transport system (for Apollo lunar landing missions)

Metcalf-Lindenburger.

  • Metcalf-Lindenburger, Dorothy Marie 'Dottie' (1975-) American teacher mission specialist astronaut, 2004-on.

Meteo.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Meteo-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20 kg.

Meteo-MD.

  • French sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

meteor.

  • The light resulting from the transition of a solid particle (meteoroid) from space through the Earth's atmosphere, commonly called a "shooting star" or "falling star."

Meteor.

  • Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962.

Meteor.

  • Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962.

Meteor.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960.

Meteor (USA).

  • American earth weather satellite. One launch, 1995.10.23, Meteor RV. Meteor commercial microgravity recoverable spacecraft built by EER Systems. Destroyed in failure of first test flight of Conestoga commercial launch vehicle.

Meteor LV.

  • Category of rockets.

Meteor M 11F614.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service.

Meteor-1.

  • Polish sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Meteor-1.

  • PIHM solid rocket engine. 14 kN.

Meteor-2.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs.

Meteor-2.

  • Polish solid rocket engine. 24 kN.

Meteor-2H.

  • Polish sounding rocket. Larger version of Meteor, capable of taking twice the payload to twice the altitude. Single stage vehicle.

Meteor-2H-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Meteor-2K.

  • The most powerful Polish rocket ever flown. 2 stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Meteor 1 + 1 x Meteor-2.

Meteor-2K-0.

  • Solid rocket stage. 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf) thrust.

Meteor-3.

  • Polish sounding rocket. Development of the Meteor-3 began in 1967. The two stage vehicle consisted of two modified Meteor-1 stages in tandem. It was launched from a 12-m rail launcher and could take the 4.5 kg dart payload to 65 km.

Meteor-3.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1984.11.27 (Cosmos 1612) to 1994.01.25 (Meteor 3-06). Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite.

Meteor-3-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

Meteor-3M.

  • Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010.

Meteorit.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of three variants of this cruise missile was authorised on 9 December 1976. The Meteorit-M strategic version would be deployed from 667M submarines with 12 launchers per boat. The air-launched Meteorit-A would be launched from Tu-95 bombers. The land-based version was designated Meteorit-N. The missile was also sometimes referred to by the code-name Grom. The first test launch, on 20 May 1980, was unsuccessful, as were the next three attempts. The first successful flight did not come until 16 December 1981. The first launch from a 667M submarine took place on 26 December 1983 from the Barents Sea. However all variants were cancelled in 1988 as a result of the INF Treaty.

meteorite.

  • A solid particle from space which enters the Earth's atmosphere and reaches the surface. Meteorites are classified as iron meteorites (siderites) and stone meteorites (aerolites) according to their compositions.

Meteorit-M.

  • Launch System of P-750 intermediate range cruise missile.

Meteor-M.

  • New-generation Russian weather satellite, successor to the Meteor-3M, with new electronics and designed for launch by the Soyuz ST launch vehicle rather than the discontinued Tsiklon-3 and non-Russian Zenit-2. First launched in 2009.

meteoroid.

  • A solid object moving through interplanetary space of a size considerably smaller than an asteroid and considerably larger than an atom or molecule. When the object glows while traveling through the Earth's atmosphere, it is called a meteor; when it reaches the surface of the Earth, it is called a meteorite.

Meteoroid Technology Satellite.

  • Alternate designation for MTS earth micrometeoroid satellite.

Meteorologist.

  • Category of persons.

Meteor-Priroda.

  • Code name for Resurs-O1 earth land resources satellite.

Meteor-Priroda.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31).

Meteosat.

  • European earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1977.11.23 (Meteosat 1) to 1997.09.02 (Meteosat 7).

Metop.

  • European earth weather satellite. One launch, 2006.10.19. MetOp was Europe's first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology.

METSAT.

  • Indian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2002.09.12. METSAT was an Indian (ISRO) meteorological, geostationary satellite designed to simultaneously obtain atmospheric cloud cover, water vapor, and temperature data.

Mettler.

  • Mettler, Ruben F (1924-2006) American engineer, at TRW 1955-1988, president and COO, 1969-1977; chairman of the board and CEO, 1977-1988.

Metz.

  • Metz, Richard German Officer. Major General and Commander of V-2 units.

MeV.

  • million electron volts

Mexico.

  • Mexico

Meytarchan.

  • Meytarchan, Vyacheslav Georgyevich (1965-) Ukrainian scientist cosmonaut, 1996-1996.

MFS.

  • Mission flight schedule

MFS.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1965. Bell Aerosystems designed a Manned Flying System for Apollo as a tool for lunar surface exploration.

MG-18.

  • LPC solid rocket engine.

MGM-1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Matador intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-109H.

  • Ramjet missile stage. Loaded mass 1,800 kg.

MGM-140.

  • Department of Defence Designation of ATACMS short range ballistic missile.

MGM-140 Block 1.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Block 1 short range ballistic missile.

MGM-140 Block 1A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Block 1A short range ballistic missile.

MGM-140 Block 2.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Block 2 short range ballistic missile.

MGM-164.

  • Department of Defence Designation of ATACMS II short range ballistic missile.

MGM-18A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Lacrosse tactical ballistic missile.

MGM-1A.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-1B.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-1C.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile.

MGM-29A.

  • Department of Defence designation of Sergeant missile.

MGM-31.

  • Department of Defence designation of Pershing missile.

MGM-31A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Pershing 1 intermediate range ballistic missile.

MGM-31B.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Pershing 1A intermediate range ballistic missile.

MGM-31C.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Pershing 2 intermediate range ballistic missile.

MGM-31D.

  • American intermediate range ballistic missile. Cancelled. Pershing II RR Reduced Range

MGM-5.

  • Department of Defence designation of Corporal missile.

MGM-52.

  • Department of Defence designation of Lance missile.

MGM-52A.

  • American short range ballistic missile.

MGM-52C.

  • American short range ballistic missile. Simplified inertial guided, nuclear or conventional warhead

MGM-5A.

  • American short range ballistic missile. First production version.

MGM-5B.

  • American short range ballistic missile. Second production version.

MGR-1.

  • Department of Defence designation of Honest John missile.

MGR-1A.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket.

MGR-1B.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. Three different warhead sections were possible: M27, M47 and M-48 with yields 2-20-40 kt. M72 training warhead also used.

MGR-3.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Little John tactical ballistic rocket.

MHD.

  • Magneto-hydrodynamic

MHR.

  • Marshall Historical Report

MHz.

  • megahertz (million cycles per second)

mi.

  • mile(s)

MIAN.

  • Mathematics Institute of the Academy of Sciences (Russian abbreviation)

Michel.

  • Michel, Dr Frank Curtis 'Curt' (1934-) American scientist astronaut, 1965-1969.

Michel, Josef.

  • Michel, Josef Martin (3797-1997) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter.

Michelle-B.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital ballistic spacecraft concept of TGV Rockets, Bethesda, Maryland. As of 2005, flight testing of the Michelle-B was expected to begin no earlier than 2007.

Michigan.

  • American agency overseeing development of rockets. Univeristy of Michigan, USA.

Michoud.

  • American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Michoud, USA.

Micon.

  • Swiss surface-to-air missile. The dual-thrust (45 kN then 22 kN) solid propellant motor providing a total impulse of 900 kN-sec.

Micon.

  • Swiss surface-to-air missile. The dual-thrust (45 kN then 22 kN) solid propellant motor providing a total impulse of 900 kN-sec.

Micon Zenit.

  • Swiss sounding rocket. Sounding rocket using the motor developed for the Micon surface-to-air missile. The Cuckoo was used as a booster on the final two tests.

Microcosm.

  • American manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Microcosm, USA.

Microcosm 22N.

  • Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 22.250 kN. First stages. Hardware. Pressure-fed, ablatively cooled engine using liquid oxygen and jet fuel as propellants. Flown 1999/2001.

Microcosm 356N.

  • Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 356 kN. First stages. Hardware. Funded under AFRL SBIR Phase 1 contract of 2006. Ablative chamber, LOX/Jet A propellant engines designed for very low-cost, robust design margins.

Microcosm 89N.

  • Microcosm Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 89 kN. First stages. Hardware. In 2005 tests were conducted of this low-cost ablative composite rocket engine for responsive launch vehicle applications.

MicroCraft.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. MicroCraft, USA.

MIcro-Measurements Of Satellite Acceleration.

  • Alternate designation for Mimosa earth atmosphere satellite.

Microsat.

  • American military communications satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Microsat 1) to (Microsat 7). Satellites used in a DARPA test of an LEO quick-reaction network for global communications.

Microsat SSTL.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MicroSat-70 technology satellite.

MicroSat SSTL.

  • British technology satellite. 3 launches, 1981.10.06 (CERISE) to 1990.01.22 (Oscar 14). Original version of the Surrey Microsat bus.

MicroSat-100.

  • British microsatellite bus. 9 launches, 1995.07.07 (CERISE) to 2009.07.29. Enlarged version of the basic Surrey Microsat bus.

MicroSat-70.

  • British technology satellite. 14 launches, 1981.10.06 (Oscar 9) to 2002.11.28 (Picosat). Basic Surrey Microsat bus.

Microsatellite Technology Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for Mitex military anti-satellite system.

MicroSats.

  • American manufacturer. MicroSats, USA.

Micro-Space.

  • Micro-Space.

Microstar.

  • Manufacturer's satellite bus designation for Teledesic and Orbcomm communications satellite.

Microstar.

  • American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle.

Microstar.

  • American communications technology satellite. 22 launches, 1995.04.03 (Orbcomm F1) to 2008.10.19 (Formosat 3F). Small satellite bus, specially designed for multiple launch by Pegasus or Taurus family launch vehicles.

Microvariability and Oscillations Of STars.

  • Alternate designation for Most visible astronomy satellite.

Midas.

  • American military early warning satellite. 18 launches, 1960.02.26 (Midas 1) to 1966.10.05 (Midas 12). Part of a then-secret USAF program known as WS-117L, the MIDAS (Missile Defense Alarm System) program began in November 1958.

Midcourse Space Experiment.

  • Alternate designation for MSX military strategic defense satellite.

Midgetman.

  • Popular Name of SICBM intercontinental ballistic missile.

Midgetman.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Early 1960's two-stage version of Minuteman.

Midstar.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 2007.03.09.

Midway.

  • Midway Island is approximately half way between North America and Asia. The uninhabited place was seized as an American possession in 1903 to provide a base for the first transpacific cable. It was later developed into a naval air station and figured importantly in early military and commercial aviation as a refuelling point for transpacific flights. It consists of two major atolls, Sand Island and Eastern Island, both of them almost entirely taken up by airfields.

Midway Island NDZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 2005, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude.

Midway Island SDZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 2004, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude.

MiG.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau, Russia.

MiG 105-11.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. 8 launches, 1976.10.11 to 1978.09.15 . Atmospheric flight test version of the Spiral OS manned spaceplane. The 105-11 incorporated the airframe and some of the systems of the planned orbital version.

MiG-2000.

  • Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched single stage to orbit vehicle with air-breathing propulsion to Mach 5 (subsonic combustion). The sled would accelerate the launch vehicle to Mach 0.8. Propellants wer slush hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The vehicle would have a 3000 km cross-range on re-entry.

MiG-25.

  • Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 32,136/19,995 kg. Thrust 182.34 kN. Specific impulse 2073 seconds. Mikoyan Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 750 kg (6.3 m length x 2.2 m wingspan) at 3,161 kph at 24,000 m altitude

MiG-31NS.

  • Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle air-launched from a MiG-31 fighter.

MIGAKS.

  • Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Turbojet/ramjet-powered two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Mach 6 stage separation. The orbiter had a 2000 km cross-range capability with landing on airfields with runways of 3500 m length or more.

Mighty Mouse.

  • Popular Name of FFAR air-to-air rocket.

MightySat 1.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1998.12.04.

MIHT-1.

  • MIHT solid rocket engine. 980.6 kN. Start-1. In production. Used in Start-1. Estimated values. Isp=263s. First flight 1993.

MIHT-2.

  • solid rocket engine. 490.3 kN. Start-2. In production. Used in Start-2. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993.

MIHT-3.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated

MIHT-3.

  • MIHT solid rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Start-3. In production. Used in Start-3. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993.

MIHT-4.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/300 kg. Thrust 9.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. All estimated

MIHT-4.

  • MIHT solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Start-4. In production. Used in Start-4. Estimated values. Isp=295s. First flight 1993.

MIK.

  • Assembly and Test Building (Russian abbreviation)

Mikhailov.

  • Mikhailov, Gennady (-1961) Russian phantom cosmonaut, said to have died 1962.01.24, reported by Cordiglia brothers in 1962 and later Edwards book. Based on 1959 photo of high altitude equipment tester.

Mikoyan.

  • Mikoyan, Artem Ivanovich (1905-1970) Russian Chief Designer, brother of Stalin's foreign minister, headed MiG design bureau, preeminent manufacturer of light Soviet fighters. Dabbled in rocketplanes and built and flew the MiG-105 Spiral spaceplane.

Mikoyan 301.

  • Russian intermediate range cruise missile. The 301 was designed as a military bomber, with a Mach 4 / 4,250 km/hr cruise capability at 25,000 to 27,000 m altitude. It was equipped with two turboramjets, had a gross takeoff mass of 80 tonnes, of which half was fuel. It may be related to the first stage of the MIGAKS two-stage vehicle.

Mikoyan, Andrei.

  • Mikoyan, Andrei (-1969) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Story made rounds at ESA in 2000 of two Russian cosmonauts that died in 1969 on lunar landing attempt. Source was TV series, 'The Cape', episode 'Buried in Peace', aired 1996.10.28.

Mikron.

  • Code name for MS-1 earth land resources satellite.

Milde.

  • Milde, Hans Walter (1909-1990) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. Died at Grant, Alabama.

Milekhin.

  • Milekhin, Yuri Mikhailovich Russian engineer. From 1996 General Director of the Soyuz Federal Centre for Dual Technology in Dzerzhinskiy The primary Russian designer of solid propellant motors.

Military.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military Aircraft & Missile System.

  • Military Aircraft & Missile System.

Military anti-satellite system.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military communications sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military early warning sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military naval signals reconnsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military orbital bombardment sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military Spaceflight Engineer Astronaut.

  • Astronauts trained for military spaceflight but not to pilot spacecraft.

Military store-dump comsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military Strategic and Tactical Relay System.

  • Alternate designation for Milstar military communications satellite.

Military strategic defense sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military surveillance radarsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military surveillance sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military target sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military technology sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Millenium Express.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. General Dynamics Space Systems Division proposal for the 1990 SDIO competition was a VTOL SSTO named Millennium Express. The final vehicle was a 15 degree cone with a 20%-length Rocketdyne aerospike engine. Payload was specified as 4500 kg into a polar low earth orbit. The Express could carry on its nose a payload module, a small Apollo-type two-crew seperable manned capsule, or a six-crew module that remained attached to the vehicle for recovery. The similar Douglas Delta Clipper was selected by the USAF for further development.

Millikan.

  • Millikan, Robert A (1868-1953) American physicist, Nobel prize winner, did early research on cosmic rays, built Caltech into preeminent engineering school.

Millinger.

  • Millinger, Heinz Albert (1920-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. As of 2008 living in Marburg, Germany.

Milstar.

  • American military communications satellite. 6 launches, 1994.02.07 (USA 99) to 2003.04.08 (USA 169). Milstar was a series of advanced US military communications satellites designed to provide global jam-resistant communications for military users.

MIM-104.

  • Department of Defence designation of Patriot missile.

MIM-104A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of PAC-3 anti-ballistic missile.

MIM-104A.

  • American surface-to-air missile. Command-guided / semi-active radar-homing. Range 160 km in PAC-1 with software changes. PAC-2 modification with bigger warhead.

MIM-14.

MIM-14A.

  • American surface-to-air missile. W31 Mod 2 warhead. Two different warhead sections were possible: M22 and M97, with yields of 1-20-40 kt.

MIM-14B.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

MIM-23.

  • Department of Defence designation of Hawk missile.

MIM-23A.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

MIM-23B.

  • American surface-to-air missile.

MIM-3A.

  • Department of Defence Designation of Nike Ajax surface-to-air missile.

Mimosa.

  • Czech earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 2003.06.30. Satellite by the Czech Astronomical Institute for study of the density of the upper atmosphere using the sensitive Macek accelerometer.

min.

  • minute(s)

Min Guirong.

  • Min Guirong Chinese Engineer. Spacecraft thermal control specialist.

Minakh.

  • Syrian missile base.

Mini Space Station.

  • European manned space station. Study 2020. Potential European independent space station consisting of two docked ATV's with additional life support systems.

Minibus.

  • British technology satellite. Study 1999. UoSAT-12 was the first test of the Minibus platform, at 325 kg a larger spacecraft than earlier 50 kg Surrey UoSATs. It carried a mobile radio experiment (MERLION), a GPS receiver, and imaging cameras.

Minisat.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1997.04.21. The Minisat spacecraft were built for the Spanish space Agency by CASA.

Minisat SSTL.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MiniSat-400 technology satellite.

MiniSat-400.

  • British technology satellite. 2 launches, 1999.04.21 (UoSAT-12) to 2005.12.28 (Giove-A). Basic Surrey Minisat bus.

Mini-shuttle.

  • American manned rocketplane. Study 1972. In August 1972 it was proposed to test a subscale version of the shuttle to test the aerodynamics. The 13,750 kg vehicle would be 11 m long and have a wingspan of 7 m.

MiniSil.

  • Project for On-Board Autonomy technology satellite. Launched 2009.11.02,

Minning.

  • Minning, Rudolf Friederich Franz (1914-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter.

Minot AFB.

  • Minuteman ICBM base.

Minot AFB Missile Site N-01.

Minot AFB Missile Site O-01.

Minotaur.

  • Minotaur was developed for the US Air Force's Orbital/Suborbital Program (OSP) as a low-cost, four-stage Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) using a combination of government-supplied surplus Minuteman II ICBM motors and proven Orbital space launch technologies. Proposed growth versions would use surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages.

Minotaur.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Minotaur was developed for the US Air Force's Orbital/Suborbital Program (OSP) as a low-cost, four-stage Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) using a combination of government-supplied surplus Minuteman II ICBM motors and proven Orbital space launch technologies. The Minotaur 4 version used surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages.

Minotaur 1.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle consisting of a surplus Minuteman M55A1 first stage, Minuteman SR19 second stage, and new Orion 50XL third stage, Orion 38 fourth stage, and optional HAPS fifth stage for velocity trim and multiple payload deployment. Payload 580 kg to an 185 km, 28.5 degree orbit from Cape Canaveral; 310 kg to a 740 km sun-synchronous orbit from Vandenberg.

Minotaur 2.

  • American all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Suborbital target vehicle consisting of an M55A1 first stage, SR19 second stage, and M57 third stage - essentially a Minuteman II with Orbital guidance and control systems. 440 kg payload on a 6700 km suborbital trajectory.

Minotaur 4.

  • Orbital launch vehicle using surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages: an SR-118 first stage, SR-119 second stage, SR-120 third stage, new Orion 38 fourth stage and optional HAPS fifth stage. Payload 1720 kg to an 185 km, 28.5 degree orbit from Cape Canaveral; 1000 kg to a 740 km sun-synchronous orbit from Vandenberg.

Minuteman.

  • Mainstay of the US deterrent. 1,000 Minuteman silos were built in the early 1960's, and the missile was to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. As versions were retired and updated, they provided a plentiful source of surplus rocket motors for other projects.

Minuteman.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Mainstay of the US deterrent. 1,000 Minuteman silos were built in the early 1960's, and the missile was to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. As versions were retired and updated, they provided a plentiful source of surplus rocket motors for other projects.

Minuteman 1.

  • Popular Name of LGM-30C intercontinental ballistic missile.

Minuteman 1A.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial production version, 3 stage vehicle. The Minuteman IA used exclusively the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT) warhead.

Minuteman 1A T.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Single stage test vehicle.

Minuteman 1A T-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 792.00 kN (178,049 lbf) thrust. Mass 22,900 kg (50,486 lb).

Minuteman 1B.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. Full production version. Minuteman IB used the Mk.5 RV with the W59 (1 MT), the Mk.11 with the W56 (1.2 MT) and the Mk.11A with the W56 as well.

Minuteman 2.

  • American intercontinental ballistic missile. US ICBM. 3 stage vehicle. The LGM-30F Minuteman II used the W56 warhead exclusively with either the Mk. 11B or Mk. 11C re-entry vehicle.

Minuteman 2-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,032/795 kg. Thrust 267.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 287.5 seconds. Second stage of Minuteman 2. Used as second stage of Minotaur launch vehicle and various SDI targets in 1980's.

Minuteman 3.

  • American four-stage solid-propellant intercontinental ballistic missile. In the 21st Century, the sole remaining US ICBM.

Minuteman ERCS.

  • American strategic communications missile.

Minuteman II.

  • Alternate designation of Midgetman missile.

Minuteman-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,077/2,292 kg. Thrust 791.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds. First stage of Minuteman I. Proposed as zero stage for various Saturn variants in 1960's. Surplus motors used in ABM SDI tests in 1980's and 1990's.

MIP.

  • Indian lunar impact probe. One launch, 2008.10.22. Moon Impact Probe, released from Chandraayan-1 in lunar orbit. The MIP fired its own deorbit motor and impacted the moon near the Shackleton Crater at the south pole.

Mir.

  • The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps.

Mir.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station.

Mir 92.

  • Crew: Flade. German 'Mir 92' flight to the Russian space station. Swapped Soyuz lifeboats at station. Backup crew: Ewald.

Mir 97.

  • Crew: Ewald. ESA German astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Schlegel.

Mir Altair.

  • Crew: Haignere. French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station. Backup crew: Andre-Deshays.

Mir Antares.

  • Crew: Tognini. French astronaut; primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats at station. Backup crew: Haignere.

Mir Aragatz.

  • Crew: Chretien. French mission to Mir; record duration for a non-Soviet aboard one of their space stations; first French spacewalk. TM-6 computer first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully. Backup crew: Tognini.

Mir Austromir.

  • Crew: Aubakirov, Viehboeck. First Austrian astronaut. First Kazakh astronaut. Swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Lothaller, Musabayev.

Mir Cassiopee.

  • Crew: Andre-Deshays. French astronaut. Primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Eyharts.

Mir complex.

  • Russian manned space station. Assembled 1986 to 1996. Designation given to the entire Mir space station.

Mir EO-1.

  • Crew: Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir. First spacecraft to fly between two space stations. Epic repair mission. Crew first docked with new Mir station. After six weeks commissioning, flew to dead Salyut 7, returned it to life, recovered experiments.Returned to Mir before returning to earth. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Viktorenko.

Mir EO-10.

  • Crew: Volkov Aleksandr. Only Russian EO crewmember left after a paying British passenger was found and political necessity of flying a Kazakh cosmonaut. EO-9 crew Krikalyov stayed aboard as other E-10 crewmember. Backup crew: Viktorenko.

Mir EO-11.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Viktorenko. Mir Expedition EO-11. Joint flight with Germany. Docked at the Kvant rear port at 12:33 GMT on March 19. The Soyuz TM-14 crew, Aleksandr Viktorenko and Aleksandr Kaleri, returned to Earth together with French astronaut Michel Tognini. The Soyuz TM-14 undocked from Mir at 21:47 GMT on Aug 9, and landed in Kazakhstan at 01:07 GMT on August 10. Backup crew: Avdeyev, Solovyov.

Mir EO-12.

  • Crew: Avdeyev, Solovyov. Mir Expedition EO-12. Russian astronauts Solovyov and Avdeev and French astronaut Tognini were inserted into an initial 190 x 200 km orbit inclined 51.6 deg. Later on July 27 they maneuvered to a 223 x 343 km orbit, and on July 28 docked with Mir in its 405 x 410 km orbit. Aleksandr Solovyov and Sergey Avdeev undocked from the Mir complex aboard Soyuz TM-15 on February 1 and landed the same day in Kazakhstan after six months in space at 03:58 GMT. Soyuz TM-15's flight was an in-orbit record for a Soyuz spaceship - 188 days 21 h 39 m. Backup crew: Manakov, Polishchuk.

Mir EO-13.

  • Crew: Manakov, Polishchuk. Soyuz carried the APAS androgynous docking system instead of the usual probe system. Backup crew: Usachyov, Tsibliyev.

Mir EO-14.

  • Crew: Serebrov, Tsibliyev. Mir Expedition EO-14. Carried Vasili Tsibliyev, Alexander Serebrov, Jean-Pierre Haignere to Mir; returned Serebrov, Tsibliyev to Earth. Progress M-18 undocked from Mir's front port at around 17:25 GMT on July 3, and Soyuz TM-17 docked at the same port only 20 minutes later at 17:45 GMT. The EO-14 crew landed at 08:18 GMT on Jan 14 in the Soyuz TM-17 spaceship. The EO-14 expedition lasted 196 days 18hr 45 m, the 7th longest spaceflight. Backup crew: Afanasyev, Usachyov.

Mir EO-15.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Usachyov. Mir Expedition EO-15. Docked at the Kvant module on January 10 at 11:15 GMT. Transported to the Mir orbital station of a crew comprising the cosmonauts V M Afanasev, Y V Usachev, and V V Polyakov for the fifteenth main expedition. The Soyuz TM-18 descent module landed 110 km north of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan at 10:32:35 GMT on July 9. Backup crew: Malenchenko, Musabayev.

Mir EO-16.

  • Crew: Malenchenko, Musabayev. Mir Expedition EO-16. Soyuz TM-19 docked at the rear port of the Kvant module (vacated by Progress M-23 on July 2) at 13:55:01 GMT on July 3. Soyuz TM-19 undocked from Mir at 07:29 GMT on November 4. The Soyuz instrument module (PAO, priborno-agregatniy otsek) fired its deorbit engine, and was jettisoned together with the orbital module (BO, bitovoy otsek) at 10:51 GMT, with entry interface for the descent module (SA, spuskaemiy apparat) at 10:54. It landed 170 km north-east of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan on 1994 November 4 at 11:18 GMT. Backup crew: Viktorenko, Kondakova.

Mir EO-17.

  • Crew: Kondakova, Viktorenko. Mir Expedition EO-17. Docked at the Mir forward port at 00:28 on 1994 October 6. The Mir crew of Viktorenko, Kondakova and Polyakov boarded Soyuz TM-20 on January 11, and undocked from Mir's front port at 09:00 GMT. The spacecraft withdrew to about two hundred metres from Mir and then redocked in a test of the automatic Kurs system, which had failed in Progress M-24's attempted docking. Redocking came at 09:25 GMT. Soyuz TM-20 landed 22 km northeast of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan at 04:04 GMT on March 22, 1995. Backup crew: Gidzenko, Avdeyev.

Mir EO-18.

  • Crew: Dezhurov, Strekalov, Thagard. First American to fly aboard a Russian spacecraft. Backup crew: Solovyov, Budarin, Dunbar.

Mir EO-19.

  • Crew: Budarin, Solovyov. First Russian crew delivered to Mir space station aboard the space shuttle. Backup crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov.

Mir EO-2.

  • Crew: Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health. Backup crew: Serebrov.

Mir EO-20.

  • Crew: Avdeyev, Gidzenko, Reiter. First ESA astronaut on long-duration Mir crew. Backup crew: Manakov, Vinogradov, Fuglesang.

Mir EO-21.

  • Crew: Onufrienko, Usachyov. Mir Expedition EO-21. Soyuz TM-23 docked with Mir at 14:20:35 on February 23. The spacecraft undocked on September 2 at 04:20 GMT, and made a small seperation burn at 04:24:40 GMT. Deorbit was at 06:47:20 GMT . The three modules separated at 07:14:36 and the parachute deployed at 07:26 GMT. The landing was at 07:41:40 GMT, 100 km SW of Akmola in Kazakstan with Yuri Onufrienko, Yuriy Usachyov and Claudie Andre-Deshays. This concluded the French 'Cassiopee' mission. Backup crew: Lazutkin, Tsibliyev.

Mir EO-22.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Korzun. Mir Expedition EO-22. Valeriy Korzun and Aleksandr Kaleri of the Russian Space Agency (RKA) Claudie Andre-Deshays of the French space agency CNES. This launch was the first of the Soyuz-U booster with a crew aboard following two launch failures of on unmanned flights.

Mir EO-23.

  • Crew: Lazutkin, Tsibliyev. Mission was an endless series of collisions, breakdowns, fires, and other emergencies. Backup crew: Musabayev, Budarin.

Mir EO-24.

  • Crew: Solovyov, Vinogradov. Soyuz docked manually. Over the next six months the crew undertook seven internal and external spacewalks to repair the crippled space station. Backup crew: Padalka, Avdeyev.

Mir EO-25.

  • Crew: Budarin, Musabayev. Soyuz TM-27 carried the Mir EO-25 crew and French astronaut Leopold Eyharts. NASA and the Russian Space Agency had hoped Soyuz TM-27 could dock with Mir while Endeavour was still there, resulting in an on-board crew of 13, a record which would have stood for years or decades. But the French vetoed this, saying the commotion and time wasted would ruin Eyharts Pegase experimental programme. Backup crew: Afanasyev, Treshchev.

Mir EO-26.

  • Crew: Padalka. As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Padalka returned to earth without Avdeyev, who had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions. Backup crew: Zalyotin.

Mir EO-26/-27.

  • Crew: Avdeyev. As only one final Soyuz mission to Mir was planned, with two of the seats on that Soyuz pre-sold to Slovak and French experimenters, Avdeyev had to stay aboard for two extended crew missions. Backup crew: Kaleri.

Mir EO-27.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Haignere. Afansyev was the only Russian cosmonaut aboard, since two crew seats had been sold to Slovakia and France. Avdeyev, already aboard Mir, would stay as Afanasyev's crewmate. Backup crew: Sharipov, Andre-Deshays.

Mir EO-28.

  • Crew: Kaleri, Zalyotin. The crew reactivated Mir and, using Progress M1-1 and M1-2, resupplied the station and raised the orbit to 360 x 378 km. Backup crew: Sharipov, Vinogradov.

Mir EO-3.

  • Crew: Manarov, Titov Vladimir. Record flight duration. Revised software installed as a result of the Soyuz TM-5 abort overloaded the TM-6 computer; first landing aborted. Backup software program used and TM-6 landed successfully. Backup crew: Kaleri, Volkov Aleksandr.

Mir EO-4.

  • Crew: Krikalyov, Volkov Aleksandr. Mission curtailed when delays in launching the Kvant-2 and Kristall modules to Mir led to the decision to leave the station uninhabited until the add-on modules were ready. Backup crew: Serebrov, Viktorenko.

Mir EO-5.

  • Crew: Serebrov, Viktorenko. Attached the new Kvant-2 module to the station; conducted five spacewalks; tested the Soviet UMK manned maneuvering unit. Backup crew: Balandin, Solovyov.

Mir EO-6.

  • Crew: Balandin, Solovyov. Attached the Kristall module to the station and conducted repairs to their Soyuz TM-9 return spacecraft and Kvant-2 airlock. Backup crew: Manakov, Strekalov.

Mir EO-7.

  • Crew: Manakov, Strekalov. Carried out a relatively modest programme of geophysical and astrophysical research, biological and biotechnological experiments, and work on space-materials science. Backup crew: Afanasyev, Manarov.

Mir EO-8.

  • Crew: Afanasyev, Manarov. The Mir Expedition EO-8 crew of V M Afanasyev, M Kh Manarov was transported to the Mir orbital station by Soyuz TM-11, together with T Akiyama (Japan) for the purpose of carrying out joint work with the cosmonauts G M Manakov and G M Strekalov. The launch was funded jointly with the private Japanese company TBS. The Japanese television network ended up paying $ 28 million for the first commercial flight to Mir to put Akiyama, the first journalist in space aboard Soyuz TM-11. Akiyama returned to earth on Soyuz TM-10 with the Mir EO-7 crew after a week in space. Backup crew: Artsebarsky, Krikalyov.

Mir EO-9.

  • Crew: Artsebarsky. Docked with Mir. Mir Expedition EO-09. Backup crew: Volkov Aleksandr.

Mir EP-1.

  • Crew: Faris, Viktorenko. First Syrian astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Munir, Solovyov.

Mir EP-2.

  • Crew: Aleksandrov Aleksandr, Savinykh, Solovyov. First successful space station flight of Bulgarian cosmonaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Lyakhov, Serebrov, Stoyanov.

Mir EP-3.

  • Crew: Lyakhov, Mohmand. First Afghani astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Berezovoi, Masum.

Mir EP-4.

  • Crew: Baturin. Member of Russian President's office. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Kotov.

Mir Euromir 94.

  • Crew: Merbold. German astronaut. Primary mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Duque.

Mir Euromir 95.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-20 manned spaceflight.

Mir Juno.

  • Crew: Sharman. First British astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats. Backup crew: Mace.

Mir Kosmoreporter.

  • Crew: Akiyama. First Japanese astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Kikuchi.

Mir LD-1.

  • Crew: Romanenko. Record flight duration. Romanenko began his record mission aboard Mir as part of EO-2 crew with Laveykin. Laveykin returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 after concerns developed about his health, leaving Romanenko aboard with EO-3. Backup crew: Titov Vladimir.

Mir LD-2.

  • Crew: Polyakov. Physician; remained aboard Mir to monitor the EO-3 crew to the end of their record year-long mission and the EO-4 crew for the first months of their mission. Backup crew: Arzamazov.

Mir LD-3.

  • Crew: Krikalyov. Krikalyov arrived aboard Mir on Soyuz TM-12 as part of the EO-9 crew. However when economic and political priorities resulted in the engineer being bumped from Soyuz TM-13, he stayed aboard for an extended stay as part of the EO-10 crew. Backup crew: Kaleri.

Mir LD-4.

  • Crew: Polyakov. Polyakov set a manned spaceflight record by spending over a year aboard Mir, during which he was part of three Mir crews (EO-15, EO-16, and EO-17). Backup crew: Arzamazov.

Mir LII-1.

  • Crew: Levchenko. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Levchenko was a prospective Buran pilot sent on the short mission to familiarise himself with spaceflight. Backup crew: Shchukin.

Mir Modules-FGB.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1985. Space station modules derived from the Chelomei TKS ferry. See entries for Kvant-2, Priroda, Spektr, and Kristal for details on each.

Mir NASA-1.

  • Crew: Lucid. First American aboard Mir for extended stay. Backup crew: Blaha.

Mir NASA-2.

  • Crew: Blaha. Blaha relieved Lucid as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Linenger.

Mir NASA-3.

  • Crew: Linenger. Linenger relieved Blaha as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Foale.

Mir NASA-4.

  • Crew: Foale. Foale relieved Linenger as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Voss.

Mir NASA-5.

  • Crew: Wolf. Wolf relieved Foale as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Thomas Andrew.

Mir NASA-6.

  • Crew: Thomas Andrew. Thomas relieved Wolf as NASA resident on the Mir station. Backup crew: Voss.

Mir Pegase.

  • Crew: Eyharts. French astronaut; primary mission swap of Soyuz lifeboats. Record 13 persons in space at same time. Backup crew: Haignere.

Mir Perseus.

  • Alternate designation for Mir EO-27 manned spaceflight.

Mir Stefanik.

  • Crew: Bella. First Slovak astronaut. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Fuller.

Mir-2.

  • Russian manned space station. Study 1989. The Mir-2 space station was originally authorized in the February 1976 resolution setting forth plans for development of third generation Soviet space systems.

Mir-2 KB Salyut.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1988. Alternative design for the Mir-2 space station by KB Salyut. If Polyus had successfully made it to orbit, it might have been the core for such a station.

Mirage 4A.

  • Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 26,213/14,494 kg. Thrust 96.05 kN. Specific impulse 2020 seconds. Dassault Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Belly mounted, 7,256 kg at 2,345 kph at 20,000 m altitude

Mirak.

  • Mirak - a 'Minimum Rocket' - was conceived by Rudolf Nebel to demonstrate the practicality of the liquid rocket, using the thrust chamber developed for the abandoned Oberth rocket. Mirak was realised not by Nebel, but talented engineer Riedel. It flew over 100 times in 1931-1932 and convinced the German Army of the practicality of the rocket as a weapon of war.

Miranda.

  • British technology satellite. One launch, 1974.03.09. Satellite technology. Anticipated life: longer than 50 years.

Mirka.

  • German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1997.10.09. German miniature re-entry vehicle attached to exterior of Russian Resurs satellite. After release from Resurs landed in Kazakhstan Oct 23.

Mirniy.

  • Alternate name for Plesetsk launch site.

Mir-Shuttle Docking Module.

  • Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.11.12. A specialized SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station.

Mishin.

  • Mishin, Vasili Pavlovich (1917-2001) Soviet Chief Designer, superseding Korolev, 1966-1974. Led the bureau in the flight test stages of the L1 and N1-L3 manned lunar programs, the Soyuz, and the Salyut space station. Replaced by Glushko after failures in all of these programs.

missile.

  • Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon).

Missile Defense Alarm System.

  • Alternate designation for Midas military early warning satellite.

Mission Specialist Astronaut.

  • Astronauts trained for spaceflight but not to pilot spacecraft.

Misty.

  • American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1990.02.28 (USA 53) to 1999.05.22 (USA 144).

Misurkin.

  • Misurkin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1977-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 4th Army (Rostov-on-Don; North-Caucasian VO)

MIT.

MIT.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.

MITA.

  • Italian technology satellite. One launch, 2000.07.15. MITA was an Italian Space Agency experimental microsatellite built by Carlo Gavazzi Space of Milano and carried the NINA particle detector and an experimental attitude control system.

Mitchell.

  • Mitchell, Edgar Dean 'Ed' (1930-) American pilot astronaut. Flew on Apollo 14. Sixth person to walk on the moon.

Mitchell, Elliott.

  • Mitchell, Elliott American engineer, involved at USN with solid rocket development, 1942-1958, chief of the solid rocket development program 1958-1961. Important role in development of Polaris.

Mitex.

  • American military anti-satellite system. 3 launched, 2006.06.21 (USA 187) to (USA 189).

Mitkov.

  • Mitkov, Andrei (-1959) Russian phantom cosmonaut. In 1959 Italian news reported a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights, among these Mitkov. No historical evidence ever emerged of any Soviet suborbital flights.

Mitsub..

  • Mitsubishi, Japan, Japan

Mitsubishi.

  • Japanese manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Mitsubishi Electric Corp, Japan.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.

Mittauer.

  • Mittauer, Richard T (1927-1973) American journalist, worked in NASA public information 1959-1972.

MK.

  • Interplanetary spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)

Mk 104.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine.

Mk 17.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine. 17.7 kN.

Mk 30.

  • ARC solid rocket engine.

Mk 36.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine.

Mk 39.

  • TexasI solid rocket engine.

Mk 6 Mod 3.

Mk 72.

  • CSD solid rocket engine.

MK ZPS.

  • American space suit, tested 1985. NASA Zero Pre-breathe full pressure Suit developed to preclude the need for denitrogenation prior to EVA.

MK, Mk.

  • Mark

Mk. 1.

  • Standard RV of Jupiter intermediate range ballistic missile.

Mk. 11B or Mk. 11C.

  • Standard RV of Minuteman 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 12A.

Mk. 2.

  • Standard RV of Thor intermediate range ballistic missile.

Mk. 2/3.

  • Standard RV of Atlas C test vehicle.

Mk. 20A.

Mk. 20B.

Mk. 3.

  • Standard RV of Titan 1 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 4.

  • Standard RV of CGM-16E and HGM-16F intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Mk. 400.

  • Standard RV of Trident C-4 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 5.

  • Standard RV of Minuteman 1A intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 5, Mk.11, or Mk.11A.

  • Standard RV of Minuteman 1B intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 500.

  • Standard RV of Trident D-5 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk. 6.

  • Standard RV of Titan 2 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mk.100.

Mk.300.

  • Standard RV of Poseidon submarine-launched ballistic missile.

Mk7.

  • Multiple-source solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN.

MK-700.

  • Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1972. Chelomei was the only Chief Designer to complete an Aelita draft project and present it to the Soviet government.

MKB.

  • Machine-Building Design Bureau (Russian abbreviation)

MKB Iskra.

MKBS.

  • Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1974. The culmination of ten years of designs for N1-launched space stations, the MKBS would be cancelled together with the N1.

MKR.

  • Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A wide range of MKR (intercontinental winged missiles) were studied in 1957-1960 in accordance with a decree of the General Staff. The trade-off studies encompassed long-range air-breathing aircraft, winged rockets, and aircraft launchers for air-breathing missiles.

MKS.

  • Reusable Space System (Russian abbreviation)

MKTS.

  • Reusable aerospacecraft (Russian abbreviation)

MLIT.

  • Japanese agency. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan.

MLLV.

  • American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1969, for Saturn follow-on. Plug nozzle, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle could itself put 1 million pounds payload into orbit. By addition of up to 12 260 inch solid motors up to 3.5 million pounds payload into orbit with a single launch.

MLLV.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,352,400/317,400 kg. Thrust 71,171.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Boeing study, 1969.

MLLV-0.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,920,200/192,000 kg. Thrust 44,238.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Boeing study, 1969.

MLRS.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. Multiple Launch Rocket System. US Army assault weapon.

MLRS.

  • Multiple Launch Rocket System. Ballistic US Army assault weapon against fortifications and armor.

MLRS.

  • Multiple-source solid rocket engine.

MLRS ER.

  • American tactical ballistic rocket. In production.

MLRS Extended Range.

  • Alternate Designation of MLRS ER tactical ballistic rocket.

mm.

  • millimeter(s)

MM.

  • American manned Mars orbiter. Study 1968. The Mission Module (MM) could be modified according to requirements of a particular interplanetary manned mission.

MMAS.

  • Martin Marietta Astro Space, USA, USA

MMH.

  • Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favour in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.

MMR-06.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Soviet solid propellant sounding rocket, capable of lofting 5 to 11 kg to 60 km altitude. Launch mass 130 kg, 9 seconds burn time. Nose ejects at apogee. Flown in both conical nose and boosted dart configurations.

MMR-06.

  • GMS solid rocket engine.

MMR-06-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

MMRBM.

  • American surface-to-surface ballistic missile, development started in 1962. Program cancelled in 1964.

MMS.

  • Matra Marconi Space, Italy

MMS-F.

  • Matra Marconi Space-France, Toulouse, France

MMS-S.

  • Matra Marconi Space-UK, Stevenage, UK

MMS-UK.

  • Matra Marconi Space-UK, Stevenage, UK

MMT.

  • Multiple Mirror Telescope

MMU.

  • Manned Maneuvering Unit

MMZ.

  • Moscow Machine-Building Plant (Russian abbreviation)

Mnatsakanian.

  • Mnatsakanian, Armen Sergeyevich (1918-1992) Armenian-Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1953-1969 of Nll-648. Specialised in spacecraft telemetry and radar systems.

MNF.

  • MNF

MNII.

  • Moscow Scientific-Research Institute (Russian abbreviation)

MNIIRS.

  • Moscow Scientific-Research Institute for Radio Communications (Russian abbreviation)

MNRAS.

  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

MO.

  • Ministry of Defence, Russia.

mo, mos.

  • month, months

MOBEV.

  • American manned lunar rover. need summary - see links

MOBEV F1B.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV F1B one-man pogo flying vehicle was the selected configuration for the one-man pogo application from three alternatives. Maximum operational mass with astronaut and payload, 258 kg.

MOBEV F2B.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Cancelled 1968. The F2B was the MOBEV selected configuration for a multi-man surface-to-surface flying vehicle. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 844 kg.

MOBEV F2E.

  • American manned lunar flyer. Study 1966. The MOBEV selected return to orbit vehicle, F2E, was provided with six degree of freedom control for rendezvous as well as normal attitude control. Maximum operational mass with 2 astronauts and payload, 1364.5 kg.

MOBEV R0AE.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0AE was based on the cancelled Surveyor Lunar Roving Vehicle, originally conceived for the Apollo site selection program.

MOBEV R0CE.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R0CE utilized a Surveyor probe from a lunar orbiting vehicle. The rover would operate in lunar day or night and have a total range capability of 200 km over a 90-day period.

MOBEV R0DE.

  • American lunar rover. Study 1966. Robotic vehicle delivered to the lunar surface with a LM-Shelter or a LM-Truck-Shelter and used during and after the manned mission to explore areas prior to committing a man.

MOBEV R1B.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Early manned operations would utilize the basic Apollo LM or an augmented version of it. The augmented version would a small mobility unit.

MOBEV R1CB.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1CB Base Support Vehicle -- Special Purpose was a manned lunar tractor, which provided base support capability in terms of earth moving, towing, and general utility within close proximity of the base.

MOBEV R1DE.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R1DE recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Cabined LSSM, a manned exploration vehicle designed to provide a shirt-sleeve (open spacesuit faceplate) environment.

MOBEV R2C(1)E.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R2C(1)E manned Mobile Laboratory Vehicle (MOLAB) was to be used for exploration of the moon. The MOLAB provided complete life support capabilities for its two-man crew during a 14-day, 400-km mission.

MOBEV R3DE.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV R3DE Extended Traverse Vehicle was a 90-Day MOBEX, a manned mobile laboratory used for exploration of the moon.

MOBEV RIB(1)E.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOBEV RIB(1)E recommended Lunar Station Vehicle was a Greater Versatility LSSM, an exploration vehicle designed for both manned and unmanned operation.

Mobile Command Module.

  • Alternate designation for MOCOM manned lunar rover.

Mobile Equipment Transporter.

  • Alternate designation for Apollo MET space suit.

Mobile LM Shelter.

  • Alternate designation for MOLEM manned lunar rover.

Mobile Lunar Laboratory.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Molab manned lunar rover.

MOC.

  • Mars Observer Camera (on Mars Observer)

MOCAN.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. The MOCAN was a manned Lunar Rover using the planned Boeing pressurized Apollo Multipurpose Mission Module (CAN) as the basic structure and MOLAB wheels

MOCOM.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of the CM were studied by North American in 1966 to further modify a CM shelter to provide mobility. Essentially the CM was mounted on a four-wheel chassis.

MOCR.

  • Mission Operations Control Room

MoD.

MoD.

  • British agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of Defence, UK.

MOD-1.

Modarelli.

  • Modarelli, James J American NASA designer, credited with the NASA logo.

Model 39.

  • Alternate designation for A-4 Lox-Alcohol rocket engine.

Model 39a.

  • Alternate designation for A-9 Lox-Alcohol rocket engine.

Model 4.

  • American pressure suit, operational 1950. The Model 4 Full Pressure Suit was developed for D-558-2 Douglas Skyrocket test pilots. It was first flown by Navy test pilot Marion Carl for a 26 km altitude record flight.

Model 671.

  • Manufacturer's designation for D-558-3 manned rocketplane.

Moderate Capacity Mobile Laboratory.

  • Alternate designation for Molab manned lunar rover.

MODS.

  • Manned orbital development system

Modularised Space Station.

  • American manned space station. Study 1972. Space station design of 1972 using modules sized for transport in the Space Shuttle payload bay. could be carried inside the Shuttle orbiter payload bay.

Mogensen.

  • Mogensen, Andreas Enevold (1976-) Danish engineer mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on.

Mogila.

  • Mogila, Anatoliy Iosifovich (1924-) Russian officer. Major-General, chief of the fourth trials directorate of 5 NIIP MO 1974-1980. Worked at Baikonur from 1958, participating in trials of the R-7, R-9, Proton, and Tsiklon rockets.

Mohmand.

  • Mohmand, Abdul Ahad 'Abdulah' (1959-) Afghani pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-3. First Afghani astronaut.

Mohr.

  • German manufacturer of rockets. Mohr, Germany.

Mohr Rocket.

  • Engineer Ernst Mohr of Wuppertal, under the auspices of the German Rocket Society, developed a sounding rocket that was designed to reach altitudes of 50 km. A solid rocket motor with 7800 kgf would take the separable payload section to a speed of 1200 m/s. The booster had a diameter of 0.30 m, a length of 1.7 m, a total mass of 135 kg including 75 kg of solid propellant. The payload dart was 56 mm in diameter, 1.25 m long, and had a total mass of 15 kg.

Mohri.

  • Mohri, Mamoru (1948-) Japanese chemist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-47, STS-99. NASDA; Spacelab-J specialist.

Mohts.

  • Mohts, Hermann German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Duisberg.

Moiseyev.

  • Moiseyev, Yevgenity Georgeyevich (1921-) Russian officer. Colonel, Chief of Sixth Trials Directorate of 5 NIIP MO at Baikonur, 1967-1974.

Mojave.

  • Location of Scaled Composites flight test facility, and the first FAA-certified inland spaceport. It was used for 17 launches of the Tier One manned spaceplane from 2003 to 2004, reaching up to 112 kilometers altitude.

Mojave RW12/30.

  • Tier One launch complex. -

MOK.

  • Code name for MKBS manned space station.

MOK.

  • Multirole Orbital Complex or Martian Orbital Complex or Multi-module Orbital Complex (Russian abbreviations)

MOL.

  • American manned space station. Cancelled 1969. MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory) was the US Air Force's manned space project after Dynasoar was cancelled, until it in turn was cancelled in 1969. The earth orbit station used a helium-oxygen atmosphere.

MOL 3.

  • Crew: Taylor, Crews. At the time of the cancellation of the MOL program in June 1969, the first manned mission was planned for early 1972. A crew of two would have spent thirty days in orbit operating sophisticated military reconnaisance equipment and other experiments.

MOL 4.

  • Planned date of second manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation.

MOL 5.

  • Planned date of third manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation.

MOL 6.

  • Crew: Truly, Crippen. Planned date of fourth manned MOL mission at time of the program cancellation. From the beginning of the project, the Navy had demanded that this be an all-Navy crew, which would limit the crew to Truly, with either Overmeyer or Crippen as co-pilot.

MOL 7.

  • Planned date of fifth manned MOL mission. This mission was already deleted from the FY 1970 budget request in April 1969, two months before the entire project was cancelled.

MOL LM.

  • American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The Laboratory Module consisted of a forward unpressurized section 2.43 m long, followed by an aft pressurized section, a 3.37 m long cylinder with 2.79 m diameter hemispherical bulkheads at each end. Space station military.

MOL MM.

  • American manned space station module. Cancelled 1969. The MOL Mission Module took up most of the spacecraft. It had a length of 11.24 m and was divided into two major bays, the forward section 4.42 m long, and the aft section 6.82 m long.

MOL Space Suit.

  • American space suit. Cancelled 1969. Space suit designed to support launch/re-entry and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) aboard the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Developed from 1965-1969, when MOL was cancelled.

MOLA.

  • Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (on Mars Observer)

Molab.

  • American manned lunar rover. Cancelled 1968. The moderate capacity mobile laboratory (MOLAB) concept was studied in two NASA/MT contracts to determine configurations and capabilities of vehicles in the 2950 to 3850 kg class.

MOLEM.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1966. Third generation versions of LM derivative equipment were studied by Grumman in a report delivered on 10 May 1966.

Molesworth.

  • US base in the 1980's for 6 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Moller, Rolf.

  • Moller, Rolf German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Berlin.

Molniya.

  • First Soviet communications satellite network.

Molniya.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Molniya Design Bureau, Russia.

Molniya 8K78.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Four stage derivative of the R-7 ICBM developed on a crash-program basis in 1960 for Soviet lunar and planetary deep space probe missions. The third stage found later use in the Voskhod and Soyuz launchers. By the 1970's mature versions of the launch vehicle were used almost entirely for launch of Molniya communications satellites and Oko missile early warning spacecraft into elliptical, 12-hour earth orbits.

Molniya 8K78/E6.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Molniya adaptation for launch of E-6 lunar probes.

Molniya 8K78-0.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds.

Molniya 8K78-1.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Molniya 8K78-2.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Molniya 8K78-3.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,100/1,080 kg. Thrust 65.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Stage designed as fourth stage to take R-7 launched payloads into deep space. Adapted from the Luna / Vostok third stage, but with restart capability. The 700 kg BOZ ullage motors and stabilisation platform jettisoned prior to main stage burn. Original version.

Molniya 8K78L.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Molniya 8K78L was designed by Korolev's design bureau for launching a manned spacecraft on a flyby of the Moon and return to earth. To achieve this it would have used Lox/LH2 engines in the third and fourth stages. Preliminary design was completed on 8 July 1962, but such technology was years away in the Soviet Union and the project was not pursued further.

Molniya 8K78M.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload.

Molniya 8K78M 2BL.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-2BL upper stage for placement of Oko early-warning satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,000 km.

Molniya 8K78M ML.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-ML upper stage for placement of communications satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,500 km.

Molniya 8K78M SOL.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok SO-L upper stage for placement of Prognoz-class satellites in orbits with apogees of 200,000 km.

Molniya 8K78M-0.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,770 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds.

Molniya 8K78M-1.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,600/6,798 kg. Thrust 976.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Molniya 8K78M-2.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,800/1,976 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Molniya 8K78M-3.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,660/1,160 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Standardized improved version for Molniya-type communications satellite payloads.

Molniya M-3.

  • Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/1,050 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds.

Molniya orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Molniya-1.

  • Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'.

Molniya-1M.

  • Alternate designation for Molniya-2 communications satellite.

Molniya-1T.

  • Russian military communications satellite. 63 launches, 1976.01.22 (Molniya) to 2004.02.18 (Molniya-1T). This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970.

Molniya-2.

  • Russian communications satellite. 20 launches, 1971.11.24 (Molniya 2-01) to 2005.06.21 (Molniya 2-17). Molniya-2 was the elliptical orbit component of the Soviet YeSSS communications satellite system.

Molniya-2M.

  • Alternate designation for Molniya-3 communications satellite.

Molniya-3.

  • Russian communications satellite. 55 launches, 1974.11.21 (Molniya 3-01) to 2003.06.19 (Molniya 3-53). Development of the Molniya-2M communications satellite, later called Molniya-3, began in 1972. Flight trials began in November 1974.

Molniya-M.

  • Alternate designation for Molniya 8K78M orbital launch vehicle.

Molniya-Yu.

  • Russian tracking network technology satellite. Study 1969. This was a modification of the Molniya-1 satellite to test deep space radio-based tracking methods for the Soviet Lunar program.

Molodets.

Molodezhnaya.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1104 launches from 1969 to 1990, reaching up to 108 kilometers altitude.

MOM.

  • Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia.

MOMV.

  • Manned Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle

MON.

  • Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen - Nitric oxide (NO) is a low-boiling cryogenic gas. Both the liquid and the solid are blue. Solutions of NO in nitrogen tetroxide sharply depress the freezing point of the high-melting oxidiser. The mechanism of depression is believed to involve the formation of N2O3, which is soluble in nitrogen tetroxide. Solutions are called mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON), and have been used as oxidisers for liquid-rocket engines. Various concentrations have been considered. However, the high vapour pressure of MON limits the concentration of NO in N2O4 to about 30 per cent. Aside from the high vapour pressure of MON, the material is quite similar to nitrogen tetroxide.

MON/Hydrazine.

  • Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen - Nitric oxide (NO) is a low-boiling cryogenic gas. Both the liquid and the solid are blue. Solutions of NO in nitrogen tetroxide sharply depress the freezing point of the high-melting oxidiser. The mechanism of depression is believed to involve the formation of N2O3, which is soluble in nitrogen tetroxide. Solutions are called mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON), and have been used as oxidisers for liquid-rocket engines. Various concentrations have been considered. However, the high vapour pressure of MON limits the concentration of NO in N2O4 to about 30 per cent. Aside from the high vapour pressure of MON, the material is quite similar to nitrogen tetroxide. Hydrazine (N2H4) found early use as a fuel, but it was quickly replaced by UDMH. It is still used as a monopropellant for satellite station-keeping motors.

MON/Hydyne.

  • Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen - Nitric oxide (NO) is a low-boiling cryogenic gas. Both the liquid and the solid are blue. Solutions of NO in nitrogen tetroxide sharply depress the freezing point of the high-melting oxidiser. The mechanism of depression is believed to involve the formation of N2O3, which is soluble in nitrogen tetroxide. Solutions are called mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON), and have been used as oxidisers for liquid-rocket engines. Various concentrations have been considered. However, the high vapour pressure of MON limits the concentration of NO in N2O4 to about 30 per cent. Aside from the high vapour pressure of MON, the material is quite similar to nitrogen tetroxide. Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application. Hydyne, which is also known as MAF-4, is a 60 per cent, by weight, mixture of UDMH and 40 weight percent diethyltrianine (DETA).

MON/MMH.

  • Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen - Nitric oxide (NO) is a low-boiling cryogenic gas. Both the liquid and the solid are blue. Solutions of NO in nitrogen tetroxide sharply depress the freezing point of the high-melting oxidiser. The mechanism of depression is believed to involve the formation of N2O3, which is soluble in nitrogen tetroxide. Solutions are called mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON), and have been used as oxidisers for liquid-rocket engines. Various concentrations have been considered. However, the high vapour pressure of MON limits the concentration of NO in N2O4 to about 30 per cent. Aside from the high vapour pressure of MON, the material is quite similar to nitrogen tetroxide. Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favour in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.

MON/UDMH.

  • Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen - Nitric oxide (NO) is a low-boiling cryogenic gas. Both the liquid and the solid are blue. Solutions of NO in nitrogen tetroxide sharply depress the freezing point of the high-melting oxidiser. The mechanism of depression is believed to involve the formation of N2O3, which is soluble in nitrogen tetroxide. Solutions are called mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON), and have been used as oxidisers for liquid-rocket engines. Various concentrations have been considered. However, the high vapour pressure of MON limits the concentration of NO in N2O4 to about 30 per cent. Aside from the high vapour pressure of MON, the material is quite similar to nitrogen tetroxide. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance.

MON-3/MMH.

  • Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favour in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance.

Money.

  • Money, Kenneth Eric (1935-) Canadian physiologist payload specialist astronaut, 1983-1992.

Mongolia.

  • Mongolia

Mongolian AF.

  • Mongolian AF.

Monica.

  • French low-cost, three-stage, solid-propellant sounding rocket developed in France in the 1950's in support of the International Geophysical Year.

Monica.

  • French low-cost, three-stage, solid-propellant sounding rocket developed in France in the 1950's in support of the International Geophysical Year.

Monica I.

  • French sounding rocket.

Monica I-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

Monica I-3.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

Monica IV.

  • French sounding rocket.

Monitor.

  • Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2003.06.30 (Monitor-E/SL) and 2005.08.26 (Monitor-E).

Monoblock UR-500.

  • Russian orbital launch vehicle. During UR-500 design studies, two variants of the first stage were considered: polyblock and monoblock. The monoblock approach was that the first stage be assembled from two separate modules with the same diameter: an upper oxidiser module and a lower fuel and engine block. In assembly trials of this design it proved difficult, because of the height of the first stage, to obtain access to the upper stages and payload atop the rocket. Although there was a payload advantage compared to the more compact polyblock design, this was relatively small and outweighed by the operational difficulties.

Monopropellant.

  • Category of engines.

Monroe.

  • Monroe, Jack Pendleton (1904-2006) American career naval officer who became a rear admiral in 1956. He served as commander of the Pacific Missile Range from 1957-1961 before becoming the Director of Astronautics for the Chief of Naval Operations from 1961-1963.

Montana State.

  • Montana State.

Moon.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Moon Race!.

  • Side-by-side chronology of the major events of the race to the moon.

Moore.

  • Moore, John R (1916-) American engineer, developed pioneering inertial navigation and automated flight control systems for Navaho, leading to systems for the X-15, B-70, and Apollo, making North American the premier US contractor for advanced inertial navigation.

MOOSE.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1963. MOOSE was perhaps the most celebrated bail-out from orbit system of the early 1960's. The suited astronaut would strap the MOOSE to his back, and jump out of the spacecraft or station into free space.

MOP.

  • Ministry of Defence Production (Russian abbreviation)

MORAD.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1961. MORAD (Manned Orbital Rendezvous and Docking) would require the use of the Mercury-Atlas and Scout in the 1961- 1963 period.

Mordovtsev.

  • Mordovtsev, Aleksei Filippovich (1922-) Russian officer. Colonel, Deputy Chief of Second Directorate of GUKOS 1970-1979. After WW2 service, worked with the Soviet Navy in anti-aircraft units. Transferred to GURVO in 1963.

Morelos.

  • Communications satellites launched by the Mexican Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes. Coverage of the national territory with television, radio and telephony signals and data transmission. Later privatised and taken over by Satellites Mexicanos S.A. de C.V.

Morelos.

  • Mexican agency. Morelos, Mexico.

Morgan.

  • Morgan, Barbara Radding 'Barby' (1951-) American teacher mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-118. Teacher.

Morgenstern.

  • Morgenstern, Oskar (1902-1977) German-American economist, came to the United States in 1925, and worked at Princeton after 1938. Founded Mathematica, which provided economic analyses to government, notoriously the study that found the shuttle cheaper than expendable LVs.

Morin.

  • Morin, Lee Miller Emile (1952-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-110.

MORL.

  • American manned space station. Study 1962. In June 1964 Boeing and Douglas received Phase I contracts for Manned Orbital Research Laboratory station designs. The recommended concept was a 13.

MORL Mars Flyby.

  • American manned Mars flyby. Study 1965. Near-term manned Mars flyby spacecraft proposed by Douglas in 1965 for flight as early as 1973.

Morocco.

  • Morocco

Morozov, Viktor.

  • Morozov, Viktor Pavlovich (1918-1981) Russian officer. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Fortes 1962-1967.

Morphlab.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 2004. Morphlab (Modular Roving Planetary Habitat, Laboratory, and Base) was a lunar exploration system proposed by the University of Maryland.

Morris.

  • Morris, Brooks (1913-1961) American Engineer. Brooks Morris was an aerospace engineer who worked as a manager of quality assurance and reliability at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1961-1981.

Morton Thiokol (1982).

Morukov.

  • Morukov, Dr Boris Vladimirovich (1950-) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on STS-106. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems

MOSAP.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1989. MOSAP (MObile Surface APplication traverse vehicle) was the pressurized lunar rover that was the key to NASA's 90-Day-Study moon base concept of 1989. It would greatly extend the range of manned lunar expeditions.

Mosch.

  • Mosch German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952.

Moscow Heat Engineering Institute.

Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology.

Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute.

  • Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute, Russia.

MOSES.

  • American manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1975. The General Electric MOSES space rescue concept of the early 1980's took advantage of large re-entry capsules already developed for classified US military projects.

Moshchenko.

  • Moshchenko, Sergey Ivanovich (1954-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1996-2009.

Moshkin.

  • Moshkin, Oleg Yuriyevich (1964-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-2002.

Moskalenko.

  • Moskalenko, Nikolai Tikhonovich (1949-2004) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1986.

Moskalenko, Kirill.

  • Moskalenko, Kirill Semenovich (1902-1985) Russian officer. Commander·in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1960-1962. Succeeded Nedelin.

Moskalyov.

  • Moskalyov, Oleg Borisovich Russian scientist cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Scientist. Selected as cosmonaut in early May 1964, but on 28 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission.

Mosolov.

  • Mosolov, Vladimir Yemeliyanovich (1944-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1987.

Most.

  • Canadian visible astronomy satellite. One launch, 2003.06.30. MOST was a suitcase-sized microsatellite designed to probe stars and extrasolar planets by measuring tiny light variations undetectable from Earth.

Motorola.

  • American manufacturer of spacecraft. Motorola Satellite, Chandler, Chandler, Arizona, USA.

MoTV.

  • American space tug. Study 2003. SpaceDev design for a low-cost, restartable hybrid propulsion space tug or upper stage.

MO-UK.

  • British agency. Meteorological Office, UK.

Mountain Home AFB.

  • Titan I ICBM base.

Mountain Home AFB Missile Site 2.

Mountain Home AFB Missile Site 3.

Moureu.

  • Moureu, Henri French scientist and manager. Responsible for acquiring German rocket technology and German rocket experts for France after WW2.

Mozhaiskiy.

  • Russian agency. Mozhaiskiy Military Institute, Russia.

Mozyr.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1996. Base for units deployed with R-12, 27 RT-2PM, and nine Pioner missile launchers.

Mozzhorin.

  • Mozzhorin, Yuri Aleksandrovich (1920-1998) Russian officer. Director of Nll-88 1961-1990. Oversaw Soviet space policy.

MP.

  • Maneuvering piloted spacecraft (Russian abbreviation)

MPC.

  • Minor Planets Circular

MPD.

  • UM-NASA electric rocket engine. 1.35 kW Hall thruster

MPE.

  • Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany

MPEC.

  • American military technology satellite. One launch, 1991.04.28, USA 70. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space.

mph.

  • miles per hour

MPI.

  • Max-Planck-Institut, Germany

MPK.

  • Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. This first serious examination in the Soviet Union of manned flight to Mars was made by M Tikhonravov.

MPSC.

  • Philippine agency. MPSC, Philippines.

MQM-8G.

  • American surface-to-air drone. Drone version.

MR.

  • Russian solid rocket engine family.

MR.

  • Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev studied this Multimodular Rocket (MR), based on stages already designed for the 8K74 and 8K77 (R-7 and R-9) missiles. As was the case of the 8K74, work on the design was stopped in September 1961.

MR-.

  • Mercury-Redstone. Designation series applied to Mercury spacecraft launched by the Redstone booster.

MR-103.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 1.12 N. Attitude control thruster for Voyager, GPS, Intelsat 5, MMAS 3000, 4000,. 5000, and 7000, Mars Observer, ACTS, and Magellan. In Production. Isp=227s. First flight 1974.

MR-104.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Attitude control and velocity corrections, Voyager, Magellan, DMSP, Tiros N, Landsat. In Production. Isp=239s. First flight 1977.

MR-106.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.027 kN. Spacecraft and upper stage attitude control and velocity corrections, PAM A/S,. Radarsat, GPS Block 2R, HAS/Peace Courage, Titan Centaur, Atlas Centaur. In Production. Isp=232s.

MR-107.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.257 kN. Spacecraft and upper stage attitude control and dV corrections, Delta 2, Titan 2, PAM D, SICBM, HAS/Peace Courage, Atlas roll control module, STEP, Pegasus. Isp=236s. First flight 1990.

MR-111.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 4.4 N. Attitude control, Intelsat 5, ERBS, ACTS, Radarsat, MMAS 4000, 5000, and. 7000, Wind/Polar Landsat, and Mars Observer. In Production. Isp=229s. First flight 1980.

MR-12.

  • Russian sounding rocket. The MR-12 sounding rocket was developed by the Soviet Union as a modern replacement for the MR-1 Meteo. It was a single stage solid rocket with a 170 kg payload. Payload section 1.55 m long, 0.445 m in diameter.

MR-12.

  • The MR-12 sounding rocket was developed by the Soviet Union as a modern replacement for the MR-1 Meteo. It was a single stage solid rocket with a 170 kg payload. Payload section 1.55 m long, 0.445 m in diameter.

MR-12.

  • Russian solid rocket engine.

MR-120.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.090 kN. Small ICBM. In Production. Developed as an attitude control thruster for the small ICBM. Isp=229s.

MR-12-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

MR-125.

  • LLNL solid rocket engine. 0.400 kN.

MR-20.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Upper atmosphere Soviet sounding rocket, improved version of MR-12, but capable of lofting 135 kg to 250 km altitude.

MR-20.

  • Russian solid rocket engine.

MR-20-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

MR-25.

  • Russian sounding rocket. Version of the MR-20.

MR-25.

  • Russian solid rocket engine.

MR-25-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

MR-50.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.022 kN. Attitude control for SMS, Viking, Metosat, GOES, Voyager, GPS, Intelsat 5,. Scatha, MMAS 5000, Delta Star, Magellan, Wind/Polar. In Production. Isp=228s. First flight 1974.

MR-501B.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 369 mN. BSAT-2 communications satellite. In Production. Electrothermal hydrazine thruster (EHT). 493 W input power at 24 V DC. Isp=303s.

MR-502.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 500 mN. Communications satellite N-S stationkeeping, MMAS 5000. In Production. Isp=304s. First flight 1991.

MR-508.

  • Redmond hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 230 mN. Communications satellite N-S stationkeeping, MMAS 7000. In Production. Isp=502s. First flight 1993.

MR-509.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 254 mN. In Production. Low-power arcjet system. Input power 1800 W at 65 V DC. Isp=502s.

MR-510.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 254 mN. In Production. Arcjet system. Isp=600s.

MR-512.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 254 mN. In Production. Low-voltage bus arcjet system. Input power 1780 W at 35 V DC. Isp=502s.

Mrazek.

  • Mrazek, Willi (1911-1992) German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from early days, but sent to Russian Front before being returned. A loads engineer, he went with von Braun to the US and became Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, at Huntsville.

MRC.

MRC DM.

  • British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Reusable re-entry capsule.

MRC SM.

  • British manned spacecraft module. Study 1987. Expendable equipment section.

MRE-15/OMV.

  • TRW hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine. 0.089 kN. In Production. Isp=225s. Mono-propellant Hydrazine Thrusters.

MRE-5/Compton Observatory.

  • TRW N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.025 kN. In Production. Isp=240s. Mono-propellant Hydrazine Thrusters. First flight 1991.

MRM-103.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.22 N. In Production. Steady-state thrust 0.22 N. Isp=224s.

MRM-106.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.027 kN. In Production. Steady-state thrust 9 N. Isp=231s.

MRM-122.

  • Redmond Hydrazine rocket engine. 0.142 kN. In Production. Steady-state thrust 51 N. Isp=228s.

MRN.

  • American agency. Meteorological Rocket Network, USA.

MRP.

  • Ministry of Radio Industry (Russian abbreviation)

MRSR.

  • Mars Rover and Sample Return

MRSRM.

  • Mars Rover and Sample Return Mission

MRSV.

  • American manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Advanced Research Projects Agency representatives visited Army Ordnance Missile Command to discuss studies of a Maneuverable Recoverable Space Vehicle (MRSV).

MRTV.

  • Manufacturer's designation for ait-2 target missile.

MR-UR-100.

  • The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other.

MR-UR-100.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other.

MR-UR-100 BR.

  • Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine.

MR-UR-100 St 1.

  • N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 1236.00 kN (277,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 59,000 kg (130,073 lb).

MR-UR-100-2.

  • N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 142.00 kN (31,923 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb).

MR-UR-100-3.

  • N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

MR-UR-100U.

  • Manufacturer's designation for MR-UR-100U 15A16 intercontinental ballistic missile.

MR-UR-100U 15A16.

  • Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the MR-UR-100U loaded into the super-hardened 15P715U universal silo, with a modernised guidance system with better reliability and accuracy.

MR-UR-100UTTKh.

MRV.

  • Standard RV of UR-100K and UR-100U intercontinental ballistic missile.

Mrykin.

  • Mrykin, Aleksandr Grigoryevich (1905-1972) Russian officer. First Deputy Commander of GURVO 1955-1965. Strategic Missile Forces liaison with space units.

MS.

  • Engineering test for the launching of scientific satellites.

MS-1.

  • Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2004.12.24 (Mikron) to 2007.04.17 (MisrSat 1). Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment.

M-SAT.

  • Canadian communications satellite.

MSBS.

  • Family of French submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

MSBS.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS 501.

  • Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. 900 kN.

MSBS 502.

  • Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. 300 kN.

MSBS 503.

  • Aerospatiale solid rocket engine. 100 kN.

MSBS M011.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M012.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M013.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M1.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 901 + 1 x Rita I

MSBS M112.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M112-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 440.00 kN.

MSBS M2.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x SEP 904 + 1 x Rita II

MSBS M20.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile.

MSBS M2-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 450.00 kN.

MSBS M2-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 6,000 kg. Thrust 320.00 kN.

MSBS M4.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Submarine launched; MRV. Operational. 3 stage vehicle.

MSBS M4-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 900.00 kN (202,328 lbf) thrust. Mass 22,500 kg (49,604 lb).

MSBS M4-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,800 kg (19,401 lb).

MSBS M4-3.

  • Solid rocket stage. 100.00 kN (22,481 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,500 kg (3,307 lb).

MSBS M45.

  • French intermediate range ballistic missile. Improved M-4.

MSBS M5.

  • French intercontinental ballistic missile.

MSBS M51.

  • French intercontinental ballistic missile.

MSBS M51-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 900.00 kN (202,328 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb).

MSBS M51-2.

  • Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb).

MSBS M51-3.

  • Solid rocket stage. 100.00 kN (22,481 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,000 kg (11,023 lb).

MSC.

  • Manned Spacecraft Center (later JSC, Johnson Space Center)

MSF.

  • Manned space flight

MSFC.

  • George C Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama (NASA)

MSFEB.

  • Manned Space Flight Experiments Board

MSFN.

  • Manned Space Flight Network

MSG.

  • European earth weather satellite. 2 launches, 2002.08.28 (MSG 1) and 2005.12.21 (MSG 2). MSG (Meteosat Second Generation 1) was a European (EUMETSAT consortium) geostationary weather satellite.

MSL.

  • American Mars rover. Heavy, radioisotope-powered robotic Mars rover planned for an October 2010 arrival at Mars. It would carry instruments to definitively search for life in the soil.

MSM.

  • Ministry of Medium Machine Building (Russian abbreviation)

MSTI.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. 3 launches, 1992.11.21 (MSTI) to 1996.05.17 (MSTI-3). BMDO technology demonstration; Miniature Seeker Technology Demonstration.

MSTS.

  • American manned lunar rover. Study 1999.

MSU.

  • MSU.

M-Suit.

  • American space suit, tested 1998. In the fall of 1998, two soft suit prototypes were delivered to NASA by two companies, ILC Dover and David Clark. ILC Dover's M-Suit operated at a pressure of 0.26 atmospheres and weighed 30 kg.

MSvyazi.

  • Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation (Russian abbreviation)

MSX.

  • American military strategic defense satellite. One launch, 1996.04.24.

MT.

  • Japanese manufacturer. Ministry of Telecommunications, Japan.

MT 27.

  • SNECMA solid rocket engine. 10 kN.

MT-135.

  • The MT-135 was a small single-stage sounding rocket designed to collect data on the middle atmosphere, such as ozone layer depletion.

MT-135.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. The MT-135 was a small single-stage sounding rocket designed to collect data on the middle atmosphere, such as ozone layer depletion.

MT-135.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 12 kN.

MT-135JA.

  • Japanese sounding rocket.

MT-135JA-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 12.00 kN.

MT-135P.

  • Japanese sounding rocket. In 1969 the MT-135P was developed; featuring a parachute-equipped recoverable motor case for maritime safety.

MTC.

  • Man Tended Capability

MTI.

  • American military surveillance satellite. One launch, 2000.03.12. The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) was a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U.

MTKVA.

  • Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Manned lifting body spaceplane, designed by Soviet engineers as a recoverable spacecraft in the early 1970's.

MTKVP.

  • Reusable Vertical-Landing Transport Craft (Russian abbreviation)

MTS.

  • American earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1972.08.13, Explorer 46. Micrometeoroid tests.

MTV Motor.

  • SpaceDev N2O/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Upper stages. Small hybrid rocket motor designed for use in the Maneuver and Transfer Vehicle, an upper stage orbital transfer motor. Tested 2001.

Mu.

  • The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space. It was the first Japanese launch vehicle designed from the start as an orbital launch vehicle.

Mu.

  • The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space. It was the first Japanese launch vehicle designed from the start as an orbital launch vehicle.

Mu-1.

  • Japanese test vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40

Mu-3.

  • The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space.

Mu-3C.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A

Mu-3C-0.

  • Solid rocket stage. 95.00 kN (21,357 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Mu-3D.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40

Mu-3D-3.

  • Solid rocket stage. 128.00 kN (28,776 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,800 kg (6,173 lb).

Mu-3H.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A + 1 x KM-H

Mu-3S.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-13TVC + 1 x M-22TVC + 1 x M-3A

Mu-3S-0.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,100/1,080 kg. Thrust 327.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Mu-3S-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,800/7,640 kg. Thrust 1,262.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Mu-3S-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,100/2,800 kg. Thrust 524.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds.

Mu-3S-II.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x SB-735 + 1 x M-13 + 1 x M-23 + 1 x M-3B

Mu-4S.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Five stage vehicle consisting of 8 x SB-310 + 1 x M-10 + 1 x M-20 + 1 x M-30 + 1 x M-40

Mu-4S-1.

  • Solid rocket stage. 737.00 kN (165,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 26,600 kg (58,643 lb).

Mu-4S-4.

  • Solid rocket stage. 26.50 kN (5,957 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Mud Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 34 launches from 1961 to 1967, reaching up to 75 kilometers altitude.

Mud Lake DZ RW08/26.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Mud Lake DZ RW18/36.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Muehlner.

  • Muehlner, Joachim Wilhelm (1913-2004) German-American radio engineer, at Peenemuende from 1939 . One of the few of von Braun's team that worked on all major programs, from the doppler transponder for the V-2 to the electronic landing systems for the Space Shuttle in 1978.

Muehlstroh.

  • Muehlstroh, Jupp German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot.

Mueller.

  • Mueller, George Edwin (1918-) American engineer. Headed the NASA Office of Manned Spaceflight during the Apollo program.

Mueller, Fritz.

  • Mueller, Fritz (1907-2001) German-American guidance system specialist, at Kreiselgeraete from 1933. Worked for von Braun in Germany and America, 1936-1960, involved in guidance platforms for Redstone, Jupiter, Pershing, and Saturn I. Went to private industry in 1960.

Mueller, Hans.

  • Mueller, Hans (1896-1986) German rocket technician in WW2, recruited to work with Von Braun in Kummersdorf. Later worked at Peenemuende, and in the Soviet Union after WW2.

Mueller, Hugo.

  • Mueller, Hugo (1898-) German Engineer. Engineer; worked at Mittelwerk.

Mueller, Otto.

  • Mueller, Otto German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2.

Mueller, Rudolf.

  • Mueller, Rudolf (1898-) German mechanics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2.

Mueller, Werner.

  • Mueller, Werner (1914-) German mathematician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946.

Mukai.

  • Mukai, Chiaki (1952-) Japanese physician payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-65, STS-95. Surgeon, first Japanese female astronaut.

Mukhortov.

  • Mukhortov, Pavel Pavlovich (1966-) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992.

Mu-Labsat.

  • Japanese technology satellite. One launch, 2002.12.14. Technology satellite, which released two tiny subsatellites in an experiment to test an onboard tracking imager for inspector satellites.

Mullane.

  • Mullane, Richard Michael 'Mike' (1945-) American test engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-41-D, STS-27, STS-36. Author of the frankest astronaut biography ever published. Flew 150 combat missions in Vietnam.

Multi-Directional Propulsion Module.

  • Alternate designation for MDPB manned space station module.

Multi-module orbital base.

  • Alternate designation for MKBS manned space station.

Multiple Access Communications Satellites.

  • Alternate designation for MACSAT military communications satellite.

Multiple Docking Adapter.

  • Alternate designation for Skylab MDA manned space station module.

Multipurpose Satellite Gals.

  • Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1983. Heavy radar satellite based on the DOS 17K space station bus and using a KRT-30, a 30 m diameter radiotelescope.

Multi-Role Recovery Capsule.

  • British manned spacecraft. Study 1987. Britain was the only European Space Agency member opposed to ESA's ambitious man-in-space plan, and the British conservative government refused to approve the November 1987 plan.

multispectral.

  • Utilizing radiation from several discrete bands of the spectrum simultaneously.

Multi-Use Thruster.

  • Alternate designation for MUT MON-UDMH rocket engine.

Munin.

  • Swedish technology satellite. One launch, 2000.11.21. Small 6 kg Munin nanosatellite was built by Swedish students in collaboration with the Swedish Institute for Space Physics (IRF) and carried a particle detector, a spectrometer, and an auroral camera.

Munir.

  • Habib, Munir Habib (1953-) Arab-Syrian pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1987. Graduated from Military Pilot School, Aleppo, 1973 Pilot and Lieutenant Colonel, Syrian Air Force. Resumed military service.

Munz.

  • Munz German rocket engine specialist.

Muroc.

  • Alternate name for Edwards launch site.

MURP.

  • American manned spaceplane. Study 1969. The McDonnell Douglas Space Shuttle Phase A studies were conducted under contract NAS9-9204. Their Class I vehicle was dubbed MURP - Manned Upper Reusable Payload.

Murray.

  • Murray, Arthur 'Kit' American test pilot. Flew the X-1A, X-1B and X-5 # 1.

Musabayev.

  • Musabayev, Talgat Amangeldyevich (1951-) Kazakh pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-16, Mir EO-25, ISS EP-1. Transferred in 1991 Air Force Special Group. Russian Air Force

MuSat.

  • Argentinan earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.08.29, Microsat. MuSat-1 Victor was the first Argentine-built satellite.

Musca.

  • WRE solid rocket engine. 10 kN.

Muses.

  • Mu Space Engineering Satellites (launched on Japanes Mu series launch vehicles) pioneered new satellite technologies, including lunar flyby interplanetary injection, aerobraking, and large structure deployment.

Muses-B.

  • Manufacturer's designation for Haruka radio astronomy satellite.

Muses-C.

  • Alternate designation for Hayabusa asteroid probe.

Musgrave.

  • Musgrave, Dr Franklin Story (1935-) American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-6, STS-51-F, STS-33, STS-44, STS-61, STS-80. Flew in space six times.

Musketball.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Musson.

  • Code name for Geo-IK earth geodetic satellite.

Mustard.

  • The British Aircraft Corporation "Multi-Unit Space Transport And Recovery Device" design of 1964-1965 was a winged two-stage-to-orbit reuseable space shuttle using the 'triamese' concept. The three components of the design were lifting bodies with a configuration similar to the American HL-10 vehicle. BAC sought to reduce development cost by use of two boosters nearly identical to the orbiter vehicle.

Mustard.

  • Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2157.4 kN. Study 1968. Isp=405s. Used on Mustard launch vehicle.

Mustard 1.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 141,043/24,036 kg. Thrust 2,150.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 405 seconds.

Mustard 2.

  • Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,184/24,943 kg. Thrust 2,150.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 405 seconds.

Musudan.

  • Austere coastal missile test site used for launch of long-range missile tests over the Pacific, and North Korea's space launch vehicle.

     

     

     

     

     

     

Muszaphar.

  • Muszaphar, Dr Sheikh (1972-) Malaysian physician cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-13. First Malaysian in space.

MUT.

  • Rocketdyne MON/UDMH rocket engine. 5.635 kN. Satellite maneuvering motor. Developed 2005. Isp=292s. New technology motor with improved thrust/weight ratio and use of mixed oxides of nitrogen oxidiser with a much lower freezing point than N2O4.

M-V.

  • All-solid Japanese satellite launch vehicle.

M-V.

  • All-solid Japanese satellite launch vehicle.

M-V KM.

  • Japanese all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Four stage version consisting of 1 x M-14 + 1 x M-24 + 1 x M-34 + 1 x KM-V1

M-V-1.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 83,560/12,070 kg. Thrust 3,780.35 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds.

M-V-2.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,470/3,410 kg. Thrust 1,245.29 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 288 seconds.

M-V-3.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds.

M-V-4.

  • Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,430/118 kg. Thrust 51.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds.

M-V-4.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine. 52 kN. Isp=298s. Used on M-V launch vehicle. First flight 1997.

MVKS.

  • Alternate designation for VKS ssto winged orbital launch vehicle.

MVKS.

  • Reusable aerospacecraft (Russian abbreviation)

MVS.

  • Russian agency. Ministry of Defence, Russia.

MVTU.

  • Moscow Higher Technical School (Russian abbreviation)

MW.

  • megawatt(s)

MX.

  • Alternate designation for Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missile.

MX-1593.

  • American orbital launch vehicle. The September 1951 design for the Atlas used seven main engines to hurl the 3600 kg nuclear warhead over a 9300 km range. CEP was 1850 m.

MX-2145.

  • American manned combat spacecraft. Study 1953. In May 1953 the Air Force funded Boeing to study their MX-2145 boost-glide vehicle as a successor to the B-58 supersonic medium-range bomber. This was a competitor to Bell's BOMI.

MX-324.

  • American manned rocketplane. Flown 1944. First U.S. military rocket-powered plane; built by Northrop.

MX-770.

  • Alternate designation for Navaho SSM-A-2 intermediate range cruise missile.

MX-771.

  • Alternate designation for Matador intermediate range cruise missile.

MX-774.

  • American test vehicle. Project MX-774 inaugurated by AAF with Consolidated-Vultee to study rocket capabilities with an ICBM as a final objective. Limited funds permitted a few test launches. These rockets demonstrated technologies that woud later be applied to the Atlas.

MX-774.

  • Convair Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 35 kN.

MX-774.

  • Lox/Alcohol rocket stage. 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

MX-775.

  • American intercontinental cruise missile.

MX-775-1.

  • Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

MX-776.

  • Alternate designation for Rascal air-to-surface missile.

Myasishchev.

  • Myasishchev, Vladimir Mikhailovich (1902-1978) Soviet Chief Designer 1951-1960 of OKB-23. Developed innovative M-4, M-50 bombers, Buran cruise missiles, and VKA spaceplane. Bureau merged with Chelomei, 1960. Later Director of TsAGI. Regained his own design bureau just before his death.

Myasishchev.

  • Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Myasishchev Design Bureau, Russia.

Myers.

  • Myers, Dale Dehaven (1922-) American aerodynamicist, charismatic manager that went many times through the revolving door between industry and government. Key roles in Hound Dog, Apollo, Shuttle, and B-1 programs.

Mylar.

  • American technology satellite. One launch, 1971.08.07. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology.

Myriade.

  • Micro-satellite product line developed jointly by EADS Astrium and the French Space Agency CNES beginning in 1998. Operational, first launch 2004.12.18.

MZ.

  • Machine Building Plant (Russian abbreviation)

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