Biryuzov, Sergei Semenovich
(1904-1964) Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief of RVSN 1962-1963.
Service in Southern and Ukrainian Fronts in World War II, completing war as commander of the 37th Army. After war, led occupation of Bulgaria, then ascending commands leading to appointment in 1955 as Deputy Minister of Defence for PVO Air Defence Forces. From 1963 Chief of General Staff, Ministry of Defence. Died in an air crash.
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Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.
1964 April 24 -
- Voskhod plans - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Biryuzov; Korolev. Program: Voskhod; Vostok. Flight: Voskhod 1; Voskhod 2; Vostok 7; Vostok 8; Vostok 9; Vostok 10. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. Kamanin receives the directive issued by Biryuzov to implement the Voskhod Party resolutions. Four spacecraft will be completed, two in a three-man configuration, to be flown in the second half of 1964, and two in a configuration that will provide an airlock and allow one cosmonaut to exit into open space. Less than a year is allowed to develop the new spacecraft version for the spacewalk, as well as develop the space suit. This will be a crash priority program, and allow Korolev no resources to complete and launch five Vostok spacecraft on manned and life sciences missions beginning in May.
1964 October 19 -
- Voskhod 1 crew in Moscow - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Yegorov; Feoktistov; Brezhnev; Biryuzov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The crew arrives at Vnukovo Airfield at 12:30 aboard an Il-18. The crew walks up to the reviewing stand and Komarov makes the standard report to the Communist Party and Soviet Ministers. At 14:00 there is a meeting at Red Square, and at 17:00 an audience at the Kremlin. The next day will be the customary meeting with Korolev and the workers of OKB-1, and the day after, the press conference, and on 22 October the meeting with the staff at the Cosmonaut Training Centre. The celebrations provide the first opportunity for Brezhnev to present himself in public in the role previously held by Khrushchev. The celebrations are somewhat dampened by new that an Il-18 crashed near Belgrade, killing all 17 occupants of a military delegation, including Marshal Biryuzov. This was the same aircraft and same crew that had flown the cosmonauts from Kustanin to Tyuratam....
1964 October 19 -
1964 November 3 -
1964 December 30 -
- Western reports - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Biryuzov; Komarov. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 1; Voskhod 2; Soyuz A-1; Soyuz A-2; Soyuz A-3; Soyuz A-4. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. A corespondent from the APN agency calls Kamanin and wants to know if the official press should react to the claims of a Belgian professor that all of the Soviet cosmonauts have returned from space with serious psychological problems. Kamanin says there is nothing to it, but that the best course is to ignore the report and publish no official response. Kamanin looks forward to the missions planned in the new year: first the Vykhod, the first spacewalk, followed by a 10 to 12 day mission by a single cosmonaut, then later crews of first two, and then five to six in joined Soyuz spacecraft. In 1966 the first space docking is planned, followed by the first lunar flyby. Kamanin feels apprehensive, though. All manned flights have been completed to date without a serious problem, whereas Soviet unmanned spacecraft have been extremely unreliable and failed more often than not. He attributes this to the involvement of the VVS in the manned flights, whereas the RVSN rocket forces were responsible for the others. He worries that, with the ascendancy of Brezhnev and the death of Biryuzkov, that standards will drop in the future. Indeed, the RVSN has asked if Komarov could transfer officially from the VVS to the RVSN, a move that Kamanin vigorously opposes.
At least progress on improvements at TsPK are underway. One apartment building with 75 apartments for cosmonauts is already finished, and an 11 story building should be finished in 1965, as well as schools, nurseries, stores, and so on. Currently there are 17 active cosmonauts and 13 candidate cosmonauts in training. An additional 40 will have to be recruited in 1965 to support the ambitious space plans recently adopted.
1965 October 22 -
1968 December 12 -
. Launch Vehicle
: Spiral 50-50
- Kamanin catalogues the reasons the Soviet Union is losing the moon race - .
Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Biryuzov; Ustinov. Program: Lunar L1; Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK; LK; Soyuz 7K-L1.
- Fighting between the VVS and its 'enemies' (Ustinov etc.)
- No single state organisation is responsible for civilian spaceflight.
- Various entities are responsible for various aspects of military spaceflight (RSVN, VMF, General Staff, VVS). Kamanin notes that the state has poured 10 billion roubles into the N1 without visible effect. He believes reusable systems are needed to reduce the cost of spaceflight. The death of General Biryuzov in a plane crash meant that the Soviet Union lost a strong supporter of a robust military space program.
- Kamanin believes the VVS should be in charge of piloted spacecraft, not the RVSN.
- Furthermore the entire design approach to manned spacecraft is incorrect -- what is needed is piloted spacecraft, not cosmonauts flying as passengers in automated spacecraft. The result of the automated philosophy was that the Soyuz was not man-rated until 1968. While the qualification process was going on, the American Gemini flew ten times. The Apollo-Saturn V has flown twice, while the L3 was still just a mock-up. In effect, the Soviet Union gave the Americans a two to three year lead, allowing them to beat the Russians.
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