Encyclopedia Astronautica

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Leonov, Aleksei Arkhipovich (1934-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. First person to walk in space. Flew on Voskhod 2, Soyuz 19 (ASTP). Cancelled missions included command of first Soviet circumlunar flight in 1969 and first military space station mission in 1973.

Leonov was originally educated as an artist at the Academy of Arts in Riga. He enlisted into the Soviet Air Force, attending pilot prep school in Kremenchug, and graduated with an honors diploma from the Chuguyev Higher Air Force School in 1957. He was selected in the first cosmonaut group, completing cosmonaut training March 1960 - 3 April 1961. He first flew in space on Voskhod 2, becoming the first man to walk in space. He was to have been commander of first circumlunar L1 crew in early 1969, and of the first crew to the Salyut DOS-3 (Cosmos 557) space station in May 1973, but both missions were cancelled. He finally flew again in the Apollo-Soyuz joint mission in 1975. Thereafter he was off flight status, but served as Chief Cosmonaut. After retiring, he became president of the American Alpha Capital investment corporation in Moscow. Leonov was married with two children. An athlete his entire life, he enjoyed swimming, water skiing, and parachute jumping. He was noted for his fine art. His paintings and sketches, predominately of space themes, have been widely published and exhibited.

Birth Place: Listvyanka, Kemerovo.
Status: Inactive.

Born: 1934.05.30.
Spaceflights: 2 .
Total time in space: 7.02 days.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
  • Cosmonaut Category of persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia. More...

Associated Flights
  • Vostok 5 Crew: Bykovsky. Joint flight with Vostok 6. Record flight duration. Spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit and quickly decayed - temperatures in the service module reached very high levels and the flight returned early. Backup crew: Volynov, Leonov. More...
  • Vostok 9 Crew: Belyayev. Proposed high altitude Vostok flight for extended scientific studies to be flown in 1963-1964; All further Vostok flights cancelled in favor of multi-crew Voskhod in February 1964. Backup crew: Leonov. More...
  • Voskhod 2 Crew: Belyayev, Leonov. First space walk. Speed and altitude records. A disaster: astronaut unable to reenter airlock due to spacesuit stiffness; cabin flooded with oxygen; manual reentry, landed in mountains, crew not recovered until next day. Further Voskhod flights cancelled. Backup crew: Gorbatko, Khrunov, Zaikin. More...
  • Vostok 10 Crew: Leonov. Planned ten-day flight, science plus engineering tests of ion flow sensors to be used for orientation of later Soyuz spacecraft. All follow-on Vostok missions cancelled in spring 1964. Backup crew: Komarov. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1 Crew: Leonov, Makarov. Planned first manned circumnavigation of the moon. It was decided after the American Apollo 8 lunar orbital flight in December 1968 to cancel any 'second place' Soviet manned circumlunar flights. Backup crew: Kuklin. More...
  • Soyuz 10 Crew: Rukavishnikov, Shatalov, Yeliseyev. Intended first space station mission. Hard dock with station could not be achieved. Then stuck and could separate from the station only after repeated attempts. Toxic fumes in air supply during landing overcame one astronaut. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov.Support crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. More...
  • Soyuz 11 Crew: Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, Volkov. First space station mission. Record flight duration. Main telescope inoperative. Fire in space station put out. Fail-safe valve opening during re-entry, resulted in decompression and death of entire crew. Backup crew: Kolodin, Kubasov, Leonov. More...
  • Soyuz 12 / DOS 1 Crew: Kolodin, Leonov, Rukavishnikov. If the Soyuz 11 crew had not perished during return to the earth, the Leonov crew would have been sent for a second visit to the Salyut 1 space station. A 30-day mission duration was planned. Backup crew: Gubarev, Sevastyanov, Voronov. More...
  • Soyuz 12 / DOS 2 Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after DOS 2 was destroyed during launch. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Grechko, Gubarev. More...
  • Soyuz 12 / DOS 3 Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after Cosmos 557 failed in orbit. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Grechko, Gubarev. More...
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov.Support crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Programs
  • ASTP Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system. More...
  • Lunar L1 The Soviet program to put a man on a circumlunar flight around the moon. More...
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...
  • Voskhod The Voskhods were adaptations of the single place Vostok spacecraft meant to conduct flights with up to three crew and for space walks in advance of US Gemini program. Work on the 3KV and 3KD versions of the basic Vostok spacecraft began with the decree issued on 13 April 1964. In order to accommodate more than one crew, the seats were mounted perpendicular to the Vostok ejection seat position, so the crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. The Elburs soft landing system replaced the ejection seat and allowed the crew to stay in the capsule. It consisted of probes that dangled from the parachute lines. Contact with the earth triggered a solid rocket engine in the parachute which resulted in a zero velocity landing. More...
  • Vostok World's first manned spacecraft, it was later developed into the Voskhod, and numerous versions of Zenit recoverable reconnaisance, materials, and biological research satellites which remained in service into the 21st Century. More...

  • Becker, Joachim, "Space Facts Web Site", http://www.spacefacts.de/, Web Address when accessed: here.

Leonov Chronology

1960 February 25 - .
  • Soviet Air Force Cosmonaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Anikeyev; Belyayev; Bondarenko; Bykovsky; Filatyev; Gagarin; Gorbatko; Kartashov; Khrunov; Komarov; Leonov; Nelyubov; Nikolayev; Popovich; Rafikov; Shonin; Titov; Varlamov; Volynov; Zaikin. The group was selected to provide pilot astronauts for the Vostok manned spaceflight program.. Qualifications: Military jet aircraft pilots under 30 years of age; under 170 cm tall; under 70 kg in weight.. While the Americans sought mature test pilots for their first spaceflights, the Soviets recruited young pilots with the intent of training them for a career as spacemen. There were 3,000 applicants following interviews with medical doctor teams that toured Soviet air bases beginning in August 1959. 102 were called for physical and psychological tests. 8 of these were selected, but then Chief Designer Korolev said he wanted a pool three times larger than the American Mercury cadre. Of the 20 selected, 12 would fly in space. Of the 8 that did not, 1 died in a ground fire in training; 3 were dismissed for disciplinary reasons; and 4 left following injuries in training.

1962 March 16 - .
1963 April 19 - .
  • Cosmonaut training for Vostok 5/6. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov; Khrunov; Tereshkova. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6. Spacecraft: Vostok. It is clear that the female cosmonauts are trained and ready for an August flight, and the men (Bykovskiy, Volynov, Leonov, Khrunov) can complete training by that date. The male cosmonauts object to spending 7 to 8 days in a spacesuit in the ground spacecraft mock-up as required by the flight doctors. They don't want to spend more than 3 to 4 days.

1963 May 4 - .
  • Kamanin informed that a dual spaceflight has been decreed within the next 6 weeks. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov; Khrunov; Tereshkova; Korolev; Titov; Alekseyev, Semyon. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6. Only today is Kamanin informed that a dual flight has been decreed within the next 3 to 6 weeks. The women are ready, but Bykovskiy and Volynov need a few parachute jumps and training in the hot mock-up. Leonov and Khrunov need additional centrifuge training as well. Bykovskiy and Volynov should be ready by 30 May, and Leonov and Khrunov by 15 June. Therefore earliest possible launch date is 5 to 15 June. Alekseyev's bureau is as always the pacing factor. He can adapt one of the female ejection seats for Bykovskiy, but not for Volynov. The space suit for Leonov will only be completed by 30 May. Kamanin talks to Korolev about dumping Alekseyev's bureau in the future. Cosmonaut parachute trainer Nikitin agrees that Bykovskiy can complete his parachute qualification at Fedosiya on 9-10 May. Further bad behaviour by Titov is reported during a trip to Kiev. He insulted an officer ('I am Titov, who are you?') and then had general's wives intervene on his behalf to get him out of trouble.

1963 May 11 - .
  • Vostok 5 / Vostok 6 Planning - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov; Khrunov; Tereshkova; Solovyova; Ponomaryova; Yerkina; Keldysh; Rudenko; Korolev. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6. Spacecraft: Vostok. Korolev reports still problems with components of the electrical system from the Kharkov factory -- the same problems that existed in 1962. The cosmonauts will go to Tyuratam on 27/28 May, with launch planned for 3/5 June. Bykovskiy is named prime for Vostok 5, with Volynov his backup. Tereshkova is named prime for Vostok 6, with Solovyova and Ponomaryeva both as her backups. This selection is however made despite strong support for Ponomaryeva as prime by Keldysh and Rudenko.

1963 May 21 - .
1963 June 14 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8K72K.
  • Vostok 5 - . Call Sign: Yastreb (Hawk ). Crew: Bykovsky. Backup Crew: Volynov; Leonov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 7. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Volynov; Leonov. Agency: Korolev. Program: Vostok. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Vostok 5. Spacecraft: Vostok. Duration: 4.96 days. Decay Date: 1963-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 591 . COSPAR: 1963-020A. Apogee: 131 km (81 mi). Perigee: 130 km (80 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 87.10 min. Joint flight with Vostok 6. The Soviet Union launched Vostok 5, piloted by Lt. Col. Valery F. Bykovsky. Two days later Lt. Valentina V. Tereshkova, the first spacewoman, followed in Vostok 6. On its first orbit, Vostok 6 came within about five km of Vostok 5, the closest distance achieved during the flight, and established radio contact. Both cosmonauts landed safely on June 19. The space spectacular featured television coverage of Bykovsky that was viewed in the West as well as in Russia. Unlike earlier missions, only a black and white film camera was carried. Photometric measurements of the earth's horizon were made.

    Mission objectives were officially: further study of the effect of various space-flight factors in the human organism; extensive medico-biological experiments under conditions of prolonged flight; further elaboration and improvement of spaceship systems.

    Vostok 5 was originally planned to go for a record eight days. The launch was delayed repeatedly due to high solar activity and technical problems. Finally the spacecraft ended up in a lower than planned orbit. Combined with increased atmospheric activity due to solar levels, Vostok 5 quickly decayed temperatures in the service module reached very high levels.

    Bykovsky also experienced an unspecified problem with his waste management system (a spill?) which made conditions in the cabin 'very uncomfortable'. He was finally ordered to return after only five days in space.

    To top it all off, once again the Vostok service module failed to separate cleanly from the reentry sphere. Wild gyrations ensued until the heat of reentry burned through the non-separating retraining strap.

1963 September 17 - .
1963 December 9 - .
  • Plans for cosmonaut training - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Beregovoi; Sidorenko; Katys; Volynov; Komarov; Leonov. Flight: Soyuz 3. Rudenko proposes that three very experienced officers be recruited as cosmonauts, given one spaceflight each, then be appointed to manage cosmonaut training. This will provide qualified managers, which cannot be recruited from among the ranks of the cosmonauts themselves. To this end Beregovoi, Sidorenko, and Katys are interviewed. Rudenko wants Beregovoi to fly first. Kamanin agrees with the general concept, but not with giving Beregovoi the next flight. Volynov, Komarov, and Leonov have been waiting for a flight after completing two years of training, and should fly next.

1964 January 23 - .
1964 January 30 - .
  • Parachute training - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Leonov; Korolev; Zverev. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 7; Vostok 8; Vostok 9; Vostok 10. Spacecraft: Vostok. Kamanin prepares schedules for Tereshkova's visit to England on 4-10 February. Leonov's Vostok training group travels to Kirzhach to complete parachute training. Kamanin tries to pressure Korolev, Zverev, and Ivanovskiy to accelerate work on further Vostok flights.

1964 April 23 - .
  • Voskhod crews - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Bykovsky; Popovich; Titov; Volynov; Leonov; Khrunov; Belyayev; Komarov; Demin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Komarov has declared that nine cosmonauts are spaceflight-ready: Bykovsky, Popovich, Titov, Volynov, Leonov, Khrunov, Belyayev, Komarov, and Demin. One of these will command Voskhod, the other two seats will be occupied by a physician and an engineer or news correspondent. Kamanin is given only two to three months to prepare the passengers for spaceflight - something he reiterates is a dangerous adventure.

1964 May 21 - .
  • Voskhod configurations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Bushuyev; Volynov; Komarov; Leonov; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1; Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut; Sokol SK-1. A meeting of Generals Kholodkov (VVS) and Yuryshev (General Staff) reviews military space plans - launch centres, anti-satellite forces, command and control systems. Kamanin looks forward to the VVS taking control of military cosmonautics. Later a meeting with Korolev and Bushuyev reviews Voskhod crew plans. It is agreed that the commanders will be selected from among the four flight-ready unflown cosmonauts (Volynov, Komarov, Leonov, Khrunov). Korolev describes in detail for the first time the inflatable airlock that is to be fitted to four Voskhods to allow one cosmonaut to exit into space. Korolev believes it will be possible to use the existing Vostok spacesuit for this operation, but Kamanin severely doubts this.

1964 July 6 - .
  • Voskhod crews selected. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volynov; Katys; Yegorov; Komarov; Feoktistov; Sorokin; Lazarev; Belyayev; Leonov; Khrunov; Gorbatko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin select Volynov, Katys, and Yegorov as the prime crew for the Voskhod flight. Komarov, Feoktistov, and Sorokin will be the backup crew. Lazarev will serve as reserve for both crew physician position. The VVS leadership approves the selection. For the first space walk (the flight designated Vykhod at the time), Belyayev, Leonov, Khrunov, and Gorbatko are in training. All want to be first, but Kamanin finds Leonov and Khrunov to have the best analytical minds, to be able to get themselves out of a jam if something goes wrong. He selects Belyayev and Gorbatko to be trained as spacecraft commanders for the missions.

1964 September 2 - .
  • Katys plea - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Katys; Tyulin; Korolev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1; Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. Katys insists that he knew nothing of his brother and sister living in Paris. His father had these children before 1910, when they left with their mother for Paris. His father did not marry Katys' mother until 1924. His father was arrested in 1931, when Katys was only 5 years old. Meanwhile Tyulin recommends that Kamanin delay his departure for Baikonur by 2 to 3 days. The launch vehicle for the first test mission hasn't been delivered yet. There are still problems with the landing system. In a test at Fedosiya on 29 August, the capsule was dropped from an aircraft with the parachute hatch already opened. Normally this would be ejected by a barometric switch at 7 to 8 km altitude. So the tests have not really proven the end-to-end function of the landing system. 2 to 3 months would be needed to correctly wring out the system, which is still showing many bugs. Instead Korolev now says that the first Voskhod flight will take place no earlier than 10-15 September, and the first manned flight has realistically moved into October. The 3KD Vykhod flight Korolev still plans by the end of the year, but Kamanin believes it cannot take place until 1965. Leonov reports that there are still a lot of problems and defects with the spacesuit being designed for the space walk. Finally two VVS officers have discovered there is a real problem with Voskhod internal temperatures post-landing. Since the crew compartment hatch will not be ejected as in Vostok, they estimate that temperatures will reach 40 deg C at 11 minutes after landing, peaking at 60 deg C 5 to 8 minutes after that. They recommend that the crew has to be able to open the external air vents manually - currently they only open automatically 11 minutes after landing.

1964 September 24 - . LV Family: N1; R-56; R-9; Tsiklon; UR-100; UR-200; UR-700. Launch Vehicle: R-26.
  • Khrushchev visits Baikonur - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Yangel; Chelomei; Brezhnev; Smirnov; Ustinov; Korolev; Glushko; Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut; LK-700. This was his last visit, just weeks before his overthrow. The Soviet leadership were shown the UR-100 and observed launches of the competing UR-200 and R-36. Khrushchev agreed with the decision to put the R-36 into production instead of Chelomeiís UR-200. He felt he couldnít turn down Yangel a third time after approving Korolevís N1 instead of Yangelís R-56 and Chelomeiís UR-100 instead of Yangelís R-26. Khrushchev decided to cancel Korolevís badly behind schedule R-9A, even though Smirnov and Ustinov insisted they wanted it in their arsenal (in May 1965, after Khrushchevís overthrow, this decision was reversed and the R-9A went into production).

    Khrushchev also visited a secret space fair, with Korolev, Chelomei, Yangel, and Glushko presenting their rockets and spacecraft. Chelomei presented his UR-700 heavy lift design as an alternative to Korolevís N1. This presentation was a surprise to Ustinov and Dementiev. Khrushchev ordered Chelomei to prepare a draft proposal for the design. Chelomei hoped that 12 to 18 months later, when the UR-700 draft project would be completed, the fallacy of Korolevís N1 design would be apparent to all. Korolevís N1 plans were also reviewed and approved at the meeting.

    Over the two days, Khruschev witnessed five launches of rockets by Korolev, Yangel, and Chelomei, all of them successful. Gagarin and Belyayev explained the Vykhod spacecraft to him, and Leonov donned a spacesuit and demonstrated how he would exit into open space form the inflatable airlock and return thereafter. All went very well.

    This was the last time Khrushchev saw the chief designers of the Soviet rocket industry. Despite his support for them not one of them visited him in his retirement.

1964 December 29 - .
1965 January 8 - .
  • Vykhod equipment - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. Kamanin spends the day with key OKB-1 staff and leading cosmonauts in reviewing problems with the Volga airlock and Berkut spacesuit at Factory 918. There are more than 50-60 presentations made by all concerned organisations. Belyayev and Leonov say that the trainer aboard the Tu-104 is sufficient for them to prepare for the task. However everything must be done to allow the feat to be accomplished with minimum energy on the part of the cosmonaut and with total reliability of the equipment.

1965 January 12 - .
  • Vykhod review - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Over 60 leading engineers and cosmonauts review progress on development of Vykhod systems and spacewalking techniques. The group views films of Leonov training in zero-G in the Tu-104 aircraft, as well as an American film of the moon as taken from Ranger on its kamikaze impact mission. Development of systems seems to be going very well and very thoroughly. Both the men and the equipment should be ready by 15 February. There remains the need for a back-up oxygen supply for the spacewalker, and improved reliability of the primary KP-55 oxygen generator. Development of the technology to allow the cosmonaut to leave the spacecraft is essential for later manned explorations of the moon and planets.

1965 January 13 - .
  • OKB-1 program review - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Gorbatko; Zaikin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. All systems development is complete, and the two boosters for Vykhod are ready. The launch of the pathfinder spacecraft with mannequins aboard will take place at the end of January, with the manned mission scheduled for March. Leonov's spacesuit is complete, but Zaikin's will not be finished until 5 February, and there will exist only the metal detail parts for Gorbatko's suit.

1965 January 15 - .
  • Cosmonaut examinations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Gubarev; Demin; Dobrovolsky; Pitskhelauri; Belyayev; Leonov; Khrunov; Zaikin; Gorbatko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Vostok. The 15 candidate-astronauts take their first phase examinations. 13 are rated outstanding, with Shatalov, Gubarev, and Demin doing the best. Two are rated only 'good' - Dobrovolskiy and Pitskherlauri. Dobrovolskiy was the worst, getting some answers completely wrong. For example, he said that the maximum thickness of Vostok's heat shield was 440 mm, when the correct answer was 140 mm; and identified Krug as a homing beacon on the search aircraft, rather than aboard the spacecraft. However overall everything went well, and all were considered to have passed. On this day Belyayev and Leonov complete their centrifuge training. Belyayev is 40 years old, and had little trouble with the centrifuge. Kamanin resolves to name Khrunov as a spacecraft commander in Belyayev's place, with a final crew being Khrunov-Leonov in case Belyayev cannot fly for some reason. Khrunov is available since Zaikin since the decision has been made to train Zaikin as Leonov's backup instead of Gorbatko.

1965 January 19 - .
  • Vykhod crews - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin; Beregovoi. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Faced with continuing pressure to fly Beregovoi on the Vykhod flight. Kamanin notes that the spacecraft requires short cosmonauts of minimum weight (Belyayev is 170 cm tall and weighs 72 kg; Leonov 172 cm and 78.2 kg; Gorbatko 168.5 cm and 69 kg; Khrunov 171 cm and 70.8 kg; and Zaikin 167 cm and 69.3 kg). By comparison Beregovoi is 180 cm tall and weights 84.5 kg.

1965 February 5 - .
  • Vykhod redesignated Voskhod 2 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The 3KD spacecraft will be known as Voskhod-2 rather than Vykhod. It was felt that 'Vykhod' ('exit') would reveal the purpose of the flight, which should not be revealed unless the experiment succeeds. The cosmonauts are training very hard in the zero-G trainer and will use the airlock at 37 km equivalent vacuum in the TBK-60 on 8 February. The motto is "Train hard to make it easy to do".

1965 February 8 - .
  • Voskhod 2 crew vacuum chamber tests - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Korolev; Lazarev; Sorokin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Belyayev and Leonov practice deploying and exiting the airlock at 37 km equivalent altitude in the TBK-60 chamber. The Vega system for keeping track of the spacewalking cosmonaut's life signs fails again. Kamanin is infuriated. Later he discusses future spaceflight plans with Korolev, who was supposed to deliver five Voskhods in 1965. Korolev says that three spacecraft will only be completed by October, and should only be available for flights at the end of the year. He wants to use one as a biosat in an unmanned flight of organisms for 30 days; a second for the flight of a cosmonaut pilot and physician for 15 days; and the third for flight of a cosmonaut and engineer to perform an artificial gravity experiment. Two further spacecraft will be finished to the Vykhod configuration in October 1965 for flights in March 1966. Nothing is official yet, and Kamanin urges that the necessary resolutions be passed as soon as possible so that training can begin. He thought before that there was little chance that Yegorov's back-ups, Lazarev and Sorokin would fly, but now he puts them back in training so they will be ready for this flight schedule. But Korolev remains opposed to flying either candidate.

1965 February 9 - .
  • Voskhod 2 crew selection. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Zaikin; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: The State Commission meets to consider Voskhod 2 crew assignments. Belyayev and Leonov are named the prime crew, with Zaikin and Khrunov as their back-ups. .

1965 March 3 - .
  • Voskhod-2 crew review. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Zaikin; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin reviews emergency procedures with the Voskhod-2 prime and backup crews, and finds their training fully complete - they are ready for flight. Re-entry with the airlock ring is a special concern. If the airlock has jettisoned normally, the ring will have a height of 27-40 mm above the surface of the spherical capsule; if it only partially jettisons, the rings could be as much as 70-80 mm high. In such a case the asymmetry of the ring on the upper heat shield might impart a rotation to the capsule. The drogue parachute can be safely deployed at up to 1.5 to 2.0 revolutions per second; beyond that there is real danger to the crew's survival. If the experiment with the Zenit capsule fitted with the ring is successful, that will provide some confidence. But if the Zenit is not launched or fails to return to earth, then in Korolev's opinion the flight should be delayed until the safety of re-entry with the ring can be demonstrated. However the majority of the State Commission disagrees with Korolev, and believe it will be safe to proceed with the Voskhod-2 flight even without the Zenit test.

1965 March 9 - .
  • Tyuratam - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Korolev; Belyayev; Leonov; Zaikin; Khrunov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin and the cosmonauts land at the airfield at 11:45, but have to wait until 12:10 for the arrival of Tyulin and Korolev for the official greeting. Korolev is ill but pushing himself hard. A dispute breaks out about crew assignments. At the last minute some want Khrunov to substitute for Belyayev. Korolev is clearly disgusted by such reversals after the prime crew has been set for months.

1965 March 10 - .
  • Voskhod-2 preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Khrunov; Leonov; Zaikin; Komarov; Gagarin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. Final flight suit fitting is conducted on Belyayev, Khrunov, Leonov, and Zaikin by Komarov and Gagarin. It is decided that on flight day only Belyayev, Leonov, and Khrunov will suit up. Khrunov has trained for both crew positions, and in case of last second substitution, he can fly in place of either Belyayev or Leonov. Kamanin tells of the opposition to Belyayev making the flight, which goes back to an incident in the altitude chamber when a Colonel Karpov underhandedly reported that Belyayev was performing poorly. Kamanin believed this was due to bad telemetry. Leonov recounts another incident where the oxygen supply was failing during the same test, but Belyayev did not denounce the Factory 918 staff.

    That evening the contingent watches the Arabic film "Black Glasses". At the same time an incident is developing when Khrunov insists that the second crew would only train in the capsule in their spacesuits - otherwise they would report to the State Commission that they were not ready for flight. That evening's training session was cancelled as a result.

1965 March 13 - .
  • Voskhod-2 crew briefing - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Rudenko; Kamanin; Kuznetsov; Gagarin; Komarov; Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Korolev, Rudenko, Kamanin, Kuznetsov, Gagarin, Komarov, and Tselikin give the crew their final briefing. Communications protocols are worked out. Korolev tells the crew he is satisfied that they are ready for flight, but tells them not to take unnecessary risks or heroics. The main thing is that they return safely to earth.

1965 March 14 - .
  • Sunday at the cosmodrome. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: Volleyball, chess, excessive drinking by some. Keldysh returns to Moscow; journalists arrive from Moscow..

1965 March 15 - .
  • Cosmos 57 lands. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Zenit-4. The Zenit-4 fitted with the airlock attachment ring successfully lands at 12:09, 170 km south of Kustanin (and 50 km north of the aim point). Later procedures for emergency landing on the first, second, and third orbits are discussed. The cosmonauts want to discuss the possibility of their taking action if the airlock fails to jettison (even though there are redundant systems to ensure this). Leonov discuses a method of inflating the airlock, his opening the hatch from the spacecraft, checking all connections, then returning to the capsule and attempting again. Data arrives in the evening from the recovered Zenit - the rotation rates are acceptable, Voskhod-2 is clear to launch on 18 March. In the evening the cosmonauts conduct interviews with journalists.

1965 March 16 - .
  • Voskhod-2 state commission - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Korolev; Severin; Kuznetsov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. Korolev, Severin, Kuznetsov, and Kamanin certify the readiness of the booster and spacecraft, the airlock and spacesuit, the astronauts, and the recovery forces. Roll-out to the pad is set for the morning of 17 March, with launch on 18 or 19 March. In the evening the recovered Zenit-4 capsule arrives at Baikonur and is examined by the astronauts. The rate of rotation never exceeded 40 - 100 degrees/second, well within the tolerance of both the crew and the parachute deployment system.

1965 March 18 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 R15000-05.
  • Voskhod 2 - . Call Sign: Almaz (Diamond ). Crew: Belyayev; Leonov. Backup Crew: Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Payload: Voskhod 3KD s/n 4. Mass: 5,682 kg (12,526 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin; Rudenko; Korolev; Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Zaikin. Agency: MOM. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Duration: 1.08 days. Decay Date: 1965-03-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 1274 . COSPAR: 1965-022A. Apogee: 475 km (295 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. First spacewalk, with a two man crew of Colonel Pavel Belyayev and Lt. Colonel Aleksey Leonov. During Voskhod 2's second orbit, Leonov stepped from the vehicle and performed mankind's first "walk in space." After 10 min of extravehicular activity, he returned safely to the spacecraft through an inflatable airlock.

    This mission was originally named 'Vykhod ('Exit/Advance'). It almost ended in disaster when Leonov was unable to reenter the airlock due to stiffness of the inflated spacesuit. He had to bleed air from the suit in order to get into the airlock. After Leonov finally managed to get back into the spacecraft cabin, the primary hatch would not seal completely. The environmental control system compensated by flooding the cabin with oxygen, creating a serious fire hazard in a craft only qualified for sea level nitrogen-oxygen gas mixes (Cosmonaut Bondarenko had burned to death in a ground accident in such circumstances, preceding the Apollo 204 disaster by many years). Additional Details: here....

1965 March 18 - . 08:34 GMT - .
  • EVA Voskhod 2-1 - . Crew: Leonov. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0160 days. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: First walk in space..

1965 March 19 - .
  • Landing of Voskhod 2 - . Return Crew: Belyayev; Leonov. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Belyayev; Leonov; Voronin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. On re-entry the primary automatic retrorocket system failed. A manually controlled retrofire was accomplished one orbit later (evidently using the primary engine, not the backup solid rocket retropack on the nose of spacecraft). The service module failed to separate completely, leading to wild gyrations of the joined reentry sphere - service module before connecting wires burned through. Vostok 2 finally landed near Perm in the Ural mountains in heavy forest at 59:34 N 55:28 E on March 19, 1965 9:02 GMT. The crew spent two nights in deep woods, surrounded by wolves. Recovery crews had to chop down trees to clear landing zones for helicopter recovery of the crew, who had to ski to the clearing from the spacecraft. Only some days later could the capsule itself be removed. Additional Details: here....

1965 March 20 - .
  • Voskhod 2 crew contacted - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Rudenko. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The crew spent the night in the forest. Only at dawn can a helicopter fly over the landing point again. He reports he sees the two crew, one felling wood, the other building a bonfire. During the night, neither the two crew from the helicopter that landed 5 km away or the searchers from the PVO regiment were able to find the crew in the dense forest. Finally at 07:30 a Colonel Sibiryakov, physician Tumanov, and a technician are lowered from a Mi-4 helicopter to a point 1500 meters from the capsule. Several others are lowered to begin chopping down trees to create a clearing where the helicopter can land. Sibiyakov's party depart at 08:30, skiing toward the capsule, finally reaching the crew after three hours of arduous travel at 11:30. The crew is in fine condition - helicopters had dropped supplies and warm underwear the night before.

    The recovery forces want to have a helicopter pick up the cosmonauts from the landing site, meaning hoisting them from a hover at an altitude of 5 to 6 m. Rudenko vetoes this idea due to the poor visibility, insisting they must be evacuated in snowmobiles. When he is told this is impossible, he becomes adamant that they must wait for conditions to improve. This is ridiculous. Kamanin believes there will be hell to pay if the cosmonauts have to spend a second night in the forest at a landing point only 70-80 km from the capital of the oblast.

1965 March 21 - .
  • Voskhod 2 crew recovered - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev; Keldysh; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. By the next morning, two clearing suitable for helicopter operations have been cleared - a small zone 1.7 km from the capsule, and a larger zone 5 km from the capsule. At 6:50 the cosmonauts and their rescuers - seven in all - ski away from the capsule, reaching the small zone at 8:06. They are picked up there by an Mi-4 helicopter and flown to the large zone, arriving their 20 minutes later. From there a larger Mi-6 helicopter flies them at 9:50 to the airport at Perm. They were to depart aboard an An-10 from Perm at 11:00 for Tyuratam, but their departure is delayed by an hour as they talk on the telephone with Brezhnev. Afterwards toasts are raised at Area 10 at Baikonur by the Chief Designers and Keldysh. Korolev calls for them all to push together toward reaching the moon. The cosmonauts finally arrive at the cosmodrome at 17:30 and are driven through cheering crowds in Zvezdograd. In the hall of the hotel they give the first account of their mission.

1965 March 22 - .
  • Voskhod 2 debriefings - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev; Keldysh; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: The Voskhod 2 crew briefs the State Commission from 10:00 to 13:00. At 13:00 Korolev and Keldysh call Brezhnev, and are told to have the cosmonauts in Moscow the next day for celebrations..

1965 March 23 - .
  • Voskhod 2 crew in Moscow - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: The crew is feted at Red Square, followed by a 17:00 reception in the Kremlin with Brezhnev, Kosygin, and other leaders..

1965 March 24 - .
  • Voskhod 2 press conference preparations - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Keldysh; Sedov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Belyayev and Leonov are trained for their press conference. Keldysh and Sedov and others take the crew through the acceptable answers to likely questions. Kamanin wants the crew to provide truthful answers to questions on the problems the crew faced, but Keldysh absolutely prohibits this.

1965 March 25 - .
  • Voskhod 2 truth? - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Korolev; Brezhnev; Keldysh; Smirnov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin meets Korolev at 9:30; Korolev agrees with Kamanin that the truth of the difficulties encountered should be revealed at the press conference. The matter must be escalated to Brezhnev, since Keldysh and Smirnov are against this course. At 10:30 the leading engineers of OKB-1 meet with 11 of the cosmonauts. The results of the Voskhod-2 flight are reviewed.

1965 March 26 - .
  • Voskhod 2 press preparation - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Keldysh. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Belyayev and Leonov are given 60 likely questions from the press corps, and briefed on allowable answers. In the afternoon the press conferences are held, with Keldysh sitting at the podium with the cosmonauts. It goes well, and the video of the spacewalk is shown.

1965 March 27 - .
  • Voskhod spacewalk film - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; White. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The Voskhod-2 cosmonauts and Kamanin see the film taken of Leonov's spacewalk. It was taken by internal and external cameras on the spacecraft, as well as by the cosmonauts. Kamanin finds the raw footage quite clear and believes a good film can be assembled from a combination of the video and film coverage. Later Kamanin hears that American Ed White will attempt to duplicate Leonov's spacewalk on the Gemini flight scheduled for 8 June 1965. In the following days the Voskhod 2 crew faces a round of press conferences, meetings with design bureaux staff.

1965 March 29 - .
  • Cosmonaut travel plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Nikolayev; Yegorov; Belyayev; Leonov; Gagarin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Tereshkova and Nikolayev are to travel to Algeria on 1 April, and Hungary on 2 April. Yegorov is going to Berlin to deliver a medical lecture. There is an avalanche of fan mail for Belyayev and Leonov. Kamanin believes that Leonov is moving into the pantheon with Gagarin and Tereshkova of top space heroes.

1965 March 31 - .
  • Program priorities - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Korolev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Kamanin is trying to co-ordinate a visit to Kaluga by Belyayev and Leonov with Korolev, but Korolev is totally concentrating on getting a Luna E-6 to soft land on the moon. The Soviet Ministers are on his back as a result of the string of failures so far.

1965 April 2 - .
  • VVS role in space - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; Korolev; Brezhnev; Volynov; Katys; Beregovoi; Demin; Shatalov; Artyukhin; Rudenko; Tereshkova; Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Program: Voskhod; Lunar L1. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Spacecraft: Soyuz A. Kamanin visits Korolev and tells him that in an upcoming meeting between the cosmonauts and Brezhnev and Kosygin, they are going to push for the VVS to be given a leading role in the exploration of space, including the necessity to improve the cosmonaut training centre with 8 to 10 simulators for Voskhod and Soyuz spacecraft, and development within the VVS of competence in space technology. Korolev is not opposed to this, but says he doubts the VVS leadership will support acquiring the new mission. Kamanin then indicates to Korolev his proposed crews for the upcoming Voskhod missions: Volynov-Katys, Beregovoi-Demin, Shatalov-Artyukhin. Kamanin hopes that Korolev will support Volynov as the prime candidate against Marshall Rudenko's favouring of Beregovoi. Kamanin then raises the delicate issue of Korolev's unfavourable opinion of Tereshkova. After her flight, Korolev angrily said: "I never want to have anything to do with these women again". Kamanin does not believe his remarks were meant seriously, and broaches the subject of training Soloyova and Ponomaryova for a female version of Leonov's spacewalk flight. Korolev says he will seriously consider the suggestion.

1965 April 22 - .
  • Voskhod-2 overshoot - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. Kamanin notes Gemini-3 landed 96 km from the aim point. He notes that all Soviet Vostok and Voskhod landings have been of high precision, using the automatic landing system. Voskhod-2 missed the aim point by 368 km, but this was due to a 46 second delay in activating the retrorocket. This delay was due to the layout of Voskhod, which left the Vostok cabin instruments and Vzor visual orientation device in their original place, but mounted the crew seats perpendicular to the original orientation of the Vostok ejection seat. This meant, to manually orient the spacecraft, Belyayev had to float across the seats in order to see the Vzor device. After orienting the spacecraft, he had to return to his seat before igniting the retrorocket. All of this, in the cramped cabin and the crew in spacesuits, took much longer than expected.

1965 April 28 - .
  • Cosmonauts tour Leningrad - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Komarov; Belyayev; Leonov; Glushko. Program: Voskhod. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: Kamanin, Gagarin, Titov, Komarov, Belyayev, and Leonov began a major public relations tour of Leningrad. With Glushko they visit the Petropavlovsk Fortress, where he conducted the first rocket experiments in 1931. .

1965 May 8 - .
  • Voskhod-2 design review - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev; Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. A meeting between the cosmonauts and OKB-1 becomes heated on the question of the Voskhod design. Korolev and his specialists attempt to minimise the design approach that made manual re-entry for Voskhod-2 so difficult. In fact the state commission concluded that it was impossible to conduct a manual re-entry with the crew in their seats. Korolev agreed that later Voskhods will be equipped with instruments allowing manual re-entry with the astronauts seated, and apologised for the oversight.

1965 June - .
  • Vostok 11 (cancelled) - . Crew: Leonov. Payload: Vostok 3KA s/n 13. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 11. Spacecraft: Vostok. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Summary: Vostok flight first proposed in November 1962 flight to conduct extra-vehicular activity tests. All follow-on Vostok missions were cancelled in Spring 1964..

1965 September 11 - .
  • Setbacks - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov; von Braun; Komarov; Ponomaryova; Solovyova. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 5. Spacecraft: Voskhod; Berkut. Belyayev and Leonov are going to an IAF congress in Greece, where they will unofficially meet Wernher von Braun and several US astronauts. Komarov is touring West Germany. Factory 918 is refusing to fabricate space suits for the female crew for the planned Voskhod EVA flight. They are categorically against the concept. It is necessary to obtain a specific order instructing them to fabricate the suits.

1965 October 2 - .
  • Cosmonauts to learn English - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: The VVS leadership is demanding that all cosmonauts become proficient in the English language. Kamanin promises to provide a plan within 3 days. Belyayev and Leonov are on the road, in Berlin. .

1965 October 14 - .
  • Long range plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Tereshkova; Leonov; Belyayev; Gagarin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. The issue of ground support for manned lunar missions is discussed within the VVS. It will be necessary to have continuous and reliable tracking and communications of spacecraft in parking orbit prior to trans-lunar injection, in orbits with inclinations between 51 and 65 deg. Kamanin is tasked to develop a forecast and plan for necessary developments in the next 4 to 5 years. Later Kamanin considers cosmonaut travels. Nikolayev and Tereshkova are to go to Japan on 21 October. Leonov and Belyayev have returned from a tour of Bulgaria, Greece, East Germany, and Cuba, but they made several mis-statements during the tour which have been brought to Kamanin's attention. The issue of getting Gagarin back into cosmonaut training is again broached.

1965 October 20 - .
  • Leonov and Belyayev accused - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Belyayev. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 2. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: Representatives from the Central Committee believe that, when Leonov and Belyayev discussed their spacewalk with US representatives visiting Moscow, this was used by the Americans to accelerate preparations for their own spacewalk from Gemini 4..

1965 October 22 - .
1965 November 15 - .
  • Gagarin letter impact - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Gagarin; Smirnov; Titov; Nikolayev; Komarov; Leonov; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich. Brezhnev has finally read Gagarin's letter, and forwarded it to Smirnov for a full report. Smirnov in turn has asked the commanders of the military branches to convene a soviet to address the issues raised in the letter. Marshal Sudets meets with cosmonauts Gagarin, Titov, Nikolayev, Komarov, Leonov, as well as Kamanin and Kuznetsov. There is a consensus that a single military branch should handle space - either VSS, PVO, or RVSN - but many are opposed to that branch being the VVS. The consensus is that the mission should be given to the PVO.

1965 November 16 - .
  • Cosmonaut travels - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Belyayev; Leonov. Summary: Tereshkova is back from Japan; next she is to go to Italy on 21 November, then Denmark on 25 November. She is exhausted - Kamanin proposes sending Belyayev and Leonov to Denmark in her place..

1965 November 23 - . Launch Vehicle: Spiral 50-50.
  • Spiral spaceplane - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev; Titov; Filipchenko; Matinchenko; Mikoyan. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Gagarin, Belyayev, and Leonov are preparing for a meeting with Brezhnev. Nothing controversial is to be raised. The real issue now is to develop a winged, manned orbital spacecraft, and a winged booster stage for space launches. This will be essential to future manned military activities. Mikoyan's MiG bureau has been working on the orbital spaceplane, and Tupolev the winged booster stage. Titov, Filipchenko, and Matinchenko and a few other cosmonauts will coordinate with Mikoyan on development of the spaceplane design.

1965 December 23 - .
  • Tsybin birthday party - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tsybin; Korolev; Leonov. Summary: Over 70 space program leaders celebrate Tsybin's 60th birthday at OKB-1. Kamanin and Korolev have cooled down a bit after their argument the day before. Kamanin and Leonov are preparing for a trip to the Soviet Far East on the 28th of December..

1966 January 4 - .
  • Korolev visits Cosmonaut Training Center - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Popovich; Nikolayev; Tereshkova; Bykovsky; Komarov; Belyayev; Leonov; Brezhnev; Korolev. Korolev visits the centre, and spends more than six hours with the cosmonauts. However he says nothing about concrete flight plans. Afterwards Kamanin meets with Gagarin, Titov, Popovvich, Nikolayev, Tereshkova, Bykovsky, Komarov, and Belyayev (Leonov is at courses at the Academy). A profound pessimism prevails. Nothing has come of the letter to Brezhnev.

1966 February 2 - .
  • Voskhod parachute system - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Smirnov; Tkachev; Leonov; Gagarin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Smirnov again questions the chief designers about the reliability of the parachute systems developed by Tkachev. The VVS remains troubled as to the reliability of these systems. Recently the system has been tested at Fedosiya to increase its rating to 2900 to 3200 kg for use on Voskhod-3. Three parachutes in these tests suffered rips during deployment. The Voskhod-3 capsule will weigh 3000 kg. Tkachev says he will guarantee its safety, but VVS and LII specialists do not share this optimism. Leonov, Gagarin, and various cosmonauts ask Kamanin to stop further showings of the new film comedy "30-3", which they say denigrates Soviet cosmonauts. However a showing to the leadership is enjoyed by all, and they see no grounds for surpressing it.

1966 March 29 - .
1966 April 10 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
  • Cosmonaut training for lunar flights announced - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Leonov announces that cosmonauts are in training for lunar missions..

1966 April 26 - .
  • Soyuz simulators - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Leonov; Volynov; Shonin; Zaikin; Gagarin; Solovyova; Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Gorbatko; Popovich. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The simulators and partial-task trainers continue very much behind schedule. There is talk of moving responsibility for them from Darevskiy's bureau to OKB-1. Popovich's fitness for future flight and command assignments is questionable. Nevertheless, he will join Titov, Leonov, Volynov, Shonin, Zaikin, Gagarin, and Solovyova at the Zhukovskiy Academy, from which they will be expected to graduate with advanced degrees in engineering in October 1967. Nikolayev, Bykovsky, and Gorbatko will finish one or two years later, since they will be preoccupied with flight assignments on the 7K-OK.

1966 April 29 - .
  • Cosmonaut travels - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popovich; Titov; Leonov; Tereshkova. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Kamanin plans to make Popovich and Titov deputy commanders of cosmonaut detachments preparing for flight of the Soyuz 7K-OK and Spiral spaceplane. Leonov is back from a tour of France; Titov is preparing to go to Afghanistan, and Tereshkova to Armenia. But that night Titov does not come home - he is hanging out again with artists and other unacceptable types.

1966 June 21 - .
1966 July 16 - .
  • Cosmonaut meeting with Brezhnev - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Brezhnev; Gagarin; Leonov; Ustinov; Smirnov; Malinovskiy. Program: Soyuz. Brezhnev has finally agreed to meet with Gagarin, Leonov, and Kamanin on 28 or 29 July. Gagarin will be in Czechoslovakia on 25 July, and Leonov in Hungary; they'll have to be back by the 27th to prepare for the meeting. Kamanin holds no great hope for the outcome - the cosmonauts' desire to reorganize and reprioritise Soviet spaceflight will meet powerful opposition from Ustinov, Smirnov, and Malinovskiy.

1966 September 2 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1966 September 2 - .
1966 September 8 - .
  • Cosmonaut tour to Syria - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Soyuz. Belyayev and Leonov depart, after being briefed on correct responses to expected embarrassing questions (Why has there been no Soviet manned spaceflight for eighteen months? When will there be a Soviet rendezvous in space? Who now leads in the space race?)

1966 October 12 - .
  • Voskhod 3 resurfaces - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ustinov; Gagarin; Komarov; Leonov; Mishin; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Ustinov calls Gagarin, Komarov, and Leonov to his office to discuss their long-unanswered letter to Brezhnev. He asks about cosmonaut training for Soyuz flights, and surprisingly, Voskhod 3 (long buried by Mishin, though no resolution or decision ever cancelled the mission). He urges the cosmonauts to stop quarrelling and work more closely with OKB-1. Kamanin judges from the report of this strange conversation that Ustinov has a completely distorted view of affairs, as a result of falsehoods fed to him by Mishin and Smirnov. Shortly after this debriefing General Kuznetsov calls with the surprising news that Mishin has issued orders for work to resume in preparing Voskhod 3 for flight. But this is the last that is ever heard of the Voskhod 3 mission...

1966 December 7 - .
  • Soyuz and L1 crew assignments. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Mishin; Kerimov; Komarov; Bykovsky; Khrunov; Yeliseyev; Gagarin; Nikolayev; Gorbatko; Beregovoi; Shatalov; Leonov; Volynov; Kubasov; Makarov; Volkov; Grechko; Yershov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4; Soyuz s/n 5/6; Soyuz s/n 7. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. Rudenko, Mishin, Kerimov and Kamanin agree on crews for upcoming flights. Komarov, Bykovsky, Khrunov, and Yeliseyev are assigned to Soyuz s/n 3 and 4; Gagarin, Nikolayev, Gorbatko, and Kubasov to Soyuz s/n 5 and 6, with Beregovoi, Shatalov, Volkov, and Makarov trained as back-ups. For Soyuz s/n 7, which will conduct space welding experiments with the Vulkan furnace, the commander will be either Komarov, Bykovsky, Gagarin, Nikolayev, Beregovoi, or Shatalov. The other two crewmembers will be either Lankin and Fartushniy from the Paton Institute, VVS cosmonaut Kolodin, or an engineer from OKB-1.

    Crews for the L1 must be named in order to complete the five-month training program in time. Eight L1's are being completed to the manned configuration, but Mishin believes it is necessary to plan for only six manned missions. It is decided to train nine crews. Spacecraft commanders will be Komarov, Bykovsky, Nikolayev, Gagarin, Leonov, Khrunov, Volynov, Beregovoi, and Shatalov. Flight engineers will be Yeliseyev, Kubasov, Makarov, Volkov, and Grechko. Komarov, Bykovsky or Nikolayev will command the first circumlunar flight. Mishin promises to name the OKB-1 candidates for that flight by 8 December. Mishin and Kerimov agree that training of cosmonaut- researchers from the Academy of Sciences may begin, although both Mishin and Rudenko expressed doubts about cosmonaut candidate Yershov.

    The failures of Cosmos 133 have been narrowed to entangled thrust vector vanes in the main engines and a single defective approach and orientation thruster. It is agreed to set the unmanned launch of Soyuz s/n 1 for 18 December as a final functional check of all systems. If this is successful, the date will then be set for the manned launch of Soyuz s/n 3 and 4. Flight control will be conducted from Yevpatoria.

1967 January 17 - .
1967 March 22 - .
  • L1 flight scenario undecided - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kerimov; Mishin; Gagarin; Leonov; Volynov; Makarov. Program: Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Kerimov argued with Mishin that without any logical reason his demand that the cosmonauts go to the cosmodrome for training has disrupted their preparation schedule. Later Kamanin met with Gagarin, Leonov, Volynov, and Makarov, all selected as pilots for L1 lunar flybys. The L1 flight scenario was still open. Variant 1 would involve launch of two spacecraft, with transfer of one to two crew to the translunar spacecraft in earth orbit. Variant 2 would be a direct flight to the moon. Additional Details: here....

1967 May 5 - .
  • Gagarin and Leonov want Mishin cited in Soyuz crash report. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Leonov; Mishin. Program: Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 1. Gagarin and Leonov meet with Kamanin. They discuss the complete inadequacy of Mishin - his excitability, poor knowledge of the Soyuz spacecraft and the details of its operation, his lack of cooperation in working with the cosmonauts in flight and training activities. They urge that these facts be documented in the Komarov crash commission report. Problems are discussed with getting an additional Tu-104 for zero-G/one sixth-G training. Three are needed, and only two have been made available. Even these two can only be used for 23 flights up to 10 August, after which they must be sent away for ejection seat modifications.

1967 August 27 - .
  • Tass announces water landing exercises - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: Tass announces water landing exercises; Leonov involved..

1967 October 15 - .
  • Meeting on crew selections for the L3 program. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich; Gagarin; Leonov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Popovich; Voronov; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Artyukhin; Kubasov; Makarov; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Attending are Kuznetsov, Gagarin, Khlebnikov. There are three training groups: Soyuz, L1, and L3. Mishin and the MOM are holding up further training of cosmonauts until the VVS agrees to accept Mishin's candidates from TsKBEM. In any case, Mishin's attitude is that 'automation in space is everything. Humans in space are only supposed to monitor the operation of automated systems'. L3 cosmonauts selected by the VVS are: Leonov, Bykovsky, Nikolayev, Popovich, Voronov, Khrunov, Gorbatko, Artyukhin, Kubasov, Makarov, and Rukavishnikov. The official requirements: balanced composition of a crew according to mass requirements (no more than 70 kg weight per cosmonaut), and the ability to monitor fully automated function of the L3. According to official documents, the crew's primary function is to guide the flight, but now Mishin intends that their primary role will be as subjects of psychological and physical observations to establish the adaptation of the human organism to space flight).

1967 November 17 - .
  • L1 cosmonauts to Baikonur. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Summary: Three VVS aircraft fly to Baikonur for the L1 launch. Passengers include Leonov and the 12 cosmonauts of the L1 training group..

1967 November 22 - . 19:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 230-01. FAILURE: Second stage - 1 x RD-0210 failure, shutoff of stage 4 seconds after ignition. Launcher crashed downrange.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1 s/n 5L. Mass: 5,390 kg (11,880 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko; Chelomei; Mishin; Leonov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Decay Date: 1967-11-21 . COSPAR: F671122A. The launch takes place at 00:07 local time (22:07 on 22 November Moscow time). Glushko, Chelomei, and Kamanin observe the launch from an observation point in -5 deg C weather. Three to four seconds after second stage ignition, the SAS pulls the spacecraft away from the booster. Telemetry shows that engine number 4 of stage 2 never ignited, and after 3.9 seconds the remaining three engines were shut dwon by the SBN (Booster Safety System) and the SAS abort tower fired. The capsule's radio beacon was detected and the spacecraft was found 80 km southwest of Dzhezkazgan, 285 km down range. The Proton problems are maddening. Over 100 rocket launches have used engines from this factory, with no previous failure. Of ten of the last launches under Mishin's direction (6 Soyuz and 4 L1) only two have went well - an 80% failure rate! Mishin is totally without luck. Kamanin and Leonov take an An-12 to see the L1 at its landing point. Leonov wants to see proof that the cosmonauts would be saved in any conditions. The capsule landed in -17 deg C and 12 m/s winds. The parachute pulled the capsule along the ground for 550 m, and the soft landing rockets fired somewhere above the 1.2 m design height. After safing of the APO self-destruct package, the capsule is lifted to an airfield by a Mi-4.

1968 January 27 - .
  • Cosmonauts take case against Mishin to VVS high command. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Titov; Popovich; Belyayev; Leonov; Chelomei; Mishin; Ustinov; Afanasyev, Sergei. Program: Lunar L1; Almaz. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI; Almaz OPS. Kamanin, Gagarin, Titov, Popovich, Belyayev, and Leonov meet with Marshal Yakabovskiy. They inform him that Mishin is blocking further development of the 7K-VI military manned spacecraft and also trying to kill Chelomei's Almaz military space station. They get nowhere. The Marshal says that while he doesn't understand much about space himself, Ustinov had assured him that Mishin and Afanasyev were taking all measures necessary to correct the necessary material...

1968 February 6 - .
  • L1 commander assignments agreed. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Feoktistov; Leonov; Bykovsky; Popovich; Voloshin. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. The final medical report rejects Feoktistov's fitness to be a cosmonaut. Mishin accepts the findings of the report, but in classic manner ignores it and advocates Feoktistov be appointed as commander of the active spacecraft in the first Soyuz docking mission after return to flight. Kamanin is livid. Feoktistov has had years of training for EVA, but he has not had one day of training as a spacecraft commander, and now he wants him to command a mission due to launch in only two to three months! However agreement is finally reached on L1 commander assignments: Leonov, Bykovskiy, Popovich, Voloshin. Agreement is not reached on the second (civilian) crew member position for the flights. According to Mishin, the Soyuz and L1 flights planned from March 1 to the end of 1968 will require 16 to 18 crew members total.

1968 April 27 - .
  • Kamanin proposes organising the cosmonauts into two detachments. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Titov; Popovich; Matinchenko; Belyayev. Nikolayev is to be commander of the first group, with Leonov as his deputy. Titov would command the second group, with Popovich as his deputy. But Kamanin doesn't consider any of them to be command officer material yet. The automobile accidents of Popovich, the mess that led to Matinchenko's dismissal, the bad performance of Belyayev in his duties as chief of staff of the VVS group at Baikonur - none of these men have any discipline!

1968 May 11 - .
  • Cosmonaut jet trainers. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Nikolayev; Leonov; Belyayev; Bykovsky; Popovich; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich. Holidays - in the first ten days of May, the civilians work only two days, while the military must work four. Kamanin assigns cosmonauts to the State Commission that will select the design for the Gagarin memorial obelisk. He then reviews cosmonaut pilot aircraft type qualifications. Titov is current on the Su-7, MiG-21, and several other high-performance aircraft. Nikolayev and Leonov are still certified to fly two or three MiG fighter types. Belyayev, Bykovsky, Popovich, Kutachov, and the others are only current on the L-29 trainer. The L-29 is 20 times more reliable than the MiG-21 or Su-7, and the MiG-15 trainer is 4x to 5x more reliable than the high performance types. In general the cosmonauts are against plans to move the air regiment to TsPK from Chkalovsky air field due to greater air space restrictions over Moscow.

1968 May 24 - .
  • Cosmonaut Africa tour with secret objectives. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tereshkova; Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Tereshkova is fighting against her appointment to the Committee of Soviet Women with the requirement for constant tours, appearances, committee sessions, and so on. He has gone to see Suslov about it. Meanwhile the Communist Central Committee and the Soviet Ministers are having a fight over the dates for the planned cosmonaut tour of Africa (the secret objective is to give the cosmonauts training in recognition of southern hemisphere constellations in preparation for lunar missions). Leonov is involved in sending mixed signals to the leadership.

1968 June 3 - .
  • Ustinov demands manned Soyuz and L1 flights by October. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ustinov; Leonov. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. Summary: Meanwhile Saturday evening Leonov had another accident with his Volga - and with a group of Italian visitors in the car..

1968 June 5 - .
  • Leonov on the carpet. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Leonov is raked over the coals concerning his latest accident. In the first place, he had no permission to even be meeting with the Italians. In the second place, he was supposed to be chauffeured when in Moscow, not driving himself. In the third place, he was in training for an L1 lunar mission, and was supposed to be in bed by 23:00, instead of gallivanting around Moscow at all hours of the night.

1968 June 12 - .
  • State Commission on Soyuz. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ustinov; Leonov. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Mishin wants one more unpiloted Soyuz launch, resulting in a 0+1 unmanned/manned test flight in September, to be followed by the design 1+3 mission with crew transfer in November/December. The reserve chute failed in tests at an SA re-entry capsule mass of 2800 kg. Therefore, Mishin feels the 0+1 mission would be safe, resulting in a mass for the manned capsule of 2650 kg. But Ustinov insists on the 1+3 mission, meaning an SA mass of 2750 kg. Another consideration is that the capsule may need ballast anyway in order to obtain the correct centre of gravity location for the lifting re-entry manoeuvres. It must be balanced in such a way so that it can re-enter the atmosphere at its maximum 23 degree angle of attack.

1968 July 3 - .
  • VPK confirms Soyuz flight plans. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Bykovsky; Titov; Popovich; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich; Belyayev; Leonov. Program: Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The VPK confirms the Soyuz flight plan - a 0+1 mission to be followed by a 1+3 mission with crew transfer. Chiefs of the cosmonaut detachments are confirmed and announced. Nikolayev will be Deputy Chief of TsPK; Bykovsky, Commander of the First Detachment of Cosmonauts; Titov, Commander of the Second Detachment, and Popovich, Deputy Commander of the Second Detachment. Kuznetsov, Belyayev, and Leonov are not happy with these appointments. The General Staff also approves creation of a fourth training detachment at TsPK, charged with flight, engineering, and experiment development - requiring an additional 200 staff.

1968 July 18 - .
  • Cosmonaut revolt. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Belyayev; Leonov; Vershinin. The cosmonauts are revolting against the selection of Nikolayev as their commander. They have written a letter demanding that Belyayev be put in the position. Leonov is also lobbying for the job, but Kamanin notes he has made two serious mistakes since April, no chance. Leonov attends a self-criticism meeting with the 'Gagarin comrades', self-confesses and emotionally says he will leave the cosmonaut unit if there are no future chances for promotion due to his repeated mistakes. Finally he is told that if does good work in the future, he could achieve the deputy commander position, but he can never, never make mistakes again.

    A Zenit-2 spy satellite capsule has gone off course, splashed down in the Volga River, and sunk. Vershinin is in the hospital with intestinal polyps. Kamanin is reminded of Korolev's case, although he is told Vershinin's condition is not serious. There is criticism of the botched Zenit-2 recovery from Kutakhov. Meanwhile the Central Committee has decided to take no action on Czechoslovakia but send a letter to the Czech Communist Party. Kamanin is sick of this limp-wristed talk, talk, talk.

1968 September 23 - .
  • L1 lunar crew selections - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Leonov; Voronov; Bykovsky; Rukavishnikov; Popovich; Makarov. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-OK. Meeting of VVS, Mishin, and other designers at Fedosiya to review trials of the improved Soyuz parachute system. The Soyuz is cleared for manned flights. Mishin tells Leonov he will not support him in his bid to make the first lunar flight. Kamanin tells Leonov that of the three crews - Leonov-Voronov, Bykovsky-Rukavishnikov, Popovich-Makarov - the Bykovsky crew is favoured.

1968 September 27 - .
  • Cosmonauts on tour. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Leonov; Beregovoi. Program: Soyuz. Summary: Titov is in Mexico, Leonov is serving on the sculpture commission for Gagarin and space monuments. Beregovoi confides to a film crew that the members of the original cosmonaut group are opposed to his making a spaceflight..

1968 September 28 - .
  • Cosmonaut exams are held for Beregovoi, Shatalov, and Volynov. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volynov; Leonov; Makarov; Kuklin; Bykovsky; Rukavishnikov; Klimuk; Popovich; Sevastyanov; Voloshin. Program: Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 3; Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. The results will establish the order in which they will fly as Soyuz commanders. A 25-person board, consisting of spacecraft designers and cosmonauts, conduct the oral examinations. Each cosmonaut must answer five mandatory essay questions and select two two-part questions. All three are certified for flight and have a complete mastery of the Soyuz systems.

    Mishin and Kamanin meet and decide on L1 crews: Leonov-Makarov (with Kuklin as back-up); Bykovsky-Rukavishnikov (Klimuk back-up); and Popovich-Sevastyanov (Voloshin back-up). But that evening Leonov has yet another automobile accident. He hit a bus with his Volga at kilometre 24 near Shchelkovsky. This was his second accident in four months. Kamanin decides to prohibit him from driving automobiles for six months.

1968 October 1 - .
  • L1 and Soyuz plans - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Leonov; Belyayev; Nikolayev. Program: Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 3; Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. The L1 cosmonauts are doing training in autonomous navigation, zero-G training, and TBK-60 simulator training. Due to the continuing L1 failures, there would probably be no manned L1 flight until April-May 1969. As for Soyuz, a 0+1 (docking of one unmanned spacecraft and a manned spacecraft with a single cosmonaut aboard) is planned for 25 October, to be followed by a 1+3 mission with a crew transfer by December at the earliest - possibly not until February-March of the following year. Kamanin reassured Beregovoi that he will indeed fly following his excellent exam results -- but Beregovoi still has doubts. Later Kamanin confronts Leonov over his driving. Leonov has had three auto accidents in four months - simply too much. If he is such a bad driver on earth, how will be in space? Kamanin tells him to take two to three days off work and seriously consider his attitude and position. Next there are commissions to attend in charge of selecting monument designs for Gagarin memorials. There are to be obelisks at the Gagarin crash site, at the Vostok 1 landing site, and in Star City. These commissions are taking up a lot of the cosmonauts' time. Kuznetsov meets with Kamanin and tells him that cosmonauts Belyayev and Nikolayev rated Beregovoi poorly in the exam, giving him only a 5 and citing errors in his logic.

1968 November 14 - .
  • Zond 6 passes behind moon. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Leonov; Sevastyanov. Program: Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. The L1 went behind the moon at 05:49:37, and emerges at 06:21:11. At the time of the next orientation session it is 390,000 km from the earth and moving at 0.6 km/s. All orientations have been made on Sirius so far. Two more are needed: one for the midcourse correction, and then the second for the guided re-entry. The 100K sensor has proven itself despite Kamanin's doubts. Mishin's grumbly voice was grating on everyone, and finally he was put to bed. Kamanin despairs that the Soviet space program is dependent on this poorly organised, capricious, shortsighted man. Discussions are held with Moscow. If Apollo 8 succeeds, the next L1 test in January and the manned flight in April are probably not worth the risk. Some of the scientists want to discuss the inclusion of new medical experiments on pending manned spaceflights, but Kamanin is opposed to it. He does not want anything interfering with the primary mission. What to name the manned L1 spacecraft is discussed. Leonov wants to call it Rodina, Sevastyanov Ural, and Kamanin - 'Academician Korolev'.

1968 November 20 - .
  • Soviet manned circumlunar flight set for February - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Titov; Leonov. Program: Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. Titov still would prefer to be a test pilot, not a cosmonaut. The Soyuz group is scheduled to complete their training and to depart for the cosmodrome on 20 December for final preparations. Leonov's L1 group is to complete their training on 20 January 1969, then depart to the cosmodrome for a flight to the moon in February.

1968 December 15 - .
  • Cosmonauts graduate. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Nikolayev; Leonov; Popovich; Bykovsky; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Zaikin; Volynov; Shonin; Ponomaryova; Solovyova; Tereshkova; Kuznetsova; Yerkina; Titov; Gagarin. Nikolayev, Leonov, Popovich, Bykovsky, Khrunov, Gorbatko, Zaikin, Volynov, and Shonin all receive their diplomas from the Zhukovskiy Test Pilot Engineering Academy. Khrunov graduates with honours. All of them began training for a lunar landing on January 8. Titov and Gagarin will complete their studies for the diploma in May. Ponomareva and Solovyova willl graduate in the second half of 1968, leaving only Tereshkova, Kuznetsova, and Yerkina. Tereshkova has had her appendix removed in surgery at the Vishevskiy Centre. The surgery went well.

1969 January 31 - .
  • Kamanin meets with Vershinin. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Vershinin; Leonov; Bykovsky; Mishin; Volynov. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 5; Soyuz 4/5. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1; Spiral OS. Plans for purchase of ten Soyuz spacecraft for the VVS are discussed. They next turn to Volynov's problems during the Soyuz 5 re-entry. The fault can be attributed entirely to the modular design of the spacecraft, requiring that two modules be jettisoned before re-entry. Vershinin declares that what was needed was a true KLA space flight craft, which would be winged, set toward orbit by aircraft-type booster stages, and could be recovered at a conventional air base borne on wings or rotor blades. Additional Details: here....

1969 February 6 - .
  • Volynov grounded - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Grechko, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich. Program: Lunar L3. Meetings are held at the cosmonaut centre to plan for the big visit to the base by Marshal Grechko. N F Kuznetsov briefs plans for the centre with the general staff. Kamanin discusses the situation with Leonov. Leonov notes the saying from Lenin on a banner at the centre: "Know how to work!" Unfortunately, they have left out the second part: "Don't hurry!" Leonov states he is not assigning Volynov to any future flights.

1969 February 10 - .
1969 March - .
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1 (cancelled) - . Crew: Leonov; Makarov. Backup Crew: Kuklin. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Makarov; Kuklin. Program: Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Planned first manned circumnavigation of the moon. Soviet plans to beat America around the moon were upstaged by the sudden decision to fly Apollo 8 into lunar orbit over Christmas 1968. It was decided after the American success to cancel any 'second place' Soviet manned circumlunar flights.

1969 June 13 - .
  • Leonov in trouble - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Program: Lunar L3; Luna. Flight: Apollo 9; Soyuz 4/5. Summary: Leonov interviewed by Japanese reporters. He tells them that both manned and unmanned lunar spacecraft are in preparation and that lunar rocks will be returned by Soviet spacecraft by March 1970.. Additional Details: here....

1969 June 18 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Mishin and Kamanin select candidates for the lunar landing mission. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Leonov; Bykovsky; Voronov; Khrunov; Yeliseyev; Makarov; Rukavishnikov; Patsayev; Afanasyev, Sergei. Program: Lunar L3. They are Leonov, Bykovsky, Voronov, Khrunov, Yeliseyev, Makarov, Rukavishnikov, and Patsayev. Mishin expects a landing by the end of 1970; Kamanin thinks this is impossible. Afanasyev and Mishin propose modernisation of the N1, but this will take three to four years, by which time the booster will be essentially obsolete. The second launch of the N1 is set for 3 July. It would be a welcome miracle if it flew, but it still would not be enough to erase the American lead in the moon race.

1970 February 8 - .
  • Leonov wants to send letter to Brezhnev - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Brezhnev; Mishin; Keldysh; Smirnov; Serbin; Ustinov; Krylov; Zakharov; Grechko, Andrei. Work continues at the Gagarin Centre even on Sundays. Kamanin studies the reorganization of space units within the Ministry of Defence. Leonov wants to write a letter to Brezhnev, complaining about the management of the space programme. He wants to finger Mishin, Keldysh, Sminrov, Serbin, Ustinov, Krylov, Zakharov, and Grechko by name. Kamanin asks him -- can all the cosmonauts write to the head of state whenever they want? Who will protect them from the inferno of backlash that would result? He doesn't support Leonov's idea.

1970 March 19 - .
  • Cosmonaut tours - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Shatalov. Summary: Leonov is going on a propaganda tour to Japan, and Shatalov to Cuba..

1970 April 29 - .
  • Intrigues at Star City. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich; Beregovoi. Summary: Leonov is briefed for his trip to Japan. Meanwhile Kamanin has to fight off the intrigues of Kuznetsov against Beregovoi as deputy director of cosmonaut training..

1970 May 6 - .
1970 June 19 - .
  • Landing of Soyuz 9 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Goreglyad; Mishin; Nikolayev; Sevastyanov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Leonov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 9. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. At 13:00 it was reported that the landing site was ready, 12 to 15 km visibility, 5-7 m/s winds. At 14:00 it is officially ordered that the landing commence. There are 150 technicians in the hall of mission control for the landing. Nikolayev reports the start of the retrofire burn of the TDU. Retrofire and seperation of the spacecraft modules is normal. The PVO radar at Turtsiy picks up the Soyuz at 83 km altitude and follows it down to the point of parachute deployment. Two helicopters sight the parachute and follow the capsule to landing. Within a minute after the capsule has landed General Goreglyad and Colonel Popov are already at the hatch. Following landing Leonov advises that the crew is all right. However the cosmonauts' condition after landing is awful. It is painful and difficult for them to get up. They fall down in their first tortured attempts at walking. They have to be dragged along by the arms. At 16:30 an Il-18 leaves from Saki for Moscow with the cosmonauts aboard. Both of the cosmonauts looked very ill aboard the plane. They had to be supported by Shatalov and Yeliseyev to get down the stairs in Moscow. Nikolayev departs from his prepared speech to the Sate Commission, and says 'Comrade Chairman! The orders for flight aboard the spacecraft Soyuz 9 were fulfilled and we await further orders!' After the report hey are rushed to the doctors.

    It is obvious to the Soviets that they were seriously mistaken about the effects of zero-G on human beings (Mishin thought flights of three to four months would be no problem). Kamanin recites again his belief in the need for more long solo Soyuz flights, how the leadership has blocked such flights, and the general lack of support for manned space. He even had to fight to allow the Soyuz 9 crew to go straight to the hospital and their loved ones, rather than attending ceremonies.

1971 January 15 - .
  • Spiral to be raised at VVS Soviet. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Zakharov; Leonov; Nikolayev. Spacecraft: Spiral OS. Kamanin manges to get to Zakahrov, who agrees to take the Spiral issue to the Military Soviet of the VVS. Leonov and Nikolayev review Kamanin's new draft decree to be presented to he Military Soviet. The DOS-7K is two weeks behind schedule for the planned 15 March launch date.

1971 January 27 - .
  • DOS training conflicts. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Leonov; Shatalov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft: Salyut 1; Soyuz 7KT-OK. Beregovoi, Leonov, and Shatalov go to TsKBEM to review the training plan for the DOS-7K station at the KIS (Experimental Control Station) facility. Mishin wants the crew of Soyuz s/n 32 to be working aboard the 'live' spacecraft on 3-4 February, but they need to be at the cosmodrome on those dates for training on the Svinets ICBM detector experiment. This conflicts with Mishin's schedule for availability of a 'live' Soyuz for training. Mishin still wants, completely unrealistically, to launch on the day of the 24th Party Conference.

1971 February 3 - .
  • First Svinets test successful. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Salyut. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Summary: Leonov reports that the Tu-104 was ready last night for the flight to observe a rocket launch using the Svinets device. All went normally. The second launch will be made tonight at 20:00..

1971 February 17 - .
  • Management plans for Gagarin Cosmonaut Centre jeopardised. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Belyayev; Leonov. Summary: Management of TsPK is in question due to intrigues by Mishin and his allies within the VVS. After the death of Belyayev it was committed that Leonov would become head of the First Directorate of TsPK. This is now in doubt..

1971 March 11 - .
1971 March 20 - .
  • DOS crews arrives in Baikonur. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Shatalov's crew arrived at 09:00 aboard a Tu-104 and were ensconced in Room 14 of the Hotel Kosmonavt. Two further Tu-104's arrived 20 and 30 minutes later with the second and third crews. At 18:00 they all went to the MIK assembly hall to view the two Soyuz spacecraft and the station. There were electrical problems with the station, and they finally returned to the hotel at 24:00 without the problem having been resolved. Kamanin notes two films are to be screened tomorrow - a Bulgarian movie and the Soviet film 'Diplomat'.

1971 March 23 - .
  • Cosmonauts return to Moscow from Tyuratam. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. A four-story school burned down the previous night in Leninsk. The cosmonauts and space centre technicians watched the USA-USSR ice hockey match, which went from 23:00 until 02:00 the next morning. Kamanin returns to Moscow aboard a Tu-104. Aboard the flight the political intrigues surrounding selection of Kamanin's deputy are discussed.

1971 April 6 - .
1971 April 7 - .
  • DOS crew commanders inspect completed DOS#1 station. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Leonov; Dobrovolsky. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Shatalov, Leonov, and Dobrovolsky are all working hard on final preparations for DOS-7K. The station is fully complete. Only small defects have been noted. This is the first look by the crews at their future home in space in its fully completed version. On the bus back to the hotel the cosmonauts discuss the poor quality and inedibility of 'space food'.

1971 April 11 - .
1971 April 22 - . 23:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 25.
  • Soyuz 10 - . Call Sign: Granit (Granite ). Crew: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Support Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 31. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rukavishnikov; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 1.99 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 5172 . COSPAR: 1971-034A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 209 km (129 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Intended first space station mission; soft docked with Salyut 1. Launch nearly scrubbed due to poor weather. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it is said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land.

1971 May 28 - .
1971 May 29 - .
  • No improvements at cosmodrome for cosmonauts. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11. Summary: Kamanin notes with disgust that the cosmodrome has been updated for 15 years but not one kopeck has been spent to provide training facilities for the cosmonauts. Leonov's 37th birthday is celebrated..

1971 May 31 - .
  • Problems with Salyut station atmosphere. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Feoktistov; Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Kamanin is advised that the atmosphere aboard Salyut 1 is now all right. He finds the news disturbing, since he was not informed until then that there was a problem! Feoktistov outlines the modifications made to Soyuz 11 compared to Soyuz 10 to the cosmonauts. The reinforcement of the docking ring system has added 10 kg to the spacecraft. Consumables are carried that increase the time for autonomous flight from three to four days.

1971 June 1 - .
1971 June 2 - .
  • Contingency planning for Soyuz 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. From 09:00 to 13:00 the Soyuz 11 cosmonauts and engineers discuss the best approaches for docking, contingency plans, and so on. A concrete solution is provided for every possible problem they might encounter aboard the station - bad air, water contaminated, stuck exit hatch, and so on.

1971 June 3 - .
  • Kubasov found not fit to fly aboard Soyuz 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. The cosmonauts play tennis in the morning. There are two dysentery cases in the staff at Area 2. Contact between the officers and workers at the centre is minimised. The Soyuz 11 crew undergoes their final medical checkups. A spot is found on Kubasov's lung in the x-ray. The doctors say it is the beginning of tuberculosis, and prohibit him from flying in space! Mishin, backed by Moscow, says that under mission rules, this means the Dobrovolsky back-up crew will have to fly in place of Leonov's crew. Kamanin feels uncomfortable with the decision, but can make no good argument for his preference - just replacing Kubasov on Leonov's crew with Volkov. The Launch Commission decides that Soyuz 11 is to be rolled out to the pad at 06:00 on 4 June, with launch at 07:39 on 6 June, with Dobrovolsky's crew aboard.

1971 June 4 - .
  • Backup crew named to fly Soyuz 11 - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Soyuz 11 is on the launch pad, and which crew will fly is still being argued. Kamanin wants to simply have Volkov replace Kubasov on Leonov's crew. Mishin wants the complete backup crew to replace Leonov's crew. Others on the launch commission support Mishin. At 15:30 a team of physicians arrive from Moscow to verify the diagnosis of Kubasov. At 18:00 the final state commission meeting confirms the Dobrovolsky crew. At 19:00 a press conference is held - Dobrovolsky, Patsayev, and Volkov are publicly presented as the crew of Soyuz 11.

1971 June 5 - .
  • Leonov crew fights to be put back aboard Soyuz 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Leonov; Rukavishnikov; Krylov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Leonov and his crew meet with Kamanin at 10:00 and argue against flying the back-up crew. Kamanin tells him that they are not reacting in a correct manner to the decision. Afterwards Kamanin meets with Krylov at Area 17 to discuss the planned new three-story hotel, which will finally include some sports training facilities for the cosmonauts. By the evening ten VVS generals have arrived to see the launch -- no more than 2 or 3 really need to be there.

1971 June 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 11 - . Call Sign: Yantar (Amber ). Crew: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov. Backup Crew: Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OKS s/n 32. Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dobrovolsky; Patsayev; Volkov; Kolodin; Kubasov; Leonov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 11. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7KT-OK. Duration: 23.77 days. Decay Date: 1971-06-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 5283 . COSPAR: 1971-053A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 163 km (101 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. First space station flight, two years before the American Skylab. The Soyuz 11 launch proceeds without any difficulties. The first orbital correction in the set of rendezvous manoeuvres to head for Salyut 1 is made on the fourth revolution. At 15:00 Kamanin and other critical staff board a plane for the mission control centre at Yevpatoriya. The aircraft takes 4 hours 30 minutes to get there.

    Equipment aboard Salyut 1 included a telescope, spectrometer, electrophotometer, and television. The crew checked improved on-board spacecraft systems in different conditions of flight and conducted medico-biological research. The main instrument, a large solar telescope, was inoperative because its cover failed to jettison. A small fire and difficult working conditions will lead to a decision to return crew before planned full duration of 30 days.

1971 June 15 - .
1971 August - .
1972 August - .
1973 June - .
1975 July 15 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Soyuz (Union ). Crew: Kubasov; Leonov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 75 (EPSA). Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Leonov; Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8030 . COSPAR: 1975-065A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80į, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways.

1975 July 21 - .
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