Encyclopedia Astronautica
Makarov



imakarov.jpg
Makarov
Credit: www.spacefacts.de - www.spacefacts.de
Makarov, Oleg Grigoryevich (1933-2003) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1, Salyut 6 EP-1, Salyut 6 EO-5. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch.

Graduated from Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1980 with a candidate of technical sciences degree Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Involved in the development of Vostok spacecraft. Engineer for first circumlunar L1 crew, December 1968. From 1986 continued working as an engineer at NPO Energia, involved in the development of space stations.

Birth Place: Udomlya, Tver'.
Status: Deceased.


Born: 1933.01.06.
Died: 2003.05.28.
Spaceflights: 4 .
Total time in space: 20.74 days.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Cosmonaut Category of persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia. More...
  • Energia Engineer Group 1 - 1966 Requirement: engineers for planned Soyuz and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights. More...

Associated Flights
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1 Crew: Leonov, Makarov. Planned first manned circumnavigation of the moon. It was decided after the American Apollo 8 lunar orbital flight in December 1968 to cancel any 'second place' Soviet manned circumlunar flights. Backup crew: Kuklin. More...
  • Soyuz sn 19 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Soyuz s/n 19 was to have been equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. It would have been the docking target for Soyuz s/n 18. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Backup crew: Vorobyov, Yazdovsky. More...
  • Soyuz sn 18 Crew: Filipchenko, Grechko. Soyuz s/n 18 would have been the active spacecraft of the first dual-spacecraft test of the Kontakt docking system. A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov. More...
  • Soyuz 12 / DOS 2 Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after DOS 2 was destroyed during launch. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Grechko, Gubarev. More...
  • Soyuz 13 / DOS 2 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 2 space station. Cancelled after DOS 2 was destroyed during launch. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz Kontakt P Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Final crews selected for a dual Soyuz mission in Earth orbit to test the Kontakt docking system to be used on the lunar landing LOK and LK spacecraft. The Kontakt-P Soyuz would have been the passive spacecraft, simulating the LK lunar lander. Backup crew: Fartushny, Klimuk. More...
  • Soyuz 12 / DOS 3 Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Planned first mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after Cosmos 557 failed in orbit. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Grechko, Gubarev. More...
  • Soyuz 13 / DOS 3 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Planned second mission to the Salyut DOS 3 space station (Cosmos 557). Cancelled after Cosmos 557 failed in orbit. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 12 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Backup crew: Grechko, Gubarev.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 17 Crew: Grechko, Gubarev. First successful Russian civilian space station mission. Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov.Support crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 18-1 Crew: Lazarev, Makarov. First manned spaceflight abort. During launch third stage separation failed to occur. Crew aborted to 20 G landing in mountains near Chinese border, sliding down a slope towards a cliff until their parachute snagged on a tree. Backup crew: Klimuk, Sevastyanov. More...
  • Soyuz 26A Crew: Dzhanibekov, Kolodin. Planned mission to Salyut 6 that would make first docking with rear docking port and be the first crew to swap spacecraft and return in the spacecraft that ferried the Soyuz 25 crew. But Soyuz 25 failed to dock with Salyut 6. Backup crew: Lazarev, Makarov. More...
  • Salyut 6 EP-1 Crew: Dzhanibekov, Makarov. First docking to a space station of two manned spacecraft at one time. First station 'lifeboat' swap. First crew to visit another already aboard a space station. Backup crew: Ivanchenkov, Kovalyonok. More...
  • Salyut 6 EP-6 Crew: Aksyonov, Malyshev. Test flight of new Soyuz T spacecraft; docked with Salyut 6. Backup crew: Kizim, Makarov. More...
  • Salyut 6 EO-5 Crew: Kizim, Makarov, Strekalov. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved Soyuz T; carried out repair and preventive maintenance work and some scientific and technical investigation and experiments. Backup crew: Kovalyonok, Polyakov, Savinykh. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Salyut The world's first space station, developed in one year by the Soviet Union on the basis of Chelomei's Almaz station, in an attempt to upstage the American Skylab after the loss of the moon landing race to the Americans. More...
  • Salyut 6 Mishin was authorised in December 1973 to build an improved design DOS-5 version of the Salyut station using Almaz facilities. Mishin's bureau borrowed the two docking port configuration of Chelomei's Almaz OPS-2 This station's second docking port would allow rotation of crews and resupply/refueling using unmanned Progress spacecraft. More...

Bibliography
  • Becker, Joachim, "Space Facts Web Site", http://www.spacefacts.de/, Web Address when accessed: here.

Makarov Chronology


1964 May 18 - .
  • OKB-1 Voskhod candidates - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Volkov; Grechko; Zaitsev; Kubasov; Makarov; Feoktistov; Yazdovskiy. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Summary: Of 14 engineering cosmonaut candidates finally submitted by Korolev, only 6 survived preliminary screening and were sent for medical screening (Volkov, Grechko, Zaitsev, Kubasov, Makarov, Siborov, Feoktistov, and Yazdovskiy)..

1966 May 23 - .
1966 June 21 - .
1966 July 2 - .
  • Soyuz crew manoeuvres - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Mishin; Tsybin; Tyulin; Dolgopolov; Yeliseyev; Volkov; Anokhin; Makarov; Grechko; Komarov; Gorbatko; Khrunov; Bykovsky; Voronov; Kolodin; Gagarin; Nikolayev; Smirnov; Ustinov; Malinovskiy. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Kamanin is back from leave and orients himself. VVS General Rudenko has been visited by Mishin, Tsybin, and Tyulin. They want to replace Kamanin's crews for the first Soyuz mission in September-October with a crew made up of OKB-1 engineers: Dolgopolov, Yeliseyev, and Volkov as the prime crew, Anokhin, Makarov, and Grechko as back-ups. Kamanin believes this absurd proposal, made only three months before the planned flight date, shows a complete lack of understanding on the part of OKB-1 management of the training and fitness required for spaceflight. Kamanin has had eight cosmonauts (Komarov, Gorbatko, Khrunov, Bykovsky, Voronov, Kolodin, Gagarin, and Nikolayev) training for this flight since September 1965. Yet Mishin and Tyulin have been shopping this absurd proposal to Smirnov, Ustinov, and Malinovskiy, who do not know enough to reject it.

1966 July 6 - .
  • State Commission on Manned Spaceflight - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Belyayev; Dolgopolov; Grechko; Makarov; Bugrov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Yeliseyev; Anokhin; Kubasov; Volkov; Mishin; Tyulin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4. Tyulin heads a meeting that brings the Soyuz crewing dispute into the open. The opposing crews are represented as follows:

    • Soyuz s/n 3: VVS: commander: Komarov; backup Belyayev. MOM: commander: Dolgopolov; backup Grechko. Flight engineer: VVS: open; MOM: Makarov, Backup: Bugrov.
    • Soyuz s/n 4: VVS: commander: Bykovsky; backup Nikolayev. MOM: commander: Yeliseyev; backup Anokhin. Flight engineer: VVS: open; MOM: Kubasov, Backup: Volkov.

    Kamanin is furious. Mishin and Tyulin think an engineer can be trained to be a spacecraft commander in three months, without passing a flight physical, without being a qualifed pilot, without screening and training on the centrifuge or zero-G aircraft, and without parachute training. They put no value in six years of VVS experience in cosmonaut training. They give no weight to the years of general training, spaceflight experience, and ten months of Soyuz-specific training his candidates have already had. He notes that the United States trains crews for a minimum of one to two years before a flight. Kamanin says this decision will not stand.


1966 September 2 - . LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K.
1966 September 5 - .
  • OKB-1 cosmonauts accepted for training. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Volkov; Grechko; Yeliseyev; Dolgopolov; Makarov. Program: Soyuz. Summary: Kubasov, Volkov, and Grechko have been accepted by the VVS for cosmonaut training, with some relaxation in health requirements. Yeliseyev, Dolgopolov and Makarov need more medical tests to be cleared. .

1966 November 11 - .
  • Soyuz crew dispute drags on - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Yeliseyev; Kubasov; Volkov; Makarov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Kamanin visits OKB-1. Mishin certifies that unmanned Soyuz s/n 1 and 2 will fly by 26 November, and the manned spacecraft s/n 3 and 4 by the end of December. The departure of cosmonauts for the range must take place not later than 12-15 December. There remains only 30 days for training of the crews, the member of which have still have not been agreed. Mishin ignores common sense and still insists on the preparation of only his own engineers (Yeliseyev, Kubasov, Volkov, Makarov). The argument over the Soyuz crews continues without resolution up to the Central Committee level, then back down through the VPK and State Commission, over the next week.

1966 December 7 - .
  • Soyuz and L1 crew assignments. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Rudenko; Mishin; Kerimov; Komarov; Bykovsky; Khrunov; Yeliseyev; Gagarin; Nikolayev; Gorbatko; Beregovoi; Shatalov; Leonov; Volynov; Kubasov; Makarov; Volkov; Grechko; Yershov. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3; Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A; Soyuz s/n 3/4; Soyuz s/n 5/6; Soyuz s/n 7. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. Rudenko, Mishin, Kerimov and Kamanin agree on crews for upcoming flights. Komarov, Bykovsky, Khrunov, and Yeliseyev are assigned to Soyuz s/n 3 and 4; Gagarin, Nikolayev, Gorbatko, and Kubasov to Soyuz s/n 5 and 6, with Beregovoi, Shatalov, Volkov, and Makarov trained as back-ups. For Soyuz s/n 7, which will conduct space welding experiments with the Vulkan furnace, the commander will be either Komarov, Bykovsky, Gagarin, Nikolayev, Beregovoi, or Shatalov. The other two crewmembers will be either Lankin and Fartushniy from the Paton Institute, VVS cosmonaut Kolodin, or an engineer from OKB-1.

    Crews for the L1 must be named in order to complete the five-month training program in time. Eight L1's are being completed to the manned configuration, but Mishin believes it is necessary to plan for only six manned missions. It is decided to train nine crews. Spacecraft commanders will be Komarov, Bykovsky, Nikolayev, Gagarin, Leonov, Khrunov, Volynov, Beregovoi, and Shatalov. Flight engineers will be Yeliseyev, Kubasov, Makarov, Volkov, and Grechko. Komarov, Bykovsky or Nikolayev will command the first circumlunar flight. Mishin promises to name the OKB-1 candidates for that flight by 8 December. Mishin and Kerimov agree that training of cosmonaut- researchers from the Academy of Sciences may begin, although both Mishin and Rudenko expressed doubts about cosmonaut candidate Yershov.

    The failures of Cosmos 133 have been narrowed to entangled thrust vector vanes in the main engines and a single defective approach and orientation thruster. It is agreed to set the unmanned launch of Soyuz s/n 1 for 18 December as a final functional check of all systems. If this is successful, the date will then be set for the manned launch of Soyuz s/n 3 and 4. Flight control will be conducted from Yevpatoria.


1966 December 8 - .
  • Soyuz parachute problems unresolved - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volkov; Makarov; Mishin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The newly named crew for Soyuz s/n 7 begin zero-G training on the Tu-104 (Beregovoi, Shatalov, Volkov and Makarov). A review will be held of the SAS emergency recovery system in Vladimirovka tomorrow. VVS engineers are worried about the hydrogen peroxide venting which has burned parachute lines on two occasions. It is not believed that Soyuz s/n 1 can complete all tests to verify the systems that failed on s/n 2 before 18 December. It is clear that Mishin cannot resist the pressure from the leadership to hurry, and is cutting out pre-launch tests, with an inevitable decrease in the chances for mission success. TsNII-30 has been given until the end of December complete plans for search and recovery of returning lunar spacecraft. But Mishin and OKB-1 have not provided the necessary trajectory data for such planning.

1967 January 17 - .
1967 March 22 - .
  • L1 flight scenario undecided - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kerimov; Mishin; Gagarin; Leonov; Volynov; Makarov. Program: Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Kerimov argued with Mishin that without any logical reason his demand that the cosmonauts go to the cosmodrome for training has disrupted their preparation schedule. Later Kamanin met with Gagarin, Leonov, Volynov, and Makarov, all selected as pilots for L1 lunar flybys. The L1 flight scenario was still open. Variant 1 would involve launch of two spacecraft, with transfer of one to two crew to the translunar spacecraft in earth orbit. Variant 2 would be a direct flight to the moon. Additional Details: here....

1967 October 15 - .
  • Meeting on crew selections for the L3 program. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kuznetsov, Nikolai Fedorovich; Gagarin; Leonov; Bykovsky; Nikolayev; Popovich; Voronov; Khrunov; Gorbatko; Artyukhin; Kubasov; Makarov; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Lunar L3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-LOK. Attending are Kuznetsov, Gagarin, Khlebnikov. There are three training groups: Soyuz, L1, and L3. Mishin and the MOM are holding up further training of cosmonauts until the VVS agrees to accept Mishin's candidates from TsKBEM. In any case, Mishin's attitude is that 'automation in space is everything. Humans in space are only supposed to monitor the operation of automated systems'. L3 cosmonauts selected by the VVS are: Leonov, Bykovsky, Nikolayev, Popovich, Voronov, Khrunov, Gorbatko, Artyukhin, Kubasov, Makarov, and Rukavishnikov. The official requirements: balanced composition of a crew according to mass requirements (no more than 70 kg weight per cosmonaut), and the ability to monitor fully automated function of the L3. According to official documents, the crew's primary function is to guide the flight, but now Mishin intends that their primary role will be as subjects of psychological and physical observations to establish the adaptation of the human organism to space flight).

1968 September 23 - .
  • L1 lunar crew selections - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Leonov; Voronov; Bykovsky; Rukavishnikov; Popovich; Makarov. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-OK. Meeting of VVS, Mishin, and other designers at Fedosiya to review trials of the improved Soyuz parachute system. The Soyuz is cleared for manned flights. Mishin tells Leonov he will not support him in his bid to make the first lunar flight. Kamanin tells Leonov that of the three crews - Leonov-Voronov, Bykovsky-Rukavishnikov, Popovich-Makarov - the Bykovsky crew is favoured.

1968 September 28 - .
  • Cosmonaut exams are held for Beregovoi, Shatalov, and Volynov. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Beregovoi; Shatalov; Volynov; Leonov; Makarov; Kuklin; Bykovsky; Rukavishnikov; Klimuk; Popovich; Sevastyanov; Voloshin. Program: Soyuz; Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 3; Soyuz 4; Soyuz 5; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 2; Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 3. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK; Soyuz 7K-L1. The results will establish the order in which they will fly as Soyuz commanders. A 25-person board, consisting of spacecraft designers and cosmonauts, conduct the oral examinations. Each cosmonaut must answer five mandatory essay questions and select two two-part questions. All three are certified for flight and have a complete mastery of the Soyuz systems.

    Mishin and Kamanin meet and decide on L1 crews: Leonov-Makarov (with Kuklin as back-up); Bykovsky-Rukavishnikov (Klimuk back-up); and Popovich-Sevastyanov (Voloshin back-up). But that evening Leonov has yet another automobile accident. He hit a bus with his Volga at kilometre 24 near Shchelkovsky. This was his second accident in four months. Kamanin decides to prohibit him from driving automobiles for six months.


1969 March - .
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1 (cancelled) - . Crew: Leonov; Makarov. Backup Crew: Kuklin. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov; Makarov; Kuklin. Program: Lunar L1. Flight: Soyuz 7K-L1 mission 1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Planned first manned circumnavigation of the moon. Soviet plans to beat America around the moon were upstaged by the sudden decision to fly Apollo 8 into lunar orbit over Christmas 1968. It was decided after the American success to cancel any 'second place' Soviet manned circumlunar flights.

1969 June 18 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • Mishin and Kamanin select candidates for the lunar landing mission. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Leonov; Bykovsky; Voronov; Khrunov; Yeliseyev; Makarov; Rukavishnikov; Patsayev; Afanasyev, Sergei. Program: Lunar L3. They are Leonov, Bykovsky, Voronov, Khrunov, Yeliseyev, Makarov, Rukavishnikov, and Patsayev. Mishin expects a landing by the end of 1970; Kamanin thinks this is impossible. Afanasyev and Mishin propose modernisation of the N1, but this will take three to four years, by which time the booster will be essentially obsolete. The second launch of the N1 is set for 3 July. It would be a welcome miracle if it flew, but it still would not be enough to erase the American lead in the moon race.

1969 July - .
1971 June 15 - .
1972 Early - .
  • Soyuz sn 19 (cancelled) - . Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov. Program: Lunar L3. Flight: Soyuz sn 19. Spacecraft: Soyuz Kontakt. Summary: Soyuz s/n 19 would have been equipped with the passive Kontakt rendezvous/docking system of the LK lunar lander. Would have served as a docking target for Soyuz s/n 18 . A crew transfer using the Krechet spacesuit would presumably have taken place..

1972 August - .
1972 October - .
1973 Early - .
1973 June - .
1973 September - .
1973 September 27 - . 12:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 12 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Backup Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 36. Mass: 6,720 kg (14,810 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov; Grechko; Gubarev; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 12. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 1.97 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6836 . COSPAR: 1973-067A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 306 km (190 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Experimental flight for the purpose of further development of manned space craft Soyuz 7K-T modifications. After the Soyuz 11 disaster, the Soyuz underwent redesign for increased reliability. Two solo test flights of the new design were planned. Crews for the first flight were those already planned for the deferred follow-on missions to the failed DOS 2 and DOS 3 space stations.

1973 September 29 - .
1975 January 10 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511.
  • Soyuz 17 - . Call Sign: Zenit (Zenith ). Crew: Grechko; Gubarev. Backup Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Support Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 38. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Grechko; Gubarev; Lazarev; Makarov; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 17. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 29.56 days. Decay Date: 1975-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 7604 . COSPAR: 1975-001A. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 4. Joint experiments with the Salyut scientific orbital station..

1975 April 5 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. FAILURE: During second-third stage separation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Soyuz 18-1 - . Call Sign: Ural (Urals ). Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Backup Crew: Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 39. Mass: 6,830 kg (15,050 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Lazarev; Makarov; Klimuk; Sevastyanov. Agency: RVSN. Program: Salyut. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 18-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 0.0149 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-05 . COSPAR: F750405A. Apogee: 192 km (119 mi). Carried Oleg Makarov, Vasili Lazarev for rendezvous with Salyut 4; but during second-third stage seperation third stage failed to separate from second stage but still ignited. The crew demanded that the abort procedures be implemented but ground control could not see the launch vehicle gyrations in their telemetry. Soyuz finally was separated from by ground control command at 192 km, and following a 20.6+ G reentry, the capsule landed in the Altai mountains, tumbled down a mountainside, and snagged in some bushes just short of a precipice. The crew was worried that they may have landed in China and would face internment, but after an hour sitting in the cold next to the capsule, they were discovered by locals speaking Russian. Total flight duration was 1574 km and flight time 21 minutes 27 seconds. Lazarev suffered internal injuries from the high-G reentry and tumble down the mountain side and never flew again. Both cosmonauts were denied their 3000 ruble spaceflight bonus pay and had to apeal all the way to Brezhnev before being paid.

1977 November - .
  • Soyuz 26A (cancelled) - . Crew: Dzhanibekov; Kolodin. Backup Crew: Lazarev; Makarov. Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Kolodin; Lazarev; Makarov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 26A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Planned mission to Salyut 6 that would make first docking with rear docking port and be the first crew to swap spacecraft and return in the spacecraft that ferried the Soyuz 25 crew. But after Soyuz 25 failed to dock with Salyut 6 and Soyuz 26 as finally flown had quite a different crew and mission profile.

1978 January 10 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 27 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Makarov. Backup Crew: Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Payload: Soyuz 7K-T s/n 44. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Makarov; Ivanchenkov; Kovalyonok. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-1; Salyut 6 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-T. Duration: 64.95 days. Decay Date: 1978-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10560 . COSPAR: 1978-003A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Carried Oleg Makarov, Vladimir Dzhanibekov to Salyut 6; returned crew of Soyuz 26 to Earth. Docked with Salyut 6..

1978 January 16 - .
1980 June 5 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-2 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Aksyonov; Malyshev. Backup Crew: Kizim; Makarov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 7L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aksyonov; Malyshev; Kizim; Makarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-6; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11825 . COSPAR: 1980-045A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Test flight of new Soyuz T; docked with Salyut 6. Conducted testing and development of on-board systems in the improved Soyuz T series transport vehicle under piloted conditions..

1980 November 27 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-3 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 8L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov; Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-5. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 12.80 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12077 . COSPAR: 1980-094A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved transport ship of the 'SOYUZ T' series; transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station a crew consisting of L D Kizim, O G Makarov and G M Strekalov to carry out repair and preventive work and scientific and technical investigation and experiments.

1980 December 10 - .
2003 May 28 - .
  • Death of Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov at Moscow, Russia. Natural causes. - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Makarov. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1, Salyut 6 EP-1, Salyut 6 EO-5. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch..

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