Savitskaya, Svetlana Yevgenyevna
(1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Salyut 7 EP-4. Test pilot, engineer, second woman in space. First woman to walk in space.
Svetlana Savitskaya's career as a cosmonaut owed much to not only her natural ability but the influence of her father. Yeveniy Savitsky, was the Deputy Commander of the Soviet Air Defences, a World War II air ace, and twice Hero of the Soviet Union. On her parents' insistence, Svetlana took up music, English, and swimming in addition to school classes. She was fond of reading, and also went in for figure skating and running.
She decided to become a pilot at age 16 and applied for training at an amateur flying school without her parent's knowledge. She was rejected due to her age for flight training but began parachute training. Her father discovered her secret when he found a parachute knife in her school bag.
With her father's support she was able to try for a record stratospheric sky dive at the age of 17. She jumped from 14,252 m and fell for 14 km before opening her parachute at 500 m.
By her 17th birthday in 1965 she had completed 450 parachute jumps. At age 18 she began pilot training and enrolled in the premier Soviet aviation engineering school, the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). By age 20 she soloed in a YaK-18 trainer.
The British Press called her 'Miss Sensation' in 1970 when she became World Champion as a member of the Soviet National Aerobatics Team at the world aerobatics competition at Hullavington. By 1972 she graduated from MAI and became a flying trainer at DOSAAF (Central Technical Flying School of the USSR Voluntary Society for the Promotion of the Army, Air Force, and Navy). However she pushed to be allowed into test-pilot school. After acceptance, she went on to establish many world records in turbo-prop and supersonic aircraft, including the record of 2683 km/hr female record in a MiG-21 aircraft. She qualified as a pilot on 20 types of aircraft.
After completing her test-pilot training, and membership in the Communist Part of the Soviet Union in 1975, she became a test pilot for the Yakovlev design bureau in 1976.
She was selected as a cosmonaut in 1980, as part of a female team selected to upstage pending female astronaut flights on the space shuttle. She became the second woman in space in 1982, seven months before Sally Ride became the first American female astronaut in space (see the flight log below for details of this and her subsequent flights). She also became the first woman to walk in space. Her later command of an all-female crew to Salyut 7 on the occasion of International Woman's Day was cancelled due to problems with the space station and a limited number of Soyuz T spacecraft available for docking with the station.
Svetlana continued as a Civilian Engineer, at Energia NPO while remaining an active cosmonaut. She was made Deputy to the Chief Designer, Energia, in 1987. She became a Member of Parliament in 1989. In 1993 she left the cosmonaut corps without having made another spaceflight.
Svetlana is married to Viktor Khatkovsky, an engineer and pilot at the Ilyushin aircraft design bureau. Her favourite composers are Beethoven and Tchaikovsky, and her favourite poet is Mikhail Lermentov.
Like other Russian female cosmonauts, she seems to have flown mainly due to her family connections and for propaganda purposes. This in no way diminished her obvious talents and suitability as a pilot cosmonaut. Total EVA Time: 0.15 days. Number of EVAs: 1.
Birth Place: Moscow, Moscow.
More... - Chronology...
Spaceflights: 2 .
Total time in space: 19.71 days.
Cosmonaut Category of persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia. More...
Female Group - 1980 Requirement: female cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle. More...
Salyut 7 EO-1 Crew: Berezovoi, Lebedev. Record flight duration. Ejected a 28-kg amateur radio satellite from a Salyut 7 trash airlock; called this the first launch of a communications satellite from a manned space vehicle. Backup crew: Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. More...
Salyut 7 EP-2 Crew: Popov, Savitskaya, Serebrov. Second woman in space, launched for propaganda purposes ahead of first flight of NASA female astronauts aboard the shutle. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Pronina, Romanenko, Savinykh. More...
Salyut 7 EP-4 Crew: Dzhanibekov, Savitskaya, Volk. First woman to walk in space, accomplished for propaganda purposes ahead of plans for NASA female astronaut EVA. Mission to swap Soyuz lifeboats docked to station. Backup crew: Ivanova, Savinykh, Vasyutin. More...
Soyuz T-15C Crew: Dobrokvashina, Ivanova, Savitskaya. Cancelled all-female flight to be launched on International Woman's Day. Breakdown of Salyut 7, exhaustion of stock of Soyuz T spacecraft, and official resistance led to cancellation of the mission. Backup crew: Viktorenko, Aleksandrov, Solovyov. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Yakovlev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Yakovlev Design Bureau, Russia. More...
Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...
1982 August 19 -
17:11 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC1
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
: Soyuz 11A511U
- Soyuz T-7 - .
Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov. Backup Crew: Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 12L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov; Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-2; Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 113.08 days. Decay Date: 1982-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 13425 . COSPAR: 1982-080A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Docked with Salyut 7. Carried Svetlana Savitskaya, Leonid Popov, Alexander Serebrov to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..
1982 August 27 -
1984 July 17 -
17:40 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC31
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
: Soyuz 11A511U2
- Soyuz T-12 - .
Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Savitskaya; Volk. Backup Crew: Ivanova; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 18L. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Savitskaya; Volk; Ivanova; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-4; Salyut 7 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 11.80 days. Decay Date: 1984-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 15119 . COSPAR: 1984-073A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Docked with Salyut 7. Transported a crew comprising ship's commander V A Dzhanibekov, flight engineer S E Savitskaya and cosmonaut-research I P Volk to the Salyut-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments..
1984 July 25 -
14:55 GMT - .
1984 July 29 -
1986 September -
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