Shevchenko served in Army political units from August 1941 on the Southwest, Northwest, Kalensk, and Baltic Fronts. In 1952-1956 he was trained at the Lenin Military-Political Academy. In 1956-1962 he was Deputy Commander of a Surface-to-Air Missile Regiment of the PVO Air Defence Forces. In 1964-1969 he was Chief of Political Units for an RVSN strategic rocket division. He took part in operation Anadyr, aimed at relieving American pressure on Cuba. In 1969-1971 he served in the Central Apparatus of the RVSN, and from 1971-1981 in the Main Political Directorate of the Soviet Army and Navy. He capped his career with his assignment to GUKOS, playing an important role in establishing the space forces as a separate service after their split from RVSN.