Encyclopedia Astronautica
Germany



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Peenemuende
Credit: © Mark Wade
Germany

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Associated People
  • Gerst Gerst, Alexander (1976-) German physicist mission specialist astronaut, 2009-on. More...
  • Kepler Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630) German scientist. Astronomer who derived the laws of planetary motion. More...
  • Hohmann Hohmann, Walter (1880-1945) German architect who became interested in interplanetary spaceflight, defined the minimum energy transfer orbit which bears his name in 1916. Rocket enthusiast with VfR but broke off contact after military took over development. More...
  • Regener Regener, Erich (1881-1955) German physical chemist during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Stuttgart Physikal Inst. d. T.H.S.. More...
  • von Doepp Von Doepp, Phillip (1885-1967) Russian-German expert in guided missile aero design during WW2. Fluent in Russian. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16. Worked at Wright Field and in California aerospace. More...
  • Pauer Pauer, Walter (1887-) German thermodynamics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Heinkel Heinkel, Ernst (1888-1958) German aircraft builder, owner of the Heinkel concern. More...
  • Hitler Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945) German Politician. National Socialist politician and Reich Chancellor. More...
  • Todt Todt, Fritz (1891-1942) German Manager. National Socialist politician, Major general, Defence Minister and Director/Manager of organization Todt. More...
  • Schaper Schaper, Otto Friedrich (1892-1967) German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina. Worked at Port Washington, Long Island, New York, USA, until his death in 1967. More...
  • Tiling Tiling, Reinhold (1893-1933) German rocket pioneer, developed wing-recovered powder rockets. Inspired by Oberth lecture in 1924. By 1931 demonstrated stable flight to 7 km, first rocket launch from airplane 1932. Killed 1933 in an explosion. More...
  • Goering Goering, Hermann (1893-1946) German officer. Fighter ace in the WW1; Hitler's Luftwaffe commander. Supported quantum advances in aerospace, and fielded V-1 cruise missile, Me-262 jet, Me-163 rocket fighters. Funded Saenger rocket and ramjet work at Trauen. More...
  • Gerhardt, Bernhard Gerhardt, Bernhard (1893-) German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Kept there until 1957, the longest of any of the team members. More...
  • Vogt Vogt, Richard (1894-1979) German Chief Designer. Chief aircraft designer with Blohm and Voss during World War II. As of January 1947, living in Hamburg. More...
  • Lippisch Lippisch, Alexander Martin (1894-1976) German expert in tailless aircraft during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Nebel Nebel, Rudolf (1894-1978) German rocket enthusiast. Worked for Oberth; helped found VfR; built largest prewar German test rockets. Work shut down by government in 1934. Did not work on rockets during WW2. Promoted civilian rebirth of German rocketry in 1950's. More...
  • Oberth Oberth, Hermann Julius (1894-1989) Father of German Spaceflight. His 1923 book outlined the mathematic principles of rocketry and space travel, providing the basis for the space craze in Germany, leading to the V-2 and von Braun's rocket team. More...
  • Wolff, Waldemar Wolff, Waldemar (1894-) German ballistics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Dornberger Dornberger, Gen Dr.-Ing E h Walter Robert (1895-1980) German-American officer and manager. Head of Wehrmacht rocket development; recruited von Braun and led development and deployment of V-2. Post-war worked in US, notably for Bell on the BOMI rocket bomber. More...
  • Valier Valier, Max (1895-1930) German Austrian engineer and early advocate of the use of rockets for flight. Opel supported Valier's rocket car tests as publicity. Valier died in a careless accident, in his laboratory in Berlin, when working on a rocket combustion chamber. It exploded and a small metal fragment hit his pulmonary artery. More...
  • Mueller, Hans Mueller, Hans (1896-1986) German rocket technician in WW2, recruited to work with Von Braun in Kummersdorf. Later worked at Peenemuende, and in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Fieseler Fieseler, Gerhard (1896-1987) German chief designer. Manufacturer of the V-1 cruise missile. German sport flier and aircraft manufacturer. More...
  • Zanker Zanker (1896-1973) German Manager. Business director of the Zentralwerk. More...
  • Schwarz, Robert Schwarz, Robert (1896-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. More...
  • Goebbels Goebbels, Joseph (1897-1945) German Politician. National Socialist politician and propaganda Minister. The dubbed the F-103 cruise missile and the A4 ballistic missile 'Vengeance weapons' and designated them V-1 and V-2 respectively. More...
  • Stainer Stainer, Fritz (1897-1969) German Engineer. Engineer, German glider pilot and rocket pioneer. More...
  • Winkler Winkler, Johannes (1897-1947) German engineer. Rocket enthusiast, launched first liquid rocket in Europe on 1931.02.21. More...
  • Gosslau Gosslau, Fritz (1898-1965) German rocket engine designer. More...
  • Schmidt, Paul Schmidt, Paul (1898-) German engineer, physicist and expert in jet propulsion at Peenemuende during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Munich, Allach. More...
  • Leihfeld, Ludwig Leihfeld, Ludwig (1898-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Dept. 61/ Laboratory. More...
  • Broetler, Hugo Broetler, Hugo (1898-) German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Shop 55. More...
  • Mueller, Rudolf Mueller, Rudolf (1898-) German mechanics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Lusser Lusser, Robert (1899-1969) German Engineer. Engineer, expert in guided missiles, worked with Klemm, Messerschmitt, Heinkel, and then was head of development at the Fieselerwerke during World War II. More...
  • Opel Opel, Fritz von (1899-1971) German automobile manufacturer and rocketry enthusiast. Grandson of founder of Opel, after graduation, put in charge of testing and publicity. Funded Valier's tests of rocket engines in ground and air vehicles. More...
  • Axster Axster, Herbert Felix (1899-1991) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Tschechner, Robert Tschechner, Robert (1899-) German specialist engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacture; Laboratory Department. More...
  • Zucker Zucker, Gerhard (1900-1985) German rocket enthusiast and fraudster. In 1931-1934 toured Germany and UK with bogus 'operational' and postal rockets. Caused a death in a rocket explosion in 1964, resulting in ban of private rocketry in Germany. More...
  • Urbanski Urbanski, Arthur P (1900-1977) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. As of 1960, Head of Mechanical Systems Analsysis Branch, Quality Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Huntsville. More...
  • Buchhold Buchhold, Theodore (1900-1984) German professor. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Wiesbaden, Germany. More...
  • Hackh Hackh, Rudolf (1900-1950) German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2. More...
  • Putze, Oswald Putze, Oswald (1900-) German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Espenlaub Espenlaub, Gottlob (1900-1972) German Engineer. Glider pilot and technical designer of sail and power planes. More...
  • Schuetz Schuetz, Wilhelm (1900-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Measurement technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Barre Barre, Jean-Jacques (1901-1978) French rocket pioneer and space visionary, who developed the EA-1941 rocket in France before work was interrupted by WW2. His work continued after the war, but was eclipsed and finally replaced rockets based on German technology. More...
  • Beck Beck, Georg (1901-1943) German Professor. Dresden rocket engine scientist. More...
  • Ball Ball, Erich K A (1901-1990) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Blass Blass, Josef (1901-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Engineer and German specialist in the Soviet Union. More...
  • Ruediger Ruediger, Walter (1901-) German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Riedel, Walter Riedel, Walter J H 'Papa' (1902-1968) German rocket engineer; worked for Heylandt, then von Braun; involved in development of V-2 engine. Disliked von Braun; left rocketry in 1946. Not to be confused with Walther Riedel or Klaus Riedl, two other contemporary rocket engineers. More...
  • Morgenstern Morgenstern, Oskar (1902-1977) German-American economist, came to the United States in 1925, and worked at Princeton after 1938. Founded Mathematica, which provided economic analyses to government, notoriously the study that found the shuttle cheaper than expendable LVs. More...
  • Boenisch, Friedrich Boenisch, Friedrich (1902-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Utsch Utsch, Albert (1902-1970) German-American design engineer for McDonnell on the Mercury and Gemini spacecraft. More...
  • Fischel Fischel, Eduard Martin (1902-1984) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Bad Reichenhall, Bavaria, Germany. More...
  • Grevesmuehl, Alfred Grevesmuehl, Alfred (1902-) German scientist in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Director of Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Umpfenbach, Joachim Umpfenbach, Joachim (1902-) German propulsion expert. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Riedel, Walther Riedel, Walther Johannes (1903-1974) German manager and engineer who managed development of V-2 rocket engine after the death of Thiel. In the US he transferred this technology to Rocketdyne, which led to the engines for the Redstone, Thor, Jupiter, Atlas, and Saturn I rockets. More...
  • Hager Hager, Karl Franz (1903-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Beduerftig Beduerftig, Hermann F (1903-1973) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Knack, Wilhelm Knack, Wilhelm (1903-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Neuhoefer Neuhoefer, Kurt Kunibert Karlmann (1903-1973) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hermann, Rudolf Hermann, Rudolf (1904-1991) German-American expert in supersonics during World War II. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Lindenberg Lindenberg, Hans (1904-1946) German-American rocket technician from Dresden. Died at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Vowe Vowe, Theo (1904-1989) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • De Beek De Beek, Gerd Wilhelm (1904-1989) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Henning Henning, Alfred H (1904-) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Went to the USA with von Braun, by 1960, Deputy Director, Weapons System Coordination Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. More...
  • Speer Speer, Albert (1905-1981) German manager. Hitler's right-hand man. Architect and Reichminister for Armaments and Ammunition. He sponsored V-2 development and tried to keep operation in Wehrmacht hands. More...
  • Angele Angele, Wilhelm (1905-1996) German-American engineer. Avid amateur astronomer, control specialist in von Braun's Rocket Team. Became Head of Pilot Manufacturing Development Branch, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville. More...
  • Hosenthien Hosenthien, Hans Henning (1905-1996) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Eisenhardt Eisenhardt, Otto Karl (1905-1986) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Maus Maus, Hans Hermann (1905-1999) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Saenger Saenger, Eugen Albert (1905-1964) German-Austrian rocket pioneer; designer of Silverbird space bomber. Worked at Trauen for Luftwaffe 1936-1944 on rocket and ramjet development; for the French 1946-1954. Research in Germany 1954-1963 included winged shuttle designs. More...
  • Schulze Schulze, August Wilhelm (1905-2001) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bachem Bachem, Dipl-Ing Erich (1906-1960) German sailplane designer, co-designer of the Fiesler Fi-156 Storch, with von Braun of the Fi-166 rocket fighter. Founded own company in 1942 and developed Natter rocket interceptor. Post-war co-designer of the popular Hymer camper. More...
  • Spohn Spohn, Eberhard Julius (1906-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Heidelberg, Germany. More...
  • Kaschig Kaschig, Erich (1906-1988) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hueter Hueter, Hans (1906-1970) German-Swiss engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. More...
  • Beier Beier, Anton (1906-1960) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Ley Ley, Willy (1906-1969) German-American writer. German-American writer, extremely effective populariser of the idea of space flight - first in Germany and then in the United States. More...
  • Burose Burose, Walter W B (1906-1983) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Thereafter with the rocket team at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Lange, Hermann Lange, Hermann E (1906-1997) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Rudolph Rudolph, Arthur Louis Hugo (1906-1996) German-American rocket engineer, with Valier in 1931, von Braun from 1934. Planned V-2 production. Program manager for Redstone, Pershing, and the Saturn V. Retired 1970, but named as a war criminal, returned to Germany in 1984. More...
  • Hintze Hintze, Guenther (1906-) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at El Paso, Texas. More...
  • Hatry Hatry, Julius (1906-) German Test pilot. Technical designer and piloted one of the first German rocket planes. More...
  • Winskowski, Henrik Winskowski, Henrik (1906-) German design engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Warsitz Warsitz, Erich (1906-1983) German Luftwaffe test pilot. More...
  • Riedel, Klaus Riedel, Klaus Erhardt (1907-1944) Talented German engineer, instrumental in developing the first liquid propellant rocket engines in Germany at VfR and in design and debugging of the V-2's engine. Unrelated to contemporary rocket engineers Walter Riedel and Walther Riedel. Killed in an automobile crash near Karlshagen, Germany. More...
  • Rothe Rothe, Heinrich (1907-2005) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Schierhorn, Walter Schierhorn, Walter (1907-) German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55. More...
  • Luehrsen Luehrsen, Hannes (1907-1986) German-American architect. Member of von Braun's team at Peenemuende and in US; designed the buildings, roads, and infrastructure at Peenemuende and at Huntsville. More...
  • Tschinkel Tschinkel, Johann G (1907-2004) German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida. More...
  • Kuers Kuers, Werner (1907-1983) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Bergeler Bergeler, Herbert R (1907-1996) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Peenemuende, Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Mueller, Fritz Mueller, Fritz (1907-2001) German-American guidance system specialist, at Kreiselgeraete from 1933. Worked for von Braun in Germany and America, 1936-1960, involved in guidance platforms for Redstone, Jupiter, Pershing, and Saturn I. Went to private industry in 1960. More...
  • Wittmann Wittmann, Albin (1907-1988) German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Head of Electrical Systems Analsyis Branch, Quality Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Ardenne Ardenne, Manfred Baron von (1907-1997) German Professor. Atomic physicist; worked in the Soviet Union after World War II. More...
  • Axthelm Axthelm, Walter von (1907-) German Officer. Major general of the Flak Troops. More...
  • Jaffke Jaffke, Heinz (1907-) German architect. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Building engineer; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Scholz Scholz, Walter (1907-) German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Viebach Viebach, Fritz (1907-1961) German rocket technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Wurster, Carl Wurster, Carl (1907-1985) German expert in rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Regensburg. More...
  • Kurzweg Kurzweg, Hermann H (1908-2000) German-American aerodynamicist, at Peenemuende, then US Naval Ordnance 1946-1960, NASA 1960-1974. More...
  • Steinhoff, Ernst Steinhoff, Ernst August Wilhelm (1908-1987) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Henning, Bruno Henning, Bruno (1908-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Engineer who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Rees Rees, Eberhard Friedrich Michael (1908-1998) German-American engineer, von Braun's right hand man, in charge of manufacturing 1940-1969 for V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and rockets stages for Saturn LVs that took America to the moon. Succeeded von Braun as Director at Huntsville 1970-1973. More...
  • Chwalczyk, Rudolf Chwalczyk, Rudolf (1908-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55. More...
  • Bringer Bringer, Karl-Heinz (1908-1999) German engineer. Developer of the Viking engine and propulsion leader of the German Rocket Team in France after WW2. More...
  • Boehm Boehm, Josef Maria (1908-1973) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Nowak, Max Nowak, Max Ernst (1908-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Mandel Mandel, Carl Heinz (1908-1982) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II, member of von Braun rocket team. As of 1960, Head of Gyro and Stabliizer Branch, Guidance and Control Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Madison, Alabama. More...
  • Debus Debus, Kurt Heinrich (1908-1983) German-American engineer. At Peenemuende from 1940, designed and operated V-2 test launch facility. In US from 1945, headed design, build, and operation of launch facilities for the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn rockets for Apollo. More...
  • Stolpe Stolpe, Felix (1908-) German telemetry engineer in WW2, worked afterwards in the Soviet Union. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Dhom Dhom, Friedrich (1909-1988) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Brownsboro, Texas. More...
  • Schwarz, Friedrich Schwarz, Friedrich Wilhelm (1909-1961) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Phoenix, Arizona. More...
  • Duerr Duerr, Friedrich (1909-2000) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Paul Paul, Hans (1909-1980) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Roth Roth, Ludwig (1909-1967) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Milde Milde, Hans Walter (1909-1990) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. Died at Grant, Alabama. More...
  • Paetz Paetz, Robert Heinrich Karl (1909-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Helm Helm, Bruno (1909-1987) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Matthes Matthes, Franz (1909-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Chemist; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Steinhoff, Friedrich Steinhoff, Friedrich (1909-1945) German Kriegsmarine Officer, commander of submarine of U-511 and U-873, brother of Dr. Ernst Steinhoff. Promoted the idea of missile launch from submarines within the German navy during World War II. More...
  • Schneider, Hans Schneider, Hans (1909-1990) German expert in jet propulsion at Peenemuende during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Munich. Later became head of ERNO. More...
  • Haase, Heinz Haase, Heinz (1910-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Graduate engineer who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Deputy in charge of the Oxygen Plant. More...
  • Neubert Neubert, Erich Walter (1910-1999) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Heimberg Heimburg, Karl Ludwig (1910-1997) German-American engineer. Worked in Japan 1937-1941, then at Peenemuende. Worked on test stands for Wasserfall and A4b. Helped with Backfire. Then joined von Braun team, becoming Director, Test Division, in Huntsville. More...
  • Reisig Reisig, Gerhard Herbert Richard (1910-2005) German engineer. Expert in guided missile guidance, telemetry, and control, working for von Braun from 1937. Worked for Dornberger on Wasserfall SAM from 1943. Member of von Braun's Rocket Team in the US from 1947. More...
  • Gruene Gruene, Hans (1910-1980) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schnarowski Schnarowski, Heinz Ludwig (1910-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schriever Schriever, Bernard A (1910-2005) Key German-American military manager of development of the Thor, Atlas, Titan, and Minuteman ballistic missiles. More...
  • Drawe Drawe, Gerhardt (1910-1996) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schwarz, Willi Schwarz, Willi (1910-) German test engineer in WW2, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Deputy to the Test Bench Chief; Laboratory Department. More...
  • Heinisch Heinisch, Kurt (1910-) German rocket technician at Peenemuende. More...
  • Schwidetzky Schwidetzky, Walter Hans (1910-) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Living in San Diego, California in 2004. More...
  • Pilz Pilz, Wolfgang (1911-1994) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2; later worked in Egypt 1963-1963. More...
  • Merk, Ernst Merk, Ernst Helmut (1911-2005) German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. More...
  • Bauschinger Bauschinger, Oscar (1911-1989) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Friedrich, Hans Friedrich, Hans Rudolph (1911-1958) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schilling Schilling, Martin (1911-2002) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Mrazek Mrazek, Willi (1911-1992) German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from early days, but sent to Russian Front before being returned. A loads engineer, he went with von Braun to the US and became Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, at Huntsville. More...
  • Bredt Bredt, Irene (1911-1983) German engineer. Wife of Eugen Saenger and co-designer of the Silverbird spaceplane More...
  • Spate Spate, Wolfgang (1911-1997) German Luftwaffe Captain, Commander of the test squadrons for the Me-163. More...
  • Reitsch Reitsch, Hanna (1912-1979) German test pilot. Famed German aviatrix, glider and test pilot during WW2. She flew the womanned version of the V-1 cruise missile More...
  • Hoelzer Hoelzer, Helmut (1912-1987) German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from 1939 on V-2 guidance system and Messina telemetry system. Led similar efforts for von Braun's later missiles, becoming Director, Computation Division, at Huntsville. More...
  • Drews, Erich Drews, Erich (1912-) German coppersmith in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Department Laboratory. More...
  • Schlitt Schlitt, Helmut Wilhelm Emil (1912-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hoelker Hoelker, Rudi (1912-2003) German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Deputy Director, Aeroballistics Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Cambridge, Massachusetts. More...
  • von Braun von Braun, Wernher (1912-1977) German-American chief designer, leader of the 'Rocket Team'; developed the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and the Saturn rockets that took US to the moon. He made the idea of space travel popular in the 1950's and a reality in the 1960's. More...
  • Sieber Sieber, Werner (1912-1995) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Fuhrmann Fuhrmann, Herbert Walter (1912-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Heusinger Heusinger, Bruno (1912-1973) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Huzel Huzel, Dieter Karl F (1912-1994) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Pilz, Arthur Pilz, Arthur (1912-) German master mechanic in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Test Bench; Laboratory Department. More...
  • Horn Horn, Helmut (1912-1994) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Tessmann Tessmann, Bernhard (1912-1998) Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing. More...
  • Hoberg Hoberg, Otto August (1912-1991) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Dannenberg Dannenberg, Konrad (1912-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Dettmering Dettmering, Wilhelm Heinrich (1912-) German Professor. Worked at Peenemuende West. More...
  • Gengelbach Gengelbach, Werner Kurt (1912-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Jasper Jasper, Alois (1912-) German rocket technician in WW2; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Lindenmayer Lindenmayer, Hans Josef (1912-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Magnus, Kurt Magnus, Kurt (1912-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Gyroscope technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Prier Prier, Erich (1912-1989) German Engineer. Engineer at Rheinmetall Borsig. More...
  • Weidner Weidner, Hermann Joachim (1912-) German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. As of 1960, Deputy Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Living in Solms, Germany in 2004. More...
  • Haber Haber, Heinz (1913-1990) German expert in aero-medicine during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Heidelberg (American Zone of Occupation). Later moved to America and becaeme an astrophysicist and popular writer on the prospects for spaceflight. More...
  • Muehlner Muehlner, Joachim Wilhelm (1913-2004) German-American radio engineer, at Peenemuende from 1939 . One of the few of von Braun's team that worked on all major programs, from the doppler transponder for the V-2 to the electronic landing systems for the Space Shuttle in 1978. More...
  • Patt Patt, Kurt Paul Erich (1913-1969) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Haukohl Haukohl, Guenther (1913-2002) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Grau Grau, Dieter (1913-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Zeiler Zeiler, Albert Franz (1913-1976) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died in Florida. More...
  • Steurer Steurer, Wolfgang Hermann (1913-1986) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Voss, Werner Voss, Werner (1913-1993) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Beichel Beichel, Rudi (1913-1999) German-American engineer, on von Braun's team, but left to independently advise US Army on liquid propulsion. Joined Aerojet in 1956, worked on Lox/LH2 Titan I engine conversion, Aerojet large engine studies, and USAF ARES single-stage ICBM. More...
  • Eiseler, Hans Eiseler, Hans (1913-) German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Staats Staats, Friedrich (1913-2002) German electronics engineer, worked for Steinhoff at Peenemuende, but stayed in Germany after war. Founded and led the leading German rocket society 1952-1990 (designated sequentially DAFRA, DRG, HOG, DGLR). More...
  • Scheufelen Scheufelen, Klaus Eduard (1913-2008) German engineer, V-2 test leader. At end of war headed development of Taifun unguided antiaircraft rocket, characterised as a 'desperation project'. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Living in Lenningen, Germany in 2004. More...
  • Hirschler Hirschler, Otto Heinrich (1913-2001) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Stuhlinger Stuhlinger, Ernst (1913-2008) German-American engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. More...
  • Bohner Bohner, Otto (1913-) German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot. Captain, fighter pilot, test pilot on the Me-163 and Squadron Commander of 2./JG 400. More...
  • Hoch Hoch, Johannes (1913-1955) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Flight control technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Pehle Pehle, Max (1913-) German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Puellenberg Puellenberg, Albert (1913-) German engineer. Led the Hannover Group of German rocket experimenters 1931-1935, and renewed German citizen rocketry 1952-1964. More...
  • Toebe Toebe, Konrad (1913-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Engineer, German airplane and rocket technician; worked in the Soviet Union. More...
  • Albring Albring, Werner (1914-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. More...
  • Heller Heller, Gerhard Bernhard (1914-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Minning Minning, Rudolf Friederich Franz (1914-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Tiller Tiller, Werner (1914-1974) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Klaus Klaus, Ernst E (1914-1986) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Kroll Kroll, Gustav (1914-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Hellebrandt Hellebrandt, Emil A H, (1914-1981) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Rosinski Rosinski, Werner Kurt-Otto (1914-2000) German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama. More...
  • Lindner Lindner, Kurt A (1914-1960) German-American engineer. Member of the von Braun's Rocket Team, became director of the Guidance and Control Laboratory of the Research and Development Division at Huntsville. More...
  • Guendel Guendel, Herbert Hans (1914-1976) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Boston, New York. More...
  • Haeussermann Haeussermann, Walter (1914-) German-American engineer. Worked on V-2 gyro platform at Peenemuende 1939-1942. Returned to von Braun's team in US in 1948, working on Hermes II and Redstone guidance systems, becoming Director, Guidance and Control Division, at Huntsville. More...
  • Mueller, Werner Mueller, Werner (1914-) German mathematician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Sendler Sendler, Karl (1914-) Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schlidt Schlidt, Rudolf Karl Hans (1914-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Thiel, Adolf Thiel, Adolf Karl (1915-2001) German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Palos Verdes Estates, California. More...
  • Woerdemann Woerdemann, Hugo H (1915-1999) German-American radio systems engineer, first worked with early rocketeers in 1934. Member of the Rocket Team at Peenemuende and the United States until 1950; thereafter working in radio technology for North American Aviation and his own firm, Magnetic Research Corporation. Died a grapefruit rancher in Temecula, California. More...
  • Klein, Johann Klein, Johann (1915-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Schuler Schuler, Albert E (1915-1998) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Geissler Geissler, Ernst (1915-1989) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Haagen Haagen, Eugen German expert in biological warfare during World War II. More...
  • Weber, Wolfgang Weber, Wolfgang German Officer. Lieutenant colonel and commander of a V-2 Artillery Unit. More...
  • Bucher Bucher, Erich German expert in guided missiles during World War II. More...
  • Wachtel Wachtel, Max German colonel and commander-in-chief for service introduction of the V-1 (Fi-103). More...
  • Guderlein Guderlein German expert in guided missiles during World War II. More...
  • Loertsch Loertsch German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA as assistant to Engine Department Head Pilz. More...
  • Nagel, Dr Nagel Dr German Physician. Captain, Military, German expert in biological warfare during World War II. More...
  • Engel Engel, Rudolf German writer. Space travel pioneer German rocket and space travel pioneer. More...
  • Figge Figge, Paul German Wehrmacht officer. Leader of the Supply and Logistics Special Group for the A-4 missile. More...
  • Schulz Schulz German staff officer and commander of V-2 units. More...
  • Opitz Opitz, Rudolf German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot. More...
  • Iblefeld Iblefeld, Herbert German Luftwaffe Luftwaffe Pilot. Colonel and Commander of the JG 1 of the German Luftwaffe. More...
  • Kemper Kemper, J German Physician. Captain, Military, German expert in biological warfare during World War II. More...
  • Bender Bender, Hans German Luftwaffe Me-163 test pilot and staff engineer.. More...
  • Jung Jung German expert in chemical warfare during World War II. More...
  • Denner Denner German Wehrmacht Officer; expert in biological warfare during World War II. More...
  • Kurilo Kurilo Soviet Engineer. Soviet leader of German rocket technology transfer at Kleinbodungen. More...
  • Harras Harras German Officer. Staff officer with the Flak Research Section of the Luftwaffe. More...
  • Wurster, Hermann Wurster, Hermann German Engineer. Chief pilot at Messerschmitt, technical designer of the surface-to-air missile Enzian. More...
  • Forschner Forschner, Otto German SS SS Officer. SS Sturmbannfuehrer and operations director of the Mittelwerk. More...
  • Lertes Lertes German Manager. Director/manager of the A 25 Special Unit (Fi-103/V-1) More...
  • Kosters Kosters German Manager. Director of the Special Work Unit for A4 Transport. More...
  • Petersen Petersen, Karl German expert in guided missiles during World War II. More...
  • Ogthoff Ogthoff, Leopold German expert in guided missiles during World War II. More...
  • Bethge Bethge, Friedrich Wilhelm German engineer at Peenemuende. More...
  • Kettler Kettler German Manager. Operations director of the Mittelwerk. More...
  • Petzold Petzold, Walter German Manager. Director/manager of the power station at Peenemuende. More...
  • Metz Metz, Richard German Officer. Major General and Commander of V-2 units. More...
  • Haug Haug German engineer, member of the Rocket Team in France after WW2. Secondary school teacher, made responsible for translation and interface with the French engineers of the German rocket technicians working at LRBA in France after WW2. More...
  • Grunow Grunow, Heinrich German Propulsion expert. Rocket engine developer. More...
  • Saurma von Saurma, Friedrich und Hans German-American rocket engine designer, worked at Huntsville with von Braun. Ranking Prussian aristrocrat of the German rocket team. His wife was von Braun's personal secretary. More...
  • Zolke Zolke, Helmut Max Arthur (1915-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Groettrup Groettrup, Helmut (1916-1981) German engineer. Head of German design group held in Russia German rocket guidance expert, worked at Peenemuende and later headed German rocket team in Russia, 1945-1953. Headed the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Hohmann, Bernhard Hohmann, Bernhard (1916-1984) German test pilot. Chief of Flight Development at Wright FIeld, consultant on astronaut flight safety on Mercury, Gemini, and MOL programs. More...
  • Finzel Finzel, Alfred Johannes (1916-1984) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Erdmann Erdmann, Siegfried (1916-2002) German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Berlin. Died in the Netherlands. More...
  • Matheis Matheis, Fritz (1916-) German measurement technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Dahm Dahm, Werner Karl (1917-2008) German-American aerodynamicist, worked at Peenemuende on A9/A10, A7, A4b, and Wasserfall winged missiles. Post-war completed studies, joined von Braun team in US as Head of Aerodynamics Analysis Branch, Aeroballistics Division, Huntsville. More...
  • Ehricke Ehricke, Krafft Arnold (1917-1984) Visionary German-American engineer. Protege of Thiel at Peenemuende; early concepts for nuclear and Lox/LH2 engines. Left von Braun team, developed Centaur at Convair 1956-1964. Prolific output of advanced concepts, but poor program manager. More...
  • Klippel, Alfred Klippel, Alfred (1917-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Electrical Circuits; Shop 55. More...
  • Michel, Josef Michel, Josef Martin (3797-1997) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Apel Apel, Erich (1917-1965) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. More...
  • Fichtner Fichtner, Hans Joachim Oskar (1917-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Wohlfahrt, Kurt Wohlfahrt, Kurt (1917-) German engineer, worked at Peenemuende in WW2; worked in the Soviet Union afterwards. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Zangl Zangl, Wolfgang (1917-1962) German engineer. Head of the Research Section at LRBA in France. Later worked as head of the research department at LRBA in France from 1947. Died in 1962, in Paris. More...
  • Poppel Poppel, Theodor Anton (1918-1986) German-American engineer, ember of von Braun's team, expert in guided missile ground support during WW2, and continued in that role in the US. Played a key role in designing Saturn I LC34, and the Saturn V's VAB and Transporter-Crawler. More...
  • Vandersee Vandersee, Fritz (1918-1975) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Meier, Otto Meier, Otto (1918-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Laboratory Department. More...
  • Baum, Werner Baum, Werner (1918-) German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952 as Deputy of the Chief and Technical Designer; Dept. 61. More...
  • Aulehner Aulehner, Sebastian (1918-) German Engineer. Worked at Peenemuende and at the Zentralwerk. More...
  • Jacobi Jacobi, Walter (1918-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Tannhaeuser, Rosemarie Tannhaeuser, Rosemarie (1919-) German manager. Member of the German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Secretary who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Secretary in Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Reinhard, Siegfried Reinhard, Siegfried (1919-) German designer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Palaoro Palaoro, Hans Rudolf (1919-1994) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • von Braun, Magnus von Braun, Freiherr Magnus (1919-2003) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Knittel, Heinz Knittel, Heinz (1919-) German precision mechanic, in the rocket team in Russia. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's bureau 1947-1952 in the Test Bench and Laboratory Departments. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Holderer Holderer, Oskar F (1919-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Stuwe Stuwe, Botho (1919-) German Engineer. Engineer at Peenemuende and book author. More...
  • Wiesemann Wiesemann, Walter Fritz (1920-2000) German-American engineer. Reassigned from Luftwaffe to Peenemuende in 1941. Worked on anti-aircraft rockets, went to America with von Braun's team in 1945, working on Huntsville projects until retirement in 1970. More...
  • Neumeister, Lisa Neumeister, Lisa (1920-) Wife of a German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked as a translator for rocket engine developers in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. More...
  • Millinger Millinger, Heinz Albert (1920-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. As of 2008 living in Marburg, Germany. More...
  • Nehrkorn Nehrkorn, Horst (1920-) German ballistics expert; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Traub Traub German expert in biological warfare during World War II. More...
  • Kissinger Kissinger, Henry A (1923-) Jewish American academic, US National Security Assistant, 1969-1973; Secretary of State, 1973-1977. Pursued detente with Soviet Union, leading to missile reductions, ABM/ASAT agreements, and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. More...
  • Leust Leust, Reimar (1923-) German Physicist. Reimar Leust is a German theoretical physicist who held a variety of prestigious academic and advisory council posts before serving as Director General of ESA from 1984-1990. More...
  • Koelle Koelle, Prof. Dr-Ing Heinz-Hermann (1925-) Visionary German-American engineer, worked at Huntsville as Director of Future Projects for von Braun 1955-1965. Headed Lunex moon base project; key role in engine selection for Saturn. Taught in Germany at TUB after 1965. Advocate of SSTO. More...
  • Seliger Seliger, Berthold (1928-) German engineer, assistant to Saenger, most successful developer of rocketry in Germany 1960-1964. Work was ended by government decision to restrict missile development to established military contractors. More...
  • Stamer Stamer, Friedrich 'Fritz' German pilot of first rocket-boosted glider. Stamer was the first soaring-teacher at the Wasserkuppe, flew the first rocket airplane and constructed a wide range of gliders. More...
  • Mark Mark, Hans (1929-) German-American physicist, Secretary of the Air Force 1979-1981, NASA deputy administrator 1981-1984. More...
  • Ruppe Ruppe, Kurt Oskar Harry (1929-) German space travel expert. More...
  • Wahmke Wahmke (-1934) German propulsion expert. Rocket pioneer and engine developer. More...
  • Simon Simon, Dr George Warren (1934-) American physicist payload specialist astronaut, 1978-1985. More...
  • Jaehn Jaehn, Sigmund Werner Paul 'Sig' (1937-) German pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-4. First German astronaut. More...
  • Thiel, Walter Thiel, Walter (-1943) German engineer, talented designer at Peenemuende, in charge of development of the engine for the V-2. Killed in the air raid in August 1943, a setback to the project. More...
  • Koellner Koellner, Eberhard 'Eb' (1939-) German pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1978. More...
  • Kayser Kayser, Lutz T (1939-) German engineer and low-cost rocket pioneer. 1975-1987 developed Otrag concept - clustered large numbers of low-cost storable liquid rocket modules to reduce costs by 10x. Tested in Congo and Libya, but project killed by vested interests. More...
  • Merbold Merbold, Dr Ulf Dietrich (1941-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-42, Mir Euromir 94. More...
  • Degenkolb Degenkolb, Gerd German Phantom cosmonaut. Leader of the Special Group for the A4 and supervisor of manufacturing for the 'war locomotive'. More...
  • Siemens Siemens, Heinrich German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. More...
  • Moureu Moureu, Henri French scientist and manager. Responsible for acquiring German rocket technology and German rocket experts for France after WW2. More...
  • Sawatzki Sawatzki, Albin (-1945) German engineer, head of productionisation of the A4 missile, and technical director at Mittelwerk. His family believes that he was captured by the U.S. Army near the end of the war, perhaps tortured, and died in custody. More...
  • Messerschmid Messerschmid, Dr Ernst Willi (1945-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-61-A. More...
  • Deppe Deppe, Hans German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Holker Holker, Rudolf Franz Maria German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Schmidt Schmidt, Helmut Heinrich German-American expert in guided missiles during WW2. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Bornscheuer Bornscheuer German professor, rocket expert in WW2; later worked in France, heading the structures group at LRBA from 1946 to 1950. Returned to teach at the University of Stuttgart. More...
  • Habermann Habermann, Helmut German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2. More...
  • Jauernick Jauernick, Rolf German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2. More...
  • Kretschmer Kretschmer, Willi German expert in aerodynamics during World War II, working at the Walter Werke, Kiel. Moved by the British to Saenger's facility in Trauen in early 1946 to conduct rocket engine tests, which were completed on 16 June 1946. More...
  • KIar KIar German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the structures group at LRBA from 1946 to 1955. More...
  • Mueller, Otto Mueller, Otto German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2. More...
  • Stahl Stahl, Karl German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Schmidt, Johannes Schmidt, Johannes German expert in rocket engines during World War II, working at the Walter Werke, Kiel. Moved by the British to Saenger's facility in Trauen in early 1946 to conduct rocket engine tests, which were completed on 16 June 1946. More...
  • Schubert Schubert German rocket guidance engineer; later worked in France at LRBA as head of the automated control loop department 1946-1952. More...
  • Vilter Vilter, Hans-Albert German rocket technician in WW2, worked in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Walther Walther German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of the structures group at LRBA from 1946 to 1960. Returned to live in Bremerhaven. More...
  • Weiss Weiss, Helmut German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2. More...
  • Bruenecke Bruenecke, Erhardt German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Boese Boese German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA as head of the doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Blome Blome, Kurt German expert in biological warfare during World War II. As of January 1947, released from Project Dustbin as per USPBT CIC, 1/10/45. More...
  • Brede Brede, Hans German expert in jet propulsion during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Bernkopf Bernkopf German rocket expert; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1985. He remained in France, living in Vernon. More...
  • Bayer, F Bayer, F German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of the armature group at LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1985. Remained in Vernon. More...
  • Billig Billig German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1974. More...
  • Barkowski Barkowski, Werner German expert in production of A-4 and V-1 missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Berlin. More...
  • Blenck Blenck German expert in aircraft design during World War II. As of January 1947, working at LFA Braunschweig. More...
  • Buhl Buhl German engineer, member of Rocket Team in France after WW2. Engineer and German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of the ballistics group at LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1984. Remained in Vernon, France. More...
  • Blohm Blohm, Rudolf German Director of Blohm and Voss during World War II. As of January 1947, on American's list of persons of interest. More...
  • Bussmann Bussmann, Enno German expert in remote control of rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Landshut, Bayern, Niedermayrstr. 23. More...
  • Bachmann Bachmann German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA as head of the internal instrumentation group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Bodenstein Bodenstein German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the mechanics group in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Boergemann Boergemann German military instructor on the V-2 during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Landshut, Niedermayrstr. 55. More...
  • Bottenhorn Bottenhorn, Hermann German expert in rolling mill designer during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Boettcher Boettcher, Friedrich German designer on the V-2 during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Gross-Wudicke b/Rathenow. More...
  • Buechner Buechner German professor, rocket expert in WW2; later worked in France as head of chemistry group at LRBA from 1947-1953. Then returned to professor post in Germany. More...
  • Buchholz Buchholz, Otto German expert in aircraft designer during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Warneumende, Heinkel Werke. More...
  • Czerney Czerney, Marianus German rocket expert during World War II, worked at Peenemuende. As of January 1947, living in Frankfurt/M, Robert Mayerstr. 2. More...
  • Dollhopf Dollhopf German engineer, member of Rocket Team in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA as head of the pump / measurements group from 1947 until 1958. Then returned to Sonthofen, Germany. More...
  • Dittmar Dittmar, Heinrich German glider pilot, test pilot during World War II, and designer of sailplanes. As of January 1947, working at Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Segelflug, Ainring, Bavaria. More...
  • Deucker Deucker German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the theoretical group of the target acquisition department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Daus Daus German expert in special vehicles for rocket transportation during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Hamburg-Harburg. More...
  • Doetsch, Hans Doetsch, Hans German expert in ballistics theoretical during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Bad Kissingen. More...
  • Edse Edse, Rudolf German expert in rocket fuels during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Eisele, Karl Eisele, Karl German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Stuttgart or Ainring nr Salzburg. More...
  • Eichler Eichler, Martin German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Hammenstedt. More...
  • Ehrhardt Ehrhardt, Hermann P German expert in rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Fricke Fricke, Werner German expert in guided missile design during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Braunschweig. More...
  • Friederich Friederich, Paul German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Fabian, Dr Fabian, Dr German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the propellants group from 1947 to 1958. Then returned to Germany. More...
  • Foelster Foelster German engineer and rocket technician; worked in France after WW2 as part of the armature group at LRBA from 1947 to 1953, then returned to Germany. More...
  • Fiedler Fiedler, Willy A German test pilot, aircraft research engineer. Fi-103 test pilot for the Fieselerwerke during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Waldsee, Wuerttemberg. More...
  • Fichs Fichs, Walter H German expert in supersonics during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Wurtemberg. More...
  • Frey Frey German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on amplifiers in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Griegee Griegee, Rudolf German expert in chemical warfare / organic chemistry during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Karlsruhe-Durlach Kastellsr. 20. More...
  • Gross, E Gross, E German SS Physician. Major, SS Medical Corps, German expert in biological warfare during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Wesselstedt. More...
  • Gross, I Gross, I German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the engine group at LRBA from 1947-1958, then returned to Germany. More...
  • Gladenbeck Gladenbeck German expert in guided missiles infra-red during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Allegemeine Elektrizitaets Gesellschaft (AEG). More...
  • Granson Granson German expert in rocket engines during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Walters Company, Kiel. More...
  • Gardian Gardian German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the test stand group. More...
  • Gartmann Gartmann, Heintz German expert in rocket propulsion during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Geineder Geineder, Florian German expert in operation of the Kochel wind tunnel during World War II. As of January 1947, living in Kreis Tolz (French Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Grater Grater German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the internal instrumentation group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Gustav Gustav, Johann German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Gruenow Gruenow, Heinrich German expert in liquid propellant rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, believed to be living at Zossen (40 km south of Berlin in the Russian Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Goertz Goertz German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the ballistics group at LRBA from 1947-1950. Then returned to Germany. More...
  • Heine Heine German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on gyroscopes and antennae in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Hoehne Hoehne German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the accelerometer group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Heinemann, Wolfgang Heinemann, Wolfgang German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Peenemuende or DGS. More...
  • Hamburg Hamburg, Friedrich German expert in rocket development during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Hannover (British Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Hennig Hennig, Otto German manufacturing engr. a4 assembly during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Witzenhausen bei Kassel Goldner Loewe (American Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Hollweck Hollweck, Franz German aviation engineer during World War II. As of January 1947, living at c/o Weygand, Forsthaus Bieberstein bei Fulda / Revierfoerster Berg. More...
  • Herrmann, Paul Herrmann, Paul German engineer during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Aero Medicine Center, Heidelberg. More...
  • Hertel Hertel, Heinrich German expert in aircraft design during World War II. As of January 1947, living in the French Zone. More...
  • Haas, Martin Haas, Martin German expert in rocket and aircraft equipment during World War II. Later worked in France at LRBA in the drafting group of the target acquisition department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Hoeter Hoeter, Bernhard German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Hittenberger Hittenberger German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 to 1959 in the test stand group. Returned to Germany thereafter. More...
  • Huettuer Huettuer, Lothar German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Huebenner Huebenner German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Darmstadt-Eberstadt A. Hitlerstr. 164. More...
  • Hermann, Werner Hermann, Werner German test pilot, aviation engineer during World War II. As of January 1947, living at c/o Forsthaus Beiberstein b. Fulda Revierfoerster Berg.. More...
  • Jahnke Jahnke German expert in rocket motors during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Kiel (British Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Joachim Joachim, Carl German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Bremen. More...
  • Jasman Jasman German expert in rocket engines during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Walter Company, Kiel. More...
  • Joos Joos, Georg German chief physicist at Zeiss during World War II. As of January 1947, living in the American Zone. More...
  • Jahns Jahns, Walter German expert in high frequency long range rocket during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Clausenthal-Zellerfeld. More...
  • Just Just German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on radio beam guidance in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Kauba Kauba German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on amplifiers in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Kliewe Kliewe, H German expert in biological warfare during World War II. As of January 1947, working at an unknown location under Project Dustbin. More...
  • Kraehe Kraehe German rocket technician during World War II; later worked in France as part of the armature group at LRBA 1947-1959; then worked with Saenger in Stuttgart, followed by a return to France and employment with ELDO, and then ESA, in Paris. More...
  • Koenig, Rudi Koenig, Rudi German V-2 test engineer during World War II. As of January 1947, living at living in Frankfurt/M c/o Dr. P. Schloechter, Niederbeerbach, Darmstadt, Obergasse 2. More...
  • Kuenzel Kuenzel, Walter German expert in rocket fighter planes during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Walter, K.G., Berliner Buero Berlin West.. More...
  • Kohl Kohl German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of armature group at LRBA from 1947. More...
  • Kaufmann Kaufmann, Walther German expert in aerodynamical research during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Graefeling-Munich Spitzelberste, 5. More...
  • Kroeger Kroeger, Hermann German-American aviation engineer during WW2. Recruited by von Braun and moved to the US, becoming Deputy Director, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville. More...
  • Kieffer Kieffer German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as head of the ballistics group at LRBA from 1947 to 1949. Then returned to Germany. More...
  • Knauer Knauer, Otto German expert in rocket designer during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Hamburg, Harburg, Bethmstr. 6. More...
  • Koestner Koestner, Karl German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Kramer Kramer German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the radio beam guidance group in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Klinger Klinger, Walter German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Frankfurt/M. More...
  • Kutzscher Kutzscher, E German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Kiel (British Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Kollert Kollert, Wilhelm German expert in rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Eschwege c/o Dipl. Ing. Drause, Ottostr.. More...
  • Kramer, Max Kramer, Max German Engineer. Technical designer of the guided rocket bomb X4 during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Laebe Laebe German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Liesegang Liesegang German rocket technician; later worked in France as part of the armature group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1974. More...
  • Lang Lang German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 to 1950 as leader of the test stand group. Returned to Bremen, Germany thereafter. More...
  • Lensch Lensch German expert in rocket engines and athodyds during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Kiel (British Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Leuhrsen Leuhrsen, Hannes Gunther German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Lammerhirt Lammerhirt German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Lutz Lutz, Otto German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Braunschweig. More...
  • Maetzke Maetzke, Helmut German expert in rocket development during World War II. As of January 1947, living in Heidelberg, Schillerstr. 50. More...
  • Menke Menke German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the pump and metering group at LRBA from 1947-1955. Then emigrated to Brazil. More...
  • Moller, Rolf Moller, Rolf German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Berlin. More...
  • Mosch Mosch German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Meischeider Meischeider, Herbert German expert in rocket research during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Wolfenbuettel b/Braunschweig, Flotostr. 4. More...
  • Mohts Mohts, Hermann German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Duisberg. More...
  • Messrschmitt Messrschmitt, Willy German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Augsburg. More...
  • Nehlsen, Gerhard Nehlsen, Gerhard German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at c/o Klinger, British Zone. More...
  • Noeggerath Noeggerath, Wolfgang O German expert in rocket fuel during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Nettersheim Nettersheim German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 to 1957 in the ground support equipment group. Remained in France thereafter. More...
  • Neubauer Neubauer, Karl German expert in rocket designer during World War II. As of January 1947, living c/o Apel, Johnke in Judenbach B/Stunneberg/Thuer. More...
  • Osi Osi, Albert German expert in rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Bad Krouznach. More...
  • Opimz Opimz, Rudolph German expert in rocket planes during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Prandl Prandl German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Goettingen. More...
  • Preyer Preyer, Hans D German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Englesby. More...
  • Peters Peters, Heinrich German expert in aeronautical research during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Munich. More...
  • Pabst Pabst, Otto German expert in ram jets during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Bremen or Kirch-Horston nr Bad Eilson. More...
  • Prast Prast, J German expert in aero medicine during World War II. As of January 1947, working in Heidelberg (American Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Post Post, Ferdinand German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Runge Runge, Ernst German expert in rockets during World War II at Nordhausen. Later worked in France at LRBA as a technician in the mechanics group of the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Reiff Reiff, Rolf German expert in the V-2 missile during World War II. As of January 1947, held at Camp Woilburg. More...
  • Recknagel Recknagel, Otto German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Englesby. More...
  • Ruden Ruden, Paul German expert in aeronautics during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Stuttgart. More...
  • Raimann Raimann, Alfred German expert in aircraft and rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Dresden-Neustadt, Hospitalstr. 15, Engg. More...
  • Ruehlemann Ruehlemann, Erich German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Bodensee. More...
  • Rossmann Rossmann, Theodor German expert in weapons during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Res Res, Eberhard Fritz Michael German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. More...
  • Rau Rau, Hans German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Darmstadt. More...
  • Rickhey Rickhey, Georg German Engineer. Engineer and general manager of Mittelwerk during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Smakula Smakula, Alexander German expert in guided missiles infra-red during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. More...
  • Schwab Schwab German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Berlin Schmargendorf Cranerstr. 3. More...
  • Schmidt, C Schmidt, C German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the instrumentation group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Schrader, Leopold Schrader, Leopold German expert in missile a-4 during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Ahrweiler, Grafschafterstr. "with Schmitz". (French Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Strughold Strughold, Hubertus German expert in aero medicine during World War II. As of January 1947, working in Heidelberg (American Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Stumke Stumke German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the telemetry section of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Schossig Schossig German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on gyroscopes and antennae in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Sammeck Sammeck, Albert German designer for rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Munich, Gladbach. More...
  • Stoerk Stoerk German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1971. More...
  • Strobel Strobel German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA as head of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Saul Saul, Aldo German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Schmoll Schmoll German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA as part of the armature group from 1947-1951 before returning to Germany. More...
  • Seidel Seidel, Joachim German rocket engineer at BMW document center during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Rosenheim, Bavaria. Later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 until retiring in 1977. Remained in France, living in Vernon. More...
  • Sturm Sturm, Theodor Friedrich German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Port Washington, Long Island, New York, USA. More...
  • Schaefer, Wilhelm Schaefer, Wilhelm German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Steinlager, Allendorf. More...
  • Schumann Schumann, Erich German expert in biological warfare during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Berlin. More...
  • Schuran Schuran German engineer in WW2. Worked at LRBA from 1947 to 1958 as leader of the ground support equipment group. Returned to Germany thereafter. More...
  • Sutterlin Sutterlin, Georg German chief engineer during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to have been working at Blohm & Voss. More...
  • Schuesseln Schuesseln, Leo K German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Stuttgart, Gaenseheidestr. 15. More...
  • Singelmann Singelmann, Dietrich E G F German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Sohn Sohn German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France as part of the engine group at LRBA from 1947-1957, then returned to Germany. More...
  • Schlotzer Schlotzer German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France as head of the armature group for LRBA from 1947 until retirement in 1970. More...
  • Schlechter Schlechter, Peter German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Niederbeerbach bei Darmstadt, Obergasse 2 (American Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Simon, Dr Simon, Dr German expert in the V-2 missile during World War II. As of January 1947, living c/o Fa. Dr. Simon Frankfurt/M. More...
  • Schmieder Schmieder, Curt Otto German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Darmstadt. More...
  • Stelzner Stelzner, Armin German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Seeler Seeler, H German expert in aero medicine during World War II. As of January 1947, working in Heidelberg (American Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Schnapper Schnapper German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the doppler tracking group of the flight mechanics and control department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Schongs Schongs, Bernhard German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Schabert Schabert German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the chemistry group from 1947-1950. More...
  • Scheidt Scheidt, Karl German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2. More...
  • Schmidt, W Schmidt, W German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on electronic homing systems in the target tracking department 1947-1952. More...
  • Sallwey Sallwey, Hans German expert in rocket turbopumps during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Langen/Frankfurt. More...
  • Titschak Titschak German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Eberstadt, Hitlerstr. 164. More...
  • Tommein Tommein, W German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Goettingen (Russian Zone of Occupation). More...
  • Teichmann Teichmann, A German expert in aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Berliln. More...
  • Thalau Thalau German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Kassel. More...
  • Von Radinger Von Radinger German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Cuxhaven. More...
  • Voigt Voigt German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the ground support equipment group. Returned to Germany thereafter. More...
  • Wintergerst, Alfred Wintergerst, Alfred German expert in rocket and aircraft equipment during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Munich, Romanstr. 3. More...
  • Wiegand Wiegand, Heinrich German expert in rockets during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Grefelfing b/Munich. More...
  • Weber, Andrae Weber, Andrae H German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working "c/o Klinger", British Zone. More...
  • Wintergerst, Erich Wintergerst, Erich German expert in aircraft and rocket during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Berlin, Gneisenaustr. 27. More...
  • Wueterich Wueterich German rocket engineer in WW2. Later worked in France at LRBA in the drafting group of the target acquisition department from 1947-1952. More...
  • Woytech Woytech German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA in the optical tracking group of the target tracking department 1947-1952. More...
  • Wegenroth Wegenroth German expert in solid fuel, ram jets during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Prien. More...
  • Wirth Wirth, Wolfgang German expert in biological warfare during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Freising. More...
  • Weissenborn Weissenborn German rocket engineer in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA on gyroscopes and antennae in the automated control loop department 1947-1952. More...
  • Walchner Walchner, Otto German expert in supersonics aerodynamics during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Wright Field, Ohio. More...
  • Wiedemann, Hans Wiedemann, Hans Johann German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, returned to Germany after working at Port Washington, New York.. More...
  • Westphas Westphas German expert in autopilots steering of guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at Askania-Werke's test site. More...
  • Ziegler, H Ziegler, H German expert in rocket design during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Bad Aibling. More...
  • Zborowski Zborowski German expert in rocket design during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Munich. More...
  • Zitter Zitter German aviation engineer during World War II. As of January 1947, living at Freilassing, Oberbayern, Wielandshag. More...
  • Zeyss Zeyss German expert in rocket propulsion and launchers during World War II. As of January 1947, last known to be working at the Heereswaffenamt, GL Flak Berlin-Charlottenburg. More...
  • Lundquist Lundquist, Gustav E American test pilot, flew the X-1 rocketplane. More...
  • Favier Favier, Dr Jean-Jacques (1949-) French materials scientist cosmonaut, payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-78. More...
  • Schlegel Schlegel, Hans Wilhelm (1951-) German physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-55, STS-122. More...
  • Flade Flade, Klaus-Dietrich (1952-) German engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir 92. More...
  • Thorne Thorne, Steven Douglas (1953-1986) German test pilot mission specialist astronaut, 1985-1986. Died in an airplane crash. More...
  • Thiele Thiele, Gerhard Julius Paul (1953-) German physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-99. DARA. More...
  • Walter Walter, Dr Ulrich Hans (1954-) German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-55. More...
  • Amelkina Amelkina, Dr Galina Vasilyevna (1954-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1983. More...
  • Ewald Ewald, Dr Reinhold (1956-) German engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir 97. More...
  • Reiter Reiter, Thomas Arthur (1958-) German test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-20, ISS Astrolab. More...
  • Walpot Walpot, Heike (1960-) German physician payload specialist astronaut, 1987-1993. More...
  • Busemann Busemann, Adolf German expert in dynamics during World War II, working for the Luftwaffe at Braunschweig-Voelkenrode. Went to the USA after the war. In the early 1960's active at NASA's Langley Research Center, working on deployable space station concepts. More...
  • Constan Constan, G N German-American NASA Engineer; as of November 1960 working for Von Braun as Chief, Technical Program Coordination Office at NASA Huntsville. More...
  • Jens-Goercke Jens-Goercke, Paul German engineer in WW2. Member of the German rocket team in Egypt 1960-1963. More...
  • Koenig Koenig (-1969) German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the test stand group. Died in 1969. More...
  • Dadieu Dadieu, Armin German engineer. Worked on German uranium processing in WW2, and for Saenger post-war. By the 1970's on review committees for post-Apollo space programs in US and Europa III LV in Europe. Consultant to West German goverment on OTRAG. More...
  • Hitter Hitter, Hans H (-1970) German Engineer. Rocket propulsion engineer and director of the Development Centre at Karlshagen. More...
  • Behnke Behnke (-1973) German rocket technician in WW2; later worked in France at LRBA from 1947 in the metrology group. Died in 1973. More...
  • Plathe Plathe, Albert (-1973) German Engineer. Pilot; main engineer at Peenemuende. More...
  • Dobrick Dobrick, Werner (-1986) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Oberlenningen, Germany. More...
  • Keiner Keiner German rocket technician and engineer in WW2; later worked in France, first at LRBA as part of the structures group, then at SEP. Died in 1986. More...
  • Prasthofer Willibald P Prasthofer (1917-1993) Austrian-American engineer and rocket technician in World War II; later worked in France in the engine group at LRBA from 1947 to 1955. He returned briefly to Graz, Austria, and then went to work with von Braun's team at Huntsville, Alabama. During his tenure at NASA, he was US representative to the Paris Air Show for a number of years and lectured at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville. He was on the faculty of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. More...
  • Fleischer Fleischer, Karl-Otto (-2005) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. More...
  • Jungert Jungert, Wilhelm German engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. More...

Associated Spacecraft
  • He-112 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1935. The Heinkel He-112 was an unsuccessful pre-war German monoplane fighter, competing for orders with the Bf 109. However it entered rocketry history when tests were conducted with rocket engines. More...
  • Draeger Suit German pressure suit, developed 1935-1945. Draeger-Werke developed a hard shell full pressure suit for the Nazi government. More...
  • He-122 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1938. Early German rocketplane. More...
  • He-176 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1938. Early German rocketplane. More...
  • Von Braun Rocketplane German manned rocketplane. Study 1939. On 6 July 1939 Wernher von Braun proposed to the German Reich Air Ministry a "fighter with rocket drive". More...
  • Me-163 German manned rocketplane. Flown 1941-1945. The world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter. Awesome performance, but killed more of its pilots than the enemy. More...
  • A9 German manned rocketplane. Study 1944. Manned, winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. It would have been capable of delivering express cargo 600 km from the launch point within 17 minutes. More...
  • Lofer Mystery Craft German manned spaceplane. Hardware construction stage, 1945. There exist in US Army postwar files a murky photo of what some think is a large-scale mock-up of the Saenger antipodal bomber, taken in Lofer, Austria after the end of the World War II. More...
  • Aussenstation German manned space station. Study 1951. H. H. Koelle's Aussenstation was a large circular structure consisting of 36 separate 5-m spheres arranged around a central hub, the whole structure rotating to provide an artificial gravity environment. More...
  • Saenger I German manned spaceplane. Study 1964. MBB design for a vertical-launch, horizontal landing two-stage winged launch vehicle. More...
  • AZUR German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1969.11.08. German Research Satellite A; examined Van Allen belts, solar particles, aurora. More...
  • DIAL WIKA German technology satellite. One launch, 1970.03.10, DIAL-WIKA. More...
  • AEROS German earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.12.16 (Aeros 1) and 1974.07.16 (Aeros 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • Helios German solar satellite. 2 launches, 1974.12.10 (Helios 1) and 1976.01.15 (Helios 2). Solar probe. Launched by the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. Heliocentric orbit 190 days, 0.309 x 0.985 AU x 0 deg. More...
  • Horus German manned spaceplane. Hypersonic Orbital Upper Stage was part of the Saenger-II spaceplane studied in Germany from 1985-1993. It would have separated from the lower stage at Mach 6.6 and flown to orbit. More...
  • ROSAT German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.06.01. West German extreme UV, X-ray telescope; all-sky survey. More...
  • Tubsat German communications technology satellite. 7 launches, 1991.07.17 (Tubsat-A) to 2007.01.10 (Maroc-Tubsat). Germany's Technical University of Berlin (TUB) built a successful series of 40 kg 'Tubsat' experimental technology satellites. More...
  • BremSat German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1994.02.03. Atomic oxygen, dust particle, microgravity, reentry experiments. More...
  • GFZ-1 German earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1995.04.19 (GFZ-1) and 1998.07.10 (WESTPAC). GFZ-1 was a geodetic satellite designed to improve the current knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. More...
  • Hytex German manned rocketplane. Study 1995. Following the cancellation of Saenger II, Germany briefly considered a manned X-15/NASP type flight test vehicle (HYTEX) capable of Mach 6 flight. This too was cancelled for cost reasons. More...
  • Inspector German logistics spacecraft. One launch, 1997.10.05, X-Mir Inspector. Robotic spacecraft designed for free flight and camera inspection of the exterior of the Space Shuttle or International Space Station. More...
  • Mirka German re-entry vehicle technology satellite. One launch, 1997.10.09. German miniature re-entry vehicle attached to exterior of Russian Resurs satellite. After release from Resurs landed in Kazakhstan Oct 23. More...
  • Equator-S German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.12.02. German geophysics satellite. More...
  • Safir German civilian store-dump communications satellite. One launch, 1998.07.10. Relay satellite built by OHB System of Bremen. More...
  • ABRIXAS German x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.04.28. X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band with 30 arcsecond resolution. More...
  • Rubin German technology microsatellite. 8 launches, the first on 2000.07.15 (Rubin). Rubin was developed by OHB and students of the Hochschule Bremen. More...
  • CHAMP German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 2000.07.15. CHAMP was a geophysics research satellite operated by GFZ, Potsdam, to study the earth's magnetic and gravitational field. More...
  • BIRD German earth land resources satellite. One launch, 2001.10.22. More...
  • Ariane 5 EPS L10 German space tug. Study 2003. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Ariane 5V. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version. More...
  • SAR-Lupe German military surveillance radar satellite. 5 launches, 2006.12.19 (SAR-Lupe 1) to 2008.07.22 (SAR-Lupe 5). Germany's first satellite-based radar reconnaissance system. It consisted of five identical small satellites and a ground segment. More...
  • Ariane 5 ESC B German space tug. Study 2006. Upper stage / space tug - in production. New upper stage for Ariane 5. More...
  • TerraSAR-X German civilian surveillance radar satellite. First launch 2007.06.15. Scientific / commercial surveillance satellite, equipped with an X-band synthetic aperture radar with 1 meter resolution More...
  • Compass German technology satellite. One launch, 2008.04.28. Fachhochschule Aachen nanosat. More...
  • SSTL-150 German civilian surveillance satellite. Surrey satellite bus, notably used for the RapidEye constellation of five environmental monitoring satellites. Mass of 152 kg including 12 kg of propellant. More...

Associated Engines
  • A-10 Thiel Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 2306.8 kN. Study 1942. Planned for use in A-10. Unique dual-thrust chamber / single nozzle design, which was later shown to be not feasible technically. Isp=247s. More...
  • A-4 Thiel Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 311.8 kN. Isp=239s. Used on V-2 missile. Work began June 1936. Interim design, but went into production. Used 18 x 1.5 tonne thrust chambers, feeding common mixing chamber. Tested from 1939, mass production 1943-1945. More...
  • A-9 Thiel Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 288.7 kN. Single chamber engine for V-2 series C, A9. Tested 1942-45. Isp=255s. Never went into production in Germany, but formed the basis for successful post-war American and French rocket engines. More...
  • Aestus Friedrichshafen N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 29 kN. In production. Isp=324s. Upper stage engine for Ariane 5 developed 1988 - 1995. Original version could not be restarted; version for EPS L10 stage for Ariane 5V allowed multiple restarts. First flight 1996. More...
  • Aestus DASA/Rocketdyne Rocketdyne rocket engine. Dasa (Germany)/Rocketdyne Non-Toxic Shuttle OMS. Gas generator, pump-fed. Name later reapplied to storable propellant engine for Ariane 5. More...
  • Aestus-2 Rocketdyne / DASA N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 60 kN. Production. Restartable upper-stage engine, began test firings at Lampoldshausen in February 2000. More...
  • Astris German N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 23.3 kN. Isp=310s. Used on Europa launch vehicle. First flight 1964. More...
  • ATCRE Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1280 kN. Study 1985. Isp=490s. Used on Sanger II launch vehicle. More...
  • L7 MBB N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 27.4 kN. In Production. Isp=320s. Used on Ariane 5 launch vehicle. First flight 1996. More...
  • MBB-ATC500 MBB lox/lh2 rocket engine. 441.3 kN. Study 1969. Isp=460s. Used on Beta launch vehicle. More...
  • Otrag Otrag N2O4/Kerosene rocket engine. 27.5 kN. First and upper stages of low-cost booster. Out of production. Isp=297s. Pressure-fed, using cheapest possible propellants. Injection pressure: 40-15 bar; thrust control: 100-40 %. First flight 1977. More...
  • Ottobrunn 300N Ottobrunn lox/lh2 rocket engine. 300 N. Upper stages. Developed 2000. Isp=415s - highest value ever achieved in Europe for an engine of such small size. More...
  • P320 Rocketdyne, Friedrichshafen lox/lh2 rocket engine. Development. Launch thrust 129 kN. BORD 1/P320 BOELKOW (Germany)/Rocketdyne Technology. Pressure-fed. More...
  • Sanger-Bredt Sled Saenger Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 1144.1 kN. Study 1943. Isp=245s. Used on Sanger launch vehicle. More...
  • Sanger-Bredt Notional Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1428.8 kN. Study 1943. Used in Sanger-Bredt. Isp=306s. More...
  • Vinci Snecma, Ottobrunn lox/lh2 rocket engine. 180 kN. Upper Stages. In development. Isp=467s. Advanced expander cycle cryogenic propellant rocket engine with the capability of five in-space restarts. First hot-fire tests 2005. First flight 2010. More...
  • Von Braun-3 Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 392.3 kN. Study 1952. Isp=286s. Used on Von Braun launch vehicle. More...
  • Von Braun-2 Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 461.5 kN. A11, Von Braun studies 1943-1952. Isp=286s. More...
  • Von Braun-1 Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 3057.3 kN. Study 1952. Isp=286s. Used on Von Braun launch vehicle. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Maul Camera Rocket German sounding rocket. Maul conceived of using powder rockets to launch film cameras for military reconnaissance in 1901, beginning an 11 year development process. More...
  • Paris Gun German gun-launched missile. The Paris Gun of World War I could hurl a 120 kg shell with 7 kg of explosive to a range of 131 km and an altitude of 40 km. More...
  • Valier-Oberth Moon Gun German gun-launched orbital launch vehicle. In 1926 rocket pioneers Max Valier and Hermann Oberth, members of the VfR (Society for Space Travel), amused themselves by designing a gun that would rectify Verne's technical mistakes and be actually capable of firing a projectile to the moon. More...
  • Opel Fritz von Opel sponsored early tests of rocket-powered automobiles and aircraft, popularizing the idea of rocket propulsion in Germany. More...
  • Me-163 German winged rocketplane. The rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me-163 was the world's first and only operational pure rocket fighter and represented the culmination of Alexander Lippisch's years of research in rocketplanes, tail-less aircraft, and delta wings. As a weapon, the Me-163 had tremendous speed but very limited range. However the concepts developed by Lippisch contributed to the Space Shuttle and Buran orbiters of a quarter century later. More...
  • Oberth German sounding rocket. Rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth agreed to build and fly a liquid propellant rocket to publicise the Fritz Lang film Frau im Mond. Oberth's design was too ambitious and the rocket was never completed in time for the film's premiere. But the engine developed for it would be further refined and used in the Mirak rocket, flown in 1931-1933. More...
  • Valier Max Valier, first with the backing of automobile magnate von Opel, then in competition with him, was instrumental in popularising rocketry in Germany in the 1920's. He dreamed of rocket-propelled transatlantic aircraft, but was killed in a rocket engine test in 1932. More...
  • HW-1 Johannes Winkler was a founding member and president of the VfR. On 14 March 1931, his HW-1 lifted off from a field outside of Dessau, Germany, becoming the first liquid fuel rocket in Europe to be successfully launched. More...
  • Tiling Wing-recovered compressed powder rockets that set altitude records in Germany before being surpassed by liquid propellant designs. More...
  • Mirak Mirak - a 'Minimum Rocket' - was conceived by Rudolf Nebel to demonstrate the practicality of the liquid rocket, using the thrust chamber developed for the abandoned Oberth rocket. Mirak was realised not by Nebel, but talented engineer Riedel. It flew over 100 times in 1931-1932 and convinced the German Army of the practicality of the rocket as a weapon of war. More...
  • V-1 First significant cruise missile. German engineer, Paul Schmidt, working from design of Lorin tube, developed and patented a ramjet engine later modified and used in the V-1 Flying Bomb. More...
  • HW-2 German sounding rocket. Johannes Winkler followed up his experimental HW-1 by the much larger and ambitious HW-2, which had an aerodynamic teardrop-shaped outer shell and a very respectful fuel mass fraction of 72% using an aluminium-magnesium structure. More...
  • Zucker Rocket The Zucker Rocket was not an operational rocket at all, but a series of flashy-looking hulls powered by powder rockets like those used in fireworks. Zucker travelled through Germany in 1931-1933, displaying his rocket, selling tickets to launches, and then selling fraudulent postal covers carried aboard the 'flights'. The highest recorded altitude achieved in Germany was 15 m. More...
  • Magdeburg Rudolf Nebel's subscale prototype for a man-carrying rocket was flown eight times in 1933. Further tests were prohibited by the Nazi government. This would be the largest German rocket launched until the A3 in 1937. More...
  • Saenger German sled-launched intercontinental boost-glide missile. Saenger-Bredt antipodal bomber - sled launched, boosted to suborbital velocity, 'skips' off upper atmosphere to deliver bombload on target, recovery back at launch site. Fascinated Stalin, led to US Dynasoar project. More...
  • A1 German test vehicle. First in series of rockets leading to V-2. Exploded at Kummersdorf during a test run. Considered aerodynamically unstable (a stabilising flywheel was mounted forward) and no launch attempts were made. More...
  • A2 German test vehicle. First flight test rocket in the series that led to the V-2. Two were built, dubbed Max and Moritz. Both were successfully flown. More...
  • He-112 The Heinkel He-112 was an unsuccessful pre-war German monoplane fighter, competing for orders with the Bf 109. However it entered rocketry history when tests were conducted with rocket engines. More...
  • A3 German test vehicle. The A3 was the first large rocket attempted by Wernher von Braun's rocket team. It was equipped with an ambitious guidance package consisting of three gyroscopes and two integrating accelerometers. The rocket was intended as a subscale prototype for the propulsion and control system technology planned for the much larger A4. All of the launches were failures, and a total redesign, the A5, was developed. More...
  • Puellenberg Albert Puellenberg began construction of a series of increasingly sophisticated rockets in 1928. After further private rocketry development was prohibited in 1934, Puellenberg continued his work in secret, culminating with the extremely sophisticated VR12 rocket in 1938. This was the end of the line and the last privately-developed rocket built in Germany until 1956. More...
  • A5 German test vehicle. Subscale test model of A4 (V-2). Replaced the A3 in this role after its unsuccessful test series. The A5 used the same powerplant as the A3, but had the aerodynamic form of the A4 and a new control system. 25 all-up versions were flown, some several times. More...
  • A9/A10 German intercontinental boost-glide missile. The A9/A10 was the world's first practical design for a transatlantic ballistic missile. Design of the two stage missile began in 1940 and first flight would have been in 1946. Work on the A9/A10 was prohibited after 1943 when all efforts were to be spent on perfection and production of the A4 as a weapon-in-being. Von Braun managed to continue some development and flight tests of the A9 under the cover name of A4b (i.e. a modification of the A4, and therefore a production-related project). In late 1944 work on the A9/A10 resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, but no significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b in January 1945. More...
  • A7 German test vehicle. Subscale test model of the A9 rocket. Considered for use as a weapon as well. More...
  • A8 German cruise missile. Planned stretched version of the V-2 with storable propellants. Never reached the hardware stage, but design continued after the war in France as the 'Super V-2'. More...
  • V-3 German gun-launched missile. The V-3 Hochdruckpumpe (aka HDP, 'Fleissiges Lieschen'; 'Tausend Fussler') was a supergun designed by Saar Roechling during World War II. The 140 m long cannon was capable of delivering a 140 kg shell over a 165 km range. Construction began of a bunker for the cannons in September 1943 at Mimoyecques, France. The site was damaged by Allied bombing before it could be put into operation and was finally occupied by the British at the end of August 1944. Two short-length (45 m long) V-3's were built at Antwerp and Luxembourg in support of the Ardennes offensive in December 1944. These were found to be unreliable and only a few shots were fired without known effect. More...
  • V-2 The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. It represented an enormous quantum leap in technology, financed by Nazi Germany in a huge development program that cost at least $ 2 billion in 1944 dollars. 6,084 V-2 missiles were built, 95% of them by 20,000 slave labourer in the last seven months of World War II at a unit price of $ 17,877. As many as 3,225 were launched in combat, primarily against Antwerp and London, and a further 1,000 to 1,750 were fired in tests and training. Despite the scale of this effort, the inaccurate missile did not change the course of the war and proved to be an enormous waste of resources. The British, Americans, and Russians launched a further 86 captured German V-2's in 1945-1952. Personnel and technology from the V-2 program formed the starting point for post-war rocketry development in America, Russia, and France. More...
  • A9/A10/A11 German winged orbital launch vehicle. The A11 was planned at Peenemuende to use the A9/A10 transoceanic missile atop the tubby A11 stage to form the basis for launching the first earth satellite - or as an ICBM.... More...
  • A9/A10/A11/A12 German orbital launch vehicle. The A12 has been named as the designation for a true orbital launch vehicle, as sketched out at Peenemuende. It would have been a four-stage vehicle consisting of the A9+A10+A11+A12 stages. Caluclation suggest it could have placed 10 tonnes into low earth orbit. More...
  • A6 German intermediate range cruise missile. The A6 designation was applied to a version of the A5 subscale V-2 using alternate propellants. It also seems to have been applied to a manned, ramjet-powered version of the A9 winged V-2. More...
  • Wasserfall Seminal German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never operational. The V-2-configuration rocket was copied in the USA as the Hermes and in the USSR as the R-101. In Russia it also became the starting point for the R-11/R-17 Scud surface-to-surface missile. More...
  • Rheinbote German surface-to-surface missile. Director Klein and Doctor Vuellers at Rheinmetall in Leba had developed this unguided bombardment weapon. It was a four-stage powder rocket of minimum weight but a range of 120 km. More...
  • A4b German intermediate range boost-glide missile. Winged boost-glide version of the V-2 missile. The A4b designation was used to disguise work on the prohibited A9 program. More...
  • Taifun German surface-to-air barrage rocket, tested during World War II, but never operational. Copied in the USA as the Loki and in the USSR as the R-103. The name translates as 'Typhoon'. More...
  • Schmetterling German surface-to-air missile which completed development at the beginning of 1945. However it was never produced in appreciable quantities. The name translates as 'Butterfly'. More...
  • X4 German wire-guided air-to-air missile. 8 kg of pressure-fed Salbei + Tonka 250 propellants provided a thrust that varied from 140 kgf down to 30 kgf over the 17 second burn time. Final velocity was 230 m/s. More...
  • Enzian German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II but abandoned in 1945 in favour of Wasserfall. More...
  • Rheintochter German surface-to-air missile, tested during World War II, but never completed development. The name translates as 'Rhine Maiden'. More...
  • Bumper-WAC German short range ballistic test vehicle. Pioneering US demonstration of a two stage launch vehicle, coupling a V-2 with a WAC Corporal. The first ballistic missile fired from Cape Canaveral. More...
  • EBH LV German orbital launch vehicle. The EBH (Engel - Bödewaldt - Hanischlaunch) vehicle was a 1949 manned design which would had a gross launch mass of 220 tonnes and delivered a payload of 3 tonnes to a 557-kilometre orbit More...
  • Von Braun 1948 German winged orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun's 1948 design for a reusable space launcher was remarkable in its tubby design. This was partly driven by the need for large parachute cannisters in the base of the first and second stages, which took up one half of the diameter, with the engines arranged around the periphery. More...
  • Von Braun 1952 German winged orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun's 1952 design for a reusable space launcher used the same mass and performance calculations done in 1948. However the large parachute cannisters were replaced by deployable drag skirts. This allowed the design to be substantially less squat and more elegant than the 1948 version -- but still fatter than the sleek paintings that appeared in print! More...
  • Von Braun 1956 German winged orbital launch vehicle. In 1956, for the book Exploration of Mars and the Disney television series, the 1952 design was significantly 'down-sized'. The first and second stages were simply reduced to 20% of their former size. A tiny expendable third stage replaced the manned glider. The manned glider itself became a seperate payload, that could be replaced by an 'all cargo' module. More...
  • Mohr Rocket Engineer Ernst Mohr of Wuppertal, under the auspices of the German Rocket Society, developed a sounding rocket that was designed to reach altitudes of 50 km. A solid rocket motor with 7800 kgf would take the separable payload section to a speed of 1200 m/s. The booster had a diameter of 0.30 m, a length of 1.7 m, a total mass of 135 kg including 75 kg of solid propellant. The payload dart was 56 mm in diameter, 1.25 m long, and had a total mass of 15 kg. More...
  • Kumulus Kumulus was a single-stage sounding rocket developed by the German Rocket Society in the late 1950's. It could carry meteorological, postal, or biological payloads up to a speed of 750 m/s and an altitude of 20 km. All launches were made from Cuxhaven, and discontinued when the German government prohibited civilian rocket launches in June 1964. The propellant was developed by the DRG and fabricated at Liebenau Company for Production of Chemical Materials (GmbH zur Verwertung chemischer Erzeugnisse Liebenau). More...
  • Cirrus Cirrus was a two-stage sounding rocket developed by the German Rocket Society in the late 1950's. All launches were made from Cuxhaven, and discontinued when the German government prohibited civilian rocket launches in June 1964. The propellant was developed by the DRG and fabricated at Liebenau Company for Production of Chemical Materials (GmbH zur Verwertung chemischer Erzeugnisse Liebenau). More...
  • Cirrus II German sounding rocket. Cirrus II could carry meteorological or biological payloads to a speed of over 1000 m/s and an altitude of 50 km. The first stage produced 1800 kgf and the second 508 kgf. More...
  • Cirrus I German sounding rocket. Cirrus I could carry meteorological or biological payloads up to a speed of 1000 m/s and an altitude of 35 km. More...
  • Seliger German sounding rocket. Berthold Seliger's firm designed a modular series of sounding rockets in 1961-1964. One, two, and three stage versions were built, reaching 52, 80, and 120 km altitude. More...
  • Project 621 German sounding rocket. Dornier project of the early 1960's for a recoverable, reusable sounding rocket. The liquid fueled rocket would use a paraglider for recovery, and could be reused up to six times. Drop tests were made of the paraglider system in Sardinia in 1965 but no flights of the rocket itself ever took place. More...
  • Beta German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 rocket pioneer Dietrich Koelle was working at MBB (Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm). There he sketched out a reusable VTOVL design called BETA using Bono's SASSTO as a starting point. The vehicle, taking European technology into account, was a bit heavier than Bono's design. But the thorough analysis showed even this design would be capable of delivering 2 tonnes of payload to orbit. More...
  • Saenger I German winged orbital launch vehicle. Final version of the Saenger spaceplane, as conceived by Eugen Saenger during his lifetime. A rocket propelled sled would be used for horizontal launch of delta-winged, rocket-propelled first and second stages. More...
  • Otrag $200 million was spent from 1975-1987 by Lutz Kayer in a serious attempt to develop a low-cost satellite launcher using clusters of mass-produced pressure-fed liquid propellant modules. The project was finally squelched by the German government under pressure from the Soviet and French. More...
  • LART German winged orbital launch vehicle. MBB/ERNO airbreathing horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit proposal from the mid-1980s. Largely similar to the BAe HOTOL. More...
  • Saenger II Proposed two stage to orbit vehicle. Air-breathing hypersonic first stage and delta wing second stage. The German Hypersonics Programme and its Saenger II reference vehicle received most of the domestic funding for spaceplane development in the late 1980s and early 1990s. More...
  • Beta II German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Beta II was Dietrich Koelle's nominal 350 tonne lift-off mass SSTO design for launch of a 10 tonne European spaceplane. More...
  • Beta III German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 Dietrich Koelle proposed his BETA III design. This was to deliver 20 tonnes to orbit with a launch mass of 600 tonnes. In 1996 and 1998 he updated the design for use as an ISS resupply vehicle in place of the shuttle, and as a space tourism vehicle for 100 passengers. More...
  • Beta IV German SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Beta II was Dietrich Koelle's largest SSTO concept, with a nominal 2000 tonne lift-off mass SSTO design and 100 tonne payload. More...
  • EARL I German winged orbital launch vehicle. A larger Earl 14 configuration was studied, but the study centered on the Earl 5 / 18 / 7 configurations. The second stage was mounted on top of the booster. Earl 5 and 7 had winged second stages, with payloads to low earth orbit of 5380 kg to 7180 kg. Earl 14 featured an expendable upper stage which increased payload to 18,000 kg. More...
  • EARL German winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takoff / horizontal landing two-stage launch vehicle study from the 1980s. More...
  • Astros German sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Sled-launched horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit. Essentially similar to FESTIP FSS-4 More...
  • DSL HTHL German winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Horizontal Takeoff / Horizontal Landing Two Stage to Orbit proposal with Mach 3 stage separation. Later evolved into the FESTIP FSS-11,which was merged with FSS-12. Reusable and expendable upper stage options. More...
  • EARL II German winged orbital launch vehicle. Later EARL version from 1990. Parallel staging, both stages winged and recoverable. Expendable upper stage for heavy-lift missions. More...
  • RWDT HTHL German winged orbital launch vehicle. Under the Future European Space Transportation Investigation Programme (FESTIP) of 1994-1999 French agencies and contractors designed a number of alternative reusable space launchers. This one was a Horizontal Takeoff / Horizontal Landing Two Stage to Orbit proposal with Mach 4 stage separation. Vehicle consisted of an unpowered 'reusable winged drop tank' and 2-engine expendable Ariane-5 upper stage. More...
  • Hytex Following the cancellation of Saenger II, Germany briefly considered a manned X-15/NASP type flight test vehicle (HYTEX) capable of Mach 6 flight. This too was cancelled for cost reasons. More...
  • Maxus The MAXUS micrograviy program was a collaboration between Sweden and Germany. The single-stage vehicle developed for the program used a Castor 4B motor, the largest fired from Western Europe. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Wehrmacht German agency overseeing development of rocket engines and rockets. Wehrmacht, Germany. More...
  • DRG German manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Deutsche Raumfahrtgesellschaft eV, Germany. More...
  • DASA German agency. Deutsche Aerospace AG, Bremen, Germany. More...
  • Max-Planck-Institut German manufacturer of spacecraft. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany. More...
  • DLR German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten, Cologne, Germany. More...
  • DFVLR German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Deutsche Forshungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany. More...
  • BMW German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. BMW, Germany. More...
  • Otrag German manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Orbital Transport-und-Raketen Aktiengesellschaft, Germany. More...
  • Luftwaffe German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Luftwaffe, Germany. More...
  • MBB German manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm GmBh, Munich, Germany. More...
  • TUB German manufacturer of spacecraft. Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany. More...
  • DARA German agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (German Space Agency), Germany. More...
  • Bremen German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. OHB System GmbH, Germany. More...
  • GFZ German manufacturer of spacecraft. Geoforschungszentrum, Potsdam, Germany. More...
  • Jena German manufacturer of spacecraft. Karl Zeiss Jena, Jena, Germany. More...
  • BJMU German agency. Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet, Wuerzburg, Germany. More...
  • BWB German manufacturer of spacecraft. BWB, Germany. More...
  • Dornier German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. DaimlerChrysler Aerospace - Dornier Satellitensysteme GmbH, Germany. More...
  • Heinkel German manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Heinkel, Germany. More...
  • Mohr German manufacturer of rockets. Mohr, Germany. More...
  • Nebel German manufacturer of rockets. Nebel, Germany. More...
  • Opel German manufacturer of rockets. Opel, Germany. More...
  • RRSS German manufacturer. Return and Rescue Space Systems, Germany. More...
  • Saenger German manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Saenger, Germany. More...
  • Seliger German manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Seliger, Germany. More...
  • Thiel German manufacturer of rocket engines. Thiel, Germany. More...

Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Oscar Amateur radio satellite network. For over a third of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Tubsat Small experimental store and forward communications satellite series. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Raketenflugplatz The world's first rocket port, an abandoned German Army storage facility in the northern suburbs of Berlin. Used for 6 launches from 1931 to 1931, reaching up to 1 kilometer altitude. More...
  • Kummersdorf German Army firing range, on the rail line 46 km south of Berlin. The German Army conducted rocket firing tests here from 1930 to 1945, and von Braun's rocket team worked here at first while developing the V-2. Actual launches of the rockets, after the earliest tests, moved to Greifswalder Oie and then Peenemuende on the Baltic. More...
  • Cuxhaven As the only site in Germany with an unrestricted over-water firing sector over the North Sea, Cuxhaven was once touted as 'the Cape Canaveral of Germany'. Primarily known to space historians for the three post-war V-2 launches under project Backfire, it played an important role in the nascent post-World War II German rocketry. A nearly completely unknown series of scientific sounding rocket launches were made from the area in 1957-1964 before the launch site was closed on (purportedly) safety and (actually) military grounds. More...
  • Peenemuende First launch site in the world, used for development of the V-1, A-4/V-2, Wasserfall, and other missiles. Among many major facilities, engine test stands were built that were capable of accommodating planned engines for the A-10 intercontinental missile. 296 known launches were made from the site between 1937 and 1945. More...
  • Heidelager German test range for production V-2 missiles, used for 278 launches from 1943 to 1944, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Heidekraut German test range for production V-2 missiles. Used for 265 launches from 1944 to 1945, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude. More...
  • V-2 Battery 444 V-2 battery 444 was assigned to the northern group of V-2 mobile launchers and began operations on 31 August 1944, with the first successful launch on 2 September 1944. V-2 Gruppe Nord launchers were distributed along the English Channel, in a restricted zone north and south of The Hague, which included Hoek den Holland, Den Haag, and Wassenaar, all used for launches against London. On 28 January 1945 Battery 444 moved to Burgsteinfurt in the southern group of V-2 launchers, and continued operations with launches against Antwerp and Lille. More...
  • V-2 Battery 485 V-2 batteries 1./485, 2./485 and 3./485 were assigned to the northern group of V-2 mobile launchers around the Hague and began operations on 3 September 1944, with the first successful launch on 8 September 1944. In late October 1944 3./485 was moved to Burgsteinfurt, and conducted operations from the southern group with launches against Antwerp and Lille. All units of battery 485 ended operations in the face of allied advances in the last days of March 1945. More...
  • V-2 Battery 836 V-2 batteries 1./ 836, 2./836, and 3./836 were part of the southern group of V-2 mobile launchers based in the Ardennes forest and kept a constant barrage against Paris, Lille, and other French towns for three weeks from 10 September 1944. Focus then shifted to the Allied port facilities at Antwerp from 19 October until the end of March 1945. After retreating farther into Germany, on 8 April the battery destroyed its rockets and launching equipment and ceased to exist. More...
  • V-2 Battery SS Abt 500 V-2 Battery SS Abt 500 was first assigned to the southern group of V-2 mobile launchers and began operations near Breitenfurt on 10 October 1944. Just over a month later it was moved to the northern group near the Hague. It operated from various locations there until forced cease operations and retreat before the Allied advance on 28 March 1945. More...
  • V-2 Gruppe Nord The northern group of V-2 mobile launchers began operations on 31 August 1944, with the first successful launch on 2 September 1944. Batteries assigned to Gruppe Nord included 444, 1./485, 2./485, and SS Battery 500. V-2 Gruppe Nord launchers were distributed along the English Channel, in a restricted zone north and south of The Hague, which included Hoek den Holland, Den Haag, and Wassenaar, all used for launches against London; Zwolle-Hellendoorn-Enchede, used for launches by SS 500 against Antwerp; and Burgsteinfurt, used for launches against Antwerp and Lille. More...
  • V-2 Gruppe Sued The southern group of V-2 mobile launchers saw a few initial launches by Battery 444 from the Ardennes forest against Paris beginning on 6 September, 1944. 444 moved on to Holland on the 10 September. Thereafter the batteries 1./ 836, 2./836, and 3./836 deployed and kept a constant barrage against Paris, Lille, and other French towns for three weeks. Focus then shifted to the Allied port facilities at Antwerp from 19 October until the end of the war. More...
  • Neu Ulm US base in the 1980's for 43 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union. More...
  • Schwaebisch-Gmuend US base in the 1980's for 36 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union. More...
  • Wueschheim US base in the 1980's for 31 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union. More...
  • Waldheide-Neckarsulm US base in the 1980's for 36 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union. More...
  • Zingst A simple launch pad was set up at this East German firing range on the Baltic Sea for some of the last firings of the MMR-06 sounding rocket. Known to have been used for 62 launches from 1988 to 1992, reaching up to 79 kilometers altitude. More...

Associated Stages
  • A-10 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,043/16,993 kg. Thrust 2,306.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. More...
  • A-11 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 13,841.38 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. Masses estimated; dimensions scaled from drawing. More...
  • A-12 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,500,000/350,000 kg. Thrust 98,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. All values estimated. More...
  • A-4 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,805/4,008 kg. Thrust 311.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 239 seconds. V-2 production version. More...
  • A-9 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,259/3,000 kg. Thrust 288.68 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. Winged version. More...
  • Ariane H10 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,000/1,600 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds. More...
  • Ariane H8 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,687/1,457 kg. Thrust 61.67 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 443 seconds. High energy upper stage for Ariane booster series. More...
  • Ariane H10-3 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,310/1,570 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds. More...
  • Ariane 5-2 N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,500/2,700 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 324 seconds. Storable propellant, restartable upper stage for use with Ariane 5. Chamber pressure 10 bar; expansion ratio 83.0; propellant mix ratio 2.05. Empty mass without VEB payload fairing support ring and avionics is 1200 kg. More...
  • Ariane 5 ESC B Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,500/3,400 kg. Thrust 153.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 467 seconds. New upper stage for Ariane 5. More...
  • Ariane 5 ESC A Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,500/2,100 kg. Thrust 64.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds. Uses engine and oxygen tank from Ariane 4 + new liquid hydrogen tank. More...
  • Ariane 5 EPS L10 N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,750/2,750 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 324 seconds. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version. More...
  • Ariane H10plus Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,800/1,740 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds. More...
  • Astris N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,370/610 kg. Thrust 23.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. More...
  • Beta Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 5,736.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. More...
  • Cirrus I-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 5.00 kN. More...
  • Otrag N2O4/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,500/150 kg. Thrust 26.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. Clustered to form Otrag launch vehicles. Pressure-fed, using cheapest possible propellants. Injection pressure: 40 - 15 bar; Thrust control: 100% - 40 %; Pressurization: Compressed air 66% tank filling in blow-down mode; Injector: Radial like on like; Chamber cooling: Ablative phenolic; Material of injector, valves, bulkheads: AlMg5; Material of cylindrical tank sections: cold rolled low carbon stainless steel. More...
  • Sanger I-2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 295.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 430 seconds. The second stage would reach a 300 km earth orbit and a top speed of 8000 m/s. The glider had a landing speed of 90 m/s. Aside from the two-man crew, a five tonne payload could be delivered into orbit. More...
  • Sanger-Bredt Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 99,773/19,955 kg. Thrust 1,428.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 306 seconds. More...
  • Sanger Sled Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,000/6,800 kg. Thrust 6,860.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 245 seconds. More...
  • Sanger I-1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 79,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 885.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 430 seconds. The first stage took the second stage to 50 km altitude and 4000 m/s separation conditions. The first stage would then land 500 km from the launch point. Takeoff speed was 300 m/s; and landing speed 80 m/s. A two-man crew piloted the booster. More...
  • Sanger I Sled Steam propellant rocket sled. Propelled the first and second stages on a 3-km track to a release velocity of 900 kph More...
  • Sanger II-2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 112,000/32,600 kg. Thrust 1,280.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 490 seconds. 6000 kg to LEO More...
  • Sanger II-1 Mach 6.6 rocket launch aircraft. Winged scramjet using LH2 propellant. Loaded/empty mass 254,000/156,000 kg. Thrust 1,500.00 kN. Specific impulse 1200 seconds. Releases Horus @M 6.6 @ 37 km altitude @ 3100 km range More...
  • Von Braun 1952-3 Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,000/22,000 kg. Thrust 2,033.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1956-3 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,400/2,100 kg. Thrust 406.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1956-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,100,000/140,000 kg. Thrust 28,257.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 257 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1952-2 Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 770,000/70,000 kg. Thrust 16,271.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1952-1 Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,500,000/700,000 kg. Thrust 141,286.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 257 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1948-3 Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,000/22,000 kg. Thrust 2,033.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1948-2 Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 770,000/70,000 kg. Thrust 16,271.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1948-1 Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,500,000/700,000 kg. Thrust 141,286.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 257 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1956-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 154,000/14,000 kg. Thrust 3,254.23 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. More...
  • Wasserfall-1 Nitric acid/Tonka propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,500/1,700 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN. More...

Germany Chronology


1571 December 27 - .
  • Birth of Johannes Kepler - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German scientist. Astronomer who derived the laws of planetary motion..

1572 November 11 - .
  • Tycho Brahe's observes Supernova 1572 - . Nation: Germany.

1604 October 9 - .
  • Supernova 1604 (Kepler's Nova) - . Nation: Germany.

1630 November 15 - .
  • Death of Johannes Kepler - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Kepler. Summary: German scientist. Astronomer who derived the laws of planetary motion..

1802 March 28 - .
  • Wilhelm Olbers' Discovery of Asteroid 2 Pallas - . Nation: Germany.

1804 September 2 - .
  • Karl Harding's Discovery of Asteroid 3 Juno - . Nation: Germany.

1807 March 29 - .
  • Wilhelm Olbers' Discovery of Asteroid 4 Vesta - . Nation: Germany.

1846 September 23 - .
  • Johann Galle's Discovery of Neptune - . Nation: Germany.

1880 March 18 - .
  • Birth of Walter Hohmann - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German architect who became interested in interplanetary spaceflight, defined the minimum energy transfer orbit which bears his name in 1916. Rocket enthusiast with VfR but broke off contact after military took over development..

1885 May 8 - .
  • Birth of Phillip Von Doepp - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: Russian-German expert in guided missile aero design during WW2. Fluent in Russian. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16. Worked at Wright Field and in California aerospace..

1892 October 26 - .
  • Birth of Otto Friedrich Schaper - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina. Worked at Port Washington, Long Island, New York, USA, until his death in 1967..

1893 December 17 - .
  • Birth of Bernhard Gerhardt - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Kept there until 1957, the longest of any of the team members..

1894 March 21 - .
  • Birth of Rudolf Nebel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German rocket enthusiast. Worked for Oberth; helped found VfR; built largest prewar German test rockets. Work shut down by government in 1934. Did not work on rockets during WW2. Promoted civilian rebirth of German rocketry in 1950's..

1894 June 25 - .
  • Birth of Hermann Julius Oberth - . Nation: Germany; Romania. Summary: Father of German Spaceflight. His 1923 book outlined the mathematic principles of rocketry and space travel, providing the basis for the space craze in Germany, leading to the V-2 and von Braun's rocket team..

1895 February 9 - .
  • Birth of Max Valier - . Nation: Germany; Italy. Summary: German Austrian engineer and early advocate of the use of rockets for flight. Opel supported Valier's rocket car tests as publicity. Valier died in a rocket motor explosion in 1931..

1897 May 29 - .
  • Birth of Johannes Winkler - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German engineer. Rocket enthusiast, launched first liquid rocket in Europe on 1931.02.21..

1898 January 8 - .
  • Birth of Ludwig Leihfeld - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Dept. 61/ Laboratory..

1898 November 9 - .
  • Birth of Hugo Broetler - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Shop 55..

1899 January 1 - .
  • Birth of Robert Tschechner - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German specialist engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacture; Laboratory Department..

1899 May 4 - .
  • Birth of Fritz von Opel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German automobile manufacturer and rocketry enthusiast. Grandson of founder of Opel, after graduation, put in charge of testing and publicity. Funded Valier's tests of rocket engines in ground and air vehicles..

1899 November 3 - .
1900 January 24 - .
  • Birth of Arthur P Urbanski - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. As of 1960, Head of Mechanical Systems Analsysis Branch, Quality Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Huntsville..

1900 July 10 - .
  • Birth of Theodore Buchhold - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German professor. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Wiesbaden, Germany..

1900 August 24 - .
  • Birth of Rudolf Hackh - . Nation: France; Germany. Summary: German engineer. Member of German Rocket Team in France after WW2..

1900 August 28 - .
  • Birth of Oswald Putze - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1901 September 12 - .
  • Birth of Erich K A Ball - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1902 January 24 - .
  • Birth of Oskar Morgenstern - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American economist, came to the United States in 1925, and worked at Princeton after 1938. Founded Mathematica, which provided economic analyses to government, notoriously the study that found the shuttle cheaper than expendable LVs..

1902 February 18 - .
  • Birth of Friedrich Boenisch - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1902 March 2 - .
  • Birth of Albert Utsch - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American design engineer for McDonnell on the Mercury and Gemini spacecraft..

1902 July 6 - .
  • Birth of Eduard Martin Fischel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Bad Reichenhall, Bavaria, Germany..

1902 August 10 - .
  • Birth of Alfred Grevesmuehl - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German scientist in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Director of Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1903 January 23 - .
  • Birth of Walther Johannes Riedel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German manager and engineer who managed development of V-2 rocket engine after the death of Thiel. In the US he transferred this technology to Rocketdyne, which led to the engines for the Redstone, Thor, Jupiter, Atlas, and Saturn I rockets..

1903 March 25 - .
  • Birth of Karl Franz Hager - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1903 May 17 - .
1903 July 13 - .
  • Birth of Wilhelm Knack - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1903 November 12 - .
1904 February 1 - .
  • Birth of Hans Lindenberg - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American rocket technician from Dresden. Died at Fort Bliss, Texas..

1904 June 25 - .
  • Birth of Theo Vowe - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1904 July 13 - .
1904 December 8 - .
  • Birth of Alfred H Henning - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Went to the USA with von Braun, by 1960, Deputy Director, Weapons System Coordination Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center..

1905 February 8 - .
  • Birth of Wilhelm Angele - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Avid amateur astronomer, control specialist in von Braun's Rocket Team. Became Head of Pilot Manufacturing Development Branch, Guidance and Control Division, Huntsville..

1905 May 26 - .
1905 June 7 - .
1905 September 6 - .
  • Birth of Hans Hermann Maus - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1905 November 23 - .
1906 January 1 - .
  • Birth of Henrik Winskowski - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German design engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61..

1906 January 23 - .
  • Birth of Eberhard Julius Spohn - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Heidelberg, Germany..

1906 February 11 - .
  • Birth of Erich Kaschig - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1906 March 21 - .
  • Birth of Hans Hueter - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German-Swiss engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2..

1906 July 8 - .
  • Birth of Guenther Hintze - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at El Paso, Texas..

1906 September 9 - .
  • Birth of Anton Beier - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1906 October 2 - .
  • Birth of Willy Ley - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American writer. German-American writer, extremely effective populariser of the idea of space flight - first in Germany and then in the United States..

1906 October 4 - .
  • Birth of Walter W B Burose - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Thereafter with the rocket team at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1906 October 23 - .
  • Birth of Hermann E Lange - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1906 November 9 - .
  • Birth of Arthur Louis Hugo Rudolph - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American rocket engineer, with Valier in 1931, von Braun from 1934. Planned V-2 production. Program manager for Redstone, Pershing, and the Saturn V. Retired 1970, but named as a war criminal, returned to Germany in 1984..

1907 February 2 - .
  • Birth of Heinrich Rothe - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1907 February 22 - .
  • Birth of Walter Schierhorn - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55..

1907 March 13 - .
  • Birth of Hannes Luehrsen - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American architect. Member of von Braun's team at Peenemuende and in US; designed the buildings, roads, and infrastructure at Peenemuende and at Huntsville..

1907 April 7 - .
  • Birth of Johann G Tschinkel - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: German-Austrian rocket technician, arrived in the United States under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Fluent in English prior to arrival in the United States. Died in Tallahassee, Florida..

1907 April 18 - .
  • Birth of Werner Kuers - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1907 May 16 - .
  • Birth of Herbert R Bergeler - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Peenemuende, Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1907 October 27 - .
  • Birth of Fritz Mueller - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American guidance system specialist, at Kreiselgeraete from 1933. Worked for von Braun in Germany and America, 1936-1960, involved in guidance platforms for Redstone, Jupiter, Pershing, and Saturn I. Went to private industry in 1960..

1907 November 17 - .
  • Birth of Albin Wittmann - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Head of Electrical Systems Analsyis Branch, Quality Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1908 January 1 - .
  • Birth of Hermann H Kurzweg - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American aerodynamicist, at Peenemuende, then US Naval Ordnance 1946-1960, NASA 1960-1974..

1908 January 11 - .
1908 March 5 - .
  • Birth of Bruno Henning - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. Engineer who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61..

1908 April 28 - .
  • Birth of Eberhard Friedrich Michael Rees - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer, von Braun's right hand man, in charge of manufacturing 1940-1969 for V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and rockets stages for Saturn LVs that took America to the moon. Succeeded von Braun as Director at Huntsville 1970-1973..

1908 May 10 - .
  • Birth of Rudolf Chwalczyk - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55..

1908 June 16 - .
  • Birth of Karl-Heinz Bringer - . Nation: France; Germany. Summary: German engineer. Developer of the Viking engine and propulsion leader of the German Rocket Team in France after WW2..

1908 August 7 - .
  • Birth of Josef Maria Boehm - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1908 September 28 - .
  • Birth of Max Ernst Nowak - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1908 November 22 - .
  • Birth of Carl Heinz Mandel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II, member of von Braun rocket team. As of 1960, Head of Gyro and Stabliizer Branch, Guidance and Control Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Madison, Alabama..

1908 November 29 - .
  • Birth of Kurt Heinrich Debus - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. At Peenemuende from 1940, designed and operated V-2 test launch facility. In US from 1945, headed design, build, and operation of launch facilities for the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and Saturn rockets for Apollo..

1909 January 1 - .
  • Birth of Friedrich Dhom - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Brownsboro, Texas..

1909 January 8 - .
  • Birth of Friedrich Wilhelm Schwarz - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Phoenix, Arizona..

1909 January 26 - .
  • Birth of Friedrich Duerr - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1909 April 15 - .
  • Birth of Hans Paul - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1909 June 10 - .
  • Birth of Ludwig Roth - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1909 July 3 - .
  • Birth of Hans Walter Milde - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland. Died at Grant, Alabama..

1909 August 13 - .
1909 December 31 - .
  • Birth of Bruno Helm - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1910 January 8 - .
  • Birth of Heinz Haase - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Graduate engineer who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Deputy in charge of the Oxygen Plant..

1910 January 19 - .
1910 January 29 - .
  • Birth of Karl Ludwig Heimberg - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Worked in Japan 1937-1941, then at Peenemuende. Worked on test stands for Wasserfall and A4b. Helped with Backfire. Then joined von Braun team, becoming Director, Test Division, in Huntsville..

1910 March 3 - .
  • Birth of Gerhard Herbert Richard Reisig - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer. Expert in guided missile guidance, telemetry, and control, working for von Braun from 1937. Worked for Dornberger on Wasserfall SAM from 1943. Member of von Braun's Rocket Team in the US from 1947..

1910 May 24 - .
  • Birth of Hans Gruene - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1910 June 3 - .
1910 September 14 - .
  • Birth of Bernard A Schriever - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: Key German-American military manager of development of the Thor, Atlas, Titan, and Minuteman ballistic missiles..

1910 October 18 - .
  • Birth of Walter Hans Schwidetzky - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Living in San Diego, California in 2004..

1910 November 5 - .
  • Birth of Gerhardt Drawe - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1910 November 19 - .
  • Birth of Willi Schwarz - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German test engineer in WW2, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Deputy to the Test Bench Chief; Laboratory Department..

1911 April 1 - .
  • Birth of Ernst Helmut Merk - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German expert in guided missiles during World War II. Arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. As of January 1947, working at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland..

1911 August 9 - .
  • Birth of Oscar Bauschinger - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1911 September 12 - .
1911 October 1 - .
  • Birth of Martin Schilling - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1911 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Willi Mrazek - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from early days, but sent to Russian Front before being returned. A loads engineer, he went with von Braun to the US and became Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, at Huntsville..

1912 February 27 - .
  • Birth of Helmut Hoelzer - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Worked at Peenemuende from 1939 on V-2 guidance system and Messina telemetry system. Led similar efforts for von Braun's later missiles, becoming Director, Computation Division, at Huntsville..

1912 March 6 - .
  • Birth of Erich Drews - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German coppersmith in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Department Laboratory..

1912 March 15 - .
1912 March 16 - .
  • Birth of Rudi Hoelker - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. As of 1960, Deputy Director, Aeroballistics Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Died at Cambridge, Massachusetts..

1912 March 23 - .
  • Birth of Wernher von Braun - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American chief designer, leader of the 'Rocket Team'; developed the V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and the Saturn rockets that took US to the moon. He made the idea of space travel popular in the 1950's and a reality in the 1960's..

1912 March 23 - .
  • Wernher von Braun born in in Wirsitz, Posen. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Von Braun was the second of three sons born to Baron Magnus von Braun and Baroness Emmy von Quistorp..

1912 March 27 - .
  • Birth of Werner Sieber - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1912 April 27 - .
1912 May 27 - .
  • Birth of Bruno Heusinger - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1912 June 3 - .
  • Birth of Dieter Karl F Huzel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1912 June 8 - .
  • Birth of Arthur Pilz - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German master mechanic in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Test Bench; Laboratory Department..

1912 June 24 - .
  • Birth of Helmut Horn - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1912 August 5 - .
  • Birth of Konrad Dannenberg - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1912 August 15 - .
  • Birth of Bernhard Tessmann - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: Austrian-German engineer, leading engine test at Peenemuende from 1936. In 1943 evacuated to Koelpinsee; designed V-2 mobile launcher and planned Zement facility at Ebensee. In US from 1945, worked as von Braun's Deputy Director for Testing..

1912 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Hermann Joachim Weidner - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. As of 1960, Deputy Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Living in Solms, Germany in 2004..

1912 September 5 - .
  • Birth of Otto August Hoberg - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1912 September 29 - .
1912 October 19 - .
1913 January 10 - .
  • Birth of Joachim Wilhelm Muehlner - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American radio engineer, at Peenemuende from 1939 . One of the few of von Braun's team that worked on all major programs, from the doppler transponder for the V-2 to the electronic landing systems for the Space Shuttle in 1978..

1913 March 18 - .
1913 March 27 - .
  • Birth of Guenther Haukohl - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1913 April 24 - .
  • Birth of Dieter Grau - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1913 May 9 - .
  • Birth of Albert Franz Zeiler - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died in Florida..

1913 May 11 - .
1913 June 25 - .
  • Birth of Werner Voss - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the German rocket team, went to America after the first group. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1913 July 3 - .
  • Birth of Albert Puellenberg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German engineer. Led the Hannover Group of German rocket experimenters 1931-1935, and renewed German citizen rocketry 1952-1964..

1913 August 19 - .
  • Birth of Rudi Beichel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer, on von Braun's team, but left to independently advise US Army on liquid propulsion. Joined Aerojet in 1956, worked on Lox/LH2 Titan I engine conversion, Aerojet large engine studies, and USAF ARES single-stage ICBM..

1913 October 8 - .
  • Birth of Hans Eiseler - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61..

1913 October 27 - .
  • Birth of Friedrich Staats - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German electronics engineer, worked for Steinhoff at Peenemuende, but stayed in Germany after war. Founded and led the leading German rocket society 1952-1990 (designated sequentially DAFRA, DRG, HOG, DGLR)..

1913 October 30 - .
  • Birth of Klaus Eduard Scheufelen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German engineer, V-2 test leader. At end of war headed development of Taifun unguided antiaircraft rocket, characterised as a 'desperation project'. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Living in Lenningen, Germany in 2004..

1913 December 14 - .
1913 December 19 - .
  • Birth of Ernst Stuhlinger - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Member of the German Rocket Team in the United States after WW2..

1914 January 24 - .
1914 May 8 - .
1914 May 9 - .
  • Birth of Werner Tiller - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1914 May 9 - .
  • Birth of Ernst E Klaus - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1914 May 25 - .
  • Birth of Gustav Kroll - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1914 July 15 - .
1914 August 1 - .
1914 August 19 - .
  • Birth of Karl Sendler - . Nation: Austria; Germany. Summary: Austrian-German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1914 September 23 - .
  • Birth of Werner Kurt-Otto Rosinski - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Worked his entire life with the rocket team, at Fort Bliss, White Stands, and then at Huntsville. Died at Huntsville, Alabama..

1914 December 12 - .
  • Birth of Herbert Hans Guendel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Boston, New York..

1915 February 12 - .
  • Birth of Adolf Karl Thiel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. Died at Palos Verdes Estates, California..

1915 February 21 - .
  • Birth of Hugo H Woerdemann - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer in WW2. Member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16 aboard the Argentina from La Havre. Died at Temecula, Riverside, California..

1915 March 10 - .
  • Birth of Johann Klein - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1915 May 9 - .
1915 May 16 - .
  • Birth of Albert E Schuler - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1915 August 3 - .
  • Birth of Ernst Geissler - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1916 May 12 - .
  • Birth of Bernhard Hohmann - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German test pilot. Chief of Flight Development at Wright FIeld, consultant on astronaut flight safety on Mercury, Gemini, and MOL programs..

1916 July 25 - .
1917 February 16 - .
  • Birth of Werner Karl Dahm - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American aerodynamicist, worked at Peenemuende on A9/A10, A7, A4b, and Wasserfall winged missiles. Post-war completed studies, joined von Braun team in US as Head of Aerodynamics Analysis Branch, Aeroballistics Division, Huntsville..

1917 March 24 - .
  • Birth of Krafft Arnold Ehricke - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: Visionary German-American engineer. Protege of Thiel at Peenemuende; early concepts for nuclear and Lox/LH2 engines. Left von Braun team, developed Centaur at Convair 1956-1964. Prolific output of advanced concepts, but poor program manager..

1917 August 26 - .
  • Birth of Alfred Klippel - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Electrical Circuits; Shop 55..

1917 September 8 - .
1917 October 19 - .
  • Birth of Josef Martin Michel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1918 January 13 - .
  • Birth of Walter Jacobi - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1918 March - . Launch Vehicle: Paris Gun.
  • Paris Gun begins bombardment of Paris - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi). Range: 131 km (81 mi). The rail-mounted weapon could hurl a 120 kg shell with 7 kg of explosive to a range of 131 km. During the 170 second trajectory the shell reached a maximum altitude at the edge of space - 40 km. This was the highest altitude attained by a man-made object until the first successful V-2 flight. From March through August of 1918, three of the guns shot 351 shells at Paris from the woods of Crepy, killing 256 and wounding 620. As a military weapon the gun was a failure - the payload was minuscule, the barrel needed replacement after 65 shots, and the accuracy was only good enough for city-sized targets. But as a psychological tool it was remembered when the V-1, V-2 and V-3 weapons were being developed two decades later.

1918 May 27 - .
  • Birth of Theodor Anton Poppel - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer, ember of von Braun's team, expert in guided missile ground support during WW2, and continued in that role in the US. Played a key role in designing Saturn I LC34, and the Saturn V's VAB and Transporter-Crawler..

1918 June 22 - .
  • Birth of Fritz Vandersee - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1918 July 24 - .
  • Birth of Otto Meier - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Laboratory Department..

1918 November 4 - .
  • Birth of Werner Baum - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952 as Deputy of the Chief and Technical Designer; Dept. 61..

1919 January 5 - .
  • Birth of Rosemarie Tannhaeuser - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German manager. Member of the German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Secretary who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Secretary in Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1919 February 11 - .
  • Birth of Siegfried Reinhard - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German designer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61..

1919 February 25 - .
  • Birth of Hans Rudolf Palaoro - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1919 May 10 - .
1919 June 28 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Treaty loophole permits German rocket development. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Signing of Treaty of Versailles disarmed Germany of a military air force but did not include rockets as potential weapons, thus leaving Germany free under international law to develop them..

1919 October 22 - .
  • Birth of Heinz Knittel - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German precision mechanic, in the rocket team in Russia. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's bureau 1947-1952 in the Test Bench and Laboratory Departments. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946..

1919 November 4 - .
  • Birth of Oskar F Holderer - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter..

1920 May 7 - .
  • Birth of Heinz Albert Millinger - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the United States thereafter. German expert in guided missiles during WW2. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. As of 2008 living in Marburg, Germany..

1920 August 30 - .
  • Birth of Walter Fritz Wiesemann - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer. Reassigned from Luftwaffe to Peenemuende in 1941. Worked on anti-aircraft rockets, went to America with von Braun's team in 1945, working on Huntsville projects until retirement in 1970..

1920 September 13 - .
  • Birth of Lisa Neumeister - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: Wife of a German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked as a translator for rocket engine developers in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952..

1923 - During the year - .
  • Oberth proposes circumlunar flight - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Oberth. In a discussion of the uses of an interplanetary rocket, Hermann Oberth proposed circumlunar flight to explore the hidden face of the moon and discussed the possibility of storing cryogenic fuels in space. A spacecraft could rendezvous and dock in earth orbit with a fuel capsule. When the spacecraft reached the vicinity of a planet, it would detach itself from the capsule and descend to the surface. On departure, the spacecraft would ascend and reconnect to its fuel supply for the return trip.

1923 December 15 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Die Rakete zu den Planetenräume published. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Oberth. Die Rakete zu den Planetenräume (The Rocket Into Interpanetary Space) by Hermann Oberth was published in Germany, and was the genesis for considerable discussion of rocket propulsion. The book would have a huge and life-changing impact on ten year old Wernher Von Braun.

1926 - . Launch Vehicle: Valier-Oberth Moon Gun.
  • Valier-Oberth Moon Gun - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Oberth; Valier. In the 1920's members of the VfR (Society for Space Travel) amused themselves by redesigning Verne's moon gun. In 1926 rocket pioneers Max Valier and Hermann Oberth designed a gun that would rectify Verne's technical mistakes and be actually capable of firing a projectile to the moon.

1927 June 5 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • VfR established. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Winkler; Oberth; Hohmann; Esnault-Peltrie. Johannes Winkler forms the first society for space travel in Breslau. The Society for Space Travel (Verein fuer Raumschiffahrt), is better known by its abbreviation 'VfR'. From the three people that attended the first meeting, it would grow to 500 members within the year, including most of the European space pioneers - Oberth, Hohmann, von Hoefft, von Pirquet, Rynin, and Esnault-Petrie.

1928 - . Launch Vehicle: Valier-Oberth Moon Gun.
  • Von Pirquet Moon Gun - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier; Ley; Oberth. Further improvements to the Valier-Oberth gun were suggested by Willy Ley and Baron Guido von Pirquet of Vienna. To achieve the necessary muzzle velocity, it would be necessary to construct the gun with angled lateral chambers. These design concepts would be put to military use in the V-3 Hochdruckpumpe cannon of World War II.

1928 March 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Opel.
  • First rocket car - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier; Opel. Max Valier campaigned to get automobile magnate Fritz von Opel interested in rocket-powered automobiles. Valier proposed to use different combinations of compressed black powder rockets manufactured by Friedrich Wilhelm Sander of Wesermuende. Sander's rockets were 80 cm long, 12.5 cm in diameter, and could came in two versions. The centre-bore rockets provided 180 kgf for 3 seconds, while the end-burners provided 20 kgf for 30 seconds. Valier proposed to use combinations of these motors to first boost an automobile to high speed with the high-thrust rockets, then use low-thrust units to maintain velocity. This had no practical application but would demonstrate the potential of rockets to the German public, at the same time giving Opel publicity. The first secret test, at Ruesselsheim, used a one high thrust and one low thrust motor in a small stock Opel. The results were unimpressive - the vehicle went only 140 m in 35 seconds.

1928 April 12 - . Launch Vehicle: Opel.
  • Opel Rak - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier; Opel. After two tests the day before, which showed that a good fraction of Brander's rockets would either fail to ignite or explode, Valier made the first official rocket car run for the press. Of 12 rockets attached to the 'Rak' vehicle (a motor car stripped of engine and brakes), five failed to function, but the vehicle reached 110 kph and the press was mightily impressed. Opel received an unexpected amount of free publicity and funded Valier in further rocket car development.

1928 May 23 - . Launch Vehicle: Opel.
  • Opel Rak II - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier; Opel; Oberth. Fritz von Opel personally drives rocket-car Opel Rak II, equipped with 24 Brander powder rockets, to 200 kph at Berlin. The same day Oberth is debating the German scientific establishment, trying to overturn their belief that space flight using liquid rockets is theoretically impossible. The VfR regard Valier's experiments with Opel as publicity stunts, threatening the credibility of their society.

1928 June 11 - . Launch Vehicle: Me-163; Opel.
  • First manned rocket-powered aircraft flight. - . Crew: Stamer. Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Lippisch; Opel; Stamer. A rocket-boosted glider is flown by Friedrich Stamer from the Rhoen Mountains in Western Germany. The development was funded by Opel, the canard-layout glider designed by Hans Lippisch, and the powder rockets developed by Sander. As in the Opel ground vehicles, a boost rocket (360 kgf for 3 seconds) was to accelerate the glider down the launch ramp. A sustainer rocket (20 kgf for 30 seconds) would keep the aircraft in flight. It was hoped to develop a method of launching gliders that would allow the pilot to get airborne without assistance - that did not require a tow aircraft or the eight-man crew needed to pull back the rubber band on existing rail launchers. Tests with smaller motors in models showed the high-thrust motors were too powerful, so the full-scale tests used a standard rubber-band rail launcher with only the low thrust motors installed. After two attempted flights, Stamer finally made a successful flight, firing two 20 kgf motors one after the other. The glider flew about 1.5 km in 70 seconds. On the second flight the first motor exploded, setting the aircraft on fire. Stamer landed successfully but further attempts were abandoned.

1928 June 23 - . Launch Vehicle: Opel.
  • Opel Rak III - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier; Opel. Summary: The third Opel rocket-car is mounted on railroad tracks near Celle. The first run, with 10 rockets, reached 290 kph. A second run, with 24 rockets, jumped the tracks and demolished the vehicle..

Summer 1928 - . Launch Vehicle: Opel.
  • Opel Rak IV - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier; Opel. Summary: The fourth Opel rocket-car is destroyed when one motor explodes, setting off all off the other motors simultaneously. The car jumps off the tracks at the start. Rail authorities prohibit further experiments and Opel Rak V never runs..

1929 July - September - .
  • Noordung orbiting space observatory - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Noordung; Oberth. Spacecraft: Noordung. Hermann Noordung (pseudonym for Capt. Potocnik of the Austrian Imperial Army) expanded the ideas of Hermann Oberth on space flight in a detailed description of an orbiting space observatory. The problems of weightlessness, space communications, maintaining a livable environment for the crew, and extravehicular activity were considered. Among the uses of such an observatory were chemical and physical experiments in a vacuum, telescopes of great size and efficiency, detailed mapping of the earth's surface, weather observation, surveillance of shipping routes, and military reconnaissance.

1929 August 1 - .
  • First JATO takeoff. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Use of a battery of solid-propellant rockets on Junkers-33 seaplane, the first recorded jet-assisted take-off of an airplane, made in tests near Dessau, Germany..

1929 September 30 - . Launch Vehicle: Me-163; Opel.
  • Opel Sander Rak 1 flies. - . Crew: Opel. Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Lippisch; Opel. Opel sponsored resumption of tests of rocket-boosted gliders near Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany. These involved a design by Lippisch, boosted by 16 powder rockets of 23 kgf each. With Opel at the controls, the glider successfully launched itself from a 20-m long rail launcher, and he flew the aircraft for ten minutes. However the landing went badly - the design had a landing speed of 160 kph, and with a total weight of 270 kg, a high wing loading. Opel survived but the glider had to be written off. This was Opel's last involvement with rocketry. General Motors, the majority owner of the Opel company, prohibited further rocketry work after the stock market crash. Fritz von Opel left the country and moved to Switzerland.

1929 October 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Oberth.
  • Frau im Mond (The Girl in the Moon) premieres in Berlin. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Oberth; Nebel. The film, directed by Fritz Lang, with Hermann Oberth as technical consultant, provided a realistic portrayal of the rollout and launch of a liquid-propellant booster sending a manned expedition to the moon. Lang provided Oberth with funds to build and launch a liquid-propellant rocket to publicise the film. Oberth's rocket, using a conical combustion chamber to mix liquid oxygen and gasoline, was 1.8 m tall and was to have been launched to an altitude of 64 km over the Baltic Sea from Greifswalder Oie. One of the assistants hired by Oberth to fabricate the rocket was Rudolph Nebel, a World War I fighter pilot with (unfortunately) little actual engineering experience. Oberth also had no practical engineering or organizational ability, and was unable to produce the liquid rocket in the four months allotted. He then turned to an 11-m tall hybrid rocket that was to burn a to-be-determined carbon compound with liquid oxygen. This also proved impossible, and Oberth simply gave up and left town - returning, however, for the film's premiere. Ufa studios took ownership of the unfinished rockets.

December 1929 - . Launch Vehicle: Mirak; Oberth.
  • VfR regroups - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Oberth; Nebel; Winkler; Ley; Riedel, Klaus. Winkler had resigned as president. Oberth is back in Berlin, and a meeting is held, with Nebel, Wurm, Oberth, Klaus Riedel, Winkler, and Willy Ley in attendance. It was decided to try and get the Oberth rocket materials back from Ufa and press on to demonstrate flight of a liquid propellant rocket. For this purpose the Oberth rocket was much too ambitious and probably wouldn't work anyway. Nebel proposes building a new 'Minimum Rakete' or 'Mirak' to demonstrate that it could be done. Work begins to obtain funds to ground test and perfect Oberth's 'Kegelduese' conical rocket motor.

1930 February 1 - .
  • VfR bankrupt. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel. Summary: Nebel, general secretary of the VfR, files bankruptcy papers with the German courts. However he does not inform any of the other members of his actions. The fact is not known until 1933..

1930 April 11 - . Launch Vehicle: Mirak; Oberth.
  • VfR evening in Berlin - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Winkler; Oberth. Summary: The VfR presents itself to the scientific community in Berlin. Winkler gives a lecture at the auditorium of the Central Post Office, and the Oberth rocket, Kegelduese, and other articles are displayed..

1930 April 19 - . Launch Vehicle: Valier.
  • Valier rocket car - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier. Summary: Valier has arranged for Dr Weyland to develop a new, powerful liquid rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and gasoline. The car made its first slow run this day, but combustion of the motor was poor and acceleration of the vehicle low..

1930 May 17 - .
  • Death of Max Valier, as the result of a careless accident, in his laboratory in Berlin, when working on a rocket combustion chamber. It exploded and a small metal fr - . Nation: Germany; Italy. Related Persons: Valier. Summary: German Austrian engineer and early advocate of the use of rockets for flight. Opel supported Valier's rocket car tests as publicity. Valier died in a rocket motor explosion in 1931..

1930 May 17 - . Launch Vehicle: Valier.
  • Valier killed in rocket engine explosion - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier. Summary: While working in Dr Weyland's laboratory on Saturday, the combustion chamber explodes, and a metal splinters pierces Valier's aorta, killing him immediately..

1930 July 23 - . Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • VfR demonstrates rocket motor to German government officials - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel; Ley; von Braun; Oberth; Riedel, Klaus. The VfR fires its 'Kegelduese' liquid oxygen and gasoline-fueled rocket motor in a demonstration for the Director of the Chemisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in an attempt to secure financial support. Nebel had arranged the demonstration and runs the Kegelduese for 90 seconds. It generates 7 kgf and consumes 6 kg of liquid oxygen and 1 kg of gasoline in that time (specific impulse 90 seconds). Participating are Oberth, Nebel, Riedel, Ley, and Von Braun. Nebel's Mirak is not yet ready to test.

August 1930 - . Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Mirak experiments - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel; Riedel, Klaus. Nebel and Riedel conduct a series of tests of the Mirak rocket at the farm of Riedel's grandparents near Bernstadt, Saxony. They slowly perfect the motor, finally achieving significant net thrust by September, when the motor explodes, ending the test series.

1930 September 27 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Raketenflugplatz Berlin - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel. Summary: Nebel signs the $4/year lease for the worlds first 'Rocket Port', an abandoned German army munitions storage area on 10 square kilometres on Tegeler Weg in the Berlin northern suburb of Reinickendorf. The numerous bunkers are ideal for rocket motor tests..

1930 December 17 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Kummersdorf selected for missile development. - . Nation: Germany. German Army Ordnance Office, after reviewing work of Goddard and others, decided to establish rocket program and to equip artillery proving ground at Kummersdorf to develop military missiles. The German Army issues the first budget for rocket development - 5,000 Reichsmarks.

1931 February 20 - . Launch Vehicle: Poggensee.
  • Poggensee instrumented rocket reaches 450 m. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.45 km (0.28 mi). Karl Poggensee launched a powder rocket at a field near Berlin. Although the rocket technology did not represent a forward step, the rocket was was instrumented with a barometer, a camera, and a velocity measurement device. The rocket also set an altitude mark that Winkler, Nebel, and the other German liquid rocketeers had to beat in order to prove the superiority of the liquid fuel rocket.

1931 February 21 - . Launch Vehicle: HW-1.
  • Winkler HW-1 rocket - first liquid-fuel rocket in Europe. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Winkler. Apogee: 0.0030 km (0.0019 mi). Funded by a Mr Hueckel, Winkler flies the first European liquid propellant rocket at Dessau, Germany. It is 60 cm high, weighs 5 kg, including 1.7 kg of liquid oxygen and methane propellants. The rocket consists of three tanks - one for the fuel, one for the oxygen, and one for the nitrogen gas that pressure-feeds the motor. The motor is a simple 18-inch long cylinder, housed at the centre of the prismatic rocket. The rocket reaches only 3 m in the first test due to a malfunction.

March 1931 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First liquid rocket hardware developed for the Germany Army. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Walter. Summary: Walter Riedel, and Arthur Riedel, at the Heylandt Company, built the first 20 kgf liquid propellant engine for the Heereswaffenamt. It featured a double-walled cylindrical combustion chamber, and was used to test different propellant combinations..

1931 March 14 - . Launch Vehicle: HW-1.
  • HW-1 reaches 500 m. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Winkler. Apogee: 0.50 km (0.31 mi). Summary: Winkler's HW-1 rocket reached 500 m over Dessau, Germany..

April 1931 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • VfR/AIS meeting. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Raktenflugplatz in Germany was visited by Mr. and Mrs. G. Edward Pendray as official representatives of the American Interplanetary Society, who upon their return organized the experimental program of the society..

Spring 1931 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Second Mirak explodes - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel. Nebel and the other designers realise that using liquid oxygen to cool the combustion chamber simply would not work - it turned to gas, and the excessive pressure eventually burst the oxygen tank. They turn to a water-cooled combustion chamber. The end result was an aluminium pressure-fed engine that weighed 85 g but produced 32 kgf while burning 160 g of liquid oxygen and gasoline per second - a specific impulse of 200 seconds. The new design proves reliable and is demonstrated to visitors from the American Rocket Society in April 1931.

1931 April 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Tiling.
  • Tiling rocket - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Tiling. Apogee: 0.80 km (0.50 mi). Summary: Reinhold Tiling, financed by Baron von Ledebour, publicly demonstrates his compressed black powder rocket design at Osnabrueck. The 1.8 m long rocket uses flip-out wings for recovery, and reach altitudes of 800 m..

1931 May 3 - . Launch Vehicle: Valier.
  • Heyland motor - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier. Summary: Heyland completes development testing of the rocket motor intended for Valier's rocket car. It weighs 18 kg and is capable of producing 160 kgf for several minutes. Although powerful, the specific impulse is thought to be fairly low..

1931 May 10 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak. LV Configuration: Repulsor.
  • Mirak II / Repulsor - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Klaus. Apogee: 0.0020 km (0.0012 mi). Riedel improvises a rocket, using the thrust chamber developed for the Mirak, fed by two long tanks containing liquid oxygen and gasoline, which would form guiding sticks for the forward-mounted engine. The lashed-together rocket rises to 20 m on its first 'static' test.

1931 May 14 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak. LV Configuration: Repulsor 1.
  • Mirak II / Repulsor I rocket reaches 60 m. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.0060 km (0.0037 mi). First official test flight of the Mirak (Minimum Rakete) II. A flight-weight version of Riedel's 'flying test stand' takes off into a looping trajectory, sending the VfR experimenters running for cover, but reaching 60 m altitude in the process. Attending were Wernher Von Braun, Klaus Riedel und Kurt Heinisch (Rudolf Nebel, the chief engineer, was in Kiel at the time).

1931 May 23 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Mirak II / Repulsor 2 - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Klaus. Apogee: 0.0060 km (0.0037 mi). Range: 0.60 km (0.37 mi). Summary: The rocket reaches 60 m before heading off horizontally over the Raketenflugplatz, ending up in a tree outside the perimeter, 600 m from the launch point..

Early June 1931 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Mirak II / Repulsor 3 - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Klaus. Apogee: 0.18 km (0.11 mi). Range: 0.60 km (0.37 mi). Summary: This is the first Repulsor equipped with a recovery parachute. It reaches 180 m, but then the parachute deploys early, and it falls into the same clump of trees as Repulsor 2, 600 m from the launch point..

July 1931 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak. LV Configuration: Mirak II.
  • Mirak II rocket reaches height of 500 m - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.50 km (0.31 mi). Summary: VfR successfully fired an improved Mirak (Minimum Rakete) II rocket to height of 500 m..

August 1931 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Mirak II / Repulsor 4 - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Klaus. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). The perfected Repulsor has the propellant tanks close together at the centreline, to form a guide stick in the manner of Congreve's war rockets. It reaches an altitude of 1000 m, and the parachute recovery system functioned perfectly at apogee. Subsequent such 'one stick' Repulsors' will reach 1500 m altitude and 3000 m range - in fact, they are normally launched only partially-fuelled to prevent them landing outside the perimeter of the Raketenflugplatz.

October 1931 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Raketenflugplatz featured in newsreel - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 1.50 km (0.90 mi). Range: 3.00 km (1.80 mi). After one year of operation of the worlds first 'rocket port', the Ufa weekly newsreel carries an extensive film report on the VfR's experiments. By then 270 engine test runs had been completed, as well as 87 test flights of Repulsors. However the filmmakers also capture an errant rocket leaking gasoline onto a shack owned by the police, which burns down. This leads to further restrictions on VfR activities at the site.

March 1932 - . Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Mirak III rocket completed. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi). Summary: It would reach an altitude of 4000 m in subsequent tests..

June 1932 - . LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • V-1 engine concept patented. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Schmidt, Paul. German engineer, Paul Schmidt, working from design of Lorin tube, developed and patented a ramjet engine later modified and used in the V-1 Flying Bomb. The concept of the world's first jet-powered cruise missile was originated by Flight Staff Engineer Bree. The pulse engine was based on a French patent dating to the 1890's. The engine, which operated by creating 500 fuel-air explosions per minute, was designed for a specific operational altitude. The guidance system consisted of propellor in the nose. When this had turned a preset number of times (corresponding to the desired range to the target), the counter pushed the missile's rudder hard over, resulting on a dive to the ground. A V-1 could be produced for one tenth of the cost of a V-2.

July 1931 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: Mirak II.
  • Dornberger put in charge of Kummersdorf. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Summary: The German Army Ordnance Office formalized its rocket develoment program by placing Captain-Doctor Walter Dornberger in charge of Research Station West at Kummersdorf..

August 1932 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Nebel demonstrates VfR liquid rocket to the German Army. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.0700 km (0.0435 mi). Nebel contacted the German Army and proposed the use of liquid fuel rockets as war missiles. He arranged for Army representatives to observe a demonstration launch at Kummersdorf. Riedel and Von Braun prepare the rocket, which was 3.5 m long and 10 cm in diameter, had a gross lift-off mass of 20 kg, an empty mass of 10 kg, and a thrust of 60 kgf. The new design featured the engine forward of the stack, followed by the liquid oxygen tank, then the alcohol tank, then the manometers and other elements of propellant pressurisation. The new-design engine was developed by Walter Riedel and Arthur Rudolph at the Heylandt Company. The rocket reached an altitude of 20 to 70 m before veering horizontally into a forest. An exhaust velocity of 2000 m/s was expected, but only 1700 m/s was demonstrated.. The Army is seemingly unimpressed. However a month later they hire Von Braun, who drops out of sight.

October 1932 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Von Braun joins German Army missile program. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Wernher von Braun joined the German Army Ordnance Office rocket program at Kummersdorf. He is working on a 300 kgf thrust liquid propellant engine, which has been tested with an exhaust velocity of 1700 m/s, but it is believed can be tuned up to as much as 1900 m/s. This is to power the A1 rocket, which is to have the same tractor configuration as the 20 kg test rocket launched in August 1932. The main issue is how to solve the problem of keeping the rocket stabilised in flight, as the August test demonstrated. The A1 is to be 1.4 m long x 30 cm in diameter, a 150 kg gross takeoff weight, and 40 kg of propellant., allowing a 16.5 second burn time.

1932 October 6 - . Launch Vehicle: HW-2.
  • HW-2 - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Winkler. Apogee: 0.0030 km (0.0019 mi). Following an aborted attempt on 29 September, Winkler launches his HW-2 rocket from Pillau on the Baltic. He had worked for months at the Raketenflugplatz developing the new device. However on launch day an explosive propellant mix developed in the internal compartments of the rocket, and after igniting and rising only 3 m, it was blown to smithereens.

Fall 1932 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Mirak.
  • Private rocket development in Germany winds down - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Klaus. As the influence of Nazism in German Society increases, the VfR disintegrates in political disputes and withdrawal of funding by its wealthiest backers. In this period it occurs to Riedel that alcohol may prove a better fuel than gasoline - primarily because as a fuel it needs much less of the expensive and difficult-to-handle cryogenic liquid oxygen. Experiments determine that 60% alcohol to water is the best fuel mixture, and for the first time use the fuel to cool the combustion chamber before leading it into the chamber - regenerative cooling.

1932 December 18 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Magdeburg Project - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel. Mengering, an engineer working for the city of Magdeburg, is entranced by the theories of Peter Bender, who proposes that the people of the earth are in fact living on the inside surface of a hollow sphere. He believes that this can be proven. A rocket fired vertically from Magdeburg should impact south of New Zealand. Mengering convinces the city authorities to fund experiments leading to this objective. Nebel, now a member of the Nazi Party, obtains a contract of 25,000 Marks for the first step. He will build a rocket that will carry a man to an altitude of one kilometre, from where the pilot will bail out and return to earth by parachute. The rocket is to be fired on 11 June 1933 in a huge event publicizing the city. The Pilot Rocket would be in the form of the VfR Repulsors, with the passenger in a bullet-shaped fairing over the engine compartment, and the propellants being stored in two long cylindrical tanks trailing the engine. It was to be 7.6 m tall and powered by an engine of 600 kgf. A prototype was to be built first, 4.6 m tall, powered by a 200 kgf motor. This would not be capable of carrying a pilot, but would have a parachute for recovery.

1932 December 21 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Rocket test stand explosion at Kummersdorf. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: No one was injured and more stringent safety precautions were taken in the future..

1933 March 22 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Magdeburg Project tests - . Nation: Germany. A test stand is completed for ground test of rocket engines of up to 1000 kgf. Tests of the 200 kgf motor begin on 22 March. Motors explode on 25 March and 3 April, but by the end of April, 20 test runs have been conducted and the motor is considered reliable enough for flight test (despite several burn-throughs of the throat).

1933 April - . Launch Site: Cuxhaven. Launch Vehicle: Zucker Rocket.
  • Zucker rocket launched at Cuxhaven - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Zucker. Apogee: 0.0150 km (0.0093 mi). Zucker's amazing 'operational rocket'. was supposedly a recoverable cruise missile, 5 m long, with a thrust of 360 kg and a takeoff mass of 200 kg. In actuality the missile was only an enormous hull equipped with eight powder rockets. Zucker showed up in Cuxhaven on the German North Sea coast in the winter of 1933, ready for a long-range demonstration (15 km, from the coast to Neuhaven Island). After being stuck in a ditch while being taken out to the field for a February launch attempt, the great day finally came in April 1933. A huge crowd of local folk and officials gathered to witness the event. After staggering 15 m into the air, the torpedo came crashing down.

1933 June 9 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Magdeburg launch attempt - . Nation: Germany. First attempt to launch the subscale prototype of the Magdeburg Pilot Rocket. A launch stand 9 m tall is erected in the countryside near Magdeburg. However the rocket develops insufficient thrust to clear the tower. Other attempts on 10 and 11 June are also unsuccessful, due to leaky valves and other quality problems. The rocket is returned to the shop for rework.

1933 June 29 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Magdeburg launch - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.0100 km (0.0062 mi). Range: 0.31 km (0.19 mi). The 200 kgf prototype rocket is finally launched. However it catches on one of the rails in the launch tower and is flung horizontally as it clears the tower. It flies 300 m horizontally over the pastures, then slides along the ground for 10 m more. It is relatively intact, but the Magdeburg city officials are not interested in funding further attempts. Nebel receives only 3200 Marks for his work.

Early July 1933 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Range: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). The Magdeburg prototype rocket is reworked into a four-stick design and flown from Lindwerder Island at Tegeler Lake near Berlin. It reaches 1000 m, loops a few times, then thrusts straight toward the earth. The parachute deploys at the last moment and the rocket splashes down in the lake 100 m from the launch stand. It is recovered.

1933 July 21 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.0060 km (0.0037 mi). Summary: After an aborted launch, the rocket does clear the tower but on oxidiser valve fails to open. The rocket reaches only 60 m but splashes down in the lake and is recovered..

1933 August 3 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.0010 km (0.0006 mi). Summary: After objections by the owner of the previous launch location, tests are moved to Schwielow Lake, with launch from the stand erected on a motor boat. The rocket explodes soon after lift-off..

1933 August 11 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.0020 km (0.0012 mi). Summary: Second attempt from Schwielow Lake. The rocket goes horizontal and hits the water in the lake's steamboat channel. It cannot be recovered..

1933 August 31 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Summary: Third launch from Schwielow Lake. Rocket flies out of sight and is not found..

1933 September 9 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Summary: Fourth launch from Schwielow Lake. This employs a new design with two longer tanks in place of four shorter propellant tanks. Results 'poor'..

1933 September 18 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Summary: Final launch from Schwielow Lake using the new design. Results again 'poor'..

1933 September 30 - . Launch Site: Raketenflugplatz.
  • End of Raketenflugplatz - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Nebel; Riedel, Klaus. Nebel is presented with a water bill of 1600 Marks for 1930-1933. He and the VfR are unable to pay, so the government cancels the lease and takes the property back. Klaus Riedel manages to arrange employment for himself and several of the VfR technicians with Siemens, which also agrees to allow them to store the Raketenflugplatz rockets and technical materials in a company warehouse. After Riedel and the others are recruited by the Army and leave for Peenemuende, Nebel allegedly sells of these materials. In any case they disappear.

1933 October 10 - .
  • Death of Reinhold Tiling - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Tiling. Summary: German rocket pioneer, developed wing-recovered powder rockets. Inspired by Oberth lecture in 1924. By 1931 demonstrated stable flight to 7 km, first rocket launch from airplane 1932. Killed 1933 in an explosion..

1933 October 10 - . Launch Vehicle: Tiling.
  • Death of Tiling - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Tiling. In his propellant processing room, where he uses his proprietary process to compress black powder into solid rocket propellant, a fire breaks out. Tiling, and his assistant Angelika Buddenboehmer, are killed. Earlier he had demonstrated his rockets to a small crowd at Tempelhof Airfield in Berlin, but the rest of the event was called off by police after one of his first shots went into the grandstands

Late 1933 - . Launch Vehicle: Saenger.
  • Saenger begins rocket engine tests. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Saenger. Summary: Eugen Saenger begins a series of rocket engine tests in Vienna. He methodically explores various propellant combinations and additives through the end of 1934..

1933 December 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Saenger.
  • Rakatenflugtechnik published. - . Nation: Germany. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Eugen Sänger of Germany published his classic Rakatenflugtechnic, which dealt with rocket motor design and high-speed flight in the atmosphere..

End 1933 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende.
  • The VfR rocket team unravels. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Ley; Nebel. Summary: Willy Ley decides to leave for America in the face of increased Nazi domination of German society. Most of the VfR experimenters end up at Peenemuende, working on development of the V-2. Some, such as Nebel, remain private citizens..

1934 April 22 - .
1934 July 16 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Liquid rocket explosion kills three. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Wahmke. Summary: Dr Kurt Wahmke and two technicians were testing a 90% H2O2/Alcohol combination at Kummersdorf when the chamber exploded, killing them. These were the first and only deaths of technicians in the history of German rocket development..

1934 July 27 - .
  • Von Braun receives doctorate. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. His public doctoral thesis, "About Combustion Tests," was completed in very little time (one source states that he joined the SS at this time). The actual thesis was later revealed to be a classified Army document. This dissertation, "Construction, Theoretical, and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket", was dated 16 April 1934 but did not surface until 70 years later. It detailed the construction and design of the A2 rocket that would fly later that year.

1934 December 19 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Vehicle: A2.
  • A2 rocket 'Max' successfully launched. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 2.20 km (1.37 mi). Von Braun's German Ordnance group launches A-2 'Max' from the Island of Borkum in the North Sea before the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army. The rocket is at an altitude of 1.7 km at burn-out, and reaches 2.2 km before falling back to impact 800 m from the launch point.

1934 December 20 - . 06:52 GMT - . Launch Vehicle: A2.
  • A2 rocket 'Moritz' successfully launched. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 3.50 km (2.10 mi). Von Braun's German Ordnance group launches the second of two A-2 rockets ('Moritz') successfully to a height of 3.5 km on the Island of Borkum in the North Sea. Burnout is at 1.8 km, and the rocket ascends more vertically than the test the previous day, reaching a greater altitude and impacting 500 m from the launch point.

During 1935 - . Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • Me-163 rocket engine development begins. - . Nation: Germany. There was no interest within the German Aviation Ministry at that time in rocket engines as primary propulsion for a combat aircraft. Due to the rocket engine's high fuel consumption, it was seen as only useful in providing Jet Assisted Takeoff for conventional propeller aircraft.

June 1935 - . Launch Vehicle: He-112.
  • He-112 rocket engine static tests. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Heinkel. Summary: First static tests of Heinkel He-112 with rocket engines performed in Germany..

During 1936 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • First test of liquid rocket engine intended for use on aircraft - . Nation: Germany. Spacecraft: Junkers 'Junior'. A 300 kgf engine was installed in a Junkers 'Junior' aircraft fuselage at Kummersdorf. This was the first rocket engine installation in an aircraft. But the problem to be solved was how to ensure continuous operation of the engine during aircraft manoeuvres. The rocket team finally built a big carousel, capable of testing the engine installation at up to 5 G's.

February 1936 - . Launch Vehicle: A3.
  • A3 rocket tested. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Germans tested A-3 rocket with 1,500 kgf thrust which served as basis for military weapon specifications..

April 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Go-ahead to build Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. The missile test range is to be a combined Army / Air Force test ground. Von Braun had found the location in December 1935, after his first choice - Briz on the island of Ruegen - was taken over by the Deutsch Arbeitsfront as a 'Kraft durch Freude' recreation camp. During his Christmas holiday, Von Braun toured the cost, and found Peenemuende. It seemed perfect - 400 km of ocean to the east for use as a missile shooting range, room along the path on the coast for tracking radars.

1936 May 1 - .
  • Von Braun enters Luftwaffe. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Wernher Von Braun joins the German Air Force and receives pilot training at Frankfurt/Oder and Stolp..

July 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3.
  • A4 wind tunnel tests - . Nation: Germany. The tests showed that the A3 configuration was unstable in flight and that it was going to take a lot of trial and error to identify the correct aerodynamic shape for the supersonic missile. Therefore the decision was taken to go slow on development of the A4 until tests with the A3 were complete. The 25 tonne thrust engine would also have to be built and proven in ground tests to determine its actual characteristics before a lot of effort was put into final design and construction of the rest of the rocket. So a series of test launches of the A3 to test the A4 control and guidance systems were undertaken, while Test Stand I at Peenemuende was prepared for tests of the 25 tonne engine.

August 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Paris Gun.
  • Ground broken at Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. First objective is development of the A4 strategic ballistic missile, later dubbed the V-2. The missile is to deliver a one tonne high explosive payload to double the range of the Paris Gun of World War I (250 km - the Paris Gun could deliver a ten kg, 21 cm diameter shell to 125 km range). To provide a reserve, the missile was designed for a 1500 m/s burnout velocity, which resulted in a 275 km range. Accuracy was to be 2 to 3 per mille, versus typical artillery shell accuracy of 4 to 5 per mille. These requirements indicated a 25 tonne thrust engine, powering a 12 tonne missile, with a 2100 m/s exhaust velocity, burning 8 tonnes of propellant in 65 seconds. The requirement to transport the missile by rail limited the diameter to 1.6 m, which in turn led to a 14 m length. Span with the detachable tail fins was 3.5 m.

    Several major issues had to be solved during development. The first was what wing and body shapes would be stable at supersonic velocities. Another was building adequate ground facilities for the intensive tests needed to develop the 25 tonne thrust motor. For this purpose a static test facility was built at Peenemuende capable of handling 100 tonne thrust motors, seen as the next step after the A4. Another major problem was developing high-capacity pumps to deliver the liquid oxygen at a temperature of -185 deg C.


September 1936 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First supersonic wind tunnel. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hermann, Rudolf. Following problems with testing of the A3 (a subscale version of the planned V-2) by Dr Hermann, Von Braun proposes to the Germany army that a supersonic wind tunnel be constructed at a cost he estimates as 300,000 Marks. Other parts of the Army are not supportive of the facility, but it is finally built, costing millions more than Von Braun estimated.

December 1936 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. Launch Vehicle: He-112.
  • Rocketplane stand tests completed at Kummersdorf - . Nation: Germany. Summary: During the year the team had proven installation of a 1000 kgf engine, installed in a He-112, at burn times of up to 90 seconds..

February 1937 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende.
  • German rocketplane tests - . Nation: Germany. Spacecraft: He-112. Three flight tests were made between February and April in a He-112 equipped with a 300 kgf liquid fuel rocket engine by Flight-Captain Erich Warsitz from Neuhardenberg near Berlin. On the final flight Warstiz smelled something burning, and made an emergency belly landing. He survived but the aircraft had to be written off. Engine exhaust had flowed back into the space between the engine and fuselage and burnt cables. Work on this engine continued at Area 4 at Peenemuende. The planned application was a 1000 kgf JATO pod, with a burn time of 30 seconds, to boost bombers into the air.

1937 February 13 - .
1937 May 1 - .
  • Von Braun joins Nazi Party. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Wernher Von Braun joins the Nazi Party..

May 1937 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemünde opened. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Dornberger; Thiel, Walter. Joint German Army-Air Force rocket research station opened at Peenemünde on the Baltic Sea. The Army Ordnance rocket program under Capt. Walter Dornberger moved 90 of its staff from Kummersdorf. Thiel and five staff working on V-2 rocket engine development remained at Kummersdorf until the summer of 1940, when the test stands at Peenemuende were finally completed..

1937 December 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff at 6.5 seconds.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • First A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). First launch of an A3 rocket. New facilites being built at Peenemuende were not ready, so the A3 launches were made from the offshore island of Greifswalder Oie. The A3 launched on this day was 6.5 m long and 70 cm in diameter. The engine occupied the first 2 m of the fuselage. The missile had a 750 kg lift-off mass, including 450 kg of propellant, which was pressurised to 20 atmospheres. The 1.5 tonne thrust engine had a 1900 m/s exhaust velocity and a 45 second burn time. The parachute deployed 3 seconds after launch, and the engine cutoff at 6.5 seconds. The rocket impacted and exploded 300 m from the launch point.

1937 December 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Summary: Second launch of an A3. Same result as the first - the rocket made a quarter turn after launch, then reached only 100 m before the parachute jettisoned and the missile crashed into the sea a short distance from the launch stand..

1937 December 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 0.10 km (0.06 mi). Range: 0.30 km (0.19 mi). Summary: Third launch of an A3. No parachute deployment and the engine cut-off early. The rocket impacted into the Baltic Sea and sank..

1937 December 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A3. FAILURE: Engine cutoff early.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A3 launch - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi). Final launch of the A3. The rocket is fired without the parachute that ruined the first two attempts, but in heavy fog. It is more successful than earlier shots, but at 800 to 1000 m altitude it also veers over and thrusts its way downward into the ocean. Analysis showed that the fins steering the rocket could not overcome the 8 m/s wind blowing at the time of the launch. Further study shows that at the low speed of initial rocket acceleration, a wind as little as 4 m/s would be enough to topple the rocket. A rudder area ten times greater than is needed to control the rocket at low speeds. This result leads to the decision to abandon the A3 configuration and build the A5 to support development of the A4 missile.

January 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 engine tests begin - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Poehlmann; Thiel, Walter. The engine delivered 18 months after design started was so compact, that the length of the A4 could be cut in half. Walter Thiel, a gifted and systematic researcher, was responsible for the engine design. He had great difficulties in obtaining stable combustion, and preventing burn-through of the chamber walls. Various injector patterns were studied in a 1.5 tonne thrust chamber. His research finally reduced the combustion chamber length from 2 m to 30 cm, while the exhaust velocity was increased from 2000 m/s to 2100 m/s, and eventually reached 2280 m/s. However the reduction in the cooling area of the chamber also increased problems in preventing hot spots and burn through. This was finally solved by using a conical throat exit and a mixing chamber ahead of the burning chamber. The 1.5 tonne thrust engine was initially run at 15 bar pressure, versus the 50 bar desired. But whenever the combustion chamber pressure was increased, burn-throughs occurred, as well as forcing increases in the mass of the pumps and tanks. Therefore finally the decision was taken to leave the chamber pressure at 15 bar.

    The next step was to make a 4.5 tonne thrust by clustering three of the 1.5 tonne engines as preburners. However Thiel still had burn-throughs in test runs. Poehlmann suggested the use of film cooling, which finally solved the problem. For the 25 tonne thrust engine, Thiel simply used 18 x 1.5 tonne thrust chambers, feeding a common mixing chamber. This was on the test stand in early 1939.


Spring 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3; A5.
  • A5 delivered to Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany. The first A5 drop test model is delivered to Peenemuende just weeks after the third A3 test. Production is planned at a rate of 10 per month to define the A4 aerodynamic configuration. Objective of the first tests is to break the sound barrier - in the wind tunnel no configuration of fins had managed to go through the barrier without disintegrating. The only test possibility was to drop the model from a great height, and let gravity accelerate it to supersonic speeds. The model weighs 250 kg and is 1.6 m long and 20 cm in diameter.

1938 June 15 - .
  • Von Braun is discharged from the Luftwaffe. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun.

Summer 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • A5 launches from Greifswalder Oie - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi). In the summer of 1938 the decision is made to go ahead with four A5 tests from Greifswalder Oie without the stabilising system or a parachute. The first missile ascended into a low wind, and reached 8 km altitude, nearing but not exceeding the sound barrier. Maximum altitude reached in the test series is 12 km.

July 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Rocket fighters - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Spacecraft: He-176; He-122; Me-163. The first rocket fighter, the He-176, powered by a Walther engine, was tested at Peenemuende. In competition, Dornberger's team developed a 120-second duration engine to power the He-122. However loss of control in unpowered flights of the latter resulted in it crashing and being eliminated from further consideration. Dornberger's team left further rocket fighter engine development to Walther, and concentrated on the A4 and follow-on ballistic missiles.

September 1938 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • A5 stabilisation system tests - . Nation: Germany. In order to test the A4's stabilisation system, Walter, Kiel, is subcontracted to build a large number of model A5's. Like the drop test models, these are 20 cm and 1.6 m long. However they weigh only 47 kg gross lift-off mass, with a 27 kg empty mass. The rocket engine burns 85% hydrogen peroxide monopropellant using a calcium permanganate catalyst. The engine produces 120 kgf for 15 seconds, and has an exhaust velocity of 1000 m/s. The design objective is a low cost, reliable, and simple rocket, which will allow a large number of trail-and-error test launches to be made within a tight budget. The fins developed for the A4 as a result of these tests were shorter and wider than those of the A3. They owed nothing to aircraft wing designs of the times, which couldn't withstand supersonic speeds. But they were still too affected by the wind, tending to set the rocket on a rotation around its long axis during ascent.

September 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • First A5 drop test. - . Nation: Germany. The model is dropped from a He-111 bomber from 7000 m. It breaks through the sound barrier at 1000 m altitude at a speed of 360 m/s. The stabilising fins keep the maximum oscillation of the model to within 5 degrees from vertical. The drogue ring parachute then deployed to decelerate the model to 100 m/s, followed by the main parachute which slows it to 5 m/s when it impacts in the ocean.

During 1939-1940 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • JATO tests at Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. From 1939-1940 a series of rocket engine tests to support development of a JATO pod were conducted from Peenemuende-West with a He-111. It was found that liquid oxygen was not an appropriate oxidiser for civil use, so the engineers at Walther - Kiel introduced hydrogen peroxide as an alternate. The Walther engine was simpler than the rocket team's prototype, could produce 1000 kgf for 300 seconds, and was capable of taking a rocket fighter to 12 km altitude within two minutes from engine start.

1939 March 23 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A3.
  • Hitler visits Kummersdorf-West - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Valier; Dornberger; Hitler. This was the first time he became acquainted with liquid rocket engine technology. 300 kgf and 1000 kgf engines were fired in his presence. A colour-coded cutaway model of the A3 rocket was presented and its systems explained. Hitler was quiet throughout the exhibits and asked no questions. Afterwards, while taking lunch at the mess hall, he asked only about the development schedule (clucking when told), the range of the missile, and the impact on the schedule if synthetic 'Eisenbled' was substituted for light metal alloys in the rocket frame. Hitler spoke of deceased rocket pioneer Max Valier - he had known him in Munich, but dismissed him as a dreamer. Dornberger countered by comparing the state of rocket development to the early days of the zeppelin, when Lillienthal made the first primitive experiments. Hitler in turn dismissed airships as dangerous, filled with explosive gas . The Fuehrer finally departed with handshakes and few words. His summary of the day: 'Es war doch gewaltig' (it was impressive, nevertheless). The rocket team was dismayed - it was the first time a visitor had exhibited no reaction to the power the rocket engines when fired for their benefit. But on the plus side, Von Brauchtisch said he was astounded at the progress made by the team in only a few years. Dornberger believed Hitler was enthralled with artillery and tanks, and was unimpressed with rocket technology. He thought Hitler didn't understand the possibilities and didn't believe the time had come yet for development of the rocket as a weapon.

1939 March 31 - .
  • Birth of Lutz T Kayser - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German engineer and low-cost rocket pioneer. 1975-1987 developed Otrag concept - clustered large numbers of low-cost storable liquid rocket modules to reduce costs by 10x. Tested in Congo and Libya, but project killed by vested interests..

April 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 in crisis - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler. After Hitler's visit, it finally it became clear to Dornberger that either support for the project would have to come from the highest level, or that Peenemuende should abandon rocket research and be devoted to more pressing war needs.

    Meanwhile the results of the air war over London showed that the A4 could be an economic weapon. Bombers were averaging only 5 to 6 missions, dropping only 6 to 8 tonnes of bombs before being shot down. Once the loss of trained flying crews was considered, the bomber cost 30 times more than the A4 to deliver a tonne of explosives on London compared to the expendable A4 at its production price of 38,000 Marks. But time was being lost in convincing others in the German leadership that the missile should be put into production.


1939 July 6 - .
  • Wernher von Braun proposed to the German Reich Air Ministry a "fighter with rocket drive". - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Bachem; Fieseler. Spacecraft: Von Braun Rocketplane. The vertical take-off interceptor would reach 8 km altitude in 53 seconds and then manoeuvre toward the aircraft to be intercepted. The design was developed further by Fieseler as the Fi-166, which retained the rocket takeoff but used a turbojet for a longer cruising flight. The Ministry finally rejected the vertical-takeoff rocket interceptor concept at the end of 1941. The concept was revived at the end of the war as the Bachem Natter.

1939 September 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 full scale development authorised - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Von Brauchtisch gave the go-ahead for the A4 to enter full development as a weapon system for the German Army..

1939 September 12 - . Launch Site: Kummersdorf. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Goering tours Kummersdorf-West - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler. Summary: Unlike Hitler, he was enthusiastic about the potential of rocket technology..

1939 September 29 - .
1939 September 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Rocket development given highest priority - . Nation: Germany. Von Brauchtisch obtained the highest priority for development of the A4. This was used in early 1940 to get 4,000 soldiers with the necessary engineering and technical backgrounds released from the Army and sent to Peenemuende's 'Versuchskommando-Nord'. Nevertheless there was a constant fight for priority in obtaining materials.

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A5. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A-5 development rockets with gyroscopic controls and parachutes - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Apogee: 7.00 km (4.30 mi). New test series at Greifswalder Oie. The island had changed a lot, with massive new concrete installations. Three A3's were flown with a new Siemens control system. The first was launched vertically, reaching 7 km at 45 seconds into the flight at the time of engine cut-off. Both the drogue and main parachutes functioned correctly, and the rocket splashed down in the harbour and was recovered a half hour later by a motor boat (the rocket could float for up to two hours before water entering the empty propellant tanks would sink it).

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • Second functional A5 launch. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 7.00 km (4.30 mi). Summary: This was a vertical launch, replicating the first launch of the series, and was again recovered successfully..

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • Third functional A5 launch. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi). Range: 6.00 km (3.70 mi). This was the first test of the pitch-over manoeuvre required for the operational A4. The test went perfectly - the rocket pitched over 4 seconds after lift-off, reaching 4 km altitude, and was 6 km downrange from the launch point when the drogue parachute deployed. The rocket was recovered from the ocean successfully. This was finally a complete success after seven years of developmental effort. But the rocket had not broken the sound barrier.

October 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A5.
  • Further A5 test launches. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 18 km (11 mi). Summary: The German rocket team successfully fired and recovered further A5 development rockets with gyroscopic controls and parachutes, attaining altitude of 12 km and a range of 18 km..

November 1939 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A4b; A9/A10.
  • Peenemuende wind tunnel goes into operation. - . Nation: Germany. The tunnel was used an average of 500 hours per month. 1000 cubic metres of vacuum vessels were pumped to a 98% vacuum in three to five minutes by three banks of double vacuum pumps. When vented, they provided the tunnel with 20 seconds of run time at velocities from Mach 1.2 to Mach 4.0, or 1500 m/s. Models 4 to 5 cm in diameter x 30-40 cm long could be accommodated in the tunnel, instrumented at 110 data points. These tests showed that drag increased 70% at the sound barrier and that the centre of pressure on the missile moved back one-half calibre. The wind tunnel runs showed that the basic A4 shape was all right, but that it needed load-carrying wings and a new rudder for the higher-speed A9 glider version. Huge trial and error was required to develop an A9 configuration that was stable, but not so stable that the control surfaces were too large. An arrow wing was the best performing, but the control surfaces were then in the turbulent flow of the wing and inadequate. Swept wings provided 12% less glide ratio than the arrow wing, resulting in a 60 km loss of range. Trapezoidal wings were the final solution, the end of a long iterative process.

    Peenemuende-developed delta wings were adapted to Army artillery rounds of the 105 mm flak gun and K5 280 mm cannon, decreasing drag by 35%. The result was an increase of 6 kg in the explosive load, a 6 kg increase in the iron mass of the round, but with a range increase from 59 to 90 km. Equipped with a new, lighter warhead, and a sabot boosting a slimmer round, the gun could shoot projectiles to a range of 135 to 150 km, with an accuracy of 2 per mill.


Late 1939-1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1; V-2. Launch Vehicle: A4b; A9/A10.
  • A9 basic research and design - . Nation: Germany. By adding wings to the A4, the 800 m/s of kinetic energy the rocket had at cut-off could be exploited in a glide attack, extending the range of the missile from 250 km to 550 km. Such a supersonic aircraft had never been flown and presented many aerodynamic and engineering problems in 1943. Various tests of the A4's with wings began in early 1940. These were successful, and the configuration was dubbed the A9. The trajectory for such a missile involved a boost to an apogee of 29 km, then a stable glide at 20 km altitude at a speed of 1250 m/s. At the end of the glide, the missile would have descended to 5 km altitude, then make a vertical dive on the target in the fashion of the Fi-103/V-1. The A9 would be equipped with wings with a total area of 13.5 sq m. A manned version of this boost-glide rocketplane was also designed. This could reach a conventional airfield 600 km from the launch point in only 17 minutes, landing at a speed of 160 kph. Another possibility to further extend range would be a catapult-launched A9, using the technology developed for the V-1. This would provide an extra velocity of 350 m/s, further extending the missile's potential range.

1940 - . Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Design A9/A10 of the two stage transatlantic ballistic missile began in 1940. - . Nation: Germany. First flight would have been in 1946. Work on the A9/A10 was prohibited after 1943 when all efforts were to be spent on perfection and production of the A4 as a weapon-in-being. Von Braun managed to continue some development and flight tests of the A9 under the cover name of A4b (i.e. a modification of the A4, and therefore a production-related project). In late 1944 work on the A9/A10 resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, but no significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b in January 1945.

Early 1940 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 radio guidance tests - . Nation: Germany. In early 1940 a Do-17M aircraft was equipped with a Siemens fully automatic autopilot. This was designed to keep the aircraft within a 50 mhz guidance beam, which was produced at a 3 kW transmitter installed at Bornholm Island in Denmark, northeast of Peenemuende. The aircraft would capture the beam b flying within 1 degree of the its centre at a distance of 2 km from the transmitter. After a 140 km flight the aircraft would still be within 20 m of the correct position. The beam had a total effective range of 200 km. The Peenemuende team remembered its accuracy by the fact that on each test they would always fly over the same small red house in Bornholm on the coast.

    Use of the system on the A4 was complicated by the problem of the electrical charge that formed on the rocket body during flight through the atmosphere, and the electrical ions in the rocket exhaust, both of which made good reception of radio signals difficult. 90% of a 50 mhz signal was attenuated at the critical moment of engine cut-off. Another accuracy issue was oscillation of the rocket once it was out of the atmosphere - the rudders in the exhaust did not act smoothly, producing the equivalent of pilot-induced oscillations. The solution was to develop a missile that rode the beam during the entire boost phase, not just converging with it at the point of engine cut-off.

    Many partial system test stands were used to solve these control and guidance problems, most notably a full-up 'iron bird' that could be used to test the effect of new systems on existing components.


Early 1940 - .
  • Von Braun learns of Saenger's secret work at Trauen - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Saenger; von Braun; Thiel, Walter; Hermann, Rudolf. Saenger's advanced rocketry work was so secret that Von Braun was not even aware of it until one of his team, looking for a new method of rocket ignition, heard of its existence. Von Braun, Walter Thiel, and Rudolf Hermann were finally given a tour of Saenger's advanced facilities at Trauen.

1940 March 19 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 rocket development removed from priority list. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler. After the military success in Poland, Hitler believes development of expensive 'wonder weapons' are unnecessary to win the war. The A4 and other rocket projects are removed from the priority list, making acquisition of necessary materials and engineers difficult.

1940 March 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First full-duration test of A4 engine. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The engine is run at 25 tonnes thrust for 60 seconds on Test Stand I at Peenemuende..

1940 April 9 - .
  • Hitler invades Norway, Denmark - . Nation: Germany.

1940 May 1 - .
  • Von Braun promoted to SS Untersturmfuehrer. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Von Braun's membership in the SS is 'renewed' and he is promoted to Untersturmfuehrer with the SS number 185068. According to some accounts he had joined the SS as early as 1934..

1940 May 10 - .
  • Hitler invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg - . Nation: Germany.

1940 May 12 - .
  • Hitler invades France - . Nation: Germany.

Summer 1940 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende test stands completed. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Thiel, Walter. Summary: Thiel and the remaining staff of the rocket team at Kummersdorf moved to Peenemuende..

October 1940 - .
  • Saenger attends hypersonics conference at Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Saenger. Summary: Reciprocating his visit to Saenger's Trauen facility earlier in the year, Von Braun obtains permission for Saenger to attend a hypersonics symposium at Peenemuende..

1941-1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 engine improvements - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Beck; Thiel, Walter. Throughout the early 1940's Thiel and his team sought to produce a single chamber 25 tonne thrust engine in place of the kludged prototype engine that used 18 separate 1.5 tf chambers. They managed to demonstrate a 60 second burn time in the 18-chamber design, but the engine itself was considered too complicated to fabricate in production, requiring thousands of hand-assembled tubes to introduce fuel and oxidiser into the chamber. Thiel sought to replace these thousands of tubes with a simpler injection system - rows of simple bored holes on a flat injector plate at the head of the chamber. Beck at the Technische Hochschule in Dresden developed a ring-pattern injector that worked well in subscale engines. But the design proved unstable in the 25 tf engine. Therefore, it was decided to stick with the 18-head chamber for V-2 production.

During 1941 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 facilities - . Nation: Germany. The A4 assembly hall at Area 7 at Peenemuende was 30 m high and 50 m long. After assembly, the missile was moved to the cold flow test stand. There each rocket was tested and calibration documents were generated, necessary for the launch troops to take into account when preparing the rocket and programming its guidance system. The launch pad itself was ringed by a 7 m wide concrete embankment, and sunk 6 m into the ground. The viewpoint was 150 m from the pad, at the southern, smaller end of the complex.

    The pad was surrounded by instrumentation rooms. Water was delivered at 500 litres/second through a 1.20 m diameter pipe to a molybdenum steel cooling section, consisting of many pipes running around the exhaust blast diverter. Other test stands included number 10, where the effects of the rocket exhaust on different material surfaces was tested; and number 8, where newly delivered engines were fired and calibrated. These certification tests ran as long as 650 seconds on the water-cooled stand. Area 9 was used for launches of the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile, and Area 2 for tests of the A4 using nitric acid and Visol as propellants. Area 4 was devoted to firing tests of engines installed in aircraft fuselages, and Area 3 contained the 1000 kgf engine test stand. This stand included pump and steam test stands, and a hydrogen peroxide plant. Area 6 was built to the same design as the largest test stands at Kummersdorf, and used for A5 tests. Hundreds of A5's were shot from Greifswalder Oie.


1941 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • The V-3 Hochdruckpumpe supergun conceived - . Nation: Germany. Coenders at Saar Roechling proposed the concept of sequentially electrically activated angled side chambers to provide additional acceleration of a shell during its passage up the barrel of the gun. This allowed a muzzle velocity of over 1500 m/s. A 140 m long cannon using this concept would be capable of delivering a 140 kg shell over a 165 km range. Funding is finally obtained to build a subscale prototype.

1941 June 20 - .
  • Birth of Dr Ulf Dietrich Merbold - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German physicist payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-9, STS-42, Mir Euromir 94..

August 1941 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Full-scale development of A4 authorised. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Following the loss of the air war with Britain, the German military leadership realises that missiles offer the only possibility of attacking London. Development of the A4 to the point of production-readiness is authorised..

1941 September 1 - . Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • Me-163A first flight. - . Nation: Germany. Messerschmitt Me-163A powered by "cold" H. Walther rocket successfully flown at Augsburg, Germany, development of which had begun in 1937, but "cold" engine proved unreliable. Flights were also made in October which reached speeds of 1,003 km/hr, or Mach 0.85.

1941 November 9 - .
  • Von Braun promoted to SS Obersturmfuehrer. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun.

December 1941 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Mach 10 wind tunnel designed. - . Nation: Germany. In preparation for the A9/A10 transatlantic missile, the Peenemuende team completed design of a Mach 10 wind tunnel. However construction would not begin for another two years due to priority on devoting all available engineering time to getting the A4 into production.

1942-1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10/A11/A12.
  • Peenemuende team's ambitions - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Von Braun was obsessed by grandiose futuristic fantasies, and Dornberger felt he constantly had to throw cold water on the engineer to keep them in check. But this tendency was easily overshadowed by Von Braun's fantastic ability to solve a technical problem, to throw all the extraneous ballast overboard and concentrate on the solution. In the moment the solution was technically realised, Von Braun no longer had any interest in the issue and dropped it.

    There was never any doubt that manned space travel was Von Braun's life goal. The technology needed for manned flight presented many such technical challenges. He realised early on that only multi-staged liquid propelled rockets could achieve his dream. Rockets certainly needed lighter propellant tanks, but there was a practical technical limit to this, and in any case, there still had to be a payload. Von Braun knew that liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen was the ultimate propellant combination, but also that learning how to handle liquid hydrogen would be a long-term affair. A one-year study at the Technische Hochschule in Dresden and Peenemuende showed that other propellant combinations could produce no more than a 20% improvement in specific impulse compared to the existing V-2 technology. Therefore a multistage rocket was the only way to achieve orbital spaceflight.


During 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 series production - . Nation: Germany. Summary: An initial series of prototypes were built at the factories of Dip-Ing Stahlknecht, then a second line was opened up at Dr Eckener's Zeppelinwerke..

1942 February 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 s/n 1 moved to Test Stand VII at Peenemuende. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The missile was used for facility checks and checking of launch procedures..

1942 March 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 s/n 1 explodes during engine test run. - . Nation: Germany. The missile was being tested on Test Stand VII; no launch had been planned. G Harry Stine noticed that the German rocket scientists at White Sands were very reluctant to talk about the details of the failure, but finally managed to get the real story from Konrad Dannenberg:
    The first A.4 missile was a hand-made job. Motor tests preceding the first flight were to be carried out in a huge, mobile test stand, which held the entire missile. However, this first A.4 never flew; it found its end in the test stand. In order to clamp the missile into the stand without attaching the thrust mounts to the missile structure, a large steel corset was built. Unfortunately, the builders of this corset did not take into account the shrinkage of the missile components when the frigid liquid oxygen was pumped aboard. The first A4 shrank, dropped out of the corset, and was a total wash-out.
    The test was to have examined the behavior of the guidance system and the graphite steering vanes in the exhaust flow. The corset had pivot mountings on it to allow the missile to be deflected while its motor was being fired, to see how fast the steering vanes responded, and what amount of corrective force they developed. After the failure, the Peenemuende team was embarrassed by the fact that they had overlooked something as obvious as the fact that cold things shrink.

1942 March 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Tower. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-001.
  • V-2 4001 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First full-scale static testing .

May 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1; V-2.
  • A4 reliability development - . Nation: Germany. The early failure rate of the A4 prototype missiles was extremely high, so the Peenemuende rocket team had to develop new measures to test and improve reliability down to the component level. This included improved quality control during manufacture, and test of the missile's components in all weathers, not just in heated laboratories. This resulted in the overall missile failure rate declining from 17% in the early test series to 4% in the final series. The V-1/Fi-103 cruise missile had a 28% higher failure rate, even though it was a simpler design.

1942 June 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-002. FAILURE: Unstable; rolled. Explosion at T+36 seconds. Range 1.3 km .
Summer 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine launch of powder rockets - . Nation: Germany. Solid propellant rockets were fired from a submerged platform off Greifswalder Oie to test the concept of a submarine-launched missile. The idea came from Steihoff, an engineer on the rocket team whose brother was a submarine captain. 20 to 30 Wurfgeraete of the Army's smoke corps, equipped with flammable oil or explosive warheads, were shot at the coast from up to 3 km away. The concept was to put enemy coastal oil storage tanks into flames. At Swinemuende a launcher was installed aboard a Submarine and salvoes of 20 rockets successfully fired from 10 to 15 m under water. The launcher was unnoticeable on the submarine, and the dispersion of the rockets was only a bit worse than a shot from land. But the German Navy wouldn't accept simply using an existing Army launcher. They insisted on developing a different one themselves, which would take a year, putting deployment of the system beyond the end of the war.

1942 August 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-003. FAILURE: Nose section break-up at T+45 seconds. Range 8.7 km .
1942 October 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-004.
  • V-2 4004 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Steep climb. Range 190 km .

1942 October 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-005.
  • V-2 4005 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Steam generator fault. Range 147 km..

1942 November 9 - .
  • Von Braun promoted to SS Hauptsturmfuehrer. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun.

1942 November 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-006.
  • V-2 4006 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Vetical test to 67 km. Range 14 km..

1942 November 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-007. FAILURE: Tumbled after vane failure at T+37 seconds. Range 8.6 km.
December 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 priority - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Speer. Summary: Dornberger clashes with Speer over priority for the A4..

End 1942 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10; A9/A10/A11; A9/A10/A11/A12.
  • Peenemuende team's spaceflight plans - . Nation: Germany. Using catapults and wings an A9 might nearly achieve 1000 km range, but the only solution for transatlantic missions was the two-stage A9/A10. The A10 boost stage was to have a total mass of 87 tonnes, of which 62 tonnes would be propellant. The stage's 200 tonne thrust motor would burn for 50 to 60 seconds, taking the A9 upper stage to 1200 m/s. Then the A9 would separate and burn its engine, reaching an apogee of 55 km, followed by a long hypersonic glide in the atmosphere. The second stage would be equipped with air brakes for deceleration over the target, followed by a parachute for recovery in the water. The A9/A10 would reach a maximum velocity of 2800 m/s, and have a range of 4100 km, and a total flight time of 35 minutes. Full-scale development was underway, when further significant work on the project was stopped at the end of 1942. Only the Advanced Projects Group, under the direction of Dip-Ing Roth and Ing Palt, continued design of the missile. It was also planned to develop, after the war, a stratospheric rocket that could travel in 40 minutes from Europe to America. After that, the target was orbital spaceships that could reach 8 km/sec and 500 km orbital altitude. Beyond that, space stations and the burial in space of the embalmed bodies of the rocket developers and men of the rocket service. Manned expeditions to the moon were also a popular theme for research. Finally, the use of nuclear energy to achieve interstellar travel was studied by the Advanced Projects Group.

1942 December 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Train-launched A4. - . Nation: Germany. A rail-launched A4 was considered from the beginning of the project. At the end of 1942 the first train launcher wagon was completed and trials began from Test Stand VII at Peenemuende. In service the trains would have hidden in double-tracked train tunnels. Development was interrupted to get the vehicle-towed standard version of the weapon into service.

1942 December 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-009. FAILURE: Steam generator explosion at T+4 seconds. Range 0.1 km.
During 1943 - .
  • German nuclear-powered rocket development deferred. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Summary: Dornberger contacts Heisenberg on the potential of using nuclear power for rocket propulsion. Heisenberg was able to make no firm commitment as to when such a system would be available..

1943-1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 guidance development - . Nation: Germany. Using its original gyroscopic guidance package, the A4 demonstrated a 4.5 km CEP up to 1943, with 100% of the shots falling within 18 km of the target. Many factors contributed to this inaccuracy - out of tolerance guidance system components, and poor alignment of the gyro platform prior to firing. One solution developed was a radio correction system similar to that used by aircraft for landings in poor visibility. A moving radio beam would follow the correct course, and the rocket would manoeuvre to stay within the beam. But there was no support within the Army for full development of such a system - their priority was in developing and deploying distance-measuring radio navigation systems for the aviation forces. A radio guidance unit was not used aboard an A4 until near the war's end, and that used an adaptation of a system designed for a beam-riding air-launched missile. But even using the radio correction technique, the engineers were unable to get the rocket's CEP under 2 km.

1943 - . Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Further work on the A9/A10 ICBM was prohibited - . Nation: Germany. All efforts were to be spent on perfection and production of the A4 (V-2) as a weapon-in-being. Von Braun managed to continue some development and flight tests of the A9 under the cover name of A4b (i.e. a modification of the A4, and therefore a production-related project).

1943 January 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-010. FAILURE: Exploded at ignition.
1943 January 8 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Showdown meeting on A4 - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger; Hitler; Speer; Todt. Speer meets with Von Braun and Dornberger. A 1:100 model of the planned bunker construction-launch facility for the rocket to be built by Organisation Todt on the British channel was exhibited. Speer reveals that Hitler could not decide about the rocket as a weapon. He did not believe the rocket team's plans could be made to work. But Speer did authorise them to proceed with construction on his own authority - he hoped Hitler could be brought around eventually. But he emphasised that Dornberger would have to use his personal connections to get industry moving on the project. But Dornberger was thwarted when the Army put Degenkolb in charge of organising production of the missile. Degenkolb was a sworn enemy of Dornberger's, and had been implicated in the 'suicide' of General Becker in early 1940. Degenkolb set up a Nazi-supported bureaucracy in parallel to that of Dornberger's, requiring the approval of the Army weapons bureau on any decisions. Degenkolb had the sponsorship of Todt and Saur, who in turn followed the party line - 'like the Fuehrer, we are not yet won over to the concept of a long range missile'.

    In order to productionise the A4 design, Degenkolb began authorising many detailed changes. He didn't understand that every change had to be proven in test first, and only incremental steps could be taken. Stahlknecht had planned to produce 300 A4 missiles per month by January 1944, and 600 per month by July 1944. Degenkolb unrealistically decreed that 300 per month be achieved by October 1943, and 900 per month by December 1943.


1943 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-011.
  • V-2 4011 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Steep roll; Burnout at T+64.5 seconds. Range 105 km.

1943 February 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende privatisation - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger; Siemens. In a meeting with Professor Hettlage, of the Financial and Organisational Ministry of the German Defence Industry, it was proposed that Peenemuende be made a private country, with the Nazi Party and selected corporations (AEG, Siemens, Lorenz, Rheinmetall) being its shareholders. Dornberger saw Degenkolb behind this plan, and was determined to keep Peenemuende an Army proving ground. He felt that an asset, on which several hundred million Marks had been invested by the government, was being handed over to private hands for 1 to 2 million Marks. The investors intended to recover their entire investment back on a fee paid for each missile built. In the end Dornberger managed to keep Peenemuende an Army proving ground, but then he had to fight off an attempt by AEG to take over the electronics side of the development team. The rocket team's electronic engineers were years ahead of the rest of the industry, and a tempting target.

1943 February 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-012.
  • V-2 4012 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Flat trajectory; Burnout at T+61 seconds. Range 196 km.

1943 February 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-013. FAILURE: Tail fire. Explosion at T+18 seconds. Range 4.8 km.
March 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 production plans - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb. A4 missiles were to be produced at Peenemuende, Friedrichshafen, and the Raxwerken at Wiener Neustadt. But problems began immediately - the Army expected the rockets to be as easy to build as locomotives; there was no engineering staff or time available to productionise the prototype design; there were no staff available to properly train production engineers and technicians. Degenkolb threatened to imprison the rocket team's engineers if they didn't get the missile into production on schedule. He was oblivious to the difficulties of achieving this.

1943 March 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-016. FAILURE: Explosion at T+33 seconds. Range 1 km.
March 1943 - . LV Family: V-1; V-2.
  • Hitler's dream - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler. Hitler dreamed that no A4 missile could ever reach England. The result was that the program lost its priority amidst other pressing armaments programs, and the necessary engineers and production rocket engines could not be obtained. While losing priority, the high security classification remained, so it was not possible to recruit non-German engineers and technicians for the work. The production schedule inevitably slid. Finally the government decided to competitively evaluate the Fi-103 cruise missile (V-1) against the A4 ballistic missile (V-2) leading to the selection of a single weapon for mass production by July of 1943.

1943 March 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-018.
  • V-2 4018 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Vertical; Burnout at T+60 seconds. Range 133 km.

1943 March 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-019. FAILURE: Burnout at T+60.5s Flight duration 268 seconds. .
April-May 1943 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • V-3 tests. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler. The V-3 cannon was tested at Misdroy on Wollin Island (now Miedzyzdroje, Poland). The gun was a 60 m long constant-pressure cannon developed by Coenders of the Roechling firm in Saarbrucken. The gun was laid at a 45 degree angle in the dunes. Aiming was accomplished by arranging wood blocks under the concrete sections. The gun demonstrated a 15 km range with a sabot-launched, arrow-shaped warhead. The tests were conducted under Kammler, who was responsible for all V-weapons. Dornberger had been opposed to the concept, but everyone else was enthusiastic, due to Hitler's support and unending fascination with artillery.

April 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Himmler visits Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. This was the first review of the facilities by the SS commander. He pledged support, but instead the SS set up its own rocket research centre at Grossendorf, near Danzig. This marked yet another struggle for control of the programme. Himmler was defeated in this effort, but he would take his revenge later.

1943 April 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-017.
  • V-2 4017 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+64.5s Flight duration 310 seconds..

1943 April 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-020.
  • V-2 4020 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+64s; 287 km; nav err. Range 287 km.

1943 April 15 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 development detected by British Intelligence. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Prime Minister Winston Churchill of England was informed of reports on German experiments with long-range rockets..

1943 April 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-021.
  • V-2 4021 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+60s; 252 km; nav err. Range 252 km.

1943 May 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-022.
  • V-2 4022 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Switch failure. Burnout at T+62 seconds. Range 250 km..

1943 May 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1; V-2.
  • V-1/V-2 fly-off - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger; Speer. A government commission, consisting of Speer, Milch, Doenitz, and Fromm viewed launches of the competing missiles at Peenemuende. The V-1/Fi-103 was much cheaper than the V-2/A4, but it was slow and low - it operated at 160 m/s at an altitude of between 200 and 2000 m - and vulnerable to enemy flak batteries and interceptors. It provided the enemy with a forewarning of attack by its characteristic engine noise and the cut-off of that noise when it went into its terminal dive. It could only be launched from fixed concrete launch ramps, making the launchers vulnerable to enemy air attack. The V-2 was mobile, more accurate, could not be intercepted, and gave the enemy no warning of attack in its supersonic ballistic course to the target. In the end, the commission could find no overwhelming advantage to either of the very different weapons, and both were ordered into production. The positive advantages of each weapon outweighed the negatives. In the tests before the commission, the Fi-103 had bad luck, and achieved no successful shots for two of the A4. '2:0 for your team', Milch told Dornberger. Speer claimed he 'always supported' the A4 but Dornberger ruefully noted they had lost 18 months in delays, primarily due to Degenkolb's incompetence. Speer pressed Dornberger - if Degenkolb really can't make it happen, then just give me the word. He'll be dismissed. But Degenkolb was not dismissed - he had Saur's complete backing.

1943 May 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-026.
  • V-2 4026 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+66s; Flight duration 349 seconds. Range 265 km.

1943 May 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-025. FAILURE: Burnout at T+43s; Flight duration 200 seconds. Range 27 km.
1943 May 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-024.
  • V-2 4024 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+56s; Flight duration 248 seconds. Range 138 km.

1943 May 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Dornberger promoted - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger. Dornberger was promoted to Major General. But Degenkolb was still in charge of A4 production, and had sent four engineers to spy at Peenemuende, asking them to provide recommendations on reorganisation of the place, promising the four that they would be made directors of the new enterprise.

1943 May 30 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 firing range to be established in Poland. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. It is decided to move testing of production V-2s and training of combat launch crews from the Baltic Sea to the middle of Poland, at Heidelager, near Blizna. German units here operationally test fired over 100 V-2's, launching 10 on one day, only a small number of which were fully successful.

1943 June 1 - . Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • First Me-163B flight. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Messerschmitt Me-163B rocket interceptor powered by Walther "hot" engine successfully flown at Bremen, Augsburg, and near Leipzig, Germany. Over 300 Me-163B's were produced by Junkers by the end of 1944..

June 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • A4 development - . Nation: Germany. Area 7 was used for tests of the A4's pyrotechnic igniters. The missile could be ordered to cut off its engine by radio if it veered inland. Delays in development were inevitable - a 'Peenemuende Minute' corresponded to 11 minutes or more on the watch. On one memorable occasion, the missile ignited, but its fuel pump did not reach full speed. The rocket reached only 4.5 m altitude before hovering, its abnormally low thrust exactly counterbalancing the mass of the missile. The film operator kept his post, only 100 m from the fantastic sight. As the rocket consumed propellant, its weight was reduced, and it slowly moved skyward, reaching 10 m, then 22 m, and slowly drifting out of the launch pad area. It finally crashed only 40 m beyond the blast wall. The cameraman stayed at his post through all of this.

1943 June 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-023.
  • V-2 4023 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+62s; Flight duration 287 seconds. Range 62 km.

1943 June 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-029.
  • V-2 4029 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+63s; Flight duration 291 seconds. Range 238 km.

1943 June 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-031.
  • V-2 4031 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+61 seconds. Range 238 km.

1943 June 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-028.
  • V-2 4028 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+63s; Exploded at 70 seconds. Range 75 km.

1943 June 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-030.
  • V-2 4030 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+65s; Flight duration 318 seconds. Range 287 km .

1943 June 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-036.
  • V-2 4036 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+65 seconds. Range 235 km.

1943 June 28 - .
  • Von Braun promoted to SS Sturmbannfuehrer. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: He was assigned to the Staff of the Oberabschnitt Ostsee..

1943 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Himmler's second visit to Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. The rocket team and SS entourage discussed politics until 4 am. The next morning, the first demonstration launch of a V-2 failed - the missile turned west at an altitude of 200 m, and crashed in the woods outside of Peenmuende-West, destroying three aircraft on the nearby runway. Fortunately no one was killed. The second launch in the afternoon was successful. But the bureaucratic efforts by the SS and other organisations to take over the rocket program from the Army continued.

1943 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-038. FAILURE: Fell on airstrip. Range 3 km.
1943 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-040.
  • V-2 4040 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+64 seconds. Range 236 km.

1943 July 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-033. FAILURE: Exploded at T+2 seconds..
1943 July 7 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 given top priority. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Hitler. Summary: Adolf Hitler gave the German V-2 program highest military priority..

1943 July 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemuende given highest priority - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler; Speer; Steinhoff, Ernst. Dornberger, Von Braun, and Steinhoff (at the controls) fly aboard a He-111 to the Fuehrer bunker in East Prussia. There they give Hitler a review of the V-2 program, the first since his visit to Kummersdorf in March 1939. The appointment was for 11:30, but then delayed to 17:00.

    When they were finally ushered into his presence, Dornberger was shocked at the terrible and changed appearance of the Fuehrer. The team begins their briefing, in the presence of Hitler, Keitel, Jodl, Butale, and Speer. The presentation began with a film of preparations and launch of an A4 on the 3 October 1942. Von Braun narrated the film, which had proven a real crowd-pleaser in the past. It showed the A4 in production at the vast assembly hall at Peenemuende, the vertical roll-out, the huge launch complex, and finally launch. Von Braun then presented a model and plans for the hardened production/launch bunker that was being built on the English Channel.

    Hitler loved the bunker model, and declared he wanted to build not one, but three such facilities. Dornberger argued that mobile launchers would be militarily less vulnerable and less costly, but Hitler was unconvinced. The 7 m thick bunker walls, he declared, would 'draw every allied bomber like flies to honey. Every bomb they drop there will be one that does not fall on Germany'. Hitler asks if the payload can be increased to 10 tonnes (in order to accommodate a nuclear warhead) or if a 2,000 per month production rate was possible (in order to make mass attacks on Britain with conventional explosive or chemical payloads). Dornberger replies that it would take four to five years to develop a missile with greater payload, and that production was limited by the German industrial capacity for alcohol (used as fuel in the missile).

    Dornberger noted that they did not dream of the possibility of short-term availability of nuclear energy in 1936, when the specifications for the missile were set. In any case, after the loss of the heavy water plant in Norway, it would take years to develop nuclear weapons. Hitler was visibly upset that the V-2 would not turn out to be a war-deciding weapon. But Dornberger pointed out it was a great psychological weapon - unstoppable, something against their which there was no defence.

    Hitler stated that 'I have only had to excuse myself to two men in my life - and one of them was von Brauchtisch, who always championed the importance of your work, and the other is you. If we had this weapon in 1939, Britain would have conceded, and there would have been no war.

    Hitler finally ordered that the V-1 and V-2 missile programs be given the highest priority in the defence ministry. Immediately needed staff and material began flowing into the program. Saur immediately ordered a production goal of 2,000 missiles per month, despite the fact that there was no prospect of producing enough alcohol fuel or training enough launch crews to actual fire the missiles at such a rate. However, there was no disagreement, since any industry leader who did not commit to meeting this production goal was threatened with immediate replacement. German alcohol production would mean the maximum number that could ever be fired was 900 per month.


1943 July 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-041. FAILURE: Exploded and fell on pump building..
1943 July 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-034. FAILURE: Exploded at T+1.4 seconds..
August 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 program in crisis - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Degenkolb; Dornberger; Thiel, Walter. With only four months to go before Degenkolb's mandated production of 900 missiles per month, the engineers declare the missile is not ready for production. A workable engine has been developed, but it is complex, suitable for prototypes only, and the engineers involved do not have the experience to turn it into something designed for mass production. Continuous changes on the engine also affect other parts of the rocket, resulting in drawing changes simultaneous with the effort to mass-produce detailed parts. Thiel and his team declare that in fact development of the A4 can never be finished before the war's end. They recommend that plans to put it into production should be stopped. Thiel, at the verge of a nervous breakdown, led this engineering 'revolt', although Rees was the spokesman. They declare they would stop work at Peenemuende and retire to the university. Von Braun argued against this position, demanding that production continue. Dornberger suffered a crisis of confidence in the rocket team as a result of this fight, but decided to continue trying to get the missile in production and fielded with the Germany Army.

1943 August 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-054.
  • V-2 4054 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+68 seconds. Flight duration 270 seconds..

1943 August 17 - .
  • Death of Walter Thiel - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Thiel, Walter. Summary: German engineer, talented designer at Peenemuende, in charge of development of the engine for the V-2. Killed in the air raid in August 1943, a setback to the project..

1943 August 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Peenemünde attacked by RAF. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun; Reitsch; Thiel, Walter. The Royal Air Force attacked Germany's Peenemünde Rocket Research Center, causing heavy damage and delaying V-weapon program by months.

    With the V-2 development program already in crisis, the Allies launch a massive bombing raid against Peenemuende. On that evening test pilot Hanna Reitsch was visiting the launch site. At 23:30 the air raid siren sounded. 600 British bombers drop 1500 tonnes of ordnance on the launch centre. However many bombs fell in the ocean around the peninsula, or buried themselves harmlessly in sand dunes. The resident area was hardest hit, while the Luftwaffe station at Peenemuende West was not touched. 47 British bombers were shot down - they were told before the raid that this was the most important mission of the war, and that their commanders would accept a 50% loss rate. 735 people were killed in the raid on the ground, including 178 of the 4000 inhabitants of the residential area. A large number of the foreign slave workers in the Trassenheide concentration camp barracks were also killed.

    After the tremendous raid the rocket team wander around the devastated facility, half-clothed, the buildings bathed in a weird light and everything covered in fine sand, as if flour was dropped over everything. Thiel and Walther - the two leading rocket engineers in Germany - were killed in the raid, and virtually all major facilities were damaged. The saving grace was that the soft sand of Peenemuende attenuated the blast of many bombs. Nine bombs hit the main assembly hall, but while there was splinter damage to some of the machine tools, there was no decisive hit that would prevent production from continuing. It was estimated that operations could resume in 4 to 6 weeks.

    The raid was not unexpected. The high altitude contrails of the V-2 test launches were called 'frozen lightning' and could be seen from Sweden on clear days. The location and purpose of Peenemuende appeared in a crossword puzzle in a illustrated magazine published in central Germany in early 1943. British reconnaissance flights to locate the launch facilities had been recognised for what they were.

    This raid, together with the bombing of V-2 production lines at the Zeppelinwerke in Friedrichshafen and the Raxwerke in Wiener Neustadt convinced Saur to reduce the V-2 production rate goal to 900 per month.


1943 August 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 production facilities bombed - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler; Todt. Ten days after the raid on Peenemuende, the British bomb the V-2 production/launch bunker under construction at Watten. Seven further bunkers (four in Pas-de-Calais, three at Cherbourg) continued to be built. Soon thereafter, V-2 production plants at Wiener Neustadt and Friedrichshafen are also bombed. Clearly the Allies had detected and targeted the infrastructure of the V-2 production program. In response to the raids, the decision was made that Organisation Todt would build an underground V-2 factory at a chalk mine in Witzen. The bunker at Watten would be used only as a liquid oxygen production plant. Hitler had mandated a 7 m thick protective roof there, which cannot be penetrated by Allied bombs. It was decided that the roof would be jacked up, the sides filled with concrete, and construction work would continue underground despite the perpetual bombing.

September 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Dornberger meets with Hitler - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler. Summary: Hitler decides to continue work on the bunkers. In Dornberger's opinion, this wastes resources that could have resulted in an earlier, full deployment of the V-2 using motorised, mobile batteries..

September 1943 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • V-3 in launch bunkers under construction at Mimoyecques, France. - . Nation: Germany. The operational version being built in the chalk cliffs of France used 4 to 5 m long T-shaped sections, assembled to a total length of 150 m, and capable of shooting shells over a 170 km range. However it took a large number of reloaders to put powder in each T-arm after a shot - the planned weapon could only be fired once every five minutes. Furthermore every third shot caused the barrel in one of the T-sections to crack, meaning it had to be removed and replaced. Bunkers in the Pas de Calais were being built for the weapon, but they were subject to incessant bombing and finally overrun by Allied troops before they could be completed.

Fall 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched V-2 - . Nation: Germany. Director Lafferenz of the German Worker's Front proposed towing of a 3 m diameter x 30 m long capsule containing a single V-2 by submarine. This was later refined to a single submarine towing three 500 tonne capsules, each with a V-2, its propellants, and launch equipment. At the launch point water tanks would be flooded in the capsule to bring it upright, with the top above the surface. The top would be opened, then launch troops would enter to prepare and fuel the rocket, followed by launch. But the pressing problem of solving the A4's reliability problems and getting it into production delayed any further work on the concept until the end of 1944.

October 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • German 'ski ramps' - . Nation: Germany. British photo-intelligence interpreters discover what they call 'ski ramps' along the Atlantic coast of occupied Europe. These are 100 m long, and a total of 21 are discovered by mid-November. It is soon noted that whatever their location, all of the ramps point toward London. Fantastic theories are proposed - they are iceberg or poison gas launchers.

1943 October 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-049.
  • V-2 4049 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First Field Battery launch. Burnout at T+64 seconds. Flight duration 272 seconds..

1943 October 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-071.
1943 October 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-067.
1943 October 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-069.
  • V-2 4069 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+63 seconds. Flight duration 286 seconds..

November 1943 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Development of ballistic missiles authorized. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Gen. H. H. Arnold, Chief of Air Staff, directed and authorized emphasis on research, development, and procurement of guided missiles, as indicated by known German advances..

1943 November 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1943 November 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-043.
1943 November 15 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-093.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: success.

1943 November 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-080.
December 1943 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Mach 10 wind tunnel construction begins. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: A4 development is completed, so Peenemuende engineers can turn to full-scale development of the A9/A10. Construction of a Mach 10 wind tunnel to test hypersonic aerodynamic configurations for the missile begins..

1943 December 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • Decision to destroy the ski ramps - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Although their purpose is not understood, it is decided to start a bombing campaign to destroy the German 'ski ramps'. By December 1, 64 had been found, and 75 by 21 December..

1943 December 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-073.
  • V-2 4073 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Burnout at T+63 seconds. Flight duration 286 seconds..

1943 December 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1943 December 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-060.
  • V-2 4060 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+69 seconds. Flight duration 247 seconds..

1943 December 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-059.
  • V-2 4059 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+33 seconds. Flight duration 104 seconds..

1943 December 22 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-096.
1943 December 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • Raid against V-1 launchers - . Nation: Germany. Summary: A raid is launched by Allied 1300 aircraft. The tactics have been developed at Eglin AFB, Florida, where a replica 'ski ramp' was built in an effort to understand its purpose and how best to bomb it..

1943 December 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-091.
1943 December 31 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First V-2 deliveries from Mittelwerk - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 4 or 5 missiles are 'delivered' in order to meet the end-of-the-year date set by the German leadership. They are immediately returned to the tunnel for rework..

During 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 guidance development - . Nation: Germany. Early A4's were equipped with a radio-controlled cut-off system. These were replaced in service versions by self-contained integrating accelerometers. Professors Bucholz and Wagner at Darmstadt had developed the system, which was shown to have the same accuracy as the radio-controled system. This system had been tested as early as the fall of 1939, but no production quantities were available until mid-1944. Gyroscopic guidance systems from Kresselgeraete GmbH were tested, but found to have inferior accuracy to the acceleromter-based system. For better precision a double integrator system was needed, but this could not be developed before the war's end. Virtually all A4 systems were developed by the engineers at Peenemuende rather than by industry. Some said that it would have been better handled by industry, but in fact there was no such thing as rocket technology when Von Braun's team began their work - it all had to be created.

First half 1944 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Production V-2's exploding in flight. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Riedel, Walther. The production series of V-2's are exploding in flight, and the engineers cannot determine the reason. Peenemuende engineers sought to recover 30% of the missiles for detailed examination. This showed that re-entry heating did not weaken the missile's structure. There was no scorching of the 0.6 mm thick paint applied to the interior of the missile. Only the outer paint showed signs of scorching. The missile still suffered in-flight explosions - attributed to the re-entry heating of 480 deg C and residual propellant vapours that still escaped despite the better sealing. Dornberger thought the liquid oxygen tank was the problem, while Von Braun suspected the alcohol tank. To try to determine the cause, five V-2's were shot with the engine running until all of the alcohol was depleted. These were followed by six shots with improved glass wool insulation of the liquid oxygen tank, over the objections of Riedel III, head of manufacturing at Peenemuende. Three of these shots were made in one morning, and all went off course. These were in turn followed by a series of highly instrumented launches from Peenemuende. The improvements developed as a result of these tests improved the missile reliability from 30% to 70% immediately, and then the reliability slowly increased to 80% as additional changes were made. Only in the last months of the war was it found that the forward part of the outer hull was failing in flight. Once this was strengthened with a belt of sheet metal, the V-2 achieved essentially 100% reliability.

    This entire process was going on while production was ramping up at the underground facility at Mittelwerk. There was pressure from the highest quarters to get the missile fielded and attacks on England underway. Every change resulting from these tests and research meant that the production line at Mittelwerk had to be stopped, and retrofits made to undelivered missiles.


Beginning of 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 sounding rockets - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi). The Peenemuende team developed scientific payloads for a sounding rocket version of the V-2, to measure cosmic rays, meteoroid flux, and so on. However due to the pressure to solve the missile's reliability problems, these were never flown from Germany. Only after the war could these plans be implemented in New Mexico. However during the war there were some vertical shots of the missile to test its stability and behaviour in a vacuum. On one such shot the missile reached 189 km altitude. On another occasion four launch troops were killed when the missile ascended, then veered 90 degrees, turned again, and impacted in the launch pit at the point of launch.

1944 January 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-032. FAILURE: Exploded at T+43 seconds. Flight duration 104 seconds..
1944 January 8 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 January 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-082.
1944 January 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 January 18 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-107. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 January 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-077.
1944 January 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-102.
1944 January 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-103.
1944 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-074.
1944 January 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17003. FAILURE: First Mittelwerk test flight. Failed..
1944 January 29 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-105. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 January 31 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-109.
1944 January 31 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-113.
1944 February 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-106.
1944 February 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17009.
1944 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17007.
1944 February 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17010.
1944 February 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17001.
1944 February 14 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17017.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: success.

1944 February 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-098.
1944 February 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17004.
1944 February 16 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-085.
1944 February 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17021.
1944 February 19 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17006.
1944 February 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17011.
1944 February 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17036.
1944 February 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17015.
1944 February 26 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 February 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-112.
1944 February 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. Launch Pad: GWO?. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall. LV Configuration: Wasserfall 2. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 March 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-084. FAILURE: Exploded.
1944 March 2 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17016.
1944 March 4 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 7 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17046.
1944 March 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-151.
1944 March 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-126.
1944 March 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. Launch Pad: GWO?. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall. LV Configuration: Wasserfall 3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1944 March 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17020.
1944 March 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-116.
1944 March 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-088.
  • V-2 4088 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+59 seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds..

1944 March 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-128.
1944 March 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 problems begin to be understood - but Peenemuende Rocket Team leaders arrested by SS - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler; Riedel, Walter; Steinhoff, Ernst. The cause of early detonation of the warhead during the engine burn time is understood, but the crashes at the end of the trajectory are still a mystery. Dornberger is ordered to report to Hitler at Berchtesgaden. The call is received at 7 pm in the evening, following a bomb raid and ice storm. Dornberger is told that on the following morning Von Braun, Riedel II, and Groettrup are to be arrested for sabotage of the A4 program. Groettrup selects Dr Steinhoff as his representative. The men are accused of not putting all their energy in development of the A4 as a weapon - instead only using the financing of the Reich to support their private plans for manned spaceflight. Dornberger know he cannot complete the program without these men - Von Braun and Riedel were the key leaders, and Groettrup was head of the electrical systems section. Dornberger finally achieves their release by demonstrating to the SS that the biggest impediment to the program was Hitler's dream that the A4 would never reach London. After a few days in detention, Von Braun was moved to Schwedt, and then freed. The others were allowed out a bit later.

1944 March 15 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17064.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: success.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: success.

1944 March 15 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17049.
1944 March 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17018.
1944 March 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17047.
1944 March 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17033.
1944 March 18 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-145.
1944 March 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-121.
1944 March 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17031.
1944 March 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 March 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17019.
1944 March 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-132.
1944 March 31 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 1 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 2 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17098.
1944 April 4 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-086. FAILURE: Exploded at T+17 seconds..
1944 April 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17043.
1944 April 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17063.
1944 April 16 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1944 April 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17108.
  • V-2 A01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Attempt abandoned; launched on 22 April (Test # A06).
  • V-2 A02 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 6.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17360. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A04 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 7 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A03 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A05 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 48.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 22 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17354. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A06 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 6.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A07 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 5.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 23 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17344. FAILURE: Failed at launch.
1944 April 28 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17341. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A09 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 6.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A10 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 5.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 29 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17378.
  • V-2 A12 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 8.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A11 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 13.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 April 30 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17350.
  • V-2 A13 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 12.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A14 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 40 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 1 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17371.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • V-2 A17 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst but within 100 m of aim point..
  • V-2 A15 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 13.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A16 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 3 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17357. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 A19 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 0.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A21 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 4.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 4 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17367. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 A23 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 10.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17362. FAILURE: Failure; also failed on 9 May (D6) attempt.
  • V-2 A24 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A25 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 6 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17364. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 D05 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 8.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 D04 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 A26 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 0.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 7 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17383. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A27 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 8 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17348. FAILURE: Failed at launch.
1944 May 9 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17333. FAILURE: Failed.
1944 May 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17200.
  • V-2 D08 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 3.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 1.35 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 11 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17327.
  • V-2 E01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 6.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E02 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-152.
  • V-2 B03 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 5.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 13 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17330. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 B04 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst but within 100 m of aim point..

1944 May 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17320.
  • V-2 E04 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 12 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 15 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17391.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • V-2 B05 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 5.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B06 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3.95 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-136.
  • V-2 4136 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+65 seconds. Flight duration 263 seconds..

1944 May 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17323.
  • V-2 E05 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 18 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17687. FAILURE: Guidance failure.
  • V-2 E06 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Guidance failure; accuracy 32 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B07 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 0.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17684.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..

1944 May 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17686. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 May 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17760. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 B10 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 7.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B08 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 24 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B09 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 2.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 22 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17763.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • V-2 B14 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B13 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 8 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E10 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17312.
1944 May 23 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17751. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 B16 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B20 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.15 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E12 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 4.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B19 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 10.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory; re-launch from 21 May (B12). .
  • V-2 E13 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E11 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 1.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B18 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 8.45 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 B17 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 26 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17309.
  • V-2 E15 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Launched after failed attempt on 22 May..
  • V-2 B21 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17404.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..

1944 May 26 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17682. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 E16 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 5.75 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-170. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 May 27 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17773. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 C01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 13.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E18 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E17 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 9.55 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E19 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 14 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 28 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17774. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 C02 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 29 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17770. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 C05 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 16.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E23 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 31.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E22 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 0.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 C06 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 9 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 C04 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 7.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 C03 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 26 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 E21 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 30 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17771.
  • V-2 C07 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 13.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 C08 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 16.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 May 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-146.
  • V-2 4146 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+58 seconds. Flight duration 260 seconds..

June 1944 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Renewed effort by the SS to take over Peenemuende - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. The plan this time was for the launch centre to be privatised, made part of Siemens, with the SS running day-to-day operations. Dornberger was unsuccessful in fighting this effort off, and in July-August 1944 a series of government decrees gave the SS full control.

1944 June 1 - . LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • Manned V-1 test flights. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Geman "Reichenberg" program began for use of manned V-1's air launched from He-111's for suicide missions..

1944 June 1 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17778.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..

1944 June 1 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17779.
  • V-2 C10 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Impact 3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 C09 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Guidance failure; accuracy 45.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17558.
1944 June 1 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17776.
  • V-2 C12 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 3 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-140.
  • V-2 4140 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+60seconds. Flight duration 259 seconds..

1944 June 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17656.
1944 June 5 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17777. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 C13 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 7.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17746.
  • V-2 B22 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 2.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 C14 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 1.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17557.
1944 June 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17747.
  • V-2 4171 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at 69 seconds. Flight duration 315 seconds..

1944 June 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-159. FAILURE: Burnout at T+11seconds. Flight duration 35 seconds..
1944 June 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-158.
  • V-2 4158 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+68seconds. Flight duration 264 seconds..

1944 June 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-209.
  • V-2 4209 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 296 seconds..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First Oie launch..

1944 June 13 - . LV Family: V-1. Launch Vehicle: V-1.
  • V-1 first attacks. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The first German V-1's fired in anger, launched from France against England with 4 of the 11 striking London..

1944 June 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-089.
1944 June 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-172.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 1./485.

1944 June 15 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18023.
  • V-2 M12 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Unserviceable..

1944 June 16 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18022. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M11 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 7.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M13 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 11.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M16 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 6.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M14 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M19 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 1.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 17 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18034.
  • V-2 M42 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to Mittelwerk..
  • V-2 M15 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Unserviceable..
  • V-2 M40 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 8 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M38 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 35.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M41 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M17 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M20 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.75 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M37 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 5.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M18 G2a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 21.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M39 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 8.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18012.
  • V-2 M 5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 1./485.
  • V-2 M30 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.65 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M28 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M51 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 3 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M27 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M26 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 11.25 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M52 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 4.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M44 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M43 G3a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 8.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M54 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 6.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 19 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18045.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • V-2 M46 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 1.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M48 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 8.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18076.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • V-2 M76 G4b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M65 G4a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 15.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M47 G3b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M68 G4a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 4.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M64 G4a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 7.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M69 G4a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M71 G4b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 55.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M63 G4a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M67 G4a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M70 G4a - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 16.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 21 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18055.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • V-2 M21 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.25 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 22 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18092. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M31 G2c - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 20.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M34 G2c - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M23 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 6.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M22 G2b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 0.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M35 G2c - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 2.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18007.
1944 June 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18102.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Delivered to Heidelager. Firing status unknown..
  • V-2 M58 G3c - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 1.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M93 G5b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 3.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M95 G5b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 5.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 25 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18086. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 M92 G5b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 17.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M91 G5b - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 5.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18015.
  • V-2 M59 G3c - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 7.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M102 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 8 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M103 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 1.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M105 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 0.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M57 G3c - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 4.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-208.
  • V-2 4208 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+59seconds. Flight duration 296 seconds..
  • V-2 M109 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 14.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M115 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 1 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M111 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 7 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-167.
  • V-2 M113 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 9.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M106 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 6.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M107 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Failed - accuracy was 3 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M112 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 9.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory..
  • V-2 M101 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Impact 28 km to the left of the planned trajectory..

1944 June 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-173.
1944 June 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-211.
1944 July 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18011.
1944 July 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18010.
1944 July 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-212.
1944 July 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18143.
1944 July 6 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • V-3 complex at Mimoyecques irreparably damaged by Allied bombers - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Three 5400 kg Tallboy penetrator bpmbs went down the gun shaft openings, reached 30 m, and exploded, killing dozens of workers. Work on the complex stopped at this point..

1944 July 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18144.
1944 July 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-214.
1944 July 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18020.
1944 July 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-210.
  • V-2 4210 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+60seconds. Flight duration 187 seconds..

1944 July 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-160.
1944 July 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18019.
1944 July 24 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
  • Last Blizna launch - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1944 July 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-178.
1944 July 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-205.
  • V-2 4205 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+67 seconds.Range 237 km.

August 1944 - . Launch Vehicle: Saenger.
  • Saenger antipodal bomber - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Saenger. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Eugen Saenger and Irene Bredt issue their final 400-page report on the Saenger antipodal bomber - a rocket boosted skip-glide spaceplane with global range. Only 100 numbered copies are printed, and distributed to German political and scientific leaders. The futuristic scheme would have taken many years to develop and was of only academic interest to the German government. But copies of the report fell into the hands of the Americans and Russians after the war, spawning major development projects in the fifties.

1944 August 1 - . Launch Vehicle: Me-163.
  • Me-163B first operational use. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German Me-163B Komet rocket-powered fighters first attacked American bomber formations over Europe. The Me-163 had sweptback wings, Walther liquid-fuel rocket motor, speed of 590 mph, and powered flight duration of 8-10 minutes..

1944 August 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18203.
  • V-2 Ma24 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 1./485.
  • V-2 Ma28 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: By the end of July there were a total of 125 Peenemuende shots. Presumably the difference 141-125=16 were Oie shots..

1944 August 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 August 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18204.
1944 August 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-202.
  • V-2 4202 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+21 seconds. Range 2 km.

1944 August 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-179.
1944 August 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Obergruppenfuehrer Kammler of the SS put in charge of the V-2 program. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Hitler. Dornberger was relegated to command of the training batteries for the rocket troops. Von Braun spoke to Dornberger, telling him that he must accept the situation and assist Kammler. Following the July 1944 assassination and coup attempt against Hitler, Dornberger had no backing in the leadership for keeping the program in Army hands. Dornberger finally agreed to cooperate - rockets had been his life's work, and he could not bear not to be involved. Dornberger hoped to 'put my words in Kammler's mouth and make them appear to be his'. All Army commanders in the rocket program were dismissed and replaced by SS officers - Kammler was in complete control.

1944 August 9 - .
  • Death of Klaus Erhardt Riedel - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Riedel, Klaus. Summary: Talented German engineer, instrumental in developing the first liquid propellant rocket engines in Germany at VfR and in design and debugging of the V-2's engine. Unrelated to contemporary rocket engineers Walter Riedel and Walther Riedel..

1944 August 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18200.
1944 August 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P12. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-181. FAILURE: Range 0.5 km. Exploded at 50 seconds..
1944 August 13 - . 16:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18296.
1944 August 13 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18292.
1944 August 14 - . 06:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18298. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 14 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18307. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 14 - . 09:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18302. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 14 - . 09:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18291.
1944 August 14 - . 09:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18301.
1944 August 14 - . 11:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18303.
1944 August 14 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18305.
1944 August 14 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18308. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 14 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18309.
1944 August 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18267.
1944 August 15 - . 10:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18311.
1944 August 15 - . 10:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18312.
1944 August 15 - . 11:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18310.
1944 August 15 - . 14:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18314.
1944 August 15 - . 17:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18321.
1944 August 15 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18315.
1944 August 15 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18319.
1944 August 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18263.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 302 seconds. Range 227 km (First 11/18000).

1944 August 16 - . 07:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18318.
1944 August 16 - . 07:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18317.
1944 August 16 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18295.
1944 August 16 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18323.
1944 August 16 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18328.
1944 August 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-224.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+66seconds. Flight duration 327 seconds. Range 284 km.

1944 August 17 - . 12:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18320.
1944 August 17 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18300. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 17 - . 13:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18316.
1944 August 17 - . 13:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18290.
1944 August 17 - . 16:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18327.
1944 August 17 - . 17:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18324.
1944 August 17 - . 17:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18306.
1944 August 17 - . 20:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18325.
1944 August 18 - . 07:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18326.
1944 August 18 - . 12:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18345.
1944 August 18 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18350. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 18 - . 16:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18336.
1944 August 18 - . 19:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18339.
1944 August 18 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18349.
1944 August 18 - . 20:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18346.
1944 August 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18238.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+66seconds. Flight duration 290 seconds. Range 239 km.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+64seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds. Range 235 km.

1944 August 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18233.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+67seconds. Flight duration 291 seconds. Range 224 km.
  • V-2 4216 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+57seconds. Flight duration 282 seconds. Range 196 km .

1944 August 22 - . 19:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18322.
1944 August 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-226.
1944 August 23 - . 19:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18210.
1944 August 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18222.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+64seconds. Flight duration 254 seconds. Range 189 km.

1944 August 24 - . 14:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18209.
1944 August 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18240.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burnout at T+61seconds. Flight duration 252 seconds. Range 226 km.

1944 August 26 - . 04:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18344. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 August 26 - . 05:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18337.
1944 August 26 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18333.
1944 August 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18299.
1944 August 30 - . 15:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4. LV Configuration: A-4 18334.
1944 September 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-225.
1944 September 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A-4.
1944 September 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 deploys to Euskirchen, with orders to attack Paris. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18293.
1944 September 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Batteries 1./485 and 2./485 deploys to Wassenaar, with orders to attack London. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 4 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • First production V-2 delivered. - . Nation: Germany. 350 missiles were delivered in September, 500 in October, and 600 to 900 per month thereafter. There were many early failures of these production missiles - they had not been built for long-term storage. The solution was to use express trains to take the missiles from the factory to the launch areas and fire them within three days of leaving the production line.

1944 September 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-206.
1944 September 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-230.
1944 September 6 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 in operation. - . Nation: Germany. Despite the first production deliveries, development of the missile was still not complete. The accuracy was still too poor, and the fusing was still not optimum to maximise damage at the target. Furthermore there was no method of actually determining the performance and effectiveness of missiles fired in combat, since air reconnaissance of Britain was now impossible. The only source of information was reports from agents on the ground. The availability of alcohol fuel was a limiting factor in the firing rate. Underground facilities for alcohol production had been built at Luettich and Wittringen an der Saar. Liquid oxygen was delivered to the firing areas in 48 tonne railroad wagons, then distributed to the firing units in 5 to 8 tonne capacity trucks. Due to boil off and transfer losses, 9 tonnes had to be generated at the factory in order for the 4.96 tonnes required for each rocket to be available at launch. The railroad wagons lost 350 l/day, but a V-2 on hold, awaiting launch, boiled off liquid oxygen at 2 kg/minute. Average daily launch rate from the field in the fall of 1944 was 28-30 missiles against enemy targets, together with 5 to 7 shots for research and engine tests. Kammler was only interested in maximising the number of combat launches per day - he showed no interest in the effectiveness or results of the missile as a weapon. During production, some small modifications were introduced - an increase in propellant feed rate and combustion chamber pressure, elimination of electrical equipment made unnecessary by the use of the integrating accelerometer guidance system, and an increase in propellant capacity. These changes increased the range of the production missiles to 320 km. A few research rockets with larger propellant tanks reached 480 km. The external paint used on the V-2 was protected from burning through use of a graphite coating.

1944 September 6 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • First attempted V-2 combat launch from St. Vith - . Nation: Germany. St. Vith, 18 km southeast of Malmedy (Belgium), misfire. The rocket came up to full power, lifted a few feet and then set back down on firing table, still vertical, when the engine cut off. The intended target was Paris. Battery 444 also suffered its first combat losses this same day when the unit was attacked by partisans.

1944 September 6 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Second attempted V-2 combat launch from St. Vith - . Nation: Germany. Summary: St. Vith, 18 km southeast of Malmedy (Belgium), misfire. Rocket came up to full power, lifted a few feet and then set back down on firing table, still vertical, when engine cut off. The intended target for was Paris..

1944 September 7 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 moves to a point near Houffalize, Belgium. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-222.
  • V-2 4222 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18278..

1944 September 8 - . 08:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • First successful V-2 combat launch - from Houffalize to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: near Houffalize, Belgium, rocket fired, (impact unknown), target Paris, indications are that the rocket exploded at high altitude..

1944 September 8 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Houffalize to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: near Houffalize, Belgium, rocket fired, impacted in "Charentonneau" à Maisons-Alfort in south-east of Paris, France. Six people were killed and 36 injured..

1944 September 8 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to London - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, crossroads of Lijsterlaan / Konijnenlaan / Koekoekslaan, A-4 rocket fired impacted Stavely Road, Chiswick - London, England..

1944 September 8 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Epping - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, crossroads of Lijsterlaan / Schouwweg, A-4 rocket fired hits Epping - (27 km N of London)..

1944 September 9 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • RAF located the V-2 launch sites in the Hague and makes the first attacks. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 9 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to London - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, Beukenhorst, rocket fired, (Time Unknown) target London..

1944 September 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 2./485 deploys to Wassenaar. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 leaves Houffalize, moves to Walcheren. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 1./485 becomes operational at The Hague. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18757.
  • V-2 Ma172 127 B1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Abandoned. Planned range 225 km. .

1944 September 10 - . 21:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Fambridge - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, Beukenhorst, rocket fired, impacted Fambridge, Southend..

1944 September 11 - . 09:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Lullingstone - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, Beukenhorst, rocket fired, impacted Lullingstone..

1944 September 11 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Magdalen Laver - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, Beukenhorst, rocket fired, impacted Magdalen Laver..

1944 September 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18769. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma184 128 A1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 26.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 26.8 km from aim point..

1944 September 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-231. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 September 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18765.
  • V-2 Ma178 131 A4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 8.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.8 km from aim point..

1944 September 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18767. FAILURE: Failed on pad.
  • V-2 Ma181 129 A2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .
  • V-2 Ma173 130 A3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 17.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 50.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-223.
  • V-2 Ma167 134 A7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1944 September 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18758. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma174 133 A6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 14.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 21.1 km from aim point..

1944 September 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18745. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma160 132 A5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 7.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 arrives at Walcheren - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Battery 444 arrives at Walcheren to start operations against London..

1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Euskirchen to Lille - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Euskirchen, rocket fired, (Time Unknown), target Lille, (impact unknown)..

1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Euskirchen to Lille - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Euskirchen, rocket fired, (Time Unknown), target Lille, (impact unknown)..

1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18257.
1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18763. FAILURE: Propulsion system explosion.
  • V-2 Ma177 136 A9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Propulsion system explosion; accuracy 2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 212.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 15 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18756. FAILURE: Guidance failed after lift-off.
  • V-2 Ma171 135 A8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Guidance failed after lift-off; accuracy 3.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 228.9 km from aim point..

1944 September 16 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18746. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma161 137 A10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 3.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 16 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18750. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma166 138 B2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 3.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 28.2 km from aim point..

1944 September 16 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Walcheren to Southgate - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Walcheren, Serooskerke, Vrederust, rocket fired, impacted Southgate..

1944 September 16 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Walcheren to Wembley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Walcheren, Serooskerke, Vrederust, rocket fired, impacted Wembley..

1944 September 16 - . 10:23 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Yiewsley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted Yiewsley..

1944 September 16 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Willingdon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted Willingdon, near Eastbourne..

1944 September 16 - . 22:33 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Noak Hill - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted Noak Hill, near Romford..

1944 September 17 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • RAF bombers attacked V-2 sites in Wassenaar. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: 27 Lancaster bombers and 5 Mosquitos, acting on intelligence from the Dutch underground 169 tons of high explosives were dropped on wooded areas southeast of Wassenaar. However the depots attacked were actually not V-2 caches..

1944 September 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende GWO. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18330.
1944 September 17 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Lewisham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 485 launched their final rocket of the day at 6:50 PM, which came down at Adelaide Road, Brockley, Lewisham, killing 14 people and injuring another 41. Earlier RAF Spitfires on patrol witnessed a V-2 launch from near the Hague, but could not ..

1944 September 17 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18754. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma170 140 B4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.7 km from aim point..

1944 September 17 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18752. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma162 139 B3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 14 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.3 km from aim point..

1944 September 17 - . 05:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Knockholt - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted Knockholt..

1944 September 17 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to East Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted East Ham..

1944 September 17 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Walcheren - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Walcheren, Serooskerke, Vrederust, rocket fired, (impact unknown.).

1944 September 17 - . 06:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Lewisham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted Lewisham..

1944 September 17 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Walcheren - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Walcheren, Serooskerke, Vrederust, rocket fired, exploded above the sea..

1944 September 17 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Hockley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted Hockley, near Southend..

1944 September 17 - . 13:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Coulsdon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, rocket fired, impacted Coulsdon..

1944 September 17 - . 19:52 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Walcheren to Lewisham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Walcheren, Serooskerke, Vrederust, rocket fired, impacted Brockley, Lewisham..

1944 September 18 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Euskirchen to Lille, Tourcoing, Arras, Cambrai, Hasselt - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Euskirchen, multiple rockets fired, targets were: Lille, Tourcoing, Arras, Cambrai, Hasselt, Mons and Maastricht, with an average of 4 rockets fired per day..

1944 September 18 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18755.
  • V-2 Ma169 141 B5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 4.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.9 km from aim point..

1944 September 18 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18762.
  • V-2 Ma176 144 B8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 1.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 24.1 km from aim point..

1944 September 18 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18766. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma183 143 B7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.3 km from aim point..

1944 September 18 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18747.
  • V-2 Ma164 142 B6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 7.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 18 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Lambeth - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Wassenaar, A-4 rocket fired toward England, impacted Lambeth. Battery 485 then temporarily moves to Burgsteinfurt, Germany, because of Allied airborne landings at Arnhem..

1944 September 18 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Walcheren - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Walcheren, Serooskerke, Vrederust, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 September 19 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Allied operation 'Market Garden' forces the Battery 444 to leave Walcheren and move to the north to Rijs. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-234.
  • V-2 4234 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18330..
  • V-2 Ma87 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Launched by Battery 3./485.

1944 September 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18764. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma179 146 B10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.1 km from aim point..

1944 September 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18753. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma159 145 B9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 34.4 km from aim point..

1944 September 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-217.
1944 September 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 batteries 1./485 and 2./485 move to a new launch site at Hoek van Holland. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 September 21 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-218.
1944 September 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18824.
  • V-2 Ma214 148 D2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 3.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.8 km from aim point..

1944 September 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18822.
  • V-2 Ma211 147 D1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 17.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 18.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 22 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Liquid oxygen production limits V-2 operations. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. Summary: Kammler and Dornberger note that the low amount of liquid oxygen being delivered, only 200 cubic meter a day, will limit launches to 24 V-2's daily..

1944 September 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 3./836 starts operations at Hachenburg, Germany. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Targets: Lille, Tourcoing, Arras, Cambrai, Hasselt, Mons and Maastricht. An average of 4 rockets fired per day are fired..

1944 September 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Lille, Tourcoing, Arras, Cambrai - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 3./836 moves to Hachenburg in Westerwald (Germany) and reopen operations, targets: Lille, Tourcoing, Arras, Cambrai, Hasselt, Mons and Maastricht, with an average of 4 rockets fired per day..

1944 September 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-219.
  • V-2 4219 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18205..

1944 September 22 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18825.
  • V-2 Ma213 149 D3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 3.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 22.3 km from aim point..

1944 September 22 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18826.
  • V-2 Ma215 150 D4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 14.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 18.7 km from aim point..

1944 September 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18823. FAILURE: Early impact.
  • V-2 Ma212 151 D5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Early impact 8.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 123.3 km from aim point..

1944 September 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18831.
  • V-2 Ma217 153 D7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 11.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 77.8 km from aim point..

1944 September 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18821.
  • V-2 Ma210 152 D6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 4.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.8 km from aim point..

1944 September 24 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18827.
  • V-2 Ma216 154 D8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 8.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 25.5 km from aim point..

1944 September 24 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18820.
  • V-2 Ma209 155 D9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Abort. Returned to Peenemuende. Planned range 165 km. .

1944 September 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18815.
  • V-2 Ma224 160 G4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 8.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.5 km from aim point..

1944 September 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18803. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma218 G5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 1.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18808. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma226 159 G3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 9.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18807. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma225 158 G2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 5.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 22.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18806. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma223 157 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.3 km from aim point..

1944 September 25 - . 18:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Hoxne - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, Rocket fired impacted at Hoxne (Suffolk) in a farm field, a stubble field at Castle Farm, Heckfield Green, in the Hartismere RD (Rural District), 12 houses close had minor damage. (RC).

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Liege - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Rossbach, rocket fired, (impact unknown), target Liege..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Lille, Tourcoing, Arras, Cambrai - . Nation: Germany. Summary: also moves to Hachenburg in Westerwald (Germany) and reopen operations, multiple rockets fired, targets were, Lille, Tourcoing, Arras, Cambrai, Hasselt, Mons and Maastricht..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-241.
1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Liege - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Rossbach, rocket fired, (impact unknown), target Liege..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18770. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma186 167 C1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 102 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 125.4 km from aim point..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18804.
  • V-2 Ma221 163 G7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 12.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.9 km from aim point..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18805. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma222 164 G8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 1.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 2.1 km from aim point..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18802. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma220 165 G9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 12.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 13.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. Launch Pad: 166. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18803.
  • V-2 Ma218 G10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Abandoned; damaged fin. See 5 October launch. Planned range 165 km. .

1944 September 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18801. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma219 162 G6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 10.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 11.9 km from aim point..

1944 September 26 - . 17:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Ranworth - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, Rocket hit near Ranworth, 15 km North-East of Norwich, in farmland, the crater caused was 7.5 meters deep..

1944 September 26 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, (impact unknown), probably crashed in the sea..

1944 September 27 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Liege - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Rossbach, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), targets Liege..

1944 September 27 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Liege - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Helferskirchen, rocket fired, (impact unknown), target Liege..

1944 September 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18771. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma185 168 C2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 0.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18837. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma208 156 D10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 1.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 27.0 km from aim point..

1944 September 27 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Norwich - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, Rocket fired impacted in a forest at Botany Bay Farm, Horsford, about 8 km north of Norwich..

1944 September 27 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, (impact unknown), probably impacted in the sea..

1944 September 27 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Kirby Bedon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, Rocket fired and impacted close to the City Sewage Works at the village of Kirby Bedon. Two people had minor injuries..

1944 September 27 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Beighton - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, Rocket fired and impacted at a pastureland at Beighton, no casualties or damage..

1944 September 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-238. FAILURE: Possibly correct launch date is 27.09.1944..
1944 September 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Hasselt - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Rossbach, rocket fired, (impact unknown), target Hasselt..

1944 September 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Liege, Maastricht, Hasselt - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Helferskirchen, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), targets- Liege (3), Maastricht (2), Hasselt (1)..

1944 September 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Liege - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Rossbach, rocket fired, (impact unknown), target Liege..

1944 September 28 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Horsey - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, impacted North Sea near Horsey, England..

1944 September 28 - . 15:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserlaene, rocket fired, impacted in the North Sea..

1944 September 29 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 2./836 moves to Merzig (30 km south of Trier). - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Battery 3./836 joined Battery 2./836 on 5 October..

1944 September 29 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserleane, rocket fired, impacted North Sea..

1944 September 29 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Hemsby Beach - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserleane, rocket fired, impacted near Hemsby Beach, England, damaging 68 houses and causing a crater of 12 meters in diameter..

1944 September 29 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Horstead Causing - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserleane, rocket fired, impacted at Horstead Causing minor injuries to two people..

1944 September 29 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Thorpe St Andrew - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserleane, rocket fired, impacted at Thorpe St. Andrew causing damage to 27 houses..

End September 1944 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for September - . Nation: Germany. During September, the first month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were 104 to 120 combat launches, 41 training launches from Heidekraut, and 2 known test launches from Peenemuende. 629 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. See V-2 combat launches for a complete list of known combat launches.

1944 September 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-242.
1944 September 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18794.
  • V-2 Ma175 171 C5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 6.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 15.6 km from aim point..

1944 September 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18788.
  • V-2 Ma182 170 C4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Impact 5.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.7 km from aim point..

1944 September 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18774. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma189 169 C3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Airburst 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.8 km from aim point..

1944 September 30 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Tunstall - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserleane, rocket fired, impacted in southern England in swamp at Tunstall..

1944 September 30 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserleane, rocket fired, crashed on pad and exploded destroying "the little peace temple" and trees surrounding it, digging a crater 13 meters wide – 6 meters deep. German troop casualties..

1944 September 30 - . 20:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Mirnserleane, rocket fired, impacted at sea or air burst..

1944 October 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18786. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 October 1 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Diest - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Rossbach, (3) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), targets - Diest (2), Maastricht (1)..

1944 October 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18773. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma188 174 C8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 4.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.3 km from aim point..

1944 October 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18777. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma192 172 C6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 6.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.4 km from aim point..

1944 October 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18772. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma187 173 C7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 9.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 11.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 1 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Bedingham - . Nation: Germany. Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted farm at Bedingham, close to the Sycamore farm, wounding 4 persons. Farm had major damage, crater 9 meters wide and 1.5 meters deep. Sycamore Farm is 2 km East of USAAF Hardwick, a B-24 Bomber airfield during the war, the missile fell close to the base hospital.

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Bouillnacy, target Paris..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig - . Nation: Germany. Summary: After firing the second rocket of this day, Battery 3./836 began moving to join 2./836 also in Merzig..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Bregy, target Paris..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 1./485 went from The Hague to Burgsteinfurt from were they fired two days later against Tournai, Hasselt, Luttich and Maastricht..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Hasselt - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Rossbach, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), target - Hasselt..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Silly-le-long, target Paris..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18795. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma202 178 E2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 11.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18796. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma203 177 E1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 7.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 23.2 km from aim point..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18778.
  • V-2 Ma193 175 C9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 2.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 33.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18776. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma190 176 C10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 165 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.5 km from aim point..

1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-235. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Tremblay-les-Gonesse, target Paris..

1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Vaujours, target Paris..

1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Nanteuil-les-Meaux, target Paris..

1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Bouillnacy, target Paris..

1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18889.
1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Neul'moutiers les-Meaux, target Paris..

1944 October 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Courchamps, target Paris..

1944 October 3 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Beeston St Lawrence - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted in a forest near the village of Beeston St. Lawrence..

1944 October 3 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted in North Sea..

1944 October 3 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Lowestoft - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted a pasture near farm at Lowestoft, three persons serious injuries, and major damage to farm. Five people had minor injuries..

1944 October 3 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Great Witchingham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted near Great Witchingham with no damage. Crater 15 meters wide and six meters deep..

1944 October 3 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Norwich - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted in Norwich, much damage. The missile broke up over the Mile Cross housing-estate, Norwich, the war-head hit the Royal Norwich Golf Club, Hellesdon. 400 houses were damaged, and one person died..

1944 October 3 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Denton - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted in Denton, the impact was about 10 minutes later (longer than normal) creating much damage..

1944 October 3 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Wanstead - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, Ockenburch, rocket fired, impacted Wanstead (Leytonstone)..

1944 October 3 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, Ockenburch, rocket fired, this rocket exploded at a low height..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Beaumarchais, target Paris..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Pantin, target Paris..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Noisy-le-Sec, target Paris..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Dammartin, target Paris..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-245.
  • V-2 4245 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 789..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Pulseux-les-Louvres, target Paris..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Lizy-s/Ourcq, target Paris..

1944 October 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Luttich - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Between Oct. 4-12, Battery 1./485 reports to have launched 10 times on Luttich from Burgsteinfurt.  In total 27 impacted in the surroundings of Luttich..

1944 October 4 - . 10:31 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Deuille-la-Barre - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted Deuille-la-Barre. This rocket was intended for Paris, but fell in the heart of the small town. Total destruction of buildings and 14 killed..

1944 October 4 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Great Yarmouth - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted shoreline called California, 8 km North of Great Yarmouth..

1944 October 4 - . 12:36 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Rockland St Mary - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted near school at Rockland St. Mary, minor injuries and one serious..

1944 October 4 - . 15:43 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Crostwick - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted at Crostwick, very close to the air base at Rackheath. It landed in area known locally as Mud Corner, it is was only about a quarter of a mile away from the Base Bomb Dump..

1944 October 4 - . 16:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Spixworth - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted at Spixworth no damage. This rocket fell apart before impact scattered over a large area. The entire engine, parts of the radio, etc., recovered and sent to research institute for Air Travel at Farnborough..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Mortefotaine, target Paris..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, (Time Unknown), (impact unknown), this rocket possibly canted horizontal at lift off and crashed near Mirnser cliff at IJsselmeer (IJssel Lake) according to local newspaper accounts..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Louvres, target Paris..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Chatillon, target Paris..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 2./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Paris - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, impacted near Plailly, target Paris..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18790. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma198 185 E9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 14.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 44.4 km from aim point..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18798. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma205 180 E4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 4.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18799. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma204 179 E3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.2 km from aim point..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18792.
  • V-2 Ma199 181 E5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 2.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18797. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma206 182 E6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 7.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 28.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18803.
  • V-2 Ma207 183 E7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 9.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.3 km from aim point..

1944 October 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18791.
  • V-2 Ma200 184 E8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 7.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 11.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 5 - . 09:59 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Taverham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted at a forest near Taverham..

1944 October 5 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Great Yarmouth - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted near Great Yarmouth in the sea..

1944 October 5 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Surlingham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted at Surlingham. Ten wounded and 36 houses damaged..

1944 October 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19048. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH4 188 F2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19041. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH3 187 F1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 6 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Shotesham All Saints - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted at swamp near Shotesham All Saints, 43 buildings damaged..

1944 October 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18787.
1944 October 7 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Ougree - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Burgsteinfurt, A-4 fired, impacted in Ougree..

1944 October 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-236.
1944 October 7 - . 08:48 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Pitsea - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, Bloemendaal, rocket fired, impacted Pitsea Southend..

1944 October 7 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, A-4 rocket came down north of Antwerp, in Brasschaat (8 kilometers north of Antwerp). First V2 fired against Antwerp prior to scheduled campaign of Oct. 13, for "range-finding.".

1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-248.
1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19047. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH1 190 F4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 4.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 15.6 km from aim point..

1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19039.
  • V-2 WH2 191 F5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 7.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 21.3 km from aim point..

1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19043. FAILURE: Failed after launch.
  • V-2 WH10 192 F6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 6.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 218.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19042. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH6 193 F7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.2 km from aim point..

1944 October 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19045. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH9 189 F3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 9 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Cantley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired toward East Anglia, impacted at Cantley, two cows died..

1944 October 9 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Brooke - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired toward East Anglia, impacted at Brooke..

1944 October 9 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to East Anglia - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired toward East Anglia, fell in sea south of Orfordness..

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery SS 500 begins V-2 operations in Burgsteinfurt. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to East Anglia - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired toward East Anglia, (Time Unknown, impact unknown.).

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19046. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH7 194 F8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 2.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.7 km from aim point..

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18809.
  • V-2 Ma230 199 H3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 7.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 26.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18810. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma229 197 H1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 4.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.8 km from aim point..

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19040. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 WH5 195 F9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.7 km from aim point..

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18813.
  • V-2 Ma228 198 H2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 16.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19044. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 WH8 196 F10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 17.5 km from aim point..

1944 October 10 - . 15:56 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to East Anglia - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, A-4 rocket fired toward East Anglia, exploded 1200 meters high above the harbor of Harwich..

1944 October 10 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Woods End - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired toward East Anglia, impacted at Woods End, minor injuries to two persons.

1944 October 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-249.
  • V-2 4249 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 787..

1944 October 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18818. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma236 203 H7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 55.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 56.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18814.
  • V-2 Ma233 202 H6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18816. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma234 201 H5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 0.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18811.
  • V-2 Ma231 200 H4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 47.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 11 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Haddiscoe - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired toward East Anglia, impacted at Haddiscoe..

1944 October 11 - . 10:49 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Rockland St Mary - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired toward East Anglia, impacted at field near Rockland St. Mary..

1944 October 11 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Playford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted at Playford..

1944 October 11 - . 18:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, A-4 rocket crashed near launch site between Rijs and Bakhuizen, killing 2 cows..

1944 October 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18781.
1944 October 12 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Ingworth - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impacted near Ingworth, minor damage..

1944 October 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18782.
1944 October 13 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 13 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. 3./836, Merzig, rocket fired, first V2 impact in Antwerp. It came down at the corner of the Schildersstraat and the Karel Rogierstraat. 32 people were killed, 45 were injured and 80 houses including a museum were damaged, with 43 houses totally destroyed.

1944 October 13 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 13 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 13 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-250.
1944 October 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18338. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 October 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18817.
  • V-2 Ma235 206 H10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 14.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 24.6 km from aim point..

1944 October 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18819. FAILURE: Damaged at launch.
  • V-2 Ma237 205 H9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Damaged at launch; deviated 4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 181.0 km from aim point..

1944 October 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18812.
  • V-2 Ma232 204 H8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 107.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 109.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 14 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 14 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 14 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 15 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 15 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 15 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 15 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 16 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 16 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 16 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact possibly at dock nr 201 in the harbour..

1944 October 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-251.
1944 October 17 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 17 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Borgerhout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact possibly in the Bouwhandelstraat in Borgerhout; 25 houses demaged and no victims..

1944 October 17 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 18 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-252.
  • V-2 4252 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 830..

1944 October 18 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown.

1944 October 18 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-246.
1944 October 19 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Borgerhout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact at the Fonteinstraat and Engelschelei at Borgerhout; 2 people were killed, 8 were injured, 2 houses destroyed and 34 demaged..

1944 October 19 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 19 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Merzig - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Merzig, rocket fired, came down at Kroonstraat / Oedenkovenstraat. 44 people killed, 98 injured & 24 houses destroyed..

1944 October 19 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, A-4 rocket crashed near launching site..

1944 October 20 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 20 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rijsterbos, Middenleane, rocket fired, impact unknown..

1944 October 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Batteries 1./444, 2./444 and 3./444 move from Rijs to The Hague. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 October 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 3./485 begins operations against Antwerp from Burgsteinfurt. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: They join Battery SS 500, operating at Burgsteinfurt since October 10..

1944 October 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Rijsterbos to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The third platoon of Battery 444 started firing against Antwerp from Rijs. Then quickly moved to the Hague on the 22nd..

1944 October 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague - . Nation: Germany. During the previous three weeks in the Hague / Wassenaar, usually one or two rockets were launched on a day. But now with the Battery 444 troops from Gaasterland, no less then 6 rockets were launched per day. The new launch site was the Rijswijkse Bos, several meters away from a monument which remembers to the peace was made in 1697.

1944 October 22 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery unknown. At Deurne, Antwerp, A-4 rocket crashed into Herenthalse Baan - Boterlaer Baan, the first V-bombs that crashed in the area Deurne. 10 houses destroyed, 13 people were killed and 70 were injured..

1944 October 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-256.
1944 October 24 - . Launch Vehicle: A4b.
  • Construction of 5 prototype A4b winged V-2's completed - . Nation: Germany. The A-4b was a winged V-2. This resurrected work on the A-9, abandoned in 1943 to concentrate on V-2 production. The A9 was to be the second stage of an ICBM designed to reach North America. By this time in the war the intent was to extend the range of the V-2 once Allied forces pushed the German lines so far back that Britain could no longer be targeted.

1944 October 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-247.
1944 October 24 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: There were 6 rockets fired from sites at Wassenaar and Rijswijk. On Oct. 26, a new launch record was achieved by Battery 444 - a total of nine (9) rockets were fired this day from Wassenaar and Rijswijk, of which three within 25 minutes..

1944 October 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-258.
1944 October 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-257.
1944 October 27 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 1./836 begins operations against Antwerp from Burgsteinfurt. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: By the end of the month the entire all three 836 batteries had moved there (3./836 on 26 October and 2./836 on 28 October)..

1944 October 27 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Battery 444 or Batt. 485, Wassenaar, Beukenhorst, A-4 rocket fired rises about 90-meters, then falls back onto launch site killing 12 German soldiers, damaging launch vehicles and equipment. This was the worst firing site accident that the Germans had during the the Hague/Wassenaar launch period. The Beukenhorst was cleared.

1944 October 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19487.
  • V-2 Ma239 207 J1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 2.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.1 km from aim point..

1944 October 28 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rocket crashed into the Bontemantelstraat (densely populated part of Antwerp) killing 71 and injuring 80 people. 85 houses were damaged entirely..

1944 October 29 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19486.
  • V-2 Ma242 208 J2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 5.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.5 km from aim point..

1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall.
  • Wasserfall test - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Goering. Apogee: 18 km (11 mi). Range: 26 km (16 mi). The Wasserfall surface to air missile was launched from a table, as was the V-2. The missile was optically steered to its target, and had a potential range of 26 km and ceiling of 18 km, with a flight speed of 600 m/s. Goering observed the first launch from Test Stand IX. He was immensely fat, wearing a fantastical outfit, downing pills every five minutes, and uninterested in the proceedings. Dornberger ruefully noted that the Reich is losing the war due to the leadership's shortsightedness. They had not accepted Von Braun's rocket plans in 1939 or the Panzerfaust in 1942. They only became interested in the latter when the first American bazooka fell into German hands in Tunisia.

1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-259.
1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: Wasserfall.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 17 km (10 mi).

1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19498.
  • V-2 Ma243 210 J4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 2.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.5 km from aim point..

1944 October 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19484.
  • V-2 Ma238 209 J3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.9 km from aim point..

1944 October 31 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Batteries 485 and 444 launched 83 V-2's in October, of which 5 were known failures. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 October 31 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • October V-2 results. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: In October, in total the Sonderkommando’s Battery 485 and Battery 444 launched 83 rockets of which 5 failed..

1944 October 31 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19491.
  • V-2 Ma245 212 J6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 4.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.3 km from aim point..

1944 October 31 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19488.
  • V-2 Ma240 211 J5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 2.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.3 km from aim point..

1944 October 31 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19489.
  • V-2 Ma244 213 J7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 10.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.3 km from aim point..

1944 November - . Launch Vehicle: A9/A10.
  • Work on the A9/A10 ICBM resumed under the code name Projekt Amerika, - . Nation: Germany. Summary: No significant hardware development was possible after the last test of the A4b upper stage in January 1945..

1944 November 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-253.
  • V-2 Ma241 216 J10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1944 November 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19490.
  • V-2 Ma247 215 J9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 2.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.8 km from aim point..

1944 November 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19504.
  • V-2 Ma246 214 J8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Accuracy 0.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 223.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19493.
  • V-2 Ma248 218 K2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 2.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.4 km from aim point..

1944 November 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19492.
  • V-2 Ma249 217 K1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 25.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 25.9 km from aim point..

1944 November 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-220.
1944 November 3 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19496.
  • V-2 Ma250 220 K4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 5.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.5 km from aim point..

1944 November 3 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19494.
  • V-2 Ma251 219 K3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 14.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 18.5 km from aim point..

1944 November 4 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19495.
  • V-2 Ma253 221 K5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 3.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.4 km from aim point..

1944 November 4 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19497. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma252 222 K6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 2.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19501. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma254 225 K9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 5.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.5 km from aim point..

1944 November 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19502. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma257 223 K7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 0.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 1.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19500. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma256 224 K8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 109.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19499. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma255 226 K10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 113.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-262.
1944 November 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19508.
  • V-2 Ma264 227 L1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 4.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.3 km from aim point..

1944 November 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19304.
  • - . Nation: Germany. Summary: First 12/19000 series launch..

1944 November 7 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19511.
  • V-2 Ma265 228 L2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 40.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 7 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19514. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma266 229 L3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst 10.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.9 km from aim point..

1944 November 7 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19506. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma260 230 L4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst 4.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 43.3 km from aim point..

1944 November 7 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19507.
  • V-2 Ma258 231 L5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 5.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-263.
1944 November 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19509. FAILURE: Failed after launch.
  • V-2 Ma259 232 L6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Failed - accuracy was 6.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 249.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-261.
1944 November 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19520.
  • V-2 Ma285 236 M1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 6.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.4 km from aim point..

1944 November 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19519.
  • V-2 Ma284 M2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to Mittelwerk. Planned range 250 km. .

1944 November 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19518.
  • V-2 Ma282 239 M4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 215.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19516. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma280 238 M3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst 8.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19529.
  • V-2 Ma287 M6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to Mittelwerk. Planned range 250 km. .

1944 November 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19528.
  • V-2 Ma278 237 M7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 1.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.3 km from aim point..

1944 November 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19510. FAILURE: Exploded after launch.
  • V-2 Ma263 235 L9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Exploded after launch 50 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 207.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 13 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • SS V-2 Battery 500 begins transfer from Burgsteinfurt to Hellendoorn, Archem, Holland. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 November 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-266.
1944 November 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19512.
  • V-2 Ma262 234 L8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact within 100 m of aim point. Circular error 160.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19513. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma267 233 L7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst 2.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 17.2 km from aim point..

1944 November 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19517.
  • V-2 Ma279 242 M9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 9.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.7 km from aim point..

1944 November 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19525.
  • V-2 Ma283 241 M8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 0.5 km from aim point..

1944 November 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Rheinbote.
  • Rheinbote tested. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi). Range: 160 km (90 mi). Summary: Test batteries were set up at Heidekraut, but it was impossible to estimate the weapon's accuracy, since it proved impossible to find the small craters created by the warhead's impact in the vast dispersion area..

1944 November 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-265.
1944 November 15 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19549.
  • V-2 Ma288 243 N1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 1.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.4 km from aim point..

1944 November 15 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19548. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma289 244 N2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 14.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 15.2 km from aim point..

1944 November 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, Eelerberg, first A-4 rocket fired toward Antwerp crashes near sanatorium hospital..

1944 November 17 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 launched at Tournai, Hasselt, Luttich and Maastricht - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: 1./485 moved from The Hague to Burgsteinfurt two days later begain operations against Tournai, Hasselt, Luttich and Maastricht..

1944 November 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-267.
1944 November 17 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 17 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery unknown / location unknown: rocket fired, impacted Antwerp, in the St.-Joanna-Institute in the Ferdinad Coosemansstraat killing 32 people, 31 houses destroyed..

1944 November 17 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 18 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19544. FAILURE: Failed (impact of rocket with explosion of warhead at ground level).
  • V-2 Ma290 245 N3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Failed - accuracy was 4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 124.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19547.
  • V-2 Ma292 246 N4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 3.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 41.2 km from aim point..

1944 November 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19545. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma291 247 N5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 2.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 32.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 19 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, impacted in Antwerp, Mechelschesteenweg, 7 houses destroyed, 7 casualties and 28 injured..

1944 November 20 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-221.
  • V-2 4221 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 18 335..

1944 November 20 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19552.
  • V-2 Ma294 250 N8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 5.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.2 km from aim point..

1944 November 20 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19550.
  • V-2 Ma295 249 N7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 22.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 23.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 20 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19553.
  • V-2 Ma293 248 N6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 17.6 km from aim point..

1944 November 20 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19546.
  • V-2 Ma297 252 N10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 5.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 32.5 km from aim point..

1944 November 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19829.
  • V-2 Ma301 253 P1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 3.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.9 km from aim point..

1944 November 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19551.
  • V-2 Ma296 251 N9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 200 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 4.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 87.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-268.
1944 November 22 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19832. FAILURE: Engine failure.
  • V-2 Ma302 256 P4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1944 November 22 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19830.
  • V-2 Ma300 255 P3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 6.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 35.6 km from aim point..

1944 November 22 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19843. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma308 254 P2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 7.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.8 km from aim point..

1944 November 23 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19866. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma336 R2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 369 km. Airburst 15 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 81.4 km from aim point..
  • V-2 Ma332 R1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 367 km. No data returned but accuracy 4.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 18.6 km from aim point..

1944 November 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-271.
1944 November 24 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19834. FAILURE: Guidance failure.
  • V-2 Ma304 261 P6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Guidance failure; accuracy 110.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 219.8 km from aim point..

1944 November 24 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19833.
  • V-2 Ma303 260 P5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 24 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19839.
  • V-2 Ma307 P27 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to Mittelwerk. Planned range 225 km. .

1944 November 24 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 24 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19864.
  • V-2 Ma334 259 R3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 363 km. No data returned but accuracy 8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 40.8 km from aim point..

1944 November 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19835. FAILURE: Guidance failure.
  • V-2 Ma298 262 P7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Guidance failure; accuracy 90.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 190.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 25 - . 12:21 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Site 73 to London - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 73), rocket fired, impacted crowded Woolworth's store in Deptford, London. 160 killed, 108 injured..

1944 November 26 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19861. FAILURE: Exploded on pad.
  • V-2 Ma328 R4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range over 300 km..

1944 November 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19836.
  • V-2 Ma305 263 P8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 November 26 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19842.
  • V-2 Ma270 P28 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to Mittelwerk. Planned range 225 km. .

1944 November 26 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 26 - . 17:49 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Folkes Farm - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery unknown, the Hague, A-4 impacted 500 yards south-southwest of Folkes Farm; 2 casualties, crater 32 feet diameter, 7 feet deep..

1944 November 26 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown.).

1944 November 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-272.
1944 November 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19831. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma276 264 P9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 3.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.7 km from aim point..

1944 November 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19840. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma306 266 P11 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1944 November 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19844. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma271 265 P10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 4.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.7 km from aim point..

1944 November 27 - . 10:51 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Site 601 to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 601), rocket fired, impacted Antwerp, at the 18th-century building of the Institute of Lady for Christian Education in the Lange Nieuwstraat. 18 Dead..

1944 November 27 - . 12:04 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Site 601 to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Batt. 1./836, (Site 601), rocket fired, impacted Antwerp at the crossroads of the Frankrijklei near the Keizerlei and the Teniersplaats, a few hundred metres from the impact point of the previous rocket and while the rescue teams were still working at that incident. 130 Civilians and 26 passing by British soldiers were killed, 196 injured.

1944 November 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-276.
  • V-2 Ma335 R5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 370 km. No data returned but accuracy 22.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 93.8 km from aim point..

1944 November 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19827. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma299 269 P12 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.1 km from aim point..

1944 November 28 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Merksen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, impacted in Merksen, Gemeentepark, 1 casualty, 20 injured..

1944 November 29 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19873.
  • V-2 Ma330 R6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 360 km. No data returned but accuracy 4.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 45.2 km from aim point..

1944 November 29 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19825.
  • V-2 Ma277 271 P14 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 10.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.3 km from aim point..

1944 November 29 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19841.
  • V-2 Ma316 270 P13 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 59.1 km from aim point..

End November 1944 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for November - . Nation: Germany. During November, the third month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were 369 combat launches on the Western Front and 54 training launches from Heidekraut. 656 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. See V-2 combat launches for a complete list of known combat launches.

1944 November 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19305.
  • V-2 Ma313 P29 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to Mittelwerk. Planned range 225 km. .

1944 November 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19849.
  • V-2 Ma312 273 P16 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.3 km from aim point..

1944 November 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19846. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma310 272 P15 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 102 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 138.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 1 - . LV Family: Hermes. Launch Vehicle: Hermes.
  • V-2 technology targeted for Hermes. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Army Ordnance made plans under the Hermes program to study the German V-2 missile..

1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Work resumes on train-launched A4. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: At Kammler's orders work resumes on getting the train-launched version of the A4 into service..

1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 836 sets up launch operations at Hachenburg, where they will stay until the end of the war. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19302.
  • V-2 275 R7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 376 km. No data returned but accuracy 14 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 57.7 km from aim point..
  • V-2 Ma268 P30 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to field station - missile leaking. Planned range 225 km. .

1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19850. FAILURE: Explosion after launch.
  • V-2 Ma275 277 P18 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Explosion after launch 0.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 223.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19848. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma311 276 P17 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 0.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 11.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 1 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Merksen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, impacted te Merksen, Castershoflaan, 6 casualties and 1 injured..

1944 December 2 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-243.
1944 December 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (Time Unknown), crashes on firing site killing three German soldiers..

1944 December 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende Rail. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19301.
  • V-2 278 R8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 369 km. No data returned but accuracy 2.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 76.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 4 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Luttenberg - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, rocket fired, crashed several kilometers from firing site near the town of Luttenberg. Local residents came to see the burning rocket and 19 were killed when the warhead, that was unexploded, detonated amongst them about 15 minutes after impact.

1944 December 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19893.
  • V-2 Ma340 280 S2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 3.5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.3 km from aim point..

1944 December 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19905. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma339 281 S3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst 1.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 1.6 km from aim point..

1944 December 5 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19883. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma346 279 S1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst 6.9 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-254. FAILURE: Failure.
1944 December 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19891. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma341 283 S5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. .

1944 December 6 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19913.
  • V-2 Ma338 282 S4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.11 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 83.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 7 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19901.
  • V-2 Ma345 284 S6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 3.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 26.2 km from aim point..

1944 December 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19874.
  • V-2 Ma333 R9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 373 km. No data returned but accuracy 18 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 30.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-278.
1944 December 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19894.
  • V-2 Ma342 285 S7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19888.
  • V-2 Ma344 286 S8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 2.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 35.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A4b.
  • Boosted A4b test planned. - . Nation: Germany. 10 solid propellant rockets were delivered from the Wehrmacht to Pruefstand XII. Work was to be completed by the end of March to begin flight test of an extended-range using solid rocket boost. However Peenemuende was evacuated before the first flight test could be undertaken.

1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19020.
1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19895.
  • V-2 Ma343 288 S10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to Mittelwerk. Planned range 250 km. .

1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19020.
  • V-2 290 R10 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 354 km. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 9 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19900.
  • V-2 Ma347 287 S9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Impact 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 20.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 9 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, impacted Antwerp-Kiel, 43 killed, 94 injured, 43 houses destroyed..

1944 December 9 - . 15:04 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, impacted Antwerp on Meir-Kathelynevest (Building of Agence Maritime), 25 killed, 45 injured, 14 houses destroyed..

1944 December 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1944 December 11 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (3) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19856. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma319 291 Q1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 29.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 29.5 km from aim point..

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 18783.
  • V-2 Ma191 R11 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 354 km. No data returned but accuracy 2.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 70.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-282.
  • V-2 Ma326 Q10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Returned to field station. Planned range 250 km. .

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19854.
  • V-2 Ma318 295 Q4 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 1.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.4 km from aim point..

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19858. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma321 294 Q3 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 7.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 12 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19855. FAILURE: Exploded above pad.
  • V-2 Ma323 293 Q2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. .

1944 December 12 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 400) Hellendoorn, rocket fired, impacted Antwerp at Hoboken in Lage Weg, 44 injured. Charles Ostyn witnessed this impact, for just a split-second one long, thin white streak, he described as "a flash" coming to the ground, followed by the explosion..

1944 December 13 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19870. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma320 297 Q6 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 3.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 11.4 km from aim point..

1944 December 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19857. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma324 298 Q7 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst 7.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 182.2 km from aim point..

1944 December 13 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19859.
  • V-2 Ma322 296 Q5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 15.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 16.5 km from aim point..

1944 December 14 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 launched at Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Battery 3./836 sets up operations near Hachenburg - target: Antwerp..

1944 December 14 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, Until this day the Germans never succeeded in launching more than 4 rockets within 24 hours, but on this day for the first time 6 rockets were fired. After this day the Germans repeatedly succeeded in launching more than four rockets..

1944 December 14 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-283.
1944 December 14 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19865. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma325 299 Q8 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Airburst..

1944 December 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched A4 work resumes. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The first construction drawings were released for the submarine-launched version..

1944 December 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (4) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 15 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19847. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma309 300 P19 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch to Egmond - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, (location unknown), rockets fired, impacted between Egmond and Bergen aan Zee, presumable in the dune area West of "Pollen.".

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (3) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-288.
1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Heeten - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, crashed near Heeten and Raalte..

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19838. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma314 302 P21 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 6.3 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 16 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19837.
  • V-2 Ma317 301 P20 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 4.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 16 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, rocket fired, impacted the crowded Rex Cinema in Antwerp, in the Keyserlei, resulting in 567 casualties to soldiers and civilians, 291 injured and 11 houses were destroyed. 296 of the dead & 194 of the injured were U.S., British, & Canadian soldiers. (This was the single highest death total from one rocket attack during the war in Europe.)

1944 December 16 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 183), rocket fired, crashed into the Twee Netenstraat killing 74 people, 79 injured, 24 houses destroyed, 65 houses heavily damaged..

1944 December 17 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19851. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma273 303 P22 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 22.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 99.6 km from aim point..

1944 December 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Heeten - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, crashed near Schoonheeten (close to Heeten)..

1944 December 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 18 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1944 December 18 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 18 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (impact unknown). This rocket was launched while a failed V1 was making two circles in the air above Raalte. This happened in the evening and the V1 crashed after ten minutes in the direction of Hellendoorn. .

1944 December 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-289.
1944 December 19 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19828. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 Ma315 305 P23 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 67.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 185.8 km from aim point..

1944 December 19 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19872. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma327 304 Q9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 250 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.2 km from aim point..

1944 December 20 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19845. FAILURE: Control failure at lift-off, reached 15 m altitude..
  • V-2 Ma272 306 P24 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1944 December 20 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19853. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 Ma274 308 P26 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 1.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 20 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19852. FAILURE: Guidance failure.
  • V-2 Ma269 307 P25 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Guidance failure; accuracy 3.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 144.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 20 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Brentwood - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, impacted Brentwood..

1944 December 20 - . 14:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Berkhamstead Hill - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, impacted Berkhamstead Hill..

1944 December 20 - . 16:55 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Cuffley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, impacted Cuffley..

1944 December 20 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, impacted the sea..

1944 December 20 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Nevendon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, Nevendon..

1944 December 20 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, (impact unknown.).

1944 December 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19676.
  • V-2 U2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 0.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 35.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19186.
  • V-2 U1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 2.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 21 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19778.
  • V-2 U3 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 10.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.8 km from aim point..

1944 December 21 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, impacted sea..

1944 December 21 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Firstead - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, impacted Firstead..

1944 December 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery in Merzig - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Battery 3./836 joins Battery 2./836 in Merzig, starting on October 05..

1944 December 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-291.
1944 December 23 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 23 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (9) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1944 December 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19776. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 U6 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 2.2 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 2.4 km from aim point..

1944 December 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19886.
  • V-2 U4 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 3.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 23 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19674.
  • V-2 U5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 8.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.6 km from aim point..

1944 December 23 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Site 605 to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 605), rocket fired, impacted in Antwerp at Hoboken in Windmolenstraat, 130 injured, 10 houses destroyed, 80 houses damaged..

1944 December 24 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19650.
  • V-2 U7 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Impact 5.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.9 km from aim point..

1944 December 25 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 19681. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 U8 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Airburst 12.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 13.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 25 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 131) rocket fired, impacted in Antwerp at Hoboken in Polderstraat, 1 killed, 4 injured, 13 houses destroyed..

1944 December 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (8) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (two failures)..

1944 December 26 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Nazeing - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, impacted Nazeing..

1944 December 26 - . 21:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Islington - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted Islington..

1944 December 26 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Pitsea - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted Pitsea..

1944 December 27 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 27 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20853. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma421 309 X1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Vehicle: A4b. LV Configuration: V-2 18484. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • A-4b #1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Work on a winged version of the A4 had been stopped in early 1943. Now, with the Allies overrunning launch sites in Belgium and Holland, Kammler ordered it resumed in order to have a long-range version of the weapon that could reach England and Allied continental rear areas from Germany. Within weeks the wind tunnel results generated since 1940 were reviewed, and a prototype winged version of the missile built. On the first launch, the steering failed at 30 m, and the missile crashed a short distance from the pad. Several more test articles were on hand, but testing could not resume immediately due to a shortage of alcohol fuel.

1944 December 27 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 radio guidance system set up. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Measurements are made to determine the positioning of the Leitstrahlstellung (V2 radio guidance beam) and Brensslussstellung (engine cut-off beam) of the new radio guidance system. The Leitstrahlstellung station will be situated at Dedemsvaart..

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-290.
1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20845. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma422 311 X3 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 6.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.3 km from aim point..

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20848. FAILURE: Failed.
  • V-2 Ma427 312 X4 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1944 December 28 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20844. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma423 310 X2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.1 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.1 km from aim point..

1944 December 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Hellendoorn, rocket fired, this rocket rose 4 meters off the Bodenplatte, canted over, hit the ground and caught fire. The turbo pumps continued to run and the fire raged for about 10 minutes. The warhead exploded about 5 minutes later, digging a crater 2.5 meters deep and 4 meters wide. Windows of buildings within 1.5 km. area of the launch site were destroyed. Because of the explosion, the cables of the first Feuerleitpanzer, that were on the forest ground not buried, were destroyed. A rocket on a Meillerwagen that was close to the launch table was damaged by splinters and had to be send back to the technical crew.

1944 December 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (impact unknown). .

1944 December 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (impact unknown). .

1944 December 28 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, (impact unknown). .

1944 December 29 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1944 December 29 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1944 December 29 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Southminster - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted Southminster..

1944 December 29 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, (impact unknown.).

1944 December 29 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Mundon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted near Mundon..

1944 December 29 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Burnham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted NE of Burnham..

1944 December 29 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, (impact unknown.).

1944 December 29 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Site 605 to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 605) A-4 rocket fired, impacted Antwerp, crashed behind the post office in the Groenstraat. 39 people were killed, 108 heavily wounded and 58 houses destroyed..

1944 December 29 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Tillingham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted Tillingham..

1944 December 29 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Brentwood - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted E of Brentwood..

1944 December 29 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Barking - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted Barking..

1944 December 29 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Croydon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted Croydon..

1944 December 29 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Wickford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted E of Wickford..

1944 December 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20816. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma413 314 X6 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.8 km from aim point..

1944 December 30 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20820. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma414 313 X5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.0 km from aim point..

1944 December 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-286.
1944 December 30 - . 02:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, (impact unknown.).

1944 December 30 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to West Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, the Hague, rocket fired, impacted W Ham, Prince Regent Lane..

1944 December 30 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, crashed at Antwerp in Mortsel near the Castle of Cantecroy, 5 injured, 1 house destroyed..

1944 December 30 - . 13:14 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, impacted Antwerp at Borgerhout in Wynegemstraat-Florastraat, 44 killed, 125 injured, 110 houses destroyed..

1944 December 30 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hellendoorn to Hellendoorn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hellendoorn, rocket fired, malfunction causes the rocket to crash into a church at Hellendoorn..

1944 December 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: A4b; Taifun; Wasserfall.
  • Peenemuende rocket team faces the New Year - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler. It was for them a depressing time. The V-2 came too late to affect the outcome of the war. The years 1939-1942, when Hitler had blocked development and production of the V-2, were lost years. By this time, the Peenemuende staff was allocated as follows: 135 were working on Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket; 1940 were working on the V-2; 1220 were working on the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile; 270 were working on the A4b winged V-2; and 660 were in administrative positions. Meanwhile Kammler was constantly underway, trying to deploy the wonder weapons he believed would save the Reich. He could only be met at one-hour meetings at autobahn intersections, on his way from one place to another.

1944 December 31 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery SS 500 moves to new firing sites at Hessum. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

End of 1944 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 year-end combat summary - . Nation: Germany. During December, the fourth month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were 447 combat launches on the Western Front and 44 training launches from Heidekraut. 618 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. Since the start of the campaign on 6 September, a total of 1591 V-2's had been launched in combat at the following targets:

    • Antwerp 924
    • London 477
    • Norwich 43
    • Luettich 27
    • Lille 25
    • Paris 19
    • Tourcoing 19
    • Maastricht 19
    • Hasselt 13
    • Tournai 9
    • Arras 6
    • Cambrai 4
    • Mons 3
    • Diest 2
    • Ipswich 1

    By the end of the year Mittelwerk had produced 4,195 missiles, less than half of which had been fired.


1944 December 31 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20847. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma425 315 X7 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 10.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.7 km from aim point..

1944 December 31 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20825. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma408 316 X8 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 5.4 km from aim point..

1944 December 31 - . 23:55 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar to Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, rose to 2500 meters and exploded, showering the inhabitants of Van Voorrschotenlaan, Waalsdorperweg with debris..

January 1945 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 test site moved from Heidkraut in face of Russian advances. A total of 107 V-2 launches were made from Heidekraut. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. At the end of December Dornberger made his last visit to Heidekraut. By then the Russian Army was approaching, and the test launch area had to be moved south of Wolgast, with the impact area being in the Tucheler Heide. But in fact the test battery never shot again. It was moved to the forest near Wolgast in mid February, then again to Rethen an der Weser, with an impact area off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein.

1945 - During the year - . Launch Vehicle: A9/A10/A11; A9/A10/A11/A12.
  • Von Braun documents plans for future uses of rocket power. - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: von Braun. Spacecraft: Von Braun Station. As part of a summary of his work on rockets during World War II, Wernher von Braun speculated on future uses of rocket power. These included an observatory in space, the construction of space stations in earth orbit, a space mirror, and interplanetary travel, beginning with trips to the moon.

1945 January 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20852. FAILURE: Failed .
  • V-2 Ma426 317 X9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 0.9 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 191.0 km from aim point..

1945 January 1 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Attempt abandoned - see test X18.
1945 January 1 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 1 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, impacted in Antwerp, in Borgerhout, Groeningerplein. 45 casualties and 33 injured, 21 houses destroyed..

1945 January 1 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown).

1945 January 1 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown).

1945 January 1 - . 17:17 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Jan. 01, (17.17 hours) - Battery 444 or Batt. 485, the Hague or Wassenaar, Ockenburgh, rocket fired, several meters above the launch table the rocket turned 160 degrees. Blasting low over two cemeteries it came down in the houses in the Indigostraat, at the corner of Kamperfoeliestraat, at a distance of 3600 meters from the launch site. 38 people lost their lives. The doctors and nurses, who were very quick to the crash, were not allowed to enter the area until after the Germans had collected the remains of the rocket.

1945 January 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20815. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma411 318 X11 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 3.6 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.9 km from aim point..

1945 January 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20818.
  • V-2 Ma412 320 X13 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 1.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.2 km from aim point..

1945 January 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 2 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20817. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma415 319 X12 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 3.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.7 km from aim point..

1945 January 2 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery unknown, A-4 rocket impacted Antwerp at Vrydagmarkt, 29 killed, 41 injured, 53 houses destroyed..

1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20838. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma418 321 X14 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 4.3 km from aim point..

1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20841. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma420 322 X15 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 17.4 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 17.4 km from aim point..

1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-287.
1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 3 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20851. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma424 323 X16 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.3 km from aim point..

1945 January 4 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20814. FAILURE: Failed shortly after launch.
  • V-2 Ma410 325 X18 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1945 January 4 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20823. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma417 324 X17 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.5 km from aim point..

1945 January 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), first A-4 rocket launched using Leitstrahlstellung..

1945 January 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20835.
  • V-2 Ma394 V1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 1.6 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 58.0 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 4 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Lemelerveld - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), A-4 rocket crashes near Lemelerveld causing a lot of glass damage to windows..

1945 January 5 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Madesteyn - . Nation: Germany. Summary: A-4 rockets were launched at estate of Madesteyn, between Maeweg and Monsterscheweg..

1945 January 6 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (8) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20826.
  • V-2 Ma381 V2 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 2.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 3.7 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 6 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (two failures)..

1945 January 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20819.
  • V-2 Ma416 327 X20 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 3.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 9.8 km from aim point..

1945 January 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-294.
1945 January 8 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20843. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma419 326 X19 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 1.8 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 6.3 km from aim point..

1945 January 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-292.
1945 January 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20809. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma405 332 W3 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 10.4 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 10.6 km from aim point..

1945 January 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20705.
  • V-2 Ma400 330 W1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 11.2 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 15.0 km from aim point..

1945 January 10 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20808. FAILURE: Failed.
  • V-2 Ma404 331 W2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. .

1945 January 10 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (4) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20807. FAILURE: Failed.
  • V-2 Ma402 335 W5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Failed - accuracy was 7.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 64.4 km from aim point..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20810.
  • V-2 Ma406 334 W4 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 0.7 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 1.2 km from aim point..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20812.
  • V-2 Ma407 W10 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Abandoned. Planned range 225 km. .
  • V-2 Ma403 W9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Abandoned. Planned range 225 km. .

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20806. FAILURE: High altitude airburst.
  • V-2 Ma399 338 W8 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. High altitude airburst; accuracy 8.3 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 8.4 km from aim point..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20804.
  • V-2 Ma401 337 W7 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Rocket impacted and warhead exploded at impact 28 km to the left of the planned trajectory. Circular error 28.1 km from aim point..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Heidekraut. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20811. FAILURE: Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level..
  • V-2 Ma398 336 W6 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Planned range 225 km. Air-burst of rocket but explosion of warhead at ground level 4.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 7.5 km from aim point..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (3) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20821.
  • V-2 Ma379 V3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 14.7 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 38.0 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 11 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . 20:26 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 11 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 12 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Arbeitstab Dornberger - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger; Speer. Speer puts Dornberger in charge of an office within the Munitions Ministry to oversee further development of the A4 and other rockets, drawing on staff from Peenemuende. Everyone knew the war would be over in a few months -- nothing could be accomplished. Kammler still made sure that Dornberger was only responsible for technical aspects. All further developments of the A4 had been on hold for years, and any further work was now impossible. Only simple things could be worked on, such as converting 6 cm smoke rockets to use as an air-to-air weapon. In the short turnaround typical of the times, the team drove to Kummersdorf and built a 21-cm diameter pipe that could fire a barrage of four smoke rockets. Two days later, it was reported back that the device was used successfully in combat, and it was put into production. It was first used against allied bombers over Schweinfurt in January 1945.

1945 January 12 - . 15:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 12 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 12 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 12 - . 20:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 13 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20840.
  • V-2 Ma392 V4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 13.1 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 14.4 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 13 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 13 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, first failure of the day, rocket crashed somewhere near firing site..

1945 January 13 - . 12:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, second failure of the day, rocket crashed somewhere near firing site..

1945 January 13 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 13 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 13 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 14 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 14 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 14 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 14 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 14 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

January 1945 - . Launch Vehicle: V-3.
  • V-3 in action. - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi). Range: 60 km (37 mi). Summary: Two shortened test versions of the gun with a 60 km range were used to bombard Antwerp and Luxembourg. Only a few shots were accomplished before the barrels blew up..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Vehicle: Rheinbote.
  • Rheinbote in service. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: A battery is set up in Holland, and 200 rockets are fired on Antwerp harbour..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Train-launched A4 abandoned. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Allied air superiority made the train-launched version unviable as a weapon, compared to the truck-towed missile, which was more easily moved and concealed. Further work on the system was abandoned..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20831.
  • V-2 Ma384 V5 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. Launched into sea; accuracy 11.8 km to the right of the planned trajectory. Circular error 12.8 km from aim point. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 15 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 15 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 15 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 15 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 15 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 16 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20348.
  • V-2 Ma380 V6 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 16 - . 12:04 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Site 410 to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 410), rocket fired, impacted Antwerp at Steenbergstraat, 58 killed, 64 injured, 31 houses destroyed..

1945 January 17 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20832. FAILURE: Failed 20 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma390 V7 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 18 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (6) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 18 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (4) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 19 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-301.
  • V-2 4301 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 20 338..

1945 January 19 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 19 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (3) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 19 - . 18:26 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Burgsteinfurt to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: (Site 163), rocket fired, impacted Antwerp at Berendrechtstraat, 41 killed, 75 injured, 28 houses destroyed..

1945 January 21 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-295.
1945 January 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 22 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-302.
  • V-2 4302 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct serial number is 20 840..

1945 January 22 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, crashed near Wijhe on the estate De Gelder..

1945 January 23 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (5) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 January 24 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. Launch Vehicle: A4b. LV Configuration: V-2 18543.
  • A-4b #2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. The first successful launch, this reached 80 km altitude and 1200 m/s. It then flew stably in supersonic flight using its 13.5 sq. m. wing. The automatic guidance system was designed to keep the missile on course in both supersonic and subsonic flight regimes. However the wing broke off shortly after the beginning of the glide. This concluded work on the A4b/A9; the increasingly chaotic situation in Germany prevented further flight tests.

1945 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20829. FAILURE: Failed 1300 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma385 V8 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 25 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 25 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20465.
1945 January 25 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 25 - . 08:17 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Wassenaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery 444 or Battery 485, Wassenaar, Duindigt, rocket fired, a rocket, came down the Archipelwijk, corner Riouxstraat – Bonistraat. Five houses totally destroyed, forty houses vacated. Ten people lost their lives, 20 heavy and 21 minor injuries..

1945 January 26 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (4) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 26 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to Cranham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Battery unknown, the Hague, A-4 rocket exploded in the air near Clay Tye Hill in Cranham..

1945 January 26 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Heino - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, crashed near Heino into the meadows near Lierderholthuis making a huge crater. No injuries..

1945 January 27 - . Launch Vehicle: Schmetterling; Wasserfall; X4.
  • First meeting of Arbeitstab Dornberger in Berlin - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Dornberger. The group's first priority was to evalute the prospects for rapid development of an effective surface-to-air missile to combat the incessant Allied bombing raids. It had to be beam-riding instead of optically guided, in order to be effective at night and in bad weather. The group found there was no single 'wonder weapon' that would end the war in a few months. But Kammler still believed the Reich still could hold out for six months, enough time to develop and deploy a new weapon. Dornberger's team disagreed, but they had to try nevertheless. Therefore the Schmetterling, Wasserfall, and X4 missiles went into simultaneous final development and production. But realistically none of them could be mature enough to be sent to the front until early 1946. If the Reich could hold out that long, then it was possible it could slowly win back territory.

1945 January 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20827. FAILURE: Failed 100 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma383 V9 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Planned range 320 km. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 January 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 444. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery 444 leaves the Hague and sets up operations at Burgsteinfurt. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht.

1945 January 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Raalte - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (Time Unknown), another this day crashed near Raalte..

1945 January 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Raalte - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, (Time Unknown), crashed near Raalte..

1945 January 28 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, seven (7) A-4 rocket fired, (impacts unknown), (two (2) failures)..

1945 January 29 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (7) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 29 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hessum to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hessum (Madrid), rocket fired, target Antwerp, (impact unknown)..

1945 January 30 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 Battery SS 500 moves - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Battery SS 500 moves to the Estate Mataram near Emmen in Dalfsen. The Leitstrahlstellung radio guidance station moves to Ommerschans..

1945 January 30 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 20338.
1945 January 30 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, (2) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

End January 1945 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 summary for January - . Nation: Germany. During January, the fifth month of the V-2 combat campaign, there were from 574 to 620 combat launches on the Western Front. The final 19 training launches from made from Heidekraut before it was abandoned in the face of Russian advances on the Eastern Front. 700 missiles were manufactured at Mittelwerk. See V-2 launches for a list of known combat launches.

1945 January 31 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-303.
1945 January 31 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, (4) rockets fired, (impacts unknown)..

1945 January 31 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, ten (10) rockets fired, (impacts unknown), (one failure)..

1945 February 1 - . LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 units redesignated. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Battery 485 is renamed to Artillery Regiment 902, Battery 836 is renamed to Artillery Regiment 901, and SS Werfer Battery 500 is renamed SS Werfer Abteilung Battery 500. For consistency, the old designations are used for the rest of this chronology..

1945 February 1 - .
  • Kammler put in charge of jet engine production. - . Nation: Germany. In addition to responsibility for the V-weapons, Kammler was tasked with producing jet engines for manned aircraft in the northern section of the Mittelwerk. He was successful in keeping production going, but in the end, with the cities of Germany in ruins, its air bases were full of new jet fighters, but there was no fuel to operate them. There was no longer fuel for trucks, and horses had to be used for transport. There was an even bigger backlog of aircraft and missile hardware in the tunnels of Mittelwerk, but they remained there due to lack of transport. As a weapon for the jet fighters, the 5 cm R4M powder rocket was used. Each fighter had 48 of these rockets, each of which weighed 7 kg and could propel 500 g of explosive at 400 m/s to a range of 1200 to 1500 m.

1945 February 1 - . 01:13 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, (failure)..

1945 February 1 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to North Weald - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted North Weald..

1945 February 1 - . 02:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Latchingdon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Latchingdon..

1945 February 1 - . 02:21 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Halle - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted SW of Halle..

1945 February 1 - . 02:59 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to West Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted West Ham. 29 Dead, 118 injured..

1945 February 1 - . 03:58 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ruislip - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ruislip (airburst).

1945 February 1 - . 04:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Borsbeek - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted E of Borsbeek..

1945 February 1 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chiddingstone - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chiddingstone..

1945 February 1 - . 05:56 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Koningshooikt - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted near Koningshooikt..

1945 February 1 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Walthamstow - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Walthamstow..

1945 February 1 - . 07:27 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Walkern - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Walkern, Hertfordshire..

1945 February 1 - . 07:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chingford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chingford. 3 Dead, 25 injured..

1945 February 1 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chingford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chingford..

1945 February 1 - . 11:14 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Gooreind - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted SW of Gooreind..

1945 February 1 - . 11:54 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired NE of Brasschaat..

1945 February 1 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Hackney - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Hackney (airburst). 2 injured..

1945 February 1 - . 13:59 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Wilmarsdon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired impacted Wilmarsdonk, NW of Antwerp. 1 Property demolished..

1945 February 1 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chingford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chingford. 2 Dead, 79 injured..

1945 February 1 - . 14:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 1 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Ekeren - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted Josef Ickxstraat, Ekeren. 1 Property demolished..

1945 February 1 - . 15:19 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 1 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Ekeren - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted “Zijdefabriek”, Ekeren. 6 Properties lightly damaged..

1945 February 1 - . 16:21 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 1 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Gooreind - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted near Gooreind..

1945 February 1 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Schoten - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted E of Schoten..

1945 February 1 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Rocket fired N of Ranst..

1945 February 1 - . 18:36 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted Lange Herentalsestraat, Antwerp. 4 Dead. 9 Properties demolished..

1945 February 1 - . 20:57 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Wijnegem - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted NW of Wijnegem.

1945 February 1 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Verrebroek - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted near Verrebroek..

1945 February 1 - . 21:48 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Voorselaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted NW of Voorselaar..

1945 February 1 - . 22:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 2 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from the Hague to De Battaaf - . Nation: Germany. A new firing site was set up at the corner of Statenplein / Willem de Zwijgerlaan in the Hague. An A-4 failure resulted in rocket shrapnel raining down on the streets. One day later a rocket launched from Klingendael failed and it impacted near De Battaaf.

1945 February 2 - . 01:01 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Wilrijk - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted Neerland, Wilrijk. 9 Properties seriously damaged including partially demolished..

1945 February 2 - . 02:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 2 - . 02:43 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Zoersel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted SE of Zoersel..

1945 February 2 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Zwijndrecht - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted near Zwijndrecht..

1945 February 2 - . 04:38 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Mortsel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted Nieuwelei, Mortsel. 1 Property demolished, 6 seriously damaged, 50 lightly damaged..

1945 February 2 - . 06:08 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Woodham Mortimer - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Woodham Mortimer..

1945 February 2 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Southminster - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Southminster. 1 Injured..

1945 February 2 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Deptford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Deptford. 34 Dead, 52 injured..

1945 February 2 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Erith - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Erith, in River Thames. 1 Injured..

1945 February 2 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to East Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted East Ham. 12 Dead, 119 injured..

1945 February 2 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Schelde - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted Schelde, W of Berendrecht..

1945 February 2 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kalmthout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted SW of Kalmthout..

1945 February 2 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to East Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted East Ham. 1 Dead, 70 injured..

1945 February 2 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Walthamstow - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Walthamstow. 86 Injured..

1945 February 2 - . 16:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kalmthout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted Vogelenzangstraat, Kalmthout..

1945 February 2 - . 16:52 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Gooreind - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted near Gooreind..

1945 February 2 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Brasschaat - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted near Brasschaat..

1945 February 2 - . 20:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Schilde - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted E of Schilde..

1945 February 2 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Zundert - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted SW of Zundert,near Wernhout, Netherlands..

1945 February 3 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-284.
1945 February 3 - . 10:14 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Boechout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, impacted Boechout..

1945 February 3 - . 10:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Aartselaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, impacted near Aartselaar..

1945 February 3 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Waltham Holy Cross - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Waltham Holy Cross..

1945 February 3 - . 11:57 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Kontich - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, impacted E of Kontich..

1945 February 3 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 3 - . 13:11 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Barking - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Barking. 1 Injured..

1945 February 3 - . 13:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Schoten - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted W of Schoten..

1945 February 3 - . 13:49 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Kontich - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, impacted W of Kontich..

1945 February 3 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Duffel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, impacted near Duffel..

1945 February 3 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ilford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ilford. 1 Dead, 51 injured..

1945 February 3 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Duerne - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, impacted  Plankenbergstraat, Duerne. 16 Dead. 5 Properties demolished, 86 seriously damaged including partially demolished..

1945 February 3 - . 15:53 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, SW of Kontich..

1945 February 3 - . 18:14 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Rumst - . Nation: Germany. Summary: rocket fired, impacted E of Rumst..

1945 February 3 - . 18:49 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, misdirected round impacted North Sea NW of Netherlands..

1945 February 3 - . 19:24 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Boechout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, impacted Boechout..

1945 February 4 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-274.
1945 February 4 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: For more than a week V-2 launches from Dalfsen were halted due to thawing of the frozen ground..

1945 February 4 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Sint-Jozef - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted S of Sint-Jozef..

1945 February 4 - . 14:42 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Woodham Ferrers - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Woodham Ferrers (airburst)..

1945 February 4 - . 14:58 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ilford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ilford. 23 injured..

1945 February 4 - . 15:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ilford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ilford (airburst)..

1945 February 4 - . 16:49 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Zandvliet - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted Zandvliet..

1945 February 4 - . 16:57 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to the Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, misdirected round impacted SW of the Hague, Netherlands..

1945 February 4 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to West Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted West Ham (airburst)..

1945 February 4 - . 17:26 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ilford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ilford. 5 Injured..

1945 February 4 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to North Weald - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted North Weald..

1945 February 4 - . 18:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Ranst - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted NW of Ranst..

1945 February 4 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Doddinghurst - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Doddinghurst. 12 Injured..

1945 February 4 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Brasschaat - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted N of Brasschaat..

1945 February 4 - . 18:48 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Hackney - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Hackney. 11 Dead, 98 injured..

1945 February 4 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery SS Abt 500. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Dalfsen to Loenhout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Dalfsen, Estate Mataram, rocket fired, impacted near Loenhout..

1945 February 4 - . 19:17 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 4 - . 19:53 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Roosendaal - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted S of Roosendaal, near the Netherlands-Belgium border..

1945 February 4 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Brasschaat - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted N of Brasschaat..

1945 February 4 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Airburst soon after launch..

1945 February 4 - . 21:56 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 4 - . 22:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Wanstead - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Wanstead & Woodford. 2 Injured..

1945 February 4 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Westeind - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted  Wilmarsdonk: Westeind. 2 Properties seriously damaged..

1945 February 4 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Schoten - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted near Schoten..

1945 February 4 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Hornchurch - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Hornchurch. 8 Injured..

1945 February 4 - . 23:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Rettenden      - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Rettenden.     .

1945 February 5 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-285.
1945 February 5 - . 00:59 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Valkenswaard - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted SW of Valkenswaard..

1945 February 5 - . 01:36 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Schelle - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted near Schelle.

1945 February 5 - . 01:54 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chingford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chingford. 4 Dead, 45 injured..

1945 February 5 - . 02:22 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 5 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Hackney - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Hackney. 1 Dead, 22 injured..

1945 February 5 - . 04:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Zoersel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted NW of Zoersel..

1945 February 5 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Epping Upland - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Epping Upland..

1945 February 5 - . 06:17 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Leopoldsberg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted near Leopoldsberg..

1945 February 5 - . 08:11 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Willingale - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Willingale..

1945 February 5 - . 09:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Watton At Stone - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Watton At Stone, Hertfordshire..

1945 February 5 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Brasschaat - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted SW of Brasschaat..

1945 February 5 - . 11:41 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Vremde - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted Vremde..

1945 February 5 - . 11:48 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Lier - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted NW of Lier..

1945 February 5 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Ooorderen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Darfeld, rocket fired, impacted Ooorderen: Walenhoek, NW of Antwerp..

1945 February 5 - . 19:16 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Edegem - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Darfeld, rocket fired, impacted Edegem..

1945 February 5 - . 21:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Waltham Holy Cross - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Waltham Holy Cross. 3 Injured..

1945 February 6 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-309.
  • V-2 Ma376 U1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 6 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Airburst soon after launch..

1945 February 6 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Paglesham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Paglesham (airburst)..

1945 February 6 - . 06:33 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Essendon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Essendon, Hertfordshire..

1945 February 6 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Edmonton - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Edmonton (airburst). 1 Person seriously injured. Venturi of rocket fell in adjacent borough of Tottenham, causing slight damage..

1945 February 6 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Orpington - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Orpington..

1945 February 6 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ramsden Heath - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ramsden Heath. 3 Injured..

1945 February 6 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 6 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Lier - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted NW of Lier..

1945 February 6 - . 11:11 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Staebroek - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Darfeld, rocket fired, impacted SW of Staebroek..

1945 February 6 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Nolse Duinen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted Nolse Duinen, N Kalmthout..

1945 February 6 - . 12:12 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Darfeld, rocket fired (failure).

1945 February 6 - . 12:26 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Liege - . Nation: Germany. Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted near Liege. 5 Injured. 10 Properties damaged. Radar tracking determined the speed of this rocket to be approximately 1/3 normal, and it was therefore classed as an unsuccessful shot against Antwerp rather than against Liege itself.

1945 February 6 - . 12:51 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Bradwell - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Bradwell..

1945 February 6 - . 12:53 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Aartselaar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted SW of Aartselaar..

1945 February 6 - . 13:31 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Boechout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted Stoofstraat, Boechout..

1945 February 6 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 6 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Heist-op-den Berf - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted E of Heist-op-den Berg..

1945 February 6 - . 15:21 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Wilrijk - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted Boomsesteenweg, Wilrijk. 2 Dead..

1945 February 6 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 6 - . 15:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Sint-Job-in’t-goor - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted near Sint-Job-in’t-goor..

1945 February 6 - . 16:46 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Mortsel - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted Kaphanlei, Mortsel. 3 Properties partially demolished, 10 seriously damaged..

1945 February 6 - . 17:24 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 6 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Eynsford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Eynsford, Kent. 27 Injured..

1945 February 6 - . 18:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kieldrecht - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted Near Kieldrecht..

1945 February 6 - . 18:44 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Duffel   - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired impacted W of Duffel.  .

1945 February 6 - . 19:10 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to East Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted East Ham. 7 Injured..

1945 February 6 - . 19:18 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Herentals - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired impacted Sint-Job, Herentals..

1945 February 6 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Woolwich - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Woolwich. 44 Injured..

1945 February 6 - . 22:06 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired (impact unknown).

1945 February 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • Submarine-launched A4 abandoned. - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Evacuation of Peenemuende brought work on the submarine-towed version to an end..

1945 February 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21401. FAILURE: Exploded 1 m above pad.
  • V-2 Ma373 U3 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 7 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Exploded on launch pad..

1945 February 7 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P7. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-296.
1945 February 7 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Nijlen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid,  rocket fired, impacted E of Nijlen..

1945 February 7 - . 02:17 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Wommelgem (Moffenhoev - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid,  rocket fired, impacted Wommelgem (Moffenhoevestraat which is situated near the Rollebeekstraat)..

1945 February 7 - . 03:22 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid,  rocket fired, (failure) impacted SE of launch site..

1945 February 7 - . 05:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Borsbeek - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid,  rocket fired, impacted between Borsbeek and Ranst..

1945 February 7 - . 06:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid,  rocket fired, (failure).  .

1945 February 7 - . 07:51 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Impacted approximately 3km from launch site..

1945 February 7 - . 11:48 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ilford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ilford. 16 Injured..

1945 February 7 - . 12:01 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Barking - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Barking. Railway line severed. 11 Injured..

1945 February 7 - . 15:56 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Waltham Holy Cross - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Waltham Holy Cross. 3 Injured..

1945 February 8 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-310.
1945 February 8 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Gipping - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, Loosduinen, rocket fired, impacted Gipping, Suffolk (airburst)..

1945 February 8 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Walthamstow - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Walthamstow. 16 Dead, 43 injured..

1945 February 8 - . 02:12 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Cromer - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted North Sea NW of Cromer, Norfolk..

1945 February 8 - . 03:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chislehurst - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chislehurst..

1945 February 8 - . 03:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Exploded on launch pad..

1945 February 8 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 8 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 8 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 8 - . 09:14 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Fobbing - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Fobbing. 1 Injured..

1945 February 8 - . 10:43 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Merksem - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, impacted Nieuwdreef, Merksem. 2 Properties seriously damaged..

1945 February 8 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Bethnal Green - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Bethnal Green. 1 Dead, 106 injured..

1945 February 8 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kapellen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, impacted Doornelaan, Kapellen..

1945 February 8 - . 12:01 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Erith - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Erith. 1 Dead, 72 injured..

1945 February 8 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Ekeren - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, impacted Laar, Ekeren..

1945 February 8 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ilford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ilford. 12 Dead, 106 injured..

1945 February 8 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 8 - . 15:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kalmthout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, impacted E of Kalmthout.

1945 February 8 - . 15:34 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired (failure)..

1945 February 8 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Rettenden - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Rettenden..

1945 February 8 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Exploded on launch pad..

1945 February 8 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Sidcup - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Sidcup. 7 Dead, 100 injured..

1945 February 8 - . 17:46 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Greenwich - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Greenwich. 11 Dead, 46 injured..

1945 February 8 - . 18:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kapellen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, impacted N of Kapellen..

1945 February 8 - . 20:07 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Cock Clarks, - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Cock Clarks, Essex..

1945 February 8 - . 22:31 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Dagenham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Dagenham. 2 Dead, 70 injured..

1945 February 8 - . 22:49 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kapellen - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, impacted NE of Kapellen..

1945 February 9 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-298.
  • V-2 4298 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Possibly correct launch date is 08.02.1945..

1945 February 9 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Exploded on launch pad..

1945 February 9 - . 05:42 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Navestock - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Navestock..

1945 February 9 - . 07:22 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Stow Maries - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Stow Maries..

1945 February 9 - . 10:29 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Westerlo - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid, rocket fired, impacted S of Westerlo..

1945 February 9 - . 12:17 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Staebroek - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, impacted NW of Staebroek..

1945 February 9 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Kalmthout - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg Gehlert, rocket fired, impacted SE of Kalmthout..

1945 February 9 - . 13:40 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg Gehlert, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 9 - . 14:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Poplar - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Poplar. 42 Injured..

1945 February 9 - . 16:01 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to St Pancras - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted St Pancras. Presbyterian Church HQ partially demolished. 34 Dead, 121 injured..

1945 February 9 - . 16:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 1./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Westerlo - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Hillscheid or Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, impacted W of Westerlo..

1945 February 9 - . 17:21 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Bromley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Bromley. 4 Dead, 70 injured..

1945 February 9 - . 18:55 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Clacton - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted North Sea near Clacton..

1945 February 9 - . 21:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chislehurst - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chislehurst. 2 Dead, 68 injured..

1945 February 9 - . 22:05 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. Launch Pad: 3./836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Hachenburg to Breendonk     - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Hachenburg, Gehlert, rocket fired, impacted NW of Breendonk.    .

1945 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21404.
  • V-2 Ma372 U2 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. Summary: Accuracy 38.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory. 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 10 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende P10. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 V-270.
1945 February 10 - . 00:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Basildon - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Basildon..

1945 February 10 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Bexley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Bexley (airburst)..

1945 February 10 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Writtle - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Writtle. 1 Seriously injured..

1945 February 10 - . 08:21 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Leyton - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Leyton. 6 Dead, 55 injured..

1945 February 10 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Bradwell - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted North Sea near Bradwell..

1945 February 10 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to East Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted East Ham. Bascule Bridge at King George V Dock partially demolished. 3 Dead, 54 injured..

1945 February 10 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Rawreth - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Rawreth..

1945 February 10 - . 12:42 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Purleigh - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Purleigh..

1945 February 10 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Clacton - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted North Sea near Clacton..

1945 February 10 - . 15:22 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Ingatestone - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Ingatestone..

1945 February 10 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 10 - . 15:47 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Purfleet - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Purfleet..

1945 February 10 - . 19:09 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Oxted - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Oxted, Surrey (airburst)..

1945 February 10 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (failure). Exploded soon after launch..

1945 February 10 - . 19:54 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Writtle - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Writtle..

1945 February 10 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 11 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. Launch Complex: Peenemuende SK. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 21405. FAILURE: Guidance failure after 8 seconds.
  • V-2 Ma370 U4 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: 'Kitz' launch - listed under Heidekraut launches, but actually made from Karlshagen or railhead area of Peenemuende..

1945 February 11 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Romford - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Romford, in River Rom..

1945 February 11 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Chertsey - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Chertsey, Surrey..

1945 February 11 - . 04:37 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Stoke Common - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Stoke Common, Buckinghamshire. 3 Injured..

1945 February 11 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Tremelo - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Darfeld, rocket fired, impacted NE of Tremelo..

1945 February 11 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 2./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from Darfeld to Antwerp - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Darfeld, rocket fired, impacted Della Faillelaan, Antwerp. 3 Dead. 9 Properties seriously damaged..

1945 February 11 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 11 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to West Ham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted West Ham (airburst). This rocket exploded at an unusually low height. 6 Injured..

1945 February 11 - . 13:26 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 1./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Bromley - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Bromley..

1945 February 11 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired (impact unknown)..

1945 February 11 - . 14:46 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Walthamstow - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Walthamstow, on marshland. 1 Injured. The crater from this incident still exists..

1945 February 11 - . 16:02 GMT - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 485. Launch Pad: 3./485. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 combat launch from The Hague to Dagenham - . Nation: Germany. Summary: The Hague, rocket fired, impacted Dagenham. 10 Injured..

1945 February 11 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: