Encyclopedia Astronautica
Israel



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Palmachim
Credit: © Mark Wade
Israel

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Ramon Ramon, Ilan (1954-2003) Jewish-Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. First Israeli astronaut. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry. More...
  • Mayo Mayo, Itzhak (1954-) Jewish-Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut, 1997-2000. More...

Associated Spacecraft
  • Ofeq 1-2 Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1988.09.19 (Ofeq-1) to 1990.04.03 (Ofeq-2). Ofeq, meaning 'Horizon', was a technology demonstration satellite developed by IAI (Israel Aircraft Industries) for ISA (Israel Space Agency). More...
  • Gurwin Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1995.03.28 (Gurwin 1) and 1998.07.10 (Gurwin Techsat 1B). Gurwin satellites were built by the Technion Institute of Technology, Israel. More...
  • Ofeq 3 Israeli military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1995.04.05 (Ofeq-3) to 2006.04.25 (EROS-B). Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. More...
  • AMOS Israeli communications satellite. 3 launches, 1996.05.16 (AMOS) to 2008.04.28 (Amos-2). 7 Ku-band transponders. Israeli indigenous communications satellite program. More...
  • Ofeq 5 Israeli military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 2002.05.28. Ofeq-5 was said to be about 33% heavier than its predecessors. More...
  • Negev 5 Israeli manned spacecraft. Study 2004. X-Prize suborbital balloon-launched ballistic spacecraft concept of IL Aerospace Technologies (ILAT), Israel. More...
  • Tecsar Israeli military surveillance radar satellite. First launch 2008.01.21. Israeli military radar/optical surveillance satellite using synthetic aperture x-band radar, with estimated 10 cm radar and 1 m optical ground resolution. More...

Associated Engines
  • LK-1 IAI solid rocket engine. 774 kN. In production. Isp=272s. Lengthened version of Shavit rocket motor. Lower stage used 9:1 nozzle. 23.6:1 nozzle for upper stage use inceased Isp to 279 seconds, First flight 1995. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Jericho First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Dassualt in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions were said to have differed. More...
  • Jericho 2 Israeli intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. Probably corresponds to first two stages of Shavit launch vehicle. More...
  • Shavit Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. More...
  • Arrow Israeli anti-ballistic missile. The Arrow weapon system was a ground-based, ballistic missile defense system designed to protect Israel against ballistic missiles. More...
  • Arrow 1 Prototype and initial model Israeli Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile, originally an SDIO/BMDO project. More...
  • Jericho 1 Israeli short range ballistic missile. Follow-on version differed from original French-derived Jericho. Probably used a single 4500 kg solid-propellant motor. More...
  • Shavit 1 Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Shavit 1 is an improved version of the original Shavit with a stretched first stage motor. More...
  • Arrow 2 Israeli theater missile defense weapon developed and manufactured using substantial American funding. More...
  • LeoLink LK-1 Satellite launcher derived from planned Israeli Shavit-2 launch vehicle, but with rocket motors and major components built in USA to qualify for US contracts. More...
  • LeoLink LK-2 Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. As Leolink LK-1, but with a Castor-120 motor as the first stage. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ISA Israeli agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Israeli Space Agency, Israel. More...
  • IAI Israeli manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel. More...
  • Technion Israeli manufacturer of spacecraft. Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. More...
  • Rafael Israeli manufacturer. Rafael Armaments (IAI), Israel. More...

Associated Programs
  • Offeq Israeli indigenous satellite series. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function of first Offeqs: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field. Later models provided military optical and electronic reconnaissance services. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Palmachim Israeli coastal missile test site from which the Shavit satellite launch vehicle is also launched. A due-west launch over the Mediterranean is required to avoid overflying Arab countries, resulting in unique orbital inclinations and directions.

    The site was known to have been used for 40 launches from 1987 to 2007. More...

  • Negev Military testing range, known to have been used for 3 launches from 1990 to 2000, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude. More...

Associated Stages
  • LK-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,990/1,240 kg. Thrust 774.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 268 seconds. Lengthened version of Shavit/RSA-3 rocket motor. For lower stage use with 17.1:1 nozzle. Fitted with 23.6:1 nozzle for upper stage use specific impulse increases to 279 seconds, length to 8.4 m, and empty and gross mass are increased by 135 kg. More...
  • LK-4 Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 237/71 kg. Thrust 0.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds. Upper stage for orbital insertion of Shavit or Leolink payloads. More...

Israel Chronology


1954 June 20 - .
  • Birth of Ilan Ramon - . Nation: Israel. Summary: Jewish-Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. First Israeli astronaut. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry..

1954 September 14 - .
  • Birth of Itzhak Mayo - . Nation: Israel. Summary: Jewish-Israeli pilot payload specialist astronaut, 1997-2000..

1965 February 1 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Tir 1 test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch of prototype single-stage MD.620..

1965 December 23 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1966 March 16 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Bietage test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch of two-stage version of MD.620..

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1967? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968? - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1968 September 30 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Dassault. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Final test launch of Jericho/MD.620 from France. Full French military embargo of Israel took effect in January 1969 after an Israeli raid on Beirut in December 1968..

1987 May 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 January 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 September 19 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-1 - . Mass: 155 kg (341 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1989-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19519 . COSPAR: 1988-087A. Apogee: 1,149 km (713 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 142.9000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. First Israeli launch; possibly experimental surveillance mission. Experimental satellite 'Offeq-1'. Launch time 0934 GMT. Location: site on the coast south of Tel-Aviv. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field.

1989 September 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1990 April 3 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 2.
  • Ofeq-2 - . Mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1990-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 20540 . COSPAR: 1990-027A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 143.2000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Communication experiments. .

1990 August 9 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1990 December 21 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 March 25 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1991 October 30 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1991 October 30 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1992 September 23 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 February 28 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 February 28 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 July 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 October 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 October 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1994 March 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1994 June 12 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1994 September 15 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2. LV Configuration: Jericho II 3?. FAILURE: Failure.
  • 'Ofeq? - . Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 March 28 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC158. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start. FAILURE: Fell in Sea of Okhotsk.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Gurwin 1 - . Payload: TECHSAT-1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: RVSN. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gurwin. Decay Date: 1995-03-28 . COSPAR: F950328A.

1995 April 5 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 3.
  • Ofeq-3 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. Decay Date: 2000-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 23549 . COSPAR: 1995-018A. Apogee: 694 km (431 mi). Perigee: 366 km (227 mi). Inclination: 143.4000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

1995 July 30 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1996 February 20 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1996 May 16 - . 01:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V86.
  • Amos - . Payload: AMOS 1. Mass: 996 kg (2,195 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Program: Amos. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: AMOS. USAF Sat Cat: 23865 . COSPAR: 1996-030B. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: 7 Ku-band transponders Geostationary at 4.1W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 4 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 4.04 deg W drifting at 0.001 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 4.01W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1996 August 20 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Target mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1996 August 20 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F3.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1997 March 11 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F4.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1997 August 19 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Target mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1997 August 19 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F5.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1998 January 22 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 4. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed during second stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ofeq-4 - . Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. COSPAR: F980122A. Summary: Fell in Mediterranean Sea..

1998 July 7 - . Launch Site: Barents Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 69.5 N x 34.2 E. Launch Platform: K-407. LV Family: R-29. Launch Vehicle: Shtil-1/1N.
  • Shtil 1 - . Payload: Shtil-1 instr. package. Nation: Israel. Manufacturer: TuB. USAF Sat Cat: 25391 . COSPAR: 1998-042C. Apogee: 801 km (497 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 79.0000 deg. The first satellite launch from a submarine. The Shtil-1 launch vehicle was a converted R-29RM (RSM-54) three stage liquid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile made by the Makeyev design bureau. The satellite payload is placed in the standard R-29RM reentry vehicle. The launch plaform was the K-407 Novomoskovsk, a 667BDRM Delfin class submarine of the Russian Northern Fleet's 3rd Flotilla. Launch was from the Barents Sea at 69.3 degrees N x 35.3 degrees E. The Shtil contained an Israeli instrument package.

1998 July 10 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Gurwin Techsat 1B - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Technion. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Gurwin. USAF Sat Cat: 25397 . COSPAR: 1998-043D. Apogee: 819 km (508 mi). Perigee: 817 km (507 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Summary: Built by Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. Replaced earlier Russian-launched Techsat which failed to orbit in 1995..

1998 September 14 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F6.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1999 November 1 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. LV Configuration: Arrow 1 TM-91.
  • Target mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1999 November 1 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F7.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

2000 April 6 - . Launch Site: Negev. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 1.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2000 September 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F8.
  • AST-5 Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

2000 September 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2000 December 5 - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1.
  • EROS A1 - . Mass: 240 kg (520 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ImageSat. Manufacturer: IAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. USAF Sat Cat: 26631 . COSPAR: 2000-079A. Apogee: 542 km (336 mi). Perigee: 533 km (331 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. Launch delayed from November 28. The Israeli commercial imaging satellite EROS A1 was owned by ImageSat (an Israeli-led company registered in the Netherlands Antilles) and built by IAI using the Ofeq-3 design. EROS A1 was placed in a sun-synchronous orbit together with the DS 5th stage. The 250 kg (dry mass) triaxially stabilized spacecraft carried a black and white high resolution (1.8 m) CCD camera, to obtain images (with terrain width of 12.6 km) of locations chosen by Israeli military or world-wide commercial clients, and downlink them at one of the 14 ground stations.

2001 June 27 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2001 August 27 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2001 August 27 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • AST-6 Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2002 May 28 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 5.
  • Ofeq-5 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 27434 . COSPAR: 2002-025A. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 143.5000 deg. Period: 95.90 min. Military Observation satellite. Return to flight of the Shavit booster following a lauanch failure. Launch delayed from third quarter 2001. The three-stage Shavit rocket took off from Palmachim Air Force Base on the Israeli coast and flew westward to put the satellite in a retrograde orbit. The AUS-51 third stage solid motor entered a 262 x 774 km x 143.5 deg orbit and separated from the Ofeq satellite. Both coasted up to apogee at around 1620 UTC when Ofeq made a burn to increase its velocity by 33 m/s, raising the orbit to 369 x 771 km x 143.5 deg.

2003 January 5 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F10?.
  • AST-8 ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

2003 December 16 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F11.
  • AST-9 Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

2003 December 16 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2003 December 27 - . 21:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG/Fregat D15000-008 084/ST12.
  • Amos-2 - . Nation: Israel. Agency: Starsem. Program: Amos. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Amos. USAF Sat Cat: 28132 . COSPAR: 2003-059A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0600 deg. Period: 1,436.14 min. Summary: Intermediate orbit shown. Fregat stage later placed Amos-2 in geostationary orbit. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 4.00W drifting at 0.003W degrees per day..

2004 September 6 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 6. FAILURE: Third stage orientation failure at 270 seconds into the flight. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Ofeq-6 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. Summary: Military observation satellite failed to reach orbit. Finanical loss estimated by Israeli press as $ 100 million..

2005 December 2 - . 08:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2005 December 2 - . 08:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F14 BLK-3.
  • AST? Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2006 April 25 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Svobodniy. Launch Complex: Svobodniy LC5. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Start-1. LV Configuration: Start-1 No. 441.
  • EROS-B - . Mass: 350 kg (770 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ImageSat. Manufacturer: IAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Civilian surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. USAF Sat Cat: 29079 . COSPAR: 2006-014A. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 505 km (313 mi). Inclination: 97.3000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: Combined civilian/military imaging satellite operated by an Israeli company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. Its capability was demonstrated when, within days of launch, sharp photographs of people and motor vehicles on a Syrian dam were released..

2007 February 11 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2007 February 11 - . 18:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 M4.
  • AST Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2007 March 26 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2007 June 10 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 7.
  • Ofeq-7 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 31601 . COSPAR: 2007-025A. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 141.8000 deg. Period: 93.80 min. Summary: Israeli optical reconnaisance satellite, evidently using an improved version of the Shavit booster and probably heavier and more capable than its predecessors..

2008 January 17 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2. LV Configuration: Jericho III.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2008 January 21 - . LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV C. LV Configuration: PSLV C s/n C10.
  • Tecsar - . Mass: 260 kg (570 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISRO. Manufacturer: IAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Tecsar. USAF Sat Cat: 32476 . COSPAR: 2008-002A. Apogee: 580 km (360 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 41.0000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: Israeli military radar/optical surveillance satellite using synthetic aperture X-band radar, with estimated 10 cm radar and 1 m optical ground resolution..

2008 April 15 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow. LV Configuration: Blue Sparrow 1.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2008 April 28 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SLB. LV Configuration: Zenit-3SLB s/n LL1.
  • Amos 3 - . Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: SIS. Program: Amos. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Amos. USAF Sat Cat: 32794 . COSPAR: 2008-022A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite. The Block DM stage made three burns to deliver the payload into geostationary orbit..

2009 April 7 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • AST Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2010 June 22 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1.
  • Ofeq 9 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 36608 . COSPAR: 2010-031A. Apogee: 586 km (364 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 141.8000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: Israeli optical surveillance satellite..

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