Encyclopedia Astronautica
Russia



saryshag.gif
Sary Shagan
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian Federation Space Systems

The 13th and last Five Year Plan (1991-1995) saw vast changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union. The space forces had been reorganised in November 1988, but despite collapse of salary and budget deliveries work under the 12th Five Year Plan was completed. Most noticeably flight trials of Tselina-2 were completed and the system was accepted into the military. Flight trials of Strela-3, Molniya-1T, and Meteor-3 were conducted. Research with Resurs-F2 resources satellite and the Taifun-3 target complex went ahead, together with deployment of 40 new control systems.

Although ground tests and flight development of third generation systems had begun, there was no capital to meet the schedule established for the 1991-2000 period. Plans for countering SDI had to be abandoned. KIK Tracking stations no longer on Russian territory were abandoned, and to compensate three new tracking stations were built at Eysk, Maloyaroslavets, and Barnaul. With the break-up of the Soviet Union 75% to 90% of the space industry remained in Russia, but some unique capabilities, especially the Proton launch site, were lost.

Not all missions planned could be accomplished, and new priorities included attempts to commercialise space technology. Under the Konversiya concept space industrial facilities were to be converted to civilian use. Attempts were also made to market Soviet space technology internationally.

This was manifested as early as the launch of the Kristall module to Mir on 31 August 1990. The 19.5 tonne module carried 7 tonnes of materials processing payload and the APAS-89 docking system for use with the US space shuttle. Collaboration with the United States on the ISS International Space Station also pumped funds into Mir. Meteor-TOMS was financed by Germany. In 1990 the Chinese head of state visited Baikonur, leading to space co-operation contracts from China. On 25 February 1992 the RKA Russian Space Agency was founded as a counterpart to the US NASA Agency. Staff involved with civilian space projects were transferred to the new organisation. On 7 November 1992 the UNKS was replaced by the UK-VKS - Directorate for Command of the Military Space Forces.

The national space plan in 1992 was as follows:

  • Phase 1: By the end of 1992: Complete reorganisation of the VKS Military Space Force and its infrastructure
  • Phase 2: 1993-1995: Complete test and development of third generations systems; ensure that the interests of Russia in space were met
  • Phase 3: 1996-2000: Plan sustainable infrastructure, complete organisation of a central directorate for military-space affairs in the military forces of the Russian Federation

Continuing budget declines met that Phase 2 of the plan could not be completed.

The Russian space plan identified nearly twenty new satellite communications systems. Networks receiving federal support in addition to commercial financing included Arkos, Ekspress-M, Gals, Gonets, Mayak, Signal, and Yamal. Systems which had to secure complete commercial backing were Bankir, Ekspress, Gals, Gelikon, Globsat, Kondor, Koskon, Kuryer, Nord, Sokol, SPS-Sputnik, and Zerkalo. Of all of these only Ekspress, Mayak, Gals, and Bankir (as Kupon would reach orbit by 2001.

During 1993-1994, 27 launches involving 47 communications satellites were undertaken, or 29% of all Russian space missions. Despite one launch failure, 27 low earth orbit, 7 highly elliptical, and 12 geosynchronous spacecraft were successfully deployed. These numbers represented about half of the operational network (an acceptable 2-year turnover). But some specific constellations became increasingly populated with spacecraft operating beyond their design lifetimes. This situation was especially apparent in geosynchronous orbit. As the 1990's continued ex-Soviet communications satellite constellations would continue to degrade.

In 1996 a concept for national space policy of Russia was issued in a decree. This covered the period to 2005. 4 October was made national VKS Military Space Forces day. The plan was as follows:

  • The VKS Military Space Forces as an independent arm of the military forces.
  • Russian national Cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy.
  • Military Training Centres at the A F Mozhaiskiy VIKA and the Petr Veliky Military Space Cadet Academy.
  • Three Major Command and Tracking Centres (OKIK).
  • Operation of Baikonur in accordance with the Russia-Kazakh treaty for commercial and military launches.
  • Consolidate reliable control of spacecraft within Russian territory.
  • Complete and publish 13 decrees of the Russian President and 25 of the Congress.
  • Accept into military service five new space systems, including three for which flight trials were already under way
  • Consolidate and improve housing, hospitals, and build a new Black Sea sanatorium for staff
  • Participate in Air Shows: Navigatsiya 92 in Moscow; Le Bourget in 1993-1995; Berlin and Farnborough in 1994; Moscow in 1994-1995

These objectives also proved unrealisable. At best only single articles of some third generation space systems could be launched. Development of Zenit pads at Plesetsk and the Svobodniy cosmodrome stalled for lack of funds.

In a scramble to attract Western investment in the financial crisis that following the break-up of the Soviet Union, many proposals were made in the 1990-1996 period for commercial use of Russian spacecraft. Market realities meant that virtually none of these were realised.

TKS derivatives were offered as earth resources and material processing platforms (Tellura, Teknologia). Military communications systems were proposed for civilian use (Gonets). Many proposals were made that took advantage of the heavy payload capability of the Energia booster. These included Multipurpose Satellite Gals, Energia Control Sat, Energia Geostationary Platform, Globis (Energia Heavy Comsat), Energia Nuclear Waste Disposal, Energia Orbital Debris Remover, Energia Ozone Replenishment Satellite, Energia Polar City Illuminator, and Skif-DM.

Renewed large scale radio astronomy and lunar and Mars exploration programs were suggested: KRT-25 Radio Telescope, Energia Lunar Base, Mars 1986, Mars 1989, Mars 1994, ERTA, and Mars Together. None of these grandiose projects went beyond the concept stage.

As the 1990's continued military and civilian satellite constellations could not be sustained. Key satellite and rocket components were only made in ex-Soviet states that wanted hard currency or high prices. No budget was available to continue programs. The unpaid workers of the space industry were however able to continue by using reserve rockets and spacecraft plus complete those units that were in the pipeline when the Soviet Union broke apart. Satellite constellations were replenished at a slow rate but kept at a minimally operational status by rearranging existing satellites.

Russian space launches meanwhile ground to a virtual halt. In July 1997 the VKS Space Force was dissolved as a separate service arm and incorporated, together with the anti-ballistic missile arm of the PVO, into the RVSN Strategic Rocket Forces.

The absolute nadir was reached in 1999, when Russia orbited only 16 satellites, one sixth the number in the last year of the Soviet Union. At the same time, lessons learned in the Kosovo conflict clearly showed the importance of space forces in modern warfare.

From this point, under the leadership of President Putin, Russian space began to revive. Launches were conducted in 2000-2001 to finally replenish military satellite constellations and return them to minimum operational levels (Glonass, Molniya-3, Orlets-2, Prognoz SPRN, Raduga-1, Strela-3, Tselina-2, US-PM, Yantar-1KFT, Yantar-4K1 and Yantar-4KS1). Development of the all-Russian Angara modular launch vehicle to finally replace earlier designs and move all Russian launch operations back to Russian territory was revived with new vigour.

As Russia entered the new millennium it was following a strategy of using existing military space systems to retain a minimum essential military space capability. Slow development of the Angara launch vehicle continued to be funded through successful commercial sales of Proton launch services and Zenit rocket engines. Secrecy in regard to new military satellite development was reimposed. The dim outlines of a modernised, lightweight, and more appropriate Russian space capability for the 2010's was emerging.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Babkin Babkin, Andrei Nikolayevich (1969-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2010-on. More...
  • Kud-Sverchkov Kud-Sverchkov, Sergei Vladimirovich (1983-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2010-on. More...
  • Tsiolkovskiy Tsiolkovskiy, Konstantin E (1857-1935) Chief Soviet theorist of spaceflight, developed mathematics of rocketry and space travel, identifying basic rocket and spacecraft designs. But work little known outside the Soviet Union, did not influence Goddard and Oberth. More...
  • Stalin Stalin, losif Vissarionovich (1879-1953) Georgian-Russian politician. Leader of the Soviet Union, 1924-1953. More...
  • von Doepp Von Doepp, Phillip (1885-1967) Russian-German expert in guided missile aero design during WW2. Fluent in Russian. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16. Worked at Wright Field and in California aerospace. More...
  • Tsander Tsander, Friedrich Arturovich (1887-1933) Soviet chief theoretician. Rocket pioneer Russian-Soviet rocket pioneer. More...
  • Tupolev Tupolev, Andrei Nikolayevich (1888-1972) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1943-1972 of OKB-156. More...
  • Stechkin Stechkin, Boris Sergeyevich (1891-1969) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1969 of OKB Fakel. At the Academy of Sciences performed attitude control engine work. More...
  • Gerhardt, Bernhard Gerhardt, Bernhard (1893-) German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Kept there until 1957, the longest of any of the team members. More...
  • Khrushchev Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich (1894-1971) Russian politician. Leader of the USSR from 1956 to 1964. More...
  • Blagonravov Blagonravov, Anatoli Arkadyevich (1894-1975) Russian scientist. President, Academy Artillery Sciences 1946-1950, leading development of first Soviet sounding rockets. Soviet representative to UN COPUOS and negotiator with NASA on cooperative space projects in early 1960's. More...
  • Bulganin Bulganin, Nikolai Aleksandrovich (1895-1975) Russian Minister of Defense 1947-1949 and 1953-1955. Chaired Special Committee 2 1947-1949. Chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers, and heavily involved in the negotiations over freedom of space issue for overflight of territories. More...
  • Vinogradov, Aleksandr Vinogradov, Aleksandr Pavlovich (1895-1975) Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Chemical and Analytical Chemistry. Specialised in lunar sample analysis. More...
  • Zhukov Zhukov, Georgiy Konstantinovich (1896-1974) Russian officer. Minister of Defence 1955-1957. More...
  • Schwarz, Robert Schwarz, Robert (1896-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. More...
  • Fedorov Fedorov, Petr Ivanovich (1898-1945) Russian officer. First Director of NII-l 1944-1945. Oversaw the early search for the A-4. More...
  • Zakharov Zakharov, Matvey Vasilyevich (1898-1972) Russian officer. Chief of Ministry of Defence General Staff 1960-1973. More...
  • Yakovlev, Nikolai Yakovlev, Nikolai Dmitryevich (1898-1972) Russian officer. Chief of Chief Artillery Directorate 1941-1948. More...
  • Leihfeld, Ludwig Leihfeld, Ludwig (1898-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Dept. 61/ Laboratory. More...
  • Broetler, Hugo Broetler, Hugo (1898-) German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Shop 55. More...
  • Malinovskiy Malinovskiy, Rodion Yakovlevich (1898-1967) Russian officer. Minister of Defence 1957-1967. Opponent of piloted space programs. More...
  • Voronov, Nikolai Voronov, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1899-1968) Russian officer. Commander of Artillery forces 1941-1950. Later became President of Academy of Artillery Sciences. More...
  • Beria Beria, Lavrenti Pavlovich (1899-1953) Georgian-Russian officer. Soviet security apparatus chief until toppled after death of Stalin 1953. In charge of Soviet development of nuclear weapons and rocketry, 1944-1953. More...
  • Nesmeyanov Nesmeyanov, Aleksandr Nikolayevich (1899-1980) Russian scientist. President of the Academy of Sciences 1951-1961. Approved the first satellite project. More...
  • Tschechner, Robert Tschechner, Robert (1899-) German specialist engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacture; Laboratory Department. More...
  • Agaltsov Agaltsov, Fillip Aleksandrovich (1900-1980) Russian officer. Air Force Deputy Commander-in-Chief 1958-1962. Directed the first selection of cosmonauts. More...
  • Vershinin Vershinin, Konstantin Andreyevich (1900-1973) Russian officer. Commander of Air Force 1957-1969. More...
  • Tikhonravov Tikhonravov, Mikhail Klavdiyevich (1900-1974) Pioneering Soviet engineer and space visionary. Designer at Nll-4 and Korolev design bureau. Leader in development of Sputnik and Vostok spacecraft. Also performed early ICBM work and was pioneering rocketeer at GIRD and Nll-3. More...
  • Putze, Oswald Putze, Oswald (1900-) German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Lavochkin Lavochkin, Semyon Alekseyevich (1900-1960) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of OKB-301 1937-1960 More...
  • Schuetz Schuetz, Wilhelm (1900-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Measurement technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Khrunichev Khrunichev, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1901-1961) Russian bureaucrat. Minister of Aviation Industries 1946-1953. Later in Gosplan. More...
  • Tumanskiy Tumanskiy, Sergei Konstantinovich (1901-1973) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1955-1973 of OKB-300. Specialised in aircraft turbine engines but also produced spacecraft attitude control engines. More...
  • Vitka Vitka, Vladimir Andreyevich (1901-1989) Russian engineer. First Deputy Chief Designer 1954-1961 of Glushko design bureau. Specialised in rocket engines. More...
  • Blass Blass, Josef (1901-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Engineer and German specialist in the Soviet Union. More...
  • Tumanyan Tumanyan, Gay Lazarevich (1901-1972) Russian officer. Major General, Commander of the political units of the KIK space tracking units 1961-1968. More...
  • Zubovich Zubovich, Ivan Gerasimovich (1901-1956) Russian government official. Deputy Minister of Armaments 1949-1951. Deputy Chairman of Special Committee 2. More...
  • Malenkov Malenkov, Georgi Maksimiliyanovich (1902-1988) Russian politician. First Chairman of Special Committee 2 1946-1947. Oversaw missile program. More...
  • Malyshev, Vyecheslav Malyshev, Vyecheslav Aleksandrovich (1902-1957) Russian politician. Minister of Medium Machine Building 1953-1955. First manager of the Soviet defence industry. More...
  • Boenisch, Friedrich Boenisch, Friedrich (1902-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Moskalenko, Kirill Moskalenko, Kirill Semenovich (1902-1985) Russian officer. Commander·in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1960-1962. Succeeded Nedelin. More...
  • Grevesmuehl, Alfred Grevesmuehl, Alfred (1902-) German scientist in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Director of Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Myasishchev Myasishchev, Vladimir Mikhailovich (1902-1978) Soviet Chief Designer 1951-1960 of OKB-23. Developed innovative M-4, M-50 bombers, Buran cruise missiles, and VKA spaceplane. Bureau merged with Chelomei, 1960. Later Director of TsAGI. Regained his own design bureau just before his death. More...
  • Nedelin Nedelin, Mitrofan Ivanovich (1902-1960) Russian officer. Deputy Minister of Defence 1955-1959. First Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1959-1964. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. More...
  • Lobedinskiy Lobedinskiy, Andrei Vladimirovich (1902-1965) Russian physician. First Director of IMBP 1963-1965 An early space medicine pioneer. More...
  • Rodimov Rodimov, Petr Vadilyevich (1902-1996) Russian officer. Colonel-General, professor, Chief of Mozhaiskiy Academy in Leningrad 1947-1969. Entered military in 1923. Graduated Zhukovskiy Academy 1932. After the war deputy commander of the 16th Air Army for Engineering Service. More...
  • Shavyrin Shavyrin, Boris Ivanovich (1902-1965) Russian engineer. From 1942-1965 Manager and Chief Designer of the Kolomna Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau. Designer of artillery and rocket equipment. More...
  • Umpfenbach, Joachim Umpfenbach, Joachim (1902-) German propulsion expert. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Ivashutin Ivashutin, Petr Ivanovich (1903-) Russian bureaucrat. First Deputy Chairman of KGB 1959-1963. GRU Chief 1963-1988. More...
  • Kurchatov Kurchatov, Igor Vasilyevich (1903-1960) Russian scientist. Father of Soviet atomic bomb at KB-11. Managed development of first hydrogen bomb. Design coordinated with Korolev's design bureau for use on R-7 ICBM. More...
  • Parin Parin, Vasili Vasilyevich (1903-1971) Russian physician. Director of IMBP 1965-1969. A leading space medicine specialist. More...
  • Krylov Krylov, Nikolai Ivanovich (1903-1972) Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief Strategic Missile Forces, 1963-1972. Opponent of piloted space programs. More...
  • Shubnikov Shubnikov, Georgi Maksimovich (1903-1965) Russian officer. Chief of Construction Directorate of Baikonur 1955-1965. More...
  • Knack, Wilhelm Knack, Wilhelm (1903-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Grechko, Andrei Grechko, Andrei Antonovich (1903-1976) Russian officer. Deputy Minister of Defence 1967-1976. Opponent of piloted space programs. More...
  • Kosberg Kosberg, Semyon Ariyevich (1903-1965) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1965 of OKB-154. Led work on engines for ICBMs and launchers. More...
  • Pokrovskiy Pokrovskiy, Aleksei Vasilyevich (1903-1988) Russian officer. Director of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine from the 1940s to 1959. More...
  • Shakhurin Shakhurin, Aleksei Ivanovich (1904-1975) Russian government official. People's Commissar for Aviation Industries 1940-1946. More...
  • Biryuzov Biryuzov, Sergei Semenovich (1904-1964) Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief of RVSN 1962-1963. More...
  • Rudenko Rudenko, Sergei Ignatyevich (1904-1990) Russian officer. First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Air Force 1958-1968. Oversaw cosmonaut training. More...
  • Tveretskiy Tveretskiy, Aleksandr Fedorovich (1904-1992) Russian officer. First Commander of Special Purpose Brigade (precursor to the Strategic Missile Forces), 1946-49. More...
  • Udarov Udarov, Grigori Rafailovich (1904-1991) Russian government official. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1979. Responsible for ground complexes. More...
  • Mikoyan Mikoyan, Artem Ivanovich (1905-1970) Russian Chief Designer, brother of Stalin's foreign minister, headed MiG design bureau, preeminent manufacturer of light Soviet fighters. Dabbled in rocketplanes and built and flew the MiG-105 Spiral spaceplane. More...
  • Mrykin Mrykin, Aleksandr Grigoryevich (1905-1972) Russian officer. First Deputy Commander of GURVO 1955-1965. Strategic Missile Forces liaison with space units. More...
  • Vetoshkin Vetoshkin, Sergei Ivanovich (1905-1991) Russian politician. First Deputy Chairman of Military-industrial Commission 1958-1965. Directorate Chief in Ministry of Armaments. More...
  • Serov Serov, Ivan Aleksandrovich (1905-1990) Russian government official. First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs. Chaired KGB 1954-1958. More...
  • Tsybin Tsybin, Paver Vladimirovich (1905-1992) Russian Chief Designer OKB-256 1945-1959. Designs: LL rocketplanes, RS Mach 3 ramjet aircraft, PKA spaceplane. Bureau closed, worked for Korolev on Vostok, Soyuz, AMS and Molniya satellites. Deputy Designer of Buran space shuttle, 1974-1992. More...
  • Iosifyian Iosifyian, Andronik Gevondovich (1905-1993) Armenian-Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1974 of Nll-627/VNIIEM. Specialised in power sources and remote-sensing spacecraft. More...
  • Burnazyan Burnazyan, Avetik Ignatyevich (1906-) Russian bureaucrat. Deputy Minister of Health from 1947. Involved in Voskhod crew selection. More...
  • Chechulin Chechulin, Petr Petrovich (1906-1971) Russian officer. Director of Nll-4 1951-1955 during early research on satellites. More...
  • Domrachev Domrachev, Aleksandr Vasiliyevich (1906-1961) Russian bureaucrat. First Chairman of GKOT 1951-1958. Participated in Baikonur's selection. More...
  • Voronin Voronin, Grigoriy Ivanovich (1906-1987) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1939-1985 of OKB-124. Specialised in life support systems for spacecraft. More...
  • Gonor Gonor, Lev Robertovich (1906-1969) Russian bureaucrat. First Director of Nll-88 1946-1950. Dismissed 1950. More...
  • Vitruk Vitruk, Andrei Avksentyevich (1906-1987) Russian officer. Major General, Chief of KIK Space Tracking Network 1956-1959. Served in WW2. Assigned to 4-NII MO military space research institute in 1955. Invalided from the service in August 1962. More...
  • Winskowski, Henrik Winskowski, Henrik (1906-) German design engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Korolev Korolev, Sergei Pavlovich (1907-1966) Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for creating the first long range ballistic missiles, the first space launchers, the first artificial satellite, and putting the first man in space. After his premature death the Soviets lagged in space. More...
  • Ryabikov Ryabikov, Vasili Mikhailovich (1907-1974) Russian government official. Chief of Third Chief Directorate of Council of Ministers 1951-1953. Chaired Military-Industrial Commission 1955-1957and Sputnik State Commission. More...
  • Dementiev Dementiev, Petr Vasilyevich (1907-1977) Russian politician. Minister of Aviation Industry 1953-1977. Supporter of Chelomei. More...
  • Sisakyan Sisakyan, Norair Martirosovich (1907-1966) Russian scientist. Early space medicine specialist at the Second Division of Biological Sciences under the Academy of Sciences. More...
  • Pobedonostsev Pobedonostsev, Yuri Aleksandrovich (1907-1973) Russian engineer. Chief Engineer 1946-49 of Nll-88. Later Chief Engineer of Nll-125. More...
  • Schierhorn, Walter Schierhorn, Walter (1907-) German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55. More...
  • Butoma Butoma, Boris Yevstafyevich (1907-1976) Russian bureaucrat. Minister of Shipbuilding Industry 1957-1976. More...
  • Sedov Sedov, Leonid Ivanovich (1907-) Russian scientist. Chaired the Commission for Promotion of Interplanetary Flights. Public spokesman for the Soviet space program. More...
  • Jaffke Jaffke, Heinz (1907-) German architect. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Building engineer; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Tsirulnikov Tsirulnikov, Mikhail Yurevich (1907-1990) Russian engineer. First manager of the Perm Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau (later NPO Iskra). Designer of artillery systems, solid propellant missiles, and engine units. More...
  • Voznyuk Voznyuk, Vasili Ivanovich (1907-1976) Russian officer. Commander of Kapustin Yar from 1946 to 1973. More...
  • Volynkin Volynkin, Yuvenaliy Mikhailovich (1907-) Russian officer. Director of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine 1960-1969. More...
  • Bakhchivangi Bakhchivangi, Grigori Yakovlevich (1908-1943) Russian test pilot, 1935-1943. Set 1943 world speed record in BI-1 rocketplane, but killed when it crashed. More...
  • Lyulka Lyulka, Arkhip Mikhailovich (1908-1984) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1946-1981 of OKB-165. Specialised in cryogenic engines for the N1. More...
  • Nesterenko Nesterenko, Aleksei Ivanovich (1908-1995) Russian officer. First Director of Nll-4 1946-1950. First Commander of Baikonur 1955-1958. More...
  • Chwalczyk, Rudolf Chwalczyk, Rudolf (1908-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55. More...
  • Pilyugin Pilyugin, Nikolai Alekseyevich (1908-1982) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1948-1982 of Nll-885 and NII AP. Specialised in missile and spaceship guidance. More...
  • Petrovskiy Petrovskiy, Boris Vasilyevich (1908-) Russian physician. Minister of Health from 1965 to 1980. Operated on Korolev. More...
  • Kozlov, Frol Kozlov, Frol Romanovich (1908-1965) Russian politician. Secretary of Central Committee for defence and space 1960-1963. More...
  • Raspletin Raspletin, Aleksandr Andreyevich (1908-1967) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1953-1967 of KB-1. Contributed to the RORSAT, EORSAT, and ASAT programs. More...
  • Kalmykov Kalmykov, Valeriy Dmitriyevich (1908-1974) Russian bureaucrat. Minister of Radio-Technical Industry 1954-1974. More...
  • Glushko Glushko, Valentin Petrovich (1908-1989) Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for all large liquid propellant engines for missiles and LVs. Led Glushko bureau, 1946-1974; Headed NPO Energia 1974-1989, directing development of Energia launch vehicle and Buran spaceplane. More...
  • Kamanin Kamanin, Nikolai Petrovich (1908-1982) Russian VVS Officer, first commander of Soviet cosmonaut detachment 1960-1971. Advocate of piloted spaceflight, fought constantly for VVS role in space, blamed loss of space race on Korolev's insistence on using automated systems. More...
  • Isayev Isayev, Aleksei Mikhailovich (1908-1971) Soviet Chief Designer at OKB-2, 1947-1971. Developed storable rocket engines for missiles, supplying innovative engines for Scuds, SLBM's. Leading designer of restartable space engines for satellites, manned spacecraft, and space stations. More...
  • Ustinov Ustinov, Dmitri Fedorovich (1908-1984) Russian politician. Primary manager of the Soviet missile and space programs 1946-1976. In charge of development of Soviet rocketry 1946-1957. Chairman of the VPK 1957-1963. Secretary of Central Committee for Defence and Space 1965-1976. More...
  • Semenov Semenov, Anatoli Ivanovich (1908-1973) Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1954-1964. More...
  • Bondaryuk Bondaryuk, Mikhail Makarovich (1908-1969) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1950-1969 of OKB-670. Specialised in ramjet engines, including the large systems designed for Burya and Buran. More...
  • Drobov Drobov, Serfaim Alekseyevich (1908-1995) Russian officer. Lieutenant-General, leading Soviet scientist in area of space communications. From 1944-1971 head of radio-technical faculty at Mozhaiskiy Academy. Retired 1971. More...
  • Ivensen Ivensen, Pavel Albertovich (1908-) Russian engineer. Participated in the early development of Proton and Salyut. Chelomei design bureau engineer. More...
  • Khristianovich Khristianovich, Sergei Aleksandrovich (1908-) Russian scientist. Specialised in ICBMs at TsAGI 1942-1953 From 1953 worked at the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. More...
  • Kotelnikov Kotelnikov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1908-) Russian engineer. At OKB MEI 1947-1954 and then at the Institute of Radio Technology and Electronics. More...
  • Alekseyev, Semyon Alekseyev, Semyon Mikhailovich (1909-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1952-1973 of OKB Zvezda. Specialised in design of spacesuits and airlocks. More...
  • Barmin Barmin, Vladimir Pavlovich (1909-1993) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1993 of GSKB SpetsMash; pre-eminent Soviet designer of rocket launch complexes. More...
  • Ryazanskiy Ryazanskiy, Mikhail Sergeyevich (1909-1987) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1946-1951 and 1955-1987 of Nll-885. Specialised in missile and spacecraft radio guidance. More...
  • Lozino-Lozinskiy Lozino-Lozinskiy, Gleb Yevgenyevich (1909-2001) Russian Chief Designer of spaceplanes, headed NPO Molniya 1976-2001. Developed the Buran space shuttle and MAKS spaceplane. Earlier had headed the Spiral spaceplane project at MiG 1965-1976. More...
  • Dmitriev Dmitriev, Igor Fedorovich (1909-) Russian engineer. First Deputy Chief, Central Committee Defence Industries Department, 1965-1981. Succeeded Serbin. More...
  • Lobanov Lobanov, Nikolai Aleksandrovich (1909-1978) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1968-1977 of NIEI PDS. Specialised in parachutes and succeeded Tkachev. More...
  • Matthes Matthes, Franz (1909-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Chemist; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. More...
  • Litvinov Litvinov, Valentin Yakovlevich (1910-1983) Russian government official. Director of Progress Plant 1944-1962. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1973. More...
  • Serbin Serbin, Ivan Dmitryevich (1910-1981) Russian government official. Chief of Defence lndustries Department 1958-1981. More...
  • Okhapkin Okhapkin, Sergei Osipovich (1910-1980) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1952-1976 of Korolev design bureau. Led work on the N1 and was Mishin's First Deputy. More...
  • Haase, Heinz Haase, Heinz (1910-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Graduate engineer who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Deputy in charge of the Oxygen Plant. More...
  • Anokhin Anokhin, Sergei Nikolayevich (1910-1986) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1966-1968. More...
  • Utkin, Ivan Utkin, Ivan Ivanovich (1910-1985) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1960-1970 of NII IT. Specialised in spacecraft memory data recorders. More...
  • Vernov Vernov, Sergei Nikolayevich (1910-1982) Russian scientist. Director of NII-Yash of Moscow State University 1960-1982. Specialised in science experiments. More...
  • Sokolov Sokolov, Andrei Illarionovich (1910-1976) Russian officer. Director of Nll-4 during the early space program 1955-1970. More...
  • Pashkov Pashkov, Georgi Nikolayevich (1911-) Russian government official. Deputy Chairman of Military-Industrial Commission 1957-1970. Worked in Gosplan Second Department 1946-1955. More...
  • Keldysh Keldysh, Mstislav Vsevolodovich (1911-1978) Chief Theoretician of the Soviet missile and space programmes, 1946-1978. Played a key role in virtually every space project decision until his death. He was President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR from 1961 to 1975. More...
  • Rudnev Rudnev, Konstantin Nikolayevich (1911-1980) Russian government official. Director of NII-88 1950-1952. Chaired GKOT 1958-1961. More...
  • Kuznetsov Kuznetsov, Nikolai Dmitriyevich (1911-1995) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1949-1994 of OKB-276. More...
  • Yangel Yangel, Mikhail Kuzmich (1911-1971) Soviet Chief Designer 1954-1971 of OKB-586. Preeminent designer of ballistic missiles and light satellites. His Ukraine bureau designed the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's; the heavy R-16, R-36, and R-36M ICBM's; and the Zenit space launcher, More...
  • Gaidukov, Lev Gaidukov, Lev Mikhailovich (1911-) Russian officer. Soviet Lieutenant General, headed group that acquired German rocket technology and engineers, 1945-1946. In 1949 made Chief of State Commissions for rocket testing; in 1960 named head of the Second Directorate of the RVSN. More...
  • Trubachev Trubachev, Pavel Yefimovich (1911-1981) Russian officer. Major General, Chief of Directorate of GURVO 1963-1970. In 1945-1946 part of team recovering rocket technology in Germany. After that worked in NII-88. More...
  • Chertok Chertok, Boris Yevseyevich (1912-) Pioneering Russian guidance and control engineer, key member of Korolev's design team 1946-1992. Deputy Chief Designer 1956-1992, created Soyuz and N1 LV control systems. His frank biography is a key source for Soviet space history. More...
  • Drews, Erich Drews, Erich (1912-) German coppersmith in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Department Laboratory. More...
  • Petrov, Georgi Petrov, Georgi Ivanovich (1912-1987) Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Space Research 1965-1973. Conducted aerodynamic research at NII-1 before being named Director. More...
  • Pilz, Arthur Pilz, Arthur (1912-) German master mechanic in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Test Bench; Laboratory Department. More...
  • Zverev Zverev, Sergei Alekseyevich (1912-1978) Russian government official. Chairman of GKOT 1963-1965. More...
  • Brezhnev Brezhnev, Leonid I (1912-1982) Russian politician. Leader of the Soviet Union between 1965 and 1982. More...
  • Konopalev Konopalev, Boris Mikhailovich (1912-1960) Russian engineer. Specialised in guidance at Nll-885, Nll-695, and OKB-692. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. More...
  • Magnus, Kurt Magnus, Kurt (1912-) German professor. Member of German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Gyroscope technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Nudelman Nudelman, Aleksandr Emmanuelovich (1912-1996) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1965-1987 of OKB8-16. Pre-eminent designer of aircraft guns in the Soviet Union. Adapted his aircraft designs for self-defence space guns for Kozlov's Soyuz VI and Chelomei's Almaz spacecraft. More...
  • Stroyev Stroyev, Nikolai Sergeyevich (1912-1997) Russian engineer. Director of Gromov LII 1954-1966. Specialised in spacecraft testing and later was on VPK Military-Industrial Commission. More...
  • Tonkikh Tonkikh, Fedor Petrovich (1912-1987) Russian officer. 1969-1985, Chief, Dzerzhinskiy Military Academy. Colonel-General, doctor of military science, professor. After WW2 action, service in artillery forces. From 1960 deputy chief commander of the rocket forces for readiness. More...
  • Tabakov Tabakov, Gleb Mikhailovich (1912-1993) Russian government official. Director of NII-229 1958-1963. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1981. More...
  • Yazdovskiy Yazdovskiy, Vladimir Ivanovich (1913-) Russian physician. Deputy Director of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. Space medicine pioneer. More...
  • Petrov, Boris Petrov, Boris Nikolayevich (1913-1980) Russian engineer, Department Chief 1951-1980 of the Institute of Control Problems, chair of the Inter-Cosmos Council, which promoted cooperation in space among eastern European nations during the height of the Cold War, 1966-1980. More...
  • Nosov Nosov, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1913-1960) Russian officer. Chief of launch command of Baikonur 1955-1958. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. More...
  • Kuznetsov, Viktor Kuznetsov, Viktor Ivanovich (1913-1991) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1946-1989 of Nll-10 and NII-44. Specialised in missile and spaceship gyroscopes. More...
  • Bogomolov Bogomolov, Aleksei Fedorovich (1913-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1954-1988 of OKB MEI. More...
  • Voskresenskiy Voskresenskiy, Leonid Aleksandrovich (1913-1965) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1953-1964 of Korolev design bureau. More...
  • Ishlinskiy Ishlinskiy, Aleksandr Yulevich (1913-) Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Mechanics 1964-1989. Prepared space communiqués. More...
  • Eiseler, Hans Eiseler, Hans (1913-) German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Budnik Budnik, Vasili Sergeyevich (1913-) Russian engineer. First Deputy Designer of KB Yuzhnoye 1954-1972. More...
  • Baryshev Baryshev, Vladimir Mikhailovich (1913-1992) Russian engineer. Designer of automated check-out and launch systems. Deputy General Designer and Chief of Filial 2 of TsKB Mashinostroenniye. More...
  • Eidis Eidis, Arkadiy lonovich (1913-) Russian engineer. Chelomei's First Deputy General Designer. Headed Chelomei design bureau Filial 3 1962-1965. More...
  • Hoch Hoch, Johannes (1913-1955) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Flight control technician; worked in the Soviet Union after WW2. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Kirillin Kirillin, Vladimir Alekseyevich (1913-1999) Russian physicist, Deputy Chairmen of the Council of Ministers and Chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology 1965-1980. More...
  • Toebe Toebe, Konrad (1913-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Engineer, German airplane and rocket technician; worked in the Soviet Union. More...
  • Albring Albring, Werner (1914-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. More...
  • Gallay Gallay, Mark Lazarevich (1914-1998) Russian test pilot. Led training at the Cosmonaut Training Centre, Test pilot of Gromov Lll. More...
  • Nadiradze Nadiradze, Aleksandr Davidovich (1914-1987) Russian chief designer. Director and Chief Designer of the Moscow Institute for Thermal Technology 1961-1987. Pioneering developer of Soviet solid propellant missiles. More...
  • Bushuyev Bushuyev, Konstantin Davidovich (1914-1978) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer to Korolev, 1954-1975. More...
  • Chelomei Chelomei, Vladimir Nikolayevich (1914-1984) Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft. More...
  • Kutakhov Kutakhov, Pavel Stepanovich (1914-) Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief of Air Force 1969-1984. Succeeded Vershinin. More...
  • Tyulin Tyulin, Georgi Aleksandrovich (1914-1990) Russian officer. First Deputy Chairman of GKOT 1961-1965. First Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1976. Chaired many State Commissions. More...
  • Babakin Babakin, Georgi Nikolayevich (1914-1971) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of Lavochkin design bureau, 1965-1971. More...
  • Tolubko Tolubko, Vladimir Fedorovich (1914-1989) Russian officer. First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1960-1968. Commander-in-Chief 1972-1985. More...
  • Alekseyev, Nikolai Alekseyev, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1914-1980) Russian officer. Marshal of Communications Forces, 1970; Deputy Minister of Defence for Armaments 1970-1980. More...
  • Elyasberg Elyasberg, Pavel Yefrimovich (1914-1988) Russian officer. From 1968 Head of the Institute for Space Research of the Academy of Sciences. Colonel, Lenin Prize laureate, doctor of technical science, professor, scientific consultant to 4-NII-MO 1959-1968. More...
  • Sergeyev Sergeyev, Vladimir Grigoryevich (1914-) Russian officer. From 1966 General Director and Chief Designer for OKB-692 GKRE (later NPO Elktropribot, Kharkov). Designer of control systems for missiles and space launchers. More...
  • Struminskiy Struminskiy, Vladimir Vasilyevich (1914-) Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 1966-1971. Specialised in liquid hydrogen. More...
  • Goreglyad Goreglyad, Leonid Ivanovich (1915-1986) Russian officer. General Staff representative of the Cosmonaut Training Centre Aide to Kamanin. More...
  • Raushenbakh Raushenbakh, Boris Viktorovich (1915-) Russian engineer. Department Chief 1960-1973 of Korolev design bureau. Specialised in guidance systems. More...
  • Brezhnev, Mikhail Brezhnev, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Russian politician. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building. Responsible for guidance systems industry. More...
  • Trifanov Trifanov, Yuri Nikolayevich Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Chelomei design bureau Filial 1. Later management positions at NPO Energia and NPO Lavochkin. More...
  • Poletaev Poletaev, Boris Ivanovich Russian engineer. General Director and Chief Designer of KB Arsenal Developed naval artillery, missiles, and satellites. More...
  • Pallo Pallo, Vladimir Vladimirovich Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Chelomei Bureau Filial 1. Led work on the DOS and Salyut stations. More...
  • Khomyakov Khomyakov, Mikhail Stepanovich Russian engineer. Deputy General Designer of NPO Energia. At Korolev design bureau, he was lead designer for Sputnik. More...
  • Gurovskiy Gurovskiy, Nikolai Nikolayevich Russian physician. Deputy Director of IMBP. Began as physician at the Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine. More...
  • Kartukov Kartukov, Ivan Ivanovich Russian chief designer. Chief Designer of KB-2 of Factory 81. Specialised in solid-propellant engines for spacecraft. More...
  • Rashkov Rashkov, Semen Yuvelevich Soviet Engineer. Soviet rocket engineer. More...
  • Kostin Kostin, PaveI Ivanovich Soviet Engineer. Soviet rocket engineer More...
  • Nitochkin Nitochkin, Aleksei Alekseyevich Russian officer. Engineer at TsPI-31. Designed Baikonur launch range. More...
  • Shurygin Shurygin, Viktor Aleksandrovich Russian engineer. Director and General Designer of TsKB Titan, Volgograd. Designer of missile launchers. More...
  • Groettrup Groettrup, Helmut (1916-1981) German engineer. Head of German design group held in Russia German rocket guidance expert, worked at Peenemuende and later headed German rocket team in Russia, 1945-1953. Headed the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Smirnov Smirnov, Leonid Vasilyevich (1916-) Russian government official. Chaired the Military-Industrial Commission 1963-1985. Director of YuzhMash Plant 1952-1961. More...
  • Alpaidze Alpaidze, Galaktion Yeliseyevich (1916-) Georgian-Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief of the Plesetsk launch centre, 1963-1975. More...
  • Bykov Bykov, Yuri Sergeyevich (1916-1970) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1959-1970 of Nll-95. Specialised in communications systems for piloted spacecraft. More...
  • Korneyev Korneyev, Ivan Ivanovich (1916-) Russian officer. Major General, Chief of 4 NII MO and 50 TsNII KS from 1970-1975. More...
  • Lidorenko Lidorenko, Nikolai Stepanovich (1916-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer of NII IT. Specialised in power sources for spacecraft, including Sputnik. More...
  • Sheremetyevskiy Sheremetyevskiy, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1916-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1974-1991 of losifyan design bureau. Specialised in power sources and earth survey satellites. More...
  • Mishin Mishin, Vasili Pavlovich (1917-2001) Soviet Chief Designer, superseding Korolev, 1966-1974. Led the bureau in the flight test stages of the L1 and N1-L3 manned lunar programs, the Soyuz, and the Salyut space station. Replaced by Glushko after failures in all of these programs. More...
  • Tyurin, Petr Tyurin, Petr Aleksandrovich (1917-2000) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1953-1981 of KB Arsenal. Specialised in L3 components and later performed EORSAT work. More...
  • Izotov Izotov, Sergei Petrovich (1917-1983) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1960-1983 of OKB- 117. Although predominately an aircraft turbine engine designer, he also developed the engines for Chelomei's UR-100 missile and LK-700 manned lunar lander. More...
  • Klippel, Alfred Klippel, Alfred (1917-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Electrical Circuits; Shop 55. More...
  • Grigoryev Grigoryev, Mikhail (1917-1981) Russian officer. First Commander of Plesetsk 1957-1962. More...
  • Apel Apel, Erich (1917-1965) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. More...
  • Borisenko Borisenko, Mikahil Ivanovich (1917-1984) Russian designer of missile radio control systems, 1946-1975 developed radio control systems for R-1, R-2, R-5, and R-7 missiles and satellites at the Moscow Scientific Research Radio Technical Institute (MPSS). Director of MPSS 1975-1984. More...
  • Boguslavskiy Boguslavskiy, Yevgeni Yakovlevich (1917-1969) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1950-1969 of Ryazanskiy design bureau. Specialised in spacecraft guidance systems. More...
  • Sirobaba Sirobaba, Ya Ya (1917-) Russian officer. Deputy Commander for Research for KIK Space Tracking Network 1971-1975. More...
  • Likhushin Likhushin, Valentin Yakovlevich (1918-1982) Russian engineer. Director of NII-1 1955-1988. Specialised in advanced engines. More...
  • Kisunko Kisunko, Grigoriy Vasilyevich (1918-1998) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1953-1975 of KB-1 and later of OKB-30. Led work on early anti-ballistic missiles and ASATs. More...
  • Meier, Otto Meier, Otto (1918-) German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Laboratory Department. More...
  • Smirnitskiy Smirnitskiy, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1918-1993) Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1967-1975. Thereafter moved to Ministry of General Machine Building. More...
  • Afanasyev, Sergei Afanasyev, Sergei Aleksandrovich (1918-) Russian politician. First Minister of General Machine Building, in charge of the Soviet ballistic rocket and space industries, from 1965-1983. More...
  • Karas Karas, Andrei Grigoryevich (1918-1979) Russian officer, Commander, TsUKOS / GUKOS 1965-1979. Ended WW2 as commander of an artillery corps. After study at Dzerzhinsky, assigned to Kapustin Yar from 1951, followed by assignments at 4 NIIP MO and Baikonur. Chief of TsKIK 1959-1965. More...
  • Morozov, Viktor Morozov, Viktor Pavlovich (1918-1981) Russian officer. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Fortes 1962-1967. More...
  • Baum, Werner Baum, Werner (1918-) German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952 as Deputy of the Chief and Technical Designer; Dept. 61. More...
  • Mnatsakanian Mnatsakanian, Armen Sergeyevich (1918-1992) Armenian-Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1953-1969 of Nll-648. Specialised in spacecraft telemetry and radar systems. More...
  • Gazenko Gazenko, Oleg Georgyevich (1918-) Russian physician. Director of IMBP 1969-1988. Performed early work on space medicine. More...
  • Gerchik Gerchik, Konstantin Vasilyevich (1918-) Russian officer. Colonel-General, Commander of the RVSN Strategic Rocket Forces from August 1972 to 1979. More...
  • Ivanov, Ivan Ivanov, Ivan (1918-) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Yangel design bureau. Led work on the engine for the LK manned lunar lander. More...
  • Katerinich Katerinich, Mikhail Mikhailovich (1918-) Russian officer. Major-General, veteran of early rocketry activities at Kapustin Yar from 1949. More...
  • Kryukov Kryukov, Sergei Sergeyevich (1918-) Russian chief designer. Deputy Chief Designer 1961-1965 of Korolev design bureau. Chief Designer 1971-1977 of Lavochkin design bureau. More...
  • Nenashev Nenashev, Mikhail Ivanovich (1918-1994) Russian officer. Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Fourth Chief Directorate of the Ministry of Defence (1964-1987). Managed anti-missile and anti-satellite forces of the PVO. More...
  • Paton Paton, Boris Yevgenyevich (1918-) Russian engineer. Director of Institute of Electrical Welding from 1953. Developed equipment for N1 fabrication and the Vulkan space welding unit. More...
  • Rosselevich Rosselevich, Igor Aleksandrovich (1918-1991) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1954-1983 of Nll-380. Specialised in television systems for spacecraft More...
  • Statsenko Statsenko, Igor Demyanovich (1918-1987) Russian officer. Major General, Commander of the KIK space tracking forces 1971-1975. After service in WW2, ascending positions in antiaircraft forces. Moved to RVSN in 1961. More...
  • Spitsa Spitsa, Ivan Ivanovich (1919-1992) Russian officer. Commander of TsKIK 1965-1973. More...
  • Tannhaeuser, Rosemarie Tannhaeuser, Rosemarie (1919-) German manager. Member of the German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Secretary who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Secretary in Dept. 61/Shop 55. More...
  • Reinhard, Siegfried Reinhard, Siegfried (1919-) German designer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61. More...
  • Bogomolov, Vladislav Bogomolov, Vladislav Nikolayevich (1919-1997) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1971-1985 of Isayev rocket engine design bureau. Succeeded Isayev after his death. More...
  • Melnikov Melnikov, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1919-1996) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1960-1974 at Korolev design bureau. Specialised in engines, including Blok D. More...
  • Kozlov Kozlov, Dmitri Ilich (1919-) Russian Chief Designer. Lead Designer for the R-7 ICBM, then headed Samara bureau for production engineering for the Soyuz rocket, Zenit and Yantar reconnaisance satellites. More...
  • Knittel, Heinz Knittel, Heinz (1919-) German precision mechanic, in the rocket team in Russia. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's bureau 1947-1952 in the Test Bench and Laboratory Departments. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Kerimov Kerimov, Kerim Aliyevich (1919-) Russian officer. First Commander of TsUKOS 1964-1965. Directorate Chief of Ministry of General Machine Building 1965-1974. More...
  • Abramov, Anatoli Abramov, Anatoli Petrovich (1919-1998) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1966-1980 of Korolev design bureau. Specialised in launch complexes. More...
  • Votintsev Votintsev, Yuri Vsevolodovich (1919-) Russian officer. First Commander of PRO/PKO forces 1967-1985. Commanded ABM and ASAT forces. More...
  • Asimov Asimov, Isaac (1920-1992) Jewish-American writer. Writer of science fiction and popular science. More...
  • Savin Savin, Anatoli Ivanovich (1920-) Russian chief designer. General Designer from 1962 of KB-1 and TsNII Kometa. Specialised in the hardware for the Soviet RORSAT. EORSAT, and ASAT programs. More...
  • Neumeister, Lisa Neumeister, Lisa (1920-) Wife of a German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked as a translator for rocket engine developers in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. More...
  • Mozzhorin Mozzhorin, Yuri Aleksandrovich (1920-1998) Russian officer. Director of Nll-88 1961-1990. Oversaw Soviet space policy. More...
  • Avduyevskiy Avduyevskiy, Vsevolod Sergeyevich (1920-) Russian scientist. First Deputy Director of TsNIIMash 1973-1987. Scientist at NII-1 1953-1973. More...
  • Druzhinin Druzhinin, Mikhail Ivanovich (1920-1996) Russian officer. Colonel-General, Head of the Political Section at Baikonur 1963-1969. More...
  • Grishin Grishin, Lev Arkhipovich (1920-1960) Russian bureaucrat. Deputy Chairman of GKOT 1958-1960. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. More...
  • Kuznetsov, M F Kuznetsov, Mikhail Fedorovich (1920-1979) Russian officer, Chief of third directorate of GUKOS 1970-1977. Forward air controller on Western Front in WW2. Entered Third Directorate GURVO in October 1960. Made great improvements in KIK space tracking system during his tenure. More...
  • Levin Levin, Grigoriy Isaakovich (1920-1985) Russian officer, Deputy Chief of Control at Filial 4 of 4 NII MO 1968-1972. Key role in developing first research and operations plans for Soviet Space Forces (Shchit and Osnova). Invalided from military in 1972; then worked at NPO Elas MEP. More...
  • Bolshoi Bolshoi, Amos Aleksandrovich Russian officer. Department Chief of TsKIK. Led flight control teams for early missions. More...
  • Blokhin Blokhin, Yuri Dmitryevich Russian engineer. Head of Mikoyan KB space section. Worked on the Spiral spaceplane. More...
  • Radovskiy Radovskiy, Viktor Petrovich (1920-) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-456. Specialised in rocket engines and succeeded Glushko 1989. More...
  • Shabalin Shabalin, Vladimir Alekseyevich (1920-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, from 1970 Chief Designer and Director of MNII for Automatic Equipment. From 1954 to 1958 senior scientific specialist in NII-5 GAU. Developed systems for KIK space tracking and control network. More...
  • Tuchkov Tuchkov, Leonid Timofeyevich (1920-) Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Chief of the Mozhaiskiy Military Engineering Institute 1971-1986. More...
  • Zaslovskiy Zaslovskiy, Mark Yefimovich (1920-1995) Russian engineer. Chief of Section and Chief Designer of GOSNIITsRTI Minradioprom. Began work with Yangel at the end of the 1950's on electronic systems for satellites. More...
  • Karpov Karpov, Yevgeni Anatolyevich (1921-1990) Russian officer. First Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre 1960-1963. More...
  • Kovtunenko Kovtunenko, Vyecheslav Mikhailovich (1921-1995) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer of NPO Lavochkin 1977-1995. Kovtunenko started his career at the Yangel design bureau, where was responsible for satellite design. More...
  • Vasilyev Vasilyev, Anatoli Alekeseyevich (1921-1973) Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1964-1967. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Forces 1967-1969. More...
  • Bokov Bokov, Vsevolod Andreyevich (1921-) Russian officer. Major General, Chief of Directorate at GUKOS space forces 1970-1980. More...
  • Kalashnikov Kalashnikov, Aleksei Sergeyevich (1921-) Russian officer; after service in WW2, assigned to GAU section monitoring missile work of OKB-1. Worked in ascending positions at Kapustin Yar 1951-1960, then at GURVO staff 1961-1981. From 1981 deputy chief of NPO Geofizika. More...
  • Moiseyev Moiseyev, Yevgenity Georgeyevich (1921-) Russian officer. Colonel, Chief of Sixth Trials Directorate of 5 NIIP MO at Baikonur, 1967-1974. More...
  • Martynov Martynov, Ivan Moiseyevich (1921-) Russian officer. Major-General. Deputy Chief and Chief of the Political Units for the KIK space tracking forces in 1969-1980. More...
  • Odintsov Odintsov, Mikhail Petrovich (1921-) Russian officer. Director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre 1963. Hated by the cosmonauts and relieved of duty after criticising the performance of Tereshkova. More...
  • Okhotsimskiy Okhotsimskiy, Dmitri Yevgenyevich (1921-) Russian scientist. Scientist at OPM MIAN. Conducted research work on an early ICBM. More...
  • Prokopov Prokopov, Nikolai Afansyevich (1921-1960) Russian officer, Deputy Chief Third Directorate of GURVO, 1960. Service in WW2; part of special team sent to Germany in 1946 to secure rocket technology. Active in overseeing development of liquid rocket technology. Died in Nedelin disaster. More...
  • Ustinov, N G Ustinov, Nikolai Grigoyevich (1921-) Russian officer. Colonel, worked at NII-4 from 1950 to 1976. After 1976 Senior Scientific Specialist for oceanography at the Academy of Sciences. Managed development of space tracking vessels Komarov, Gagarin, and Korolev. More...
  • Shabarov Shabarov, Yevgeni Vasilyevich (1922-) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer at Korolev design bureau. Led the flight testing of piloted spacecraft. More...
  • Gusev Gusev, Leonid Ivanovich (1922-) Russian engineer. Director of Nll-695. After 1965 Director of NIIP. Led work on guidance systems. More...
  • Shcheulov Shcheulov, Viktor Ivanovich (1922-) Russian officer, Deputy Chief Scientific Research Centre of the Ministry of Defence (1982-1983). From 1945, ascending positions in management of rocket development. Moved to space forces in 1961, worked with KIK space tracking network. More...
  • Fadeyev Fadeyev, Valentin Illarionovich (1922-1990) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Commander of the Baikonur Launch Centre, 1973-1979. More...
  • Konopatov Konopatov, Aleksandr Dmitriyevich (1922-) Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1965-1993 of the Kosberg design bureau. Led work on rocket engines. More...
  • Kurushin Kurushin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1922-) Russian officer. Commander of Baikonur 1965-1973. More...
  • Pleshakov Pleshakov, Petr Stepanovich (1922-1987) Russian government official. Director of TsNII-108 1958-1964. Minister of Radio Industry 1974-1987. More...
  • Bereznyak Bereznyak, Nikolai Ivanovich (1922-1991) Russian officer. Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Mozhaiskiy Military Engineering Academy, 1974-1977. Served in the rocket forces from 1961-1973. Retired 1977. More...
  • Genin Genin, Abram Moiseyevich (1922-) Russian officer. Directorate Chief of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine 1964-1975. More...
  • Ivanovskiy Ivanovskiy, Oleg Genrikhovich (1922-) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1971-1983 of Lavochkin design bureau. Began career at Korolev's bureau, working on Sputnik and Vostok. More...
  • Logachev Logachev, Anatoli Grigoryevich (1922-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Deputy Chief GUKOS Space Forces for political units 1974-1980. More...
  • Meshcheryakov Meshcheryakov, Ivan Vasiliyevich (1922-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief 50-TsNII KS military space research institute 1983-1988. More...
  • Mordovtsev Mordovtsev, Aleksei Filippovich (1922-) Russian officer. Colonel, Deputy Chief of Second Directorate of GUKOS 1970-1979. After WW2 service, worked with the Soviet Navy in anti-aircraft units. Transferred to GURVO in 1963. More...
  • Narimanov Narimanov, Georgiy Stepanovich (1922-1983) Russian engineer. Major-General, doctor of physics and mathematics, deputy chief of 4 NII-MO for scientific research (1959-1965). More...
  • Shlykov Shlykov, Nikolair Fedorovich (1922-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief Commander of KIK for Satellites at Golintso-2 1976-1988. More...
  • Yastrebov Yastrebov, Vladimir Dmitrevich (1922-) Russian officer. Colonel, Chief of Ballistic Control for the TsKIK Space Tracking Centre 1965-1972. More...
  • Zhukov, Nikolai Zhukov, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1922-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General; Chief of Staff for GUKOS Space Command 1982-1984 More...
  • Maksimov Maksimov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1923-1990) Russian officer. Deputy Chief of TsKIK. Later Commander of GUKOS / UNKS 1979-1989. More...
  • Utkin Utkin, Vladimir Fedorovich (1923-2000) Russian chief designer. Deputy Chief Designer 1961-1971 of Yangel design bureau. Succeeded Yangel as Chief Designer in 1971. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, left the Ukraine in 1990 to become head of TsAGI in Moscow. More...
  • Agadzhanov Agadzhanov, Pavel Artemyevich (1923-) Russian officer. Deputy Chief for Scientific Research at Central KIK Tracking Centre, 1957-1971. More...
  • Belyakov Belyakov, Anatoli Mikhailovich (1923-1986) Russian officer. Colonel, served at Kaputsin Yar from April 1947, at Baikonur from 1957. Key person in integration of pioneering spacecraft, including the early Luna probes, Vostok, Voskhod, and Salyut. Authored over 170 papers. More...
  • Nikolaenok Nikolaenok, Vladimir Adamovich (1923-) Russian officer. Colonel, Deputy Chief of 5 NIIP MO for space themes 1969-1976. More...
  • Pokrovskiy, Boris Pokrovskiy, Boris Antolyevich (1923-) Russian officer. Colonel, Deputy Chief of Center for the KIK Space Tracking System for Material Support. More...
  • Ostashev Ostashev, Yevgeni Ilich (1924-1960) Russian officer. First Directorate Chief of Baikonur 1956-1960. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe. More...
  • Benderov Benderov, Vladimir Nikolayevich (1924-1973) Russian test pilot. Graduated from the Zhukovsky, 1950. Worked as an engineer and senior test pilot for Tupolev. Flew MiG-21 Tu-144 wing testbed. Proposed on 1964.06.29 as cosmonaut for Voskhod flights, but not confirmed. Died in the crash of a Tu-144 supersonic transport during an aviation demonstration at the 1973 Paris Airshow in Le Bourget. More...
  • Makeyev Makeyev, Viktor Petrovich (1924-1985) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1985 of SKB-385. Leading designer of tactical and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Innovations included submerged engines, stellar-updated inertial navigation, and extendible nozzles. More...
  • Reshetnev Reshetnev, Mikhail Fedorovich (1924-1996) Russian engineer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1961-1996 of OKB-10, primary Soviet designer of communications and navigation satellites. More...
  • Kirillov Kirillov, Anatoli Semenovich (1924-1987) Russian officer. Chief of the First Directorate of Baikonur 1960-1967. More...
  • Bilenko Bilenko, Anton Petrovich (1924-1991) Russian engineer. General designer of satellite communications systems. Director of the Moscow Institute of Radio Communications 1977-1991. More...
  • Dmitriev, Pavel Dmitriev, Pavel Pavlovich (1924-) Russian officer. Director of Russian Institute for Radio Navigation and Timing, 1969-1984. Played key role in development of spacecraft timing and synchronisation systems and satellite navigation systems. More...
  • Kravtsov Kravtsov, Yuri Fedorovich (1924-1994) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Chief of the Main Directorate for Space Units of the Ministry of Defence 1979-1980. More...
  • Mogila Mogila, Anatoliy Iosifovich (1924-) Russian officer. Major-General, chief of the fourth trials directorate of 5 NIIP MO 1974-1980. Worked at Baikonur from 1958, participating in trials of the R-7, R-9, Proton, and Tsiklon rockets. More...
  • Samonov Samonov, Vladimir Ivanovich (1924-) Russian officer. Major General, Chief Engineer of GUKOS 1970-1980. In 1955 assigned to Baikonur, where participated in launch of first Sputnik, Vostok, and planetary probes. Responsible for completion of Zenit reconnaissance satellite. More...
  • Lapygin Lapygin, Vladimir Lavrentyevich (1925-) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer, then Chief Designer of Pilyugin design bureau. Specialised in guidance and succeeded Pilyugin 1982. More...
  • Belyayev Belyayev, Pavel Ivanovich (1925-1970) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 2. More...
  • Churkin Churkin, Anatoliy Vasilyevich (1925-) Russian engineer. General director and chief designer of the scientific research institute for sensor equipment 1981-1987. More...
  • Krylov, Yuri Krylov, Yuri Nikolayevich (1925-) Russian officer. Major General, Deputy for General Questions to the Chief, 50 TsNII KS military space research institute 1972-1973. More...
  • Kemurdzhian Kemurdzhian, Rleksandr Leonovich Russian engineer. Chief Designer of VNII-100. Specialised in robotic lunar rovers. More...
  • Shevchenko Shevchenko, Dmitri Panteyevich (1925-) Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Chief of GUKOS Space Forces for Political Units 1981-1984. More...
  • Sidorenko Sidorenko, Valentin I (1926-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1962-1963. Pilot, Soviet Air Force. Selected as a cosmonaut on 3 December 1962, but on 8 January 1963 and again on 13 December 1963 the government commission refused to approve the appointment. More...
  • Demin Demin, Lev Stepanovich (1926-1998) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 15. More...
  • Feoktistov Feoktistov, Konstantin Petrovich (1926-2009) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 1. First spacecraft designer in space. More...
  • Severin Severin, Gay Ilich (1926-2008) Russian engineer. Chief Designer and General Designer from 1961 of OKB Zvezda. Specialised in spacesuits and EVA airlocks. More...
  • Katys Katys, Georgiy Petrovich (1926-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1964-1972. More...
  • Letunov Letunov, Yuri Aleksandrovich (1926-1983) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1966. More...
  • Zudin Zudin, Boris Grigoryevich (1926-1985) Russian officer, Deputy Chief, Plesetsk Cosmodrome for Space 1981-1985. Began military service in November 1943. Completed Rizhsk Higher Aviation School, 1958; assigned to Plesetsk, worked in trials branch, becoming its chief in 1974. More...
  • Polukhin Polukhin, Dmitri Alekseyevich (1927-1993) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1973-1993 of Chelomei design bureau Filial 1. Led the development of Proton. More...
  • Komarov Komarov, Vladimir Mikhailovich (1927-1967) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 1, Soyuz 1. First person to die during spaceflight when the parachute lines of Soyuz 1 tangled and it crashed to earth. Cosmonaut training March 1960 - 3 April 1961. Call sign: Rubin (Ruby). More...
  • Matinchenko Matinchenko, Aleksandr Nikolayevich (1927-1999) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1972. More...
  • Dorofeyev Dorofeyev, Boris Arkadyevich (1927-1999) Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Korolev design bureau. Chief Designer for N1 rocket 1972-1974. He was demoted in 1974 after the cancellation of the N1 programme. More...
  • Shatalov Shatalov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1927-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4, Soyuz 8, Soyuz 10. Made first Soviet space docking. More...
  • Balmont Balmont, Boris Vladimirovich (1927-) Russian politician. First Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1976-1981. Chief of Chief Directorate of Ministry of General Machine Building 1965-1973. More...
  • Chinarev Chinarev, Avenir Alekseyevich (1927-) Russian officer. Major General, served 1956-1968 at 4-NII-MO, from 1968-1988 at 50 TsNII KS in ascending positions of responsibility. Conducted basic research that led to the designs and test requirements for a many spacecraft and boosters. More...
  • Ilyushin Ilyushin, Vladimir Sergeyevich Russian test pilot. Most tangible phantom cosmonaut, purported first man in orbit according to French press report two days before Gagarin. A real person and test pilot, but no evidence he ever flew in space or trained as a cosmonaut. More...
  • Panchenko Panchenko, Yevgeniy Ivanovich (1927-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, First Deputy Chief of Main Directorate of NKS 1986-1987. More...
  • Suvorov, Boris Suvorov, Boris Andreyevich (1927-) Russian officer, Secretary of the NKS Tracking Network Party Commission. Served in RVSN political units from 1959. In 1965-1970, political officer for the Yeniseisk IP tracking station. In 1970 entered service with GUKOS space forces. More...
  • Yershov Yershov, Valentin Gavriyilovich (1928-1998) Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1974. More...
  • Lazarev Lazarev, Vasili Grigoryevich (1928-1990) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch. More...
  • Filipchenko Filipchenko, Anatoli Vassilyevich (1928-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 7, Soyuz 16. More...
  • Dobrovolsky Dobrovolsky, Georgi Timofeyevich (1928-1971) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 11. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing. More...
  • Akunin Akunin, Vyacheslav Glebunivich (1928-1997) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Deputy Commander of Logistics for the Soviet Space Forces 1981-1986. More...
  • Karrask Karrask, Vladimir Konstantinovich (1928-2004) Russian chief designer. From 1964-1986 Deputy Chief Designer, and from 1986-1989 Chief Designer of KB Salyut. More...
  • Sulimov Sulimov, Oleg Aleksandrovich (1928-) Russian engineer. General Director and Chief Designer of the NPO for Measurement Technology from 1966. Received Lenin Prize for work on Buran. More...
  • Nikolayev Nikolayev, Andrian Grigoryevich (1929-2004) Chuvash-Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 3, Soyuz 9. First person to fly more than one day in space. Married Valentina Tereshkova, and fathered first child born to parents that had both flown in space. More...
  • Bululkov Bululkov, Vladimir Alekseyevich (1929-) Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Chief of the Mozhaiskiy Military Engineering Institute 1984-1989. More...
  • Filatyev Filatyev, Valentin Ignatyevich (1930-1990) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. More...
  • Gubanov Gubanov, Boris Ivanovich (1930-1999) Russian engineer. Leading manager at the Yangel and Korolev design bureaus, 1972-1993. More...
  • Artyukhin Artyukhin, Yuri Petrovich (1930-1998) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 14. Member of first military space station mission. More...
  • Yazdovsky Yazdovsky, Valeri Aleksandrovich (1930-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1968-1982. More...
  • Voronov Voronov, Anatoli Fyodorovich (1930-1993) Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1963-1979. More...
  • Kolodin Kolodin, Pyotr Ivanovich (1930-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1983. More...
  • Dolgov, Aleksey Dolgov, Aleksey Mikhailovich (1930-) Russian officer. Major General, served in key positions at Kapustin Yar, Baikonur, and the defence industry. More...
  • Onishchenko Onishchenko, Leonid Vasilyevich (1930-) Russian officer. From 1983 served in KIK space tracking units. Earlier developed a range of automated control systems for satellites, notably the Interkosmos and Glonass series. More...
  • Yashin Yashin, Yuri Alekseyevich (1930-) Russian officer. Chief of Plesetak Cosmodrome from 1975. More...
  • Yeltsin Yeltsin, Boris N (1930-2007) Russian politician, headed Russia 1991-1999. Under his tenure the Soviet programs collapsed, but Russian manned space technology base was kept alive through American funding of the International Space Station. More...
  • Yasinskiy Yasinskiy, Aleksandr Filippovich (1930-) Russian officer. Deputy Chief GNITs KS Space Tracking Centre for military operations 1982-1989. More...
  • Vorobyov Vorobyov, Lev Vasilyevich (1931-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1974. More...
  • Gubarev Gubarev, Aleksey Aleksandrovich (1931-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 17, Salyut 6 EP-2. More...
  • Sorokin Sorokin, Dr Aleksey Vasilyevich (1931-1976) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964-1964. Soviet Air Force Physician. On the staff of the cosmonaut training center, working in the field of aerospace medicine.Later head of department at several scientific institutes. More...
  • Grechko Grechko, Georgi Mikhailovich (1931-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 17, Salyut 6 EO-1, Salyut 7 EP-5. More...
  • Rebrov Rebrov, Mikhail Fedorovich (1931-1998) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1974. More...
  • Anisimov Anisimov, Dmitri Ivanovich (1931-) Russian officer. Major-General, Deputy Chief of 53-NIIP-MO for research, test, and scientific work 1974-1985. More...
  • Gorbachev Gorbachev, Mikhail S (1931-) Russian politician. Leader and diassembler of the Soviet Union, 1985-1989. He cancelled the Soviet Star Wars program. But as a result of the disintegration of the USSR, all Russian space development had ended by 1992. More...
  • Popovich, Marina Popovich, Marina Lavrentrevna Vasliyevna (1931-) Russian engineer at Antonov, VVS officer and test pilot, holder of 13 aviation world records, wife of cosmonaut Pavel Popovich, world-renowned UFO expert. More...
  • Pitskhelauri Pitskhelauri, Lado Vladimirovich (1932-) Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1965. Was married to cosmonaut Tatiyana Kuznetsova.. Engineer, Soviet Air Force. Selected as a cosmonaut in August 1965, but on 23 October 1965 the selection was nullified by a government commission. More...
  • Kuklin Kuklin, Anatoli Petrovich (1932-2006) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1975. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons (heart problems) in July 1975 . Worked on the General Staff of the Soviet Air Force until retirement in 1987. More...
  • Ponomaryov Ponomaryov, Yuri Anatolyevich (1932-2005) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Was married to astronaut Valentina Ponomaryova. More...
  • Degtyarov Degtyarov, Dr Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1932-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966. More...
  • Porvatkin Porvatkin, Nikolai Stepanovich (1932-2009) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Technical Air Force School, 1952. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy, Monino, 1960. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - 18 August 1967. Worked at NPO Energia. More...
  • Zaikin Zaikin, Dmitri Alekseyevich (1932-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1969. More...
  • Golovanov Golovanov, Yaroslav Kirillovich (1932-2003) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1965-1967. More...
  • Kartashov Kartashov, Anatoli Yakovlevich (1932-2005) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. More...
  • Burdayev Burdayev, Mikhail Nikolayevich (1932-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Air Force Engineering Academy, doctorate degree, 1987. Cosmonaut training from May 1967 - 18 August 1969. Worked as trainer at the Gagarin Center. Professor in space ballistics from 1994. More...
  • Rukavishnikov Rukavishnikov, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1932-2002) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 10, Soyuz 16, Salyut 6 EP-5-1. More...
  • Smirenny Smirenny, Dr Lev Nikolayevich (1932-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1986. Medical Doctor. Graduated from Moscow Physical-Engineering Institute, 1956. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Chief of a laboratory at IMBP. More...
  • Andropov, Dmitri Andropov, Dmitri Grigoryevich (1932-) Russian officer. Chief of the Directorate for the Main Direction of Forces of NKS Space Forces from 1987 to 1989. More...
  • Baklanov Baklanov, Oleg Dmitriyevich (1932-) Russian politician. Minister of General Machine Building 1983-1988. More...
  • Dokhov Dokhov, Mikhail Tutovich (1932-) Russian officer. Chief of Centre for Automated Systems at GNITs MO Space Tracking Centre 1982-1990. More...
  • Ivoninskiy Ivoninskiy, Gennadiy Sergeyevich (1932-) Russian officer. Major-General, Head of the Trials Directorate at Plesetsk, 1981-1985. Served in Kapustin Yar 1955-1963, then transferred to Plesetsk. More...
  • Saus Saus, Valentin Andreyeich (1932-) Russian officer. Deputy Chief GNITs KS Space Tracking Centre for Space Communications and Television 1977-1991. More...
  • Sagdeyev Sagdeyev, Roald Z (1932-) Russian astronomer, involved in virtually every lunar and planetary probe launched by the Soviet Union. More...
  • Makarov Makarov, Oleg Grigoryevich (1933-2003) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1, Salyut 6 EP-1, Salyut 6 EO-5. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch. More...
  • Bugrov Bugrov, Vladimir Yevgrafovich (1933-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1966-1968. More...
  • Kolomiytsev Kolomiytsev, Ordinard Panteleymonovich (1933-) Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • Anikeyev Anikeyev, Ivan Nikolayevich (1933-1992) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Left with Filatyev and Nelyubov after alcohol incident. After discharge, again served as Air Force pilot and then navigation officer for ground control services of the Soviet Air Force. More...
  • Patsayev Patsayev, Viktor Ivanovich (1933-1971) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Flew on Soyuz 11. Member of first crew to stay aboard a space station, however perished during landing. A street in Kaluga and Asteroid 1791 were named for him. More...
  • Alekseyev Alekseyev, Vladimir Borisovich (1933-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. More...
  • Khrunov Khrunov, Yevgeni Vassilyevich (1933-2000) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4/5. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft. More...
  • Ponomaryova Ponomaryova, Valentina Leonidovna (1933-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. Was married to astronaut Yuri Ponomaryov. More...
  • Rafikov Rafikov, Mars Zakirovich (1933-2000) Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1962. More...
  • Adasko Adasko, Vladimir Iosifiyanovich (1933-1963) Russian engineer. Talented engineer of electro-mechanical systems. Director of VNIIEM, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics in 1991-1993. More...
  • Yefremov Yefremov, Gerbert Aleksandrovich (1933-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer, Chelomei design bureau, 1971-2000 More...
  • Zhukov, Yuri Zhukov, Yuri Averkovich (1933-) Russian officer. Commander of Baikonur Cosmodrome 1983-1989. More...
  • Khrushchev, Sergei Khrushchev, Sergei Nikitich (1934-) Russian engineer. Deputy Department Chief 1958-1968 of Chelomei design bureau. Son of Nikita Khrushchev. More...
  • Gagarin Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevich (1934-1968) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 1. First person in space. Due to his fame, the Soviet leadership did not want to risk him on another flight, but later relented. Died in a 1968 MiG trainer crash while requalifying for flight status. More...
  • Nelyubov Nelyubov, Grigori Grigoyevich (1934-1966) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Discharged with Anikeyev and Filatuev after alcohol incident. Returned to Air Force duties in Siberia, underwent increasing depression, killed in 1966 when hit by a train. More...
  • Leonov Leonov, Aleksei Arkhipovich (1934-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. First person to walk in space. Flew on Voskhod 2, Soyuz 19 (ASTP). Cancelled missions included command of first Soviet circumlunar flight in 1969 and first military space station mission in 1973. More...
  • Yeliseyev Yeliseyev, Aleksei Stanislavovich (1934-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4/5, Soyuz 8, Soyuz 10. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft. More...
  • Bykovsky Bykovsky, Valeri Fyodorovich (1934-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, Salyut 6 EP-4. More...
  • Varlamov Varlamov, Valentin Stepanovich (1934-1980) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Left team after fracturing a vertebra in a diving accident in July 1960. Worked in the Soviet space program as a flight instructor for new cosmonauts within the TsPK. More...
  • Gulyayev, Rudolf Gulyayev, Rudolf Alekseyevich (1934-) Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1968. Scientist, Institute of Terrastrial Magnetism & Radiowaves of AN. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - August 1968. Left cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Worked as a research scientist at IZMIRAN. More...
  • Gorbatko Gorbatko, Viktor Vassilyevich (1934-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 7, Soyuz 24, Salyut 6 EP-7. More...
  • Volynov Volynov, Boris Valentinovich (1934-) Jewish-Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 5, Soyuz 21. More...
  • Brezhnev, Valentin Brezhnev, Valentin Mikahilovich (1934-) Russian officer. Major General, Chief Director of GUKOS space forces 1985-1991. Higher officer training 1952-1954, entered TsUKOS in 1966, then reached ascending positions within the space forces. Retired in 1991. More...
  • Krylov, Boris Krylov, Boris Nikolayevich (1934-) Russian officer. Chief of Central Communications and Navigation Systems at GNITs KS Space Tracking Centre 1982-1992. More...
  • Stepanov Stepanov, Gherman Vasilyevich (1934-) Russian officer. Major General, Deputy Commander of 50 TsNII KS military space research institute 1983-1988. More...
  • Syromiatnikov Syromiatnikov, Vladimir S (1934-) Russian engineer, designer of docking systems. Inventor of the androgynous system used on international missions and the ISS. More...
  • Kubasov Kubasov, Valeri Nikolayevich (1935-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 6, Soyuz 19 (ASTP), Salyut 6 EP-5. Flew in first docking mission between American and Soviet spacecraft. Missed two chances to be first engineer on a Soviet space station (Cosmos 557 and Soyuz 11). More...
  • Aksyonov Aksyonov, Vladimir Viktorovich (1935-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 22, Salyut 6 EP-6. More...
  • Sevastyanov Sevastyanov, Vitali Ivanovich (1935-2010) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 9, Soyuz 18. More...
  • Shonin Shonin, Georgi Stepanovich (1935-1997) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 6. More...
  • Titov Titov, Gherman Stepanovich (1935-2000) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 2. Second person in orbit. Youngest person in space. Left cosmonaut team for brilliant career in the space forces after deciding his future spaceflight prospects were nil. More...
  • Dolgopolov Dolgopolov, Gennadi Aleksandrovich (1935-2008) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1966-1967. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI), 1959 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Retired due to medical reasons. Worked thereafter at NPO Energia. More...
  • Volkov Volkov, Vladislav Nikolayevich (1935-1971) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 7, Soyuz 11. Member of first space station crew, however perished during landing. From 1958 a civilian engineer, Korolev OKB, involved in the development of the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft. More...
  • Alekseyev, Eduard Alekseyev, Eduard Vikotorovich (1935-) Russian officer. Chief of 50 TsNII KS (50th Central Scientific Research Institute for Space Systems of the Space Forces) from 1988 to 1992. More...
  • Borodin, Sergei Borodin, Sergei Aleksandrovich (1935-) Russian engineer. Chief Designer after 1975 of the Special OKB of the Gromov LII. Designed spacecraft simulators and cockpit consoles. More...
  • Semenov, Yuri Semenov, Yuri Pavlovich (1935-) Russian engineer. General Designer of RKK Energia 1989 to 2005 More...
  • Buinovski Buinovski, Eduard Ivanovich (1936-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1964. More...
  • Kolesnikov Kolesnikov, Gennadi Mikhailovich (1936-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1967. More...
  • Gaidukov Gaidukov, Sergei Nikolayevich (1936-2008) Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1978. Retired due to medical reasons (injured during parachute training). Worked as an engineer until 1988, when he retired from all work for medical reasons. More...
  • Sologub Sologub, Mikhail Vladimirovich (1936-1996) Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • Ivanov, Vladimir Ivanov, Vladimir Leontevich (1936-) Russian officer. Colonel-General, Commander of the Russian Space Forces (VKS) 1992-1997. Served in rocket forces in a series of ascending positions, beginning at Plesetsk in 1958. More...
  • Sechkin Sechkin, Aleksey Semenovich (1936-) Russian officer. Major General, Chief Commander of the Mozhaisky School, 1984-1991. More...
  • Senkevich Senkevich, Dr Yuri Aleksandrovich (1937-2003) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966. More...
  • Tereshkova Tereshkova, Valentina Vladimirovna (1937-) Russian cosmonaut. First woman in space, aboard Vostok 6. But the flight was propaganda and future spaceflight opportunities did not develop. Was married to cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev. Later a leading Communist politician. More...
  • Gulyayev Gulyayev, Vladislav Ivanovich (1937-1990) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1968. Graduated from Soviet Navy Engineering School Cosmonaut training January 1963 - 21 January 1965. Resigned for medical reasons after an accident. Worked at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Died of a heart attack. More...
  • Illyin Illyin, Dr Yevgeni Aleksandrovich (1937-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1965-1966. More...
  • Solovyova Solovyova, Irina Bayanovna (1937-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. More...
  • Machinski Machinski, Dr Georgi Vladimirovich (1937-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1974. Worked at the IMBP in Moscow. Left cosmonaut group for medical reasons after being injured in an automobile accident. He resumed work at the IMBP, reaching the position of senior-scientist. More...
  • Yegorov Yegorov, Dr Boris Borisovich (1937-1994) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 1. First physician in space. More...
  • Anshakov Anshakov, Gennadiy Petrovich (1937-) Russian engineer. Designer of automated information systems for spacecraft, General Designer at TsKB Progress. More...
  • Fastovets Fastovets, Aviard Gavrilovich (1937-) Russian test pilot, 1963-2001. From 1963 to 1978 test pilot for the Spiral spaceplane. More...
  • Kononenko Kononenko, Oleg Grigoryevich (1938-1980) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1980-1980. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Institute, 1975 Civilian test pilot. Cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980. More...
  • Kursnniy Kursnniy, Igor Ivanovich (1938-) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, Head of the Political Directorate of GUKOS Space Forces, 1986-1991. More...
  • Nedaivoda Nedaivoda, Anatoliy Konstantinovich (1938-) Russian engineer. Deputy General Director, Khrunichev State Scientific Industrial Research Centre. Worked at Khrunichev from 1965 on Proton launch vehicle and Salyut series of space stations. Manager and General Manager KB Salyut from 1994. More...
  • Preobrazhensky Preobrazhensky, Vladimir Yevgenyevich (1939-1993) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1980. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute Soviet Air Force, liaising with aircraft industrial enterprises. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Killed in an auto crash. More...
  • Rozhdestvensky Rozhdestvensky, Valeri Illyich (1939-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 23. More...
  • Nikitsky Nikitsky, Vladimir Prtrovich (1939-) Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1967. More...
  • Grechanik Grechanik, Aleksei Anatoliyevich (1939-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a flight to the Almaz space station. Engineer at the Kosmos Pavillon in Moscow. More...
  • Yerkina Yerkina, Zhanna Dmitriyevna (1939-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. More...
  • Fatkullin Fatkullin, Mars Nurgaliyevich (1939-2003) Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1970. More...
  • Illarionov Illarionov, Valeri Vasilyevich (1939-1999) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1992. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, 1967 Soviet Air Force, specialized in communications systems. Served as CapCom during several Soyuz missions. Also involved in the Buran program. More...
  • Sharafutdinov Sharafutdinov, Ansar Ilgamovich (1939-) Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Retired from active military duty in 1985. Later taught at a Higher School. More...
  • Ryumin Ryumin, Valeri Viktorovich (1939-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 25, Salyut 6 EO-3, Salyut 6 EO-4, STS-91. Was married to astronaut Yelena Kondakova. 371 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB More...
  • Glazkov Glazkov, Yuri Nikolayevich (1939-2008) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 24. More...
  • Beloborodov Beloborodov, Valeri Mikhailovich (1939-2004) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1969. More...
  • Makrushin Makrushin, Valeri Grigoryevich (1940-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1987. Studied from 1957 to 1963 at Leningrad Institute of Aircraft Design (LIAP). Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Returned to NPO Mashinostroenniye. More...
  • Savinykh Savinykh, Viktor Petrovich (1940-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-6, Salyut 7 EO-4-1a, Mir EP-2. More...
  • Isakov Isakov, Vladimir Timofeyevich (1940-) Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1983. More...
  • Shcheglov Shcheglov, Vasily Dmitriyevich (1940-1973) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1972. Graduated from Yeisk Higher Military Pilot School, 1963 Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Died of lung cancer. More...
  • Khludeyev Khludeyev, Yevgeni Nikolayevich (1940-1995) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1988. Graduated from Kiev AF Academy of Engineering,1962. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked as research scientist at the Gagarin Center. Involved in the Buran program from 1986 - 1988. Died of a heart attack. More...
  • Ivanchenkov Ivanchenkov, Aleksandr Segeyevich (1940-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-2, Salyut 7 EP-1. Graduated MAI, 1964 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Trained for a Buran flight. From 1993 served as deputy director of 29th Department, RKK Energia. More...
  • Andreyev Andreyev, Boris Dmitriyevich (1940-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Off flight roster for medical reasons. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB More...
  • Strekalov Strekalov, Gennadi Mikhailovich (1940-2004) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Salyut 7 EP-3, Mir EO-7, Mir EO-18. Survived first manned launch pad abort. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Yakovlev Yakovlev, Oleg Anatolyevich (1940-1990) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1973. More...
  • Galeyev Galeyev, Albert Abubakirovich (1940-) Russian officer. Director from 1988 of the Institute for Space Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences Soviet physicist. Worked at the Institute for Space Research of the Russian Academy of Science from 1973. More...
  • Koptev Koptev, Yuri N (1940-) Russian engineer, headed spacecraft design at Lavochkin 1965-1992, including ambitious generation of lunar and planetary probes. General Director of the Russian Space Agency 1992-2004. More...
  • Yuyukov Yuyukov, Dmitri Andreyevich (1941-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1973-1987. Graduated from MAI, 1965 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a TKS flight to the Almaz military space station. Sector Head, NPO Mashinostroyeniye. From worked at GKNPTs Khrunishchev. More...
  • Fyodorov Fyodorov, Anatoli Pavlovich (1941-2002) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Graduated from E.N. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1963. Cosmonaut training November 1965-December 1967. Flight controller in Kaliningrad until he retired in 1992. More...
  • Kuznetsova Kuznetsova, Tatyana Dmitryevna nee Pitskhelauri (1941-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1962-1969. More...
  • Lyakhov Lyakhov, Vladimir Afanasyevich (1941-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-3, Salyut 7 EO-2, Mir EP-3. More...
  • Pisarev Pisarev, Viktor Mikhailovich (1941-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1968. More...
  • Malyshev Malyshev, Yuri Vassilyevich (1941-1999) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-6, Salyut 7 EP-3. More...
  • Sattarov Sattarov, Nail Sharipovich (1941-) Tatar-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1980. More...
  • Borisyuk Borisyuk, Nikolai Andreyevich (1941-1984) Russian officer. Lieutenant General, First Deputy Commander of VKS space forces from 1993. More...
  • Demyanenko Demyanenko, Anatoly Pavlovich (1942-1971) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1969-1971. Engineer at the Scientific Research Institute of Automatics and Instrument Engineering. On 11 September 1969 selected as a cosmonaut, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. More...
  • Sarafanov Sarafanov, Gennadi Vassilyevich (1942-2005) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 15. More...
  • Zudov Zudov, Vyacheslav Dmitriyevich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 23. More...
  • Kozelsky Kozelsky, Vladimir Sergeyevich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Kachinsk, 1963; Monino, 1981. Cosmonaut training 1967.05-1969.08.18. Later Deputy Mir Flight Director. Retired in 1992. More...
  • Bachurin Bachurin, Ivan Ivanovich (1942-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1992. More...
  • Berezovoi Berezovoi, Anatoli Nikolayevich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-1. More...
  • Lebedev Lebedev, Valentin Vitalyevich (1942-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 13, Salyut 7 EO-1. More...
  • Voloshin Voloshin, Valeri Abramovich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1969. More...
  • Polyakov Polyakov, Dr Valeri Vladimirovich (1942-) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Mir LD-2, Mir LD-4. Longest single space flight (437 days). 678 cumulative days in space. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. More...
  • Dzhanibekov Dzhanibekov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EP-1, Salyut 6 EP-9, Salyut 7 EP-1, Salyut 7 EP-4, Salyut 7 EO-4-1b. More...
  • Skvortsov Skvortsov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1942-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Father of cosmonaut Aleksandr Skvortsov, Jr. More...
  • Gruzdev Gruzdev Russian test pilot. Soviet Air Force test pilot, flew the BI-1 rocket plane in 1943. More...
  • Aleksandrov Aleksandrov, Aleksandr Pavlovich (1943-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-2, Soyuz TM-3. More...
  • Isaulov Isaulov, Yuri Fedorovich (1943-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1982. More...
  • Sokovykh Sokovykh, Anatoli Mikhailovich (1944-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1986. More...
  • Serebrov Serebrov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1944-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Soyuz T-8, Mir EO-5, Mir EO-14. Ten spacewalks. 372 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. More...
  • Mosolov Mosolov, Vladimir Yemeliyanovich (1944-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1987. More...
  • Chirkin Chirkin, Viktor Martynovich (1944-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1982. More...
  • Romanenko Romanenko, Yuri Viktorovich (1944-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-1, Salyut 6 EP-8, Mir LD-1. Father of cosmonaut Roman Romanenko. 430 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Lysenko Lysenko, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1945-1977) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1977. Flying Research Institute named for Gromov of GKOOP. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in the crash of a MiG-23 with Mamontov. More...
  • Fefelov Fefelov, Nikolai Nikolayevich (1945-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1995. More...
  • Kozlov, Vladimir Kozlov, Vladimir Ivanovich (1945-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1973. Graduated from Higher Air Force School of Pilots, 1968 Soviet Air Force parachutist. Left cosmonaut group due to medical problems. Served on Russian Air Force Staff. Retired as a Colonel on 6 March 1996. More...
  • Bibikov Bibikov, Yakov Lvovich Russian officer. Director of NII-1 during German recovery operations 1945-1946. More...
  • Arzamazov Arzamazov, Dr Gherman Semyonovich (1946-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1995. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. More...
  • Zabolotski Zabolotski, Viktor Viktorovich (1946-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1984-1997. Cosmonaut training September 1985 - 1987. Buran Test Pilot. Civilian test pilot at the Zhukovsky Flight Test Center of LII. More...
  • Romanov Romanov, Valeri Aleksandrovich (1946-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman-Higher School, Moscow, 1970 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Worked with NPO Salyut. More...
  • Solovyov, Vladimir Solovyov, Vladimir Alekseyevich (1946-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-3, Mir EO-1. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • Stahl Stahl, Karl German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946. More...
  • Tritko Tritko, Karl Ivanovich Russian engineer. Chief of SKB of NII-88 1946-1949. Led work on early missiles. More...
  • Titov, Vladimir Titov, Vladimir Georgiyevich (1947-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Mir EO-3, STS-63, STS-86. Survived first pad abort during a manned launch. 387 cumulative days in space. SU Air Force. Call sign: Okean (Ocean). More...
  • Protchenko Protchenko, Sergey Filipovich (1947-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1979. More...
  • Khatulev Khatulev, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1947-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1973-1980. Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB More...
  • Pozharskaya Pozharskaya, Dr Larisa Grigoryevna (1947-2002) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1993. More...
  • Viktorenko Viktorenko, Aleksandr Stepanovich (1947-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-1, Mir EO-5, Mir EO-11, Mir EO-17. 489 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Vityaz (Knight). More...
  • Sheffer Sheffer, Yuri Petrovich (1947-2001) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1996. Was married to cosmonaut Tamara Zakharova. More...
  • Borodai Borodai, Alexei Sergeyevich (1947-) Ukrainian test pilot cosmonaut, 1979-1993. More...
  • Andryushkov Andryushkov, Aleksandr Stepanovich (1947-2007) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Dobrokvashina Dobrokvashina, Dr Yelena Ivanovna (1947-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Returned to work at the IMBP. More...
  • Solovyov Solovyov, Anatoliy Yakovlevich (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-2, Mir EO-6, Mir EO-12, Mir EO-19, Mir EO-24. 651 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Pakhomov Pakhomov, A K Russian VVS Test pilot. Russian rocketplane pilot. More...
  • Savitskaya Savitskaya, Svetlana Yevgenyevna (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Salyut 7 EP-4. Test pilot, engineer, second woman in space. First woman to walk in space. More...
  • Baberdin Baberdin, Valeri Vasiliyevich (1948-2003) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Sultanov Sultanov, Ural Nazibovich (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1996. More...
  • Afanasyev Afanasyev, Viktor Mikhailovich (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-8, Mir EO-15, Mir EO-27, ISS EP-2. 555 cumulative days in space. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred toTsPK, 1987. Call sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city) More...
  • Puchkov Puchkov, Aleksandr Sergeyevich (1948-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1996. More...
  • Bukreyev Bukreyev, Viktor Ivanovich (1949-1977) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977. Flew for Gromov Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in an aircraft crash. More...
  • Moskalenko Moskalenko, Nikolai Tikhonovich (1949-2004) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1986. More...
  • Steklov Steklov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1949-) Russian actor cosmonaut, 1997-2000. More...
  • Turovets Turovets, Vladimir Yevgeniyevich (1949-1982) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1980. Test pilot, Gromov Flight Research Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program in 1977 by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. Died in the crash of an Mi-8 helicopter. More...
  • Atkov Atkov, Dr Oleg Yuryevich (1949-) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-3. More...
  • Baturin Baturin, Yuri Mikhailovich (1949-) Jewish-Russian engineer cosmonaut 1997-2009. Flew on Mir EP-4, ISS EP-1. More...
  • Ivanova Ivanova, Yekaterina Aleksandrowna (1949-) Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1983-1994. More...
  • Saley Saley, Yevgeni Vladimirovich (1950-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1976-1987. More...
  • Grekov Grekov, Nikolai Sergeyevich (1950-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1986. More...
  • Manakov Manakov, Gennadi Mikhailovich (1950-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-7, Mir EO-13. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK cosmonaut detachment 1987. Call sign: Vulkan (Volcano). More...
  • Ivanov Ivanov, Leonid Georiyevich (1950-1980) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1980. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, Katchinsk, 1971 Major and pilot, Soviet Air Force. Cosmonaut training 23 August 1976 - 30 January 1979. Died in the crash of a MiG-27 aircraft during a test flight. More...
  • Maksimenko Maksimenko, Valery Yevgenyevich (1950-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1991. More...
  • Morukov Morukov, Dr Boris Vladimirovich (1950-) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on STS-106. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems More...
  • Loktionov Loktionov, Yuri Alekseyevich (1950-) Russian scientist cosmonaut, 2000-on. More...
  • Ananoff Ananoff, Alexandre Franco-Russian aerospace and science writer who published the encylopedic L'Astronautique in March 1950. A leading advocate for spaceflight in France and also instrumental in the founding of the International Astronautical Federation. More...
  • Lopota Lopota, Vitali Aleksandrovich (1950-) Chechen engineer. General Designer of TsNII-RTK from 1991 to 2007. General Designer of RKK Energia from 2007 More...
  • Tolboyev Tolboyev, Maghomed Omarovich (1951-) Avar (Dagestani)-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1983-1994. More...
  • Manarov Manarov, Musa Khiramanovich 'Mussachi' (1951-) Lakets-Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-3, Mir EO-8. 541 cumulative days in space. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute with an engineering diploma in 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Later a Director of Smolsat. More...
  • Laveykin Laveykin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1951-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-2. More...
  • Yemelyanov Yemelyanov, Sergei Aleksandrovich (1951-1992) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1984-1992. Graduated from MAI, 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Cosmonaut training November 1985 - October 1986. Left cosmonaut cadre for medical reasons. Manager for AO TPK "Prodmarket". Died of a heart attack. More...
  • Omelchenko Omelchenko, Svetlana Oktyabrevna (1951-) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Petrov, V P Petrov, Vladimir Petrovich Russian engineer. Head and Chief Designer of the GSKB design bureau 1951-1963. More...
  • Vasyutin Vasyutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich (1952-2002) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-4-2. More...
  • Gevorkyan Gevorkyan, Vladimir Mkrtychovich (1952-2008) Armenian-Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman Technical Higher School, Moscow, 1975 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. From 1991 General Director of Science Corporation "Terra". More...
  • Potapov Potapov, Dr Mikhail Georgiyevich (1952-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1985. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Later Chief of Laboratory 174 at IMBP. More...
  • Tokarev Tokarev, Valeri Ivanovich (1952-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on STS-96, ISS EO-12. Russian Air Force test pilot, flying 44 types of aircraft and helicopters. Selected as Buran test pilot in 1987. From 1994, commander cosmonaut group for aerospace systems. More...
  • Pushenko Pushenko, Nikolay Alekseyevich (1952-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1996. More...
  • Zakharova Zakharova, Dr Tamara Sergeyevna (1952-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1995. Was married to cosmonaut Yuri Sheffer. More...
  • Borodin Borodin, Dr Aleksandr Viktorovich (1953-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Worked again at IMBP. More...
  • Korzun Korzun, Valeri Grigoryevich (1953-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-22, ISS EO-5. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Fregat (Frigate). More...
  • Pronina Pronina, Irina Rudolfovna (1953-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992. More...
  • Budarin Budarin, Nikolai Mikhailovich (1953-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-19, Mir EO-25, ISS EO-6. Made nine spacewalks totalling 1.93 days. 444 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • Balandin Balandin, Aleksandr Nikolayevich (1953-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Flew on Mir EO-6. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons and returned to NPO Energia until departing in 1994. Then President of Lendint-Association until 2000. More...
  • Vinogradov Vinogradov, Pavel Vladimirovich (1953-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-24, ISS EO-13. 380 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energiya NPO. More...
  • Klyushnikova Klyushnikova, Dr Olga Nikolayevna (1953-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1979-1986. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Did not complete training, when the government commission did not confirm his selection. More...
  • Polishchuk Polishchuk, Aleksandr Fyodorovich (1953-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-13. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • Prikhodko Prikhodko, Yuri Victorovich (1953-2001) Tajik-Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1994. More...
  • Sharov Sharov, Valeri Yuriyevich (1953-) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Latysheva Latysheva, Irina Dmitriyevna (1953-) Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1980-1993. More...
  • Spiridinov Spiridinov, Aleksei Sergeyevich Russian officer. Seventh Chief Directorate of Ministry of Armaments and Director of Nll-88 1953-1959. More...
  • Moshchenko Moshchenko, Sergey Ivanovich (1954-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1996-2009. More...
  • Tsibliyev Tsibliyev, Vasili Vasilyevich (1954-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-14, Mir EO-23. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Sirius (Sirius). More...
  • Tresvyatski Tresvyatski, Sergei Nikolayevich (1954-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1996. More...
  • Amelkina Amelkina, Dr Galina Vasilyevna (1954-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1983. More...
  • Krivoshein Krivoshein, Nikolai Afansyevich Russian Chief Designer of TsKB Heavy Machine Industry, 1954-1976; designed much of the detailed pneumatic and hydraulic equipment for launch complexes and silos. From 1969 they were the lead design bureau for silo-mounted command points. More...
  • Vladimirskiy Vladimirskiy, Sergei Mikhailovich Russian government official. Deputy Minister of Radio-Technical Industries 1954-1979. Began career at KB-1. More...
  • Krichevsky Krichevsky, Sergei Vladimirovich (1955-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1998. More...
  • Yablontsev Yablontsev, Aleksandr Nikolaevich (1955-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1996. More...
  • Avdeyev Avdeyev, Sergei Vasilyevich (1956-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-12, Mir EO-20, Mir EO-26/-27. 747 cumulative days in space. Ten spacewalks. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • Polonski Polonski, Anatoly Borisovich (1956-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1989-1991. Test pilot and Colonel, Soviet Air Force Test Pilot School. Cosmonaut training March 1989 - April 1991. Later a test pilot at Khalovskaya. More...
  • Kaleri Kaleri, Aleksandr Yuryevich (1956-) Latvian-Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-11, Mir EO-22, Mir EO-28, ISS EO-8, ISS EO-25. 769 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. More...
  • Artsebarsky Artsebarsky, Anatoli Pavlovich (1956-) Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-9. More...
  • Severin, Vladimir Severin, Vladimir Gayevich (1956-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1995. Son of design bureau chief Gay Ilich Severin. More...
  • Bulychev Bulychev, Ivan Timofeyevich Russian officer. Chief of Communications Directorate, Ministry of Defence, 1956-1958. More...
  • Kuleshova Kuleshova, Natalya Dmitriyevna (1956-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute named after Grigori (Sergo) K. Ordzhonikidze, 1978. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. From 1992 she worked as an engineer at NPO Energia, Department 292. More...
  • Kondakova Kondakova, Yelena Vladimirovna (1957-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-17, STS-84. Engineer, first Russian woman to fly in space for other than propaganda reasons. Was married to astronaut Valeriy Ryumin. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • Zaitsev Zaitsev, Andrei Yevgenyevich (1957-2010) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1985-1996. More...
  • Usachyov Usachyov, Yuri Vladimirovich (1957-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-15, Mir EO-21, STS-101, ISS EO-2. 552 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Lazutkin Lazutkin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1957-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-23. Civilian Engineer, Energiya NPO. More...
  • Ledovskiy Ledovskiy, Aleksei (-1957) Russian phantom cosmonaut. In 1959 Italian news reported a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights, among these Ledovsky. No historical evidence ever emerged of any Soviet suborbital flights. More...
  • Leshchenko Leshchenko, Sergei Mikhailovich Russian government official. First Deputy Minister of Aviation Industries 1957-1964. More...
  • Shiborin Shiborin, Serenti (-1958) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Oberth claimed in 1959 that a pilot was killed on a sub-orbital flight from Kapustin Yar in early 1958. Italian press linked Shiborin name to this flight. No other evidence. More...
  • Vozovikov Vozovikov, Sergei Yuriyevich (1958-1993) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1990-1993. Graduated from Higher Military Pilot School, Armavir, 1979. Cosmonaut training 1 October 1990 - 6 March 1992. Drowned during recovery training in the Black Sea. More...
  • Padalka Padalka, Gennadi Ivanovich (1958-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-26, ISS EO-9, ISS EO-19. 585 cumulative days in space. More...
  • Treshchev Treshchev, Sergey Yevgenyevich (1958-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-5. Civilian Engineer, Energiya NPO More...
  • Krikalyov Krikalyov, Sergei Konstantinovich (1958-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, Energia NPO, 1985-2009. Flew on Mir EO-4, Mir LD-3, STS-60, STS-88, ISS EO-1, ISS EO-11. World record for total duration spent in space (803 days). First Russian to fly aboard an American spacecraft. Flew in space six times. More...
  • Lukyanyuk Lukyanyuk, Dr Vasili Yuryevich (1958-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1989-2003. More...
  • Yurchikhin Yurchikhin, Fyodor Nikolayevich (1959-) Georgian-Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on STS-112, ISS EO-15,ISS EO-24. 373 cumulative days in space. Engineer, Energia NPO. More...
  • Gromova Gromova, Mirya (-1959) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Soviet test pilot said to have flown a 'space airplane' into oblivion 1959.12. No evidence ever surfaced in post-Glasnost Russia to back up the claim. More...
  • Gubenko Gubenko, Yevgeni Stepanovich (-1959) Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1950-1959 of SKB-567. Specialised in ground communications systems for missiles. More...
  • Mitkov Mitkov, Andrei (-1959) Russian phantom cosmonaut. In 1959 Italian news reported a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights, among these Mitkov. No historical evidence ever emerged of any Soviet suborbital flights. More...
  • Tyurin Tyurin, Michael Vladislavovich (1960-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-3, ISS EO-14. Civilian Engineer, Energiya NPO. More...
  • Shargin Shargin, Yuri Georgiyevich (1960-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-7. Russian Strategic Rocket Force More...
  • Korniyenko Korniyenko, Mikhail Borisovich (1960-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1998-on. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute, 1987 Worked as an engineer at KBOM, then transferred to RKKE. Cosmonaut training completed November 19, 1999. More...
  • Zavadovski Zavadovski, V (-1960) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Phantom cosmonaut. 1959 Moscow newspaper showed a Zavadovski testing high altitude equipment. Later presumed to have died on Korabl Sputnik 1 in May 1960. More...
  • Kachur Kachur, Ivan (-1960) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Said to have died in October 1960 in first attempted Soviet manned flight. Linked to model Khrushchev was to have revealed at UN. In fact, model was of Mars probe that failed. More...
  • Graciov Graciov, Alexis (-1960) Russian phantom cosmonaut, alleged sender of a morse code radio message from deep space received by the Judica-Cordiglia brothers on 1960.11.28. In fact Russia would not have a large enough booster for such a mission until 1968. More...
  • Mikhailov Mikhailov, Gennady (-1961) Russian phantom cosmonaut, said to have died 1962.01.24, reported by Cordiglia brothers in 1962 and later Edwards book. Based on 1959 photo of high altitude equipment tester. More...
  • Ludmila Ludmila (-1961) Russian phantom cosmonaut, claimed by Judica-Cordiglia brothers to have died in space in 1961 - or 1963. More...
  • Ivanovich Ivanovich, Ivan Russian phantom cosmonaut. Two Vostok test flights used a mannequin, dubbed 'Ivan Ivanovich'. To prevent confusion by peasants who might think he was a dead cosmonaut or alien, a sign reading 'MAKET' ('dummy') was placed under his visor. More...
  • Makarov, A M Makarov, Aleksandr Maksimovich Russian engineer. From 1961-1986 Director of the Yuzhnoye Machinery Factory and General Director of PO Yuzhmash. More...
  • Borzenkova Borzenkova Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. In March 1962 selected as cosmonaut, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission. More...
  • Solovova Solovova, Ludmilla Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission. More...
  • Yefremova Yefremova Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission. More...
  • Kvasova Kvasova, Vera Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Selected as cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but in March 1962 the selection was rejected by the government commission. More...
  • Sokolova Sokolova, Marina Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1962. Pilot. Selected as a cosmonaut on 28 February 1962, but on 3 March 1962 her selection was rejected by the government commission. In 1965 she set the world speed record for a female pilot while flying a MIG-21. More...
  • Zalyotin Zalyotin, Sergey Viktorovich (1962-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-28, ISS EP-4. More...
  • Belokonyov Belokonyov, Alexis (-1962) Russian phantom cosmonaut, reported died in orbit 1962.05.15. Judica-Cordiglia reported radio trasnmission 1962.11. Named in 1959.10 Ogonyok article on high altitude equipment test. Basis for 1969 novel Autopsy for a Cosmonaut. More...
  • Dezhurov Dezhurov, Vladimir Nikolayevich (1962-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-18, ISS EO-3. Made nine spacewalks, total time 1.58 days. More...
  • Kyzhelnaya Kyzhelnaya, Nadezda Vasilyevna (1962-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1994-2004. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • Karashtin Karashtin, Dr Vladimir Vladimirovich (1962-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 1989-2002. More...
  • Kostenko Kostenko, Sergei Valerievich (1963-) Russian businessman, cosmonaut training 2005, backup to Gregory Olsen for the space tourist seat on Soyuz TMA-7. More...
  • Solovyov, V I Solovyov, Vsevolod Nikolayevich Russian engineer. Head of the KB Transport Mechanical Engineering (KB TM) 1963-1991. KB TM developed launch equipment and complexes for a range of missiles, including the R-36 heavy ICBM. More...
  • Solovyev Solovyev, Vsevolod Nikolayevich Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1963-1992 of KB TransMash Designed missile and booster launch complexes. More...
  • Moshkin Moshkin, Oleg Yuriyevich (1964-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-2002. More...
  • Moskalyov Moskalyov, Oleg Borisovich Russian scientist cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Scientist. Selected as cosmonaut in early May 1964, but on 28 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission. More...
  • Kononenko, O D Kononenko, Oleg Dmitriyevich (1964-) Ukrainian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-17. More...
  • Sharipov Sharipov, Saliszan Shakirovich (1964-) Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on STS-89, ISS EO-10. First Uzbek astronaut. SU Air Force. More...
  • Tkachev Tkachev, Fedor Dmitriyevich Russian engineer. Chief Designer of NIEI PDS. Specialised in parachutes. Fired 1968 after Soyuz 1 parachute failure and death of Cosmonaut Komarov. More...
  • Babiychuk Babiychuk, Aleksandr Nikolayevich Russian officer. Chief, Biomedical Service, of Air Force in early 1960's. Oversaw the early Vostok missions. More...
  • Lonchakov Lonchakov, Yuri Valentinovich (1965-) Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on STS-100, ISS EP-4, ISS EO-18. Air Defence Force More...
  • Ivanov, I Ivanov, Igor S Russian physician cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut, but on 26 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission. More...
  • Voskresensky Voskresensky Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964-1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut in early May 1964, but the selection was never confirmed by the government commission. More...
  • Yaroshenko Yaroshenko, Georgi L Russian physician cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Medical doctor. Selected as a cosmonaut in early May 1964, but on 26 May 1964 the selection was rejected by the government commission. More...
  • Kotov Kotov, Oleg Valeriyevich (1965-) Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EO-15, ISS EO-22. MD from Moscow Sergei M. Kirov Military Medicine Academy, 1980 . Russian Air Force. Worked in the TsPK, medical department. Cosmonaut training 3 June 1996 - 18 March 1998. More...
  • Khokhlov Khokhlov, Nikolai Dmitriyevich Russian bureaucrat. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1983. Responsible for quality control. More...
  • Nepobedimiy Nepobedimiy, Sergei Pavlovich Russian Chief Designer of the Kolomna Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau.1965-1989, specialised in surface-to-air, tactical ballistic, and anti-tank missiles. Designed the world's only air-augmented ICBM, the Gnom, in the early 1960's. More...
  • Revin Revin, Sergey Nikolayevich (1966-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1996-on. More...
  • Pravetskiy Pravetskiy, Vladimir Nikolayevich Russian government official. Chief of Third Chief Directorate in Ministry of Health. More...
  • Mukhortov Mukhortov, Pavel Pavlovich (1966-) Russian journalist cosmonaut, 1990-1992. More...
  • Skvortsov, Aleksandr Skvortsov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Jr (1966-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Skvortsov. More...
  • Frolov Frolov, Yevgeni A Russian engineer cosmonaut candidate, 1964. Civilian Engineer, Korolev bureau. On 18 May 1964 selection as cosmonaut not approved. More...
  • Darevskiy Darevskiy, Sergei Grigoryevich Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1965-1975 of Special OKB of Gromov LII. Designed simulators and cockpit consoles. More...
  • Tregub Tregub, Yakov Isayevich Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1964-1973 of Korolev design bureau for flight controls for piloted flights. More...
  • Dolgov Dolgov, Piotr (-1960) Russian phantom cosmonaut, purportedly dying on a Vostok flight on 1960.10.11. The real Dolgov died 1961.11.01, jumping from a balloon from 28 km in a Vostok suit test on 1962.11.01. His visor cracked and he died when his suit depressurized. More...
  • Grachev Grachev (-1961) Russian phantom cosmonaut, one of two that allegedly disappeared aboard 'Vostok 3' on a circumlunar mission in 1961. In reality multimanned Vostok would be flown until 1964, and no circumlunar missions until 1968. More...
  • Kozeyev Kozeyev, Konstantin Mirovich (1967-) Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on ISS EP-2. More...
  • Stroganov Stroganov, Boris Aleksandrovich Russian government official. Sector Chief, Central Committee Defence Industries Department. More...
  • Istochnikov Istochnikov, Ivan (-1968) Russian phantom cosmonaut, reported lost aboard Soyuz 2, an unmanned spacecraft that was the docking target for Soyuz 3. Actually an elaborate 1998 modern art exercise by Joan Fontcuberta. Casual Internet surfers took it to be a real person. More...
  • Mikoyan, Andrei Mikoyan, Andrei (-1969) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Story made rounds at ESA in 2000 of two Russian cosmonauts that died in 1969 on lunar landing attempt. Source was TV series, 'The Cape', episode 'Buried in Peace', aired 1996.10.28. More...
  • Boris Chimp 504 Boris Chimp 504 (-1969) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Fictional lunar landing chimpanzee, subject of Dwayne Allen Day satire of Soviet space history research articles. More...
  • Yebenov Yebenov, Profiri (-1969) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Moscow urban legend: Apollo 11 astronauts were stranded on the moon. Naked Soviet cosmonaut, stranded sometime before, assisted them in repairing their lunar module. Joke: Yebenov means 'f---d' in Russian. More...
  • Skripochka Skripochka, Oleg Ivanovich (1969-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1997-on. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO More...
  • FM-2 FM-2 Russian phantom cosmonaut. Radiation phantom, instrumented anthromorphic dummy (with Gagarin's face!) used to measure radiation dose rates in circumlunar space. Flew to moon and back on Zond 7, 1969 and in earth orbit on Cosmos 368, 1970. More...
  • Ivanishin Ivanishin, Anatoli Alekseyevich (1969-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on. Ivanishin was a Captain in the Russian Air Force at Petrozavodsk when selected. A senior fighter pilot with the VVS, he had flown MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters. Russian Air Force More...
  • Pustovyi Pustovyi, Dr Yaroslav Ihorovych 'Yarko' (1970-) Ukrainian engineer payload specialist astronaut, 1996-2005. Ukraine Air Force. More...
  • Samokutyayev Samokutyayev, Aleksandr Mikhailovich (1970-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on. Flew on ISS EO-27. More...
  • Bugayskiy Bugayskiy, Viktor Nikifirovich Russian engineer. Headed Chelomei design bureau Filial 1 1960-1973. Specialised in rockets and spacecraft. More...
  • Romanenko, Roman Romanenko, Roman Yuriyevich (1971-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Son of cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko. Graduated from Chernigov Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1992 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19. 1999. More...
  • KGB Dwarf KGB Dwarf (-1971) Russian phantom cosmonaut. Moscow urban legend of 1970: diminutive robot Lunokhod crawler was actually driven by a midget KGB agent on a one-way suicide mission to the lunar surface. More...
  • Valkov Valkov, Konstantin Anatolyevich (1971-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Graduated from Barnaul Higher Military Air School of Pilots, 1994 Russian Air Force. Cosmonaut training completed November 19, 1999. More...
  • Novitskiy Novitskiy, Oleg Viktorovich (1971-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Lieutenant Colonel, VVS and PVO 4th Army More...
  • Ovchinin Ovchinin, Aleksei Nikolaevich (1971-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, 70th Seregina Special Flight Test Regiment RGNIITsPK More...
  • Surayev Surayev, Maksim Viktorovich (1972-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1997-on. Russian Air Force More...
  • Shkaplerov Shkaplerov, Anton Nikolayevich (1972-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2003-on. More...
  • Ryzhikov Ryzhikov, Sergei Nikolaevich (1974-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 14th Army (Novosibirsk / SibVO) Cosmonaut 2006-10-11 to . More...
  • Ryazansky Ryazansky, Sergei Nikolayevich (1974-) Russian physician cosmonaut, 2003-on. Worked at IMBP, in the post of senior scientific researcher at the "Sensomotornoy, Fiziology i Profilaktiky" department. Cosmonaut training 16 June 2003 - 27 June 2005. More...
  • Serov, Mark Serov, Mark Vyacheslavovich (1974-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on. An engineer at RKK Energia since 1998. More...
  • Tarelkin Tarelkin, Yevgeni Igorevich (1974-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2003-on. More...
  • Gromushkina Gromushkina, Nataliya Valerievna (1975-) Russian actor cosmonaut, 1998-2001. Actress, selected to appear in a film to be filmed aboard the Mir space station. Accomplished some training, but the project was cancelled. More...
  • Serova Serova, Elena Olegovna (1976-) Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2006-on.Wife of Mark Serov (2003 selection group) Graduate of MAI. Worked in TsUP Flight Control Center. More...
  • Aksyutin Aksyutin, Boris Rodionovich Russian Chief Designer of the Central Design Bureau for Heavy Machine Industry, TsKB TM, 1977-1988; designed much of the pneumatic and hydraulic equipment for launch pads and silos. From 1969, lead designer for silo-mounted command points. More...
  • Misurkin Misurkin, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich (1977-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Major, VVS and PVO 4th Army (Rostov-on-Don; North-Caucasian VO) More...
  • Ponomarev Ponomarev, Maksim Vladimirovich (1980-) Russian pilot cosmonaut, 2006-on. Captain, Special-Purpose Command Staff (Moscow VO) More...
  • Mazur Mazur, Yevgeni Vasilyevich (-1982) Russian government official. Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1982. More...
  • Leontenkov Leontenkov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Russian engineer. From 1988 Head and Chief Designer of TsKB TM. More...
  • Bolkhovitinov Bolkhovitinov, Viktor Fedorovich (1889-1970) Russian engineer. Engineer at NII-1. Led early study of Soviet derivative of the Saenger-Bredt antipodal bomber. Soviet airplane technical designer. More...
  • Gushchin Gushchin, Nikolai Ivanovich Russian engineer. From 1989 Head and Chief Designer Kolomna Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau. Missile designer. More...
  • Pak Pak, Zinoviy Petrovich Russian engineer. General Director of LNPO Soyuz 1989-1996. Leading designer in the chemistry and technology of solid rocket propellants. More...
  • Tolmachev Tolmachev, Viktor Grigoryevich Russian engineer. General Director, Votkinsk Factory from 1989. Manufacturers of solid propellant ballistic missiles. More...
  • Fedrov Fedrov, Igor (-1991) Russian phantom cosmonaut. 1998 urban legend held that during the fall of Soviet Union, their cosmonauts were stranded on the Mir space station. Embodied on film by character Fedrov in short Norwegian film 'Kosmonaut'. More...
  • Katorgin Katorgin, Boris Ivanovich Russian chief designer. From 1991 General Director and Chief Designer NPO Energomash. Designer of liquid propellant rocket engines and chemical lasers. More...
  • Biryukov, G P Biryukov, Gennadiy Pavlovich Russian engineer. From 1992 General Director and Chef Designer of KB TM Developed launch equipment and complexes for a range of missiles, including the R-36 heavy ICBM. More...
  • Barmin, I V Barmin, Igor Vladimirovich Russian engineer. Head and Chief Designer of the Barmin KBOM after the death of his father in 1993. Designed mobile and fixed launchers for missiles and space boosters. More...
  • Rachuk Rachuk, Vladimir Sergeyevich Russian engineer. From 1993 General Director and Chief Designer of KBKhA. Designer of liquid propellant rocket engines. More...
  • Dragun Dragun, Dmitri Konstantinovich Russian engineer. From 1996 General Director and General Designer OKB Vympel. Missile designer. More...
  • Milekhin Milekhin, Yuri Mikhailovich Russian engineer. From 1996 General Director of the Soyuz Federal Centre for Dual Technology in Dzerzhinskiy The primary Russian designer of solid propellant motors. More...
  • Sokolovskiy Sokolovskiy, Mikhail Ivanovich Russian engineer. From 1996 general designer and director of NPO Iskra in Perm. Designer of solid propellant rocket engines. More...
  • Solomonov Solomonov, Yuri Semenovich Russian engineer. From 1997 Director and General Designer of Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology. Solid propellant missile designer. More...
  • Tikhonov Tikhonov, Nikolai Vladimirovich Russian engineer cosmonaut, 2006-on. Graduated MAI, 2005. More...

Associated Spacecraft
  • Meteor-M New-generation Russian weather satellite, successor to the Meteor-3M, with new electronics and designed for launch by the Soyuz ST launch vehicle rather than the discontinued Tsiklon-3 and non-Russian Zenit-2. First launched in 2009. More...
  • Korolev Rocket Plane Russian manned rocketplane. Study 1938. Korolev was already sketching rocketplanes similar to the Me-163 before World War II. This was one concept from his sketchbook. More...
  • RP-318 Russian manned rocketplane. Korolev adapted his SK-9 glider in 1936 as the first rocked-powered aircraft in the Soviet Union. More...
  • BI-1 Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1941. The Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 was the first high speed rocket plane developed by the Soviet Union. Drawings were completed by spring 1941 but Stalin did not give the go-ahead for production until July 9, 1941. More...
  • Malyutka Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1944. The Malyutka rocket point interceptor was designed by Polikarpov beginning in 1943. More...
  • LL Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1945. The LL was a transonic aerodynamic testbed authorized by LII in September 1945. Three were built: the LL-1 with a straight wing; LL-2 with a conventional swept wing; and LL-3 with a forward swept wing. More...
  • 346 Russian manned rocketplane. 4 flights from 1946. Post-war Soviet version of the German supersonic DFS 8-346 rocket reconnaissance aircraft. Abandoned in 1951 after the prototype crashed. More...
  • I-270 Russian manned rocketplane. Flown 1947. The MiG I-270 rocketplane began as a post-war copy of the German Ju-248 (Me-263) design. The resulting rocketplane had a more refined aerodynamic form than the Me-263 and lower gross weight. More...
  • Samolyot 5 Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1949. Bisnovat was assigned the project to develop an all-Soviet equivalent to the 346 supersonic rocketplane being developed by the German Roessing team in OKB-2. More...
  • U400-10 Russian manned rocketplane. Study 1949. Unmanned rocketplane that proved Isayev rocket engine technology in the late 1940's. More...
  • KKO-3 Russian pressure suit, operational 1955. The KKO-3 was the first mass-produced Soviet partial pressure suit. It was very similar to the US MC-3 of the same period. More...
  • Zenit Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1956. Work began on the original Zenit spy satellite on 30 January 1956. After the success of Sputnik Sergei Korolev advocated that manned spaceflight should have first priority. More...
  • MPK Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1956. This first serious examination in the Soviet Union of manned flight to Mars was made by M Tikhonravov. More...
  • Suborbital Cabin Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1956. In 1956 Korolev laid out an outline plan 'Fast Solutions for the Conquest of Space'. Phase I and II of the plan involved experimental manned sub-orbital flights aboard an R-5A single-stage IRBM. More...
  • VKA Myasishchev 1957 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. The VKA (aero-space vehicle) was a 1957 Myasishchev design - a diminutive single-crew star-shaped spaceplane that could be launched by Korolev's R-7 ICBM. More...
  • Sputnik 1 Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1957.10.04. Tikhonravov's 1.4 metric ton ISZ satellite was to have been launched by the new R-7 ICBM as the Soviet Union's first satellite, during the International Geophysical Year. More...
  • M-42 Russian manned rocketplane. Cancelled 1957. Several variants of the Myasishchev Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile M-42 cruise stage were studied. More...
  • TMK-E Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1960. Feoktistov felt that the TMK-1 manned Mars flyby design was too limited. His design group proposed in 1960 a complete Mars landing expedition, to be assembled in earth orbit using two or more N1 launches. More...
  • Kosmoplan Russian Mars orbiter. Cancelled 1965. Beginning in the late 1950's, Chelomei began studying use of his encapsulated cruise missile technology for spacecraft. A whole family of unmanned spacecraft, dubbed Kosmoplans, would be built using modular elements. More...
  • Sputnik 3 Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1958.04.27 (Sputnik failure) to 1958.05.15 (Sputnik 3). In July 1956 OKB-1 completed the draft project for the first earth satellite, designated ISZ (Artificial Earth Satellite). More...
  • M-44 Russian manned ramjet-powered research aircraft. Study 1958. Air-launched derivative of the Buran Mach 3 high altitude cruise missile system, proposed for use as an unmanned high speed research vehicle. More...
  • Raketoplan Russian manned spaceplane. Developed from 1959, including suborbital hardware tests, before cancellation in 1964. More...
  • Luna E-1 Russian lunar impact probe. 4 launches, 1958.09.23 (Luna failure) to 1959.01.02 (Luna 1). The first spacecraft to achieve escape velocity and the first to reach the Moon. The spacecraft was sphere-shaped. Five antennae extended from one hemisphere. More...
  • Early Soviet Lunar Lander Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1958. Painting of early Soviet concept of a lunar lander. This was similar to Von Braun designs popular in the 1950's. More...
  • M-48 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1958. In 1958 the VVS (Soviet Air Force) requested development as quickly as possible of high-speed aerospace vehicles. More...
  • Sever Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1959. Sever was the original OKB-1 design for a manned spacecraft to replace the Vostok. It was designed to tackle such problems as maneuvering in orbit, rendezvous and docking, and testing of lifting re-entry vehicles. More...
  • PKA Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1959. In 1957, in response to the USAF Dynasoar project, Soviet aviation bureaus were tasked with producing draft project designs for a manned spaceplane. More...
  • Luna E-1A Russian lunar impact probe. 2 launches, 1959.06.18 (Luna) to 1959.09.12 (Luna 2). First probe to impact lunar surface. Delivered a pennant to the surface of the Moon and conducted research during flight to the Moon. More...
  • Luna E-3 Russian lunar flyby probe. 3 launches, 1959.10.04 (Luna 3) to 1960.04.19 (Luna). The E-3 was designed to loop around the moon and photograph the Moon's far side. More...
  • TMK-1 Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1959. In 1959 a group of enthusiasts in OKB-1 Section 3 under the management of G U Maksimov started engineering design of this first fantastic project for manned interplanetary travel. More...
  • Vostok Russian manned spacecraft. 13 launches, 1960.05.15 (Korabl-Sputnik 1) to 1963.06.16 (Vostok 6). First manned spacecraft. Derivatives were still in use in the 21st Century for military surveillance, earth resources, mapping, and biological missions. More...
  • OS Russian manned space station. Study 1960. In 1960 Korolev proposed a military orbital station (OS), with a crew of 3 to 5, orbiting at 350 to 400 km altitude. More...
  • VKA-23 Design 2 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1957. Following the very critical review of the first M-48 spaceplane design by the expert commission, Myasishchev went back to the drawing board. More...
  • VKA-23 Design 1 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1960. Myasishchev single-pilot winged spacecraft of 1960, sized for launch to orbit by Korolev's Vostok booster. More...
  • Mars 1M Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1960.10.10 (Mars probe 1M s/n 1 failure.) to 1960.10.14 (Mars probe 1M s/n 2 failure.). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • Block L Molniya 8K78 Russian space tug. 27 launches, (1960) to (1970). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Molniya. More...
  • L1-1960 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1960. Circumlunar manned spacecraft proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The L1 would a man on a loop around the moon and back to earth by 1964. More...
  • L4-1960 Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1960. Lunar orbiter proposed by Korolev in January 1960. The spacecraft was to take 2 to 3 men to lunar orbit and back to earth by 1965. More...
  • Vostok SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1960. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Vostok PO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1960. Equipment section. More...
  • Venera 1VA Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1961.02.12 (Sputnik 7) to (Venera 1). The 1VA probe, the first spacecraft sent towards Venus, consisted of a cylindrical body topped by a dome, totaling 2 meters in height. More...
  • TKS Heavy Space Station Russian manned space station. Study 1961. The TKS (Heavy Space Station, also known as TOSZ - Heavy Orbital Station of the Earth) was Korolev's first 1961 project for a large N1-launched military space station. More...
  • LK-1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. The LK-1 was the spacecraft designed by Chelomei for the original Soviet manned lunar flyby project. More...
  • Zenit-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. 81 launches, 1961.12.11 (Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 1) to 1970.05.12 (Cosmos 344). The Zenit-2 was a derivative of the manned Vostok, and the Soviet Union's first spy satellite. More...
  • KKO-5 Russian pressure suit, operational 1961. The KKO-5 partial pressure suit was introduced for pilots of Mach 2 aircraft such as the MiG-21 and Su-9 at the beginning of the 1960's. It represented the largest production run of any pressure suit model. More...
  • Marsokhod Russian manned Mars rover. Study 1961. Surface transports were part of all Soviet Mars expeditions. More...
  • Soyuz A Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1962. The 7K Soyuz spacecraft was initially designed for rendezvous and docking operations in near earth orbit, leading to piloted circumlunar flight. More...
  • Soyuz B Russian space tug. Study 1962. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster. More...
  • Soyuz V Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1964. In the definitive December 1962 Soyuz draft project, the Soyuz B (9K) rocket acceleration block would be launched into a 225 km orbit by a Soyuz 11A511 booster. More...
  • Vostok-Zh Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1961. The Vostok-Zh (or Vostok-7) maneuverable manned satellite was piloted by a single 'cosmonaut assemblyman'. More...
  • Spiral OS Russian manned spaceplane, developed 1965-1980s, including subscale flight article tests. Evolved into the MAKS spaceplane. The Spiral was an ambitious air-launched manned space system designed in the 1960's. More...
  • OS-1962 Russian manned space station. Study 1962. On 10 March 1962 Korolev approved the technical project "Complex docking of spacecraft in earth orbit - Soyuz". This contained the original Soyuz L1 circumlunar design. More...
  • L1-1962 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 1962. Early design that would lead to Soyuz. A Vostok-Zh manned tug would assemble rocket stages in orbit. It would then return, and a Soyuz L1 would dock with the rocket stack and be propelled toward the moon. More...
  • 1MS Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.04.06 (Cosmos 2) to 1962.10.25 (1MS). Early Kosmos launcher payloads of unknown purpose, possibly from Korolev OKB. More...
  • OP Russian manned space station. Study 1962. Korolev's next attempt to win military support for development of the N-I was his fantastic 'Orbitalniy Poyas' (OP -Orbital Belt) scheme of 20 April 1962. More...
  • 2MS Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.04.24 (Cosmos 3) to 1962.05.28 (Cosmos 5). Early Kosmos launcher payloads of unknown purpose, possibly from Korolev OKB. More...
  • Mars 2MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1962.08.25 (Sputnik 19) to 1962.09.01 (Sputnik 20). More...
  • Mars 2MV-4 Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1962.10.24 (Sputnik 22) to 1962.11.01 (Mars 1). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. More...
  • Mars 2MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1962.11.04, Sputnik 24. Mars probe intended to make a soft landing on Mars. More...
  • Soyuz R Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. A military reconnaissance version of Soyuz, developed by Kozlov at Samara from 1963-1966. It was to consist of an the 11F71 small orbital station and the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK manned ferry. More...
  • Soyuz P Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1963. In December 1962 Sergei Korolev released his draft project for a versatile manned spacecraft to follow Vostok. The Soyuz A was primarily designed for manned circumlunar flight. More...
  • DLB Module Russian manned lunar habitat. Cancelled 1974. Basic module developed by Barmin's OKB from 1962 for the Zvezda Lunar Base. Cancelled, together with the N1 booster, in 1974. More...
  • LK-700 Russian manned lunar lander. Chelomei's direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design. Developed at a low level 1964 to 1974, reaching mockup and component test stage. More...
  • Remova Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1962. Remova was a Soviet Manned Maneuvering Unit design that first appeared in a German book in 1967. It was said that the study was made at the beginning of the 1960's. More...
  • Soyuz A SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original Soyuz design, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz A PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system but with no base flange for a shroud. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz A BO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original design with notional docking system with no probe and internal transfer tunnel. Living section. More...
  • Luna E-6 Russian lunar lander. 12 launches, 1963.01.04 (Sputnik 25) to 1966.01.31 (Luna 9). E-6 probes were designed by Korolev's OKB-1 with the objective of making the first soft landing on the moon and beaming back pictures of the surface. More...
  • Omega Russian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1963.04.13 (Cosmos 14) to 1963.12.13 (Cosmos 23). Early Cosmos satellite, evidently using the Yuzhnoye DS satellite bus. Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. More...
  • L3-1963 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1963. Korolev's original design for a manned lunar landing spacecraft was described in September 1963 and was designed to make a direct lunar landing using the earth orbit rendezvous method. More...
  • L5-1963 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1963. The L-5 Heavy Lunar Self-Propelled Craft would be used for extended manned reconnaissance of the lunar surface. More...
  • L4-1963 Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1963. The L-4 Manned Lunar Orbiter Research Spacecraft would have taken two to three cosmonauts into lunar orbit for an extended survey and mapping mission. More...
  • L2-1963 Russian lunar rover. Study 1963. The L2 was a project to land a remote-controlled self-propelled rover on the surface of the moon. It was described in a 23 September 1963 letter setting out the space exploration plan for 1965 to 1975. More...
  • Polyot Russian military anti-satellite system. 2 launches, 1963.11.01 (Polet 1; Polyot 1) to 1964.04.12 (Polet 2; Polyot 2). First prototype model of Chelomei's ASAT, used in an interceptor control and propulsion test. More...
  • Venera 3MV-1A Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1963.11.11 (Cosmos 21) to 1964.02.19 (3MV-1A). More...
  • Zenit-4 Russian military surveillance satellite. 76 launches, 1963.11.16 (Cosmos 22) to 1970.08.07 (Cosmos 355). Zenit-4 was the second Soviet photo-reconnaissance satellite, providing high-resolution imagery to complement the area coverage of the Zenit-2. More...
  • Mavr Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1963. A variation of the TMK-1 scenario by Maksimov's unit would still use a single N1 launch. However a flyby of Venus would be undertaken on the return voyage from Mars. More...
  • TGR Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1963. Two new directions were pursued in the Soviet Union for space optical reconnaissance systems in the mid-1960's: automated systems with television transmission of pictures, and manned systems. More...
  • Elektron-B Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 2) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 4). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. More...
  • Elektron-A Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 1) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 3). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. More...
  • Almaz APOS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1966. The initial Almaz program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • Venera 3MV-1 Russian Venus probe. 3 launches, 1964.02.19 (3MV-1 No. 2 SA) to 1964.04.02 (Zond 1). More...
  • Berkut Russian space suit, operational 1965. Berkut was a modified Vostok Sokol space suit. The needs of the cosmonaut were supplied not through the umbilical cord, but rather through a simple open-cycle environmental control system. More...
  • Molniya-1 Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'. More...
  • Strela-1 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 29 launches, 1964.08.18 (Cosmos 38) to 1965.09.18 (Cosmos 90). More...
  • Meteor Russian earth weather satellite. 11 launches, 1964.08.28 (Cosmos 44) to 1969.02.01 (Meteor). The first Soviet weather satellite. Development began with a decree of 30 October 1960. More...
  • Voskhod Russian manned spacecraft. 5 launches, 1964.10.06 (Cosmos 47) to 1966.02.22 (Cosmos 110). More...
  • Mars 3MV-4A Russian Mars flyby probe. 2 launches, 1964.11.30 (Zond 2) to 1965.07.18 (Zond 3). Mars probe intended to photograph Mars on a flyby trajectory. Elaboration of station systems and scientific research in interplanetary space. More...
  • Block L Molniya 8K78M Russian space tug. 288 launches, (1964) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Molniya M. More...
  • KLE Complex Lunar Expedition Russian manned lunar base. Chelomei's design for a lunar base, studied 1964 to 1974 as a UR-700-launched predecessor or alternative to Barmin's DLB. More...
  • L3 Russian manned lunar expedition. Development begun in 1964. All hardware was test flown, but program cancelled in 1974 due to repeated failures of the project's N1 launch vehicle. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TK Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1966. To deliver crews to the Soyuz R 11F71 station Kozlov developed the transport spacecraft 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK. More...
  • Soyuz PPK Russian manned combat spacecraft. Study 1964. The Soyuz 7K-PPK (pilotiruemiy korabl-perekhvatchik, manned interceptor spacecraft) was a revised version of the Soyuz P manned satellite inspection spacecraft. More...
  • OGCh Russian military orbital bombing system. 24 launches, 1965.03.05 (FOBS) to 1971.08.08 (Cosmos 433). More...
  • N-4 Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. 4 launches, 1965.07.16 (Proton 1) to 1966.07.06 (Proton 3). Physics experiments. Space station "Proton 1". Investigation of ultra-high-energy cosmic particles. More...
  • Soyuz VI Russian manned combat spacecraft. Cancelled 1965. To determine the usefulness of manned military space flight, two projects were pursued in the second half of the 1960's. More...
  • Lunokhod Russian lunar rover. Study 1965. The Lunokhod lunar rover was delivered to the surface by the Ye-8 robotic lander. More...
  • Venera 3MV-4 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1965.11.12 (Venera 2) to 1965.11.23 (Cosmos 96). Carried a TV system and scientific instruments. More...
  • Venera 3MV-3 Russian Venus probe. One launch, 1965.11.16, Venera 3. The mission of this spacecraft was to land on the Venusian surface. More...
  • US-A Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 38 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 102) to 1988.03.14 (Cosmos 1932). The US-A (later known as RLS) was a nuclear powered RORSAT (Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). More...
  • Strela-2 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 5 launches, 1965.12.28 (Cosmos 103) to 1968.08.27 (Cosmos 236). More...
  • LK-1 VA Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Total internal volume 8.37 m3. Assumes capsule was similar to TKS VA. Reentry Capsule. More...
  • LK-1 PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1965. Calculated masses, specific impulse based on mission requirements and drawing of spacecraft. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Voskhod KDU Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1965. Auxilliary Retrorocket. More...
  • Luna E-6S Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.03.01 (Cosmos 111) to 1966.03.31 (Luna 10). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Tether Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1965. Korolev was always interested in application of artificial gravity for large space stations and interplanetary craft. He sought to test this in orbit from the early days of the Vostok program. More...
  • KK Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1966. Work on the TMK project continued, including trajectory trade-off studies and refinement of the design. More...
  • Yastreb Russian space suit, operational 1969. The Yastreb suit was the first suit designed in the Soviet Union for extra-vehicular activity. Design began in 1965. Initially to be worn on the aborted Soyuz 1/2 1967 crew transfer mission. More...
  • Luna E-6LF Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1966.08.24 (Luna 11) to 1966.10.22 (Luna 12). Photographed lunar surface and orbital space environment in preparation for manned missions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Development of a three-manned orbital version of the Soyuz, the 7K-OK was approved in December 1963. More...
  • Luna E-6M Russian lunar lander. One launch, 1966.12.21, Luna 13. Modernized version of the E-6 with the ALS lander mass increased from 84 kg to 150 kg. Conducted further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. More...
  • DU-1 Rocket Belt Russian space mobility device. Cancelled 1966. This rocket belt was planned for use aboard a follow-on Voskhod mission in the 1960's. The mission was cancelled and the belt never tested. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Heavy-duty male/female docking system with no internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OK PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 17 launches, 1966.11.28 (Cosmos 133) to 1970.06.01 (Soyuz 9). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • OS-1 (1969) Russian manned space station. Study 1969. By 1969 the giant OS-1 space station had evolved to this configuration. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). The Soyuz 7K-L1, a modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK, was designed for manned circumlunar missions. More...
  • Tsiklon Russian navigation satellite. 31 launches, 1967.05.15 (Cosmos 158) to 1978.07.27 (Cosmos 1027). More...
  • Luna E-6LS Russian lunar orbiter. 3 launches, 1967.05.17 (Cosmos 159) to 1968.04.07 (Luna 14). The E-6LS was a radio-equipped version of the E-6 used to test tracking and communications networks for the Soviet manned lunar program. More...
  • Venera 1V (V-67) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1967.06.12 (Venera 4) to 1967.06.17 (Cosmos 167). Venus probe with the announced mission of direct atmospheric studies. More...
  • Soyuz OB-VI Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1970. In December 1967 OKB-1 chief designer Mishin managed to have Kozlov's Soyuz VI project killed. In its place he proposed to build a manned military station based on his own Soyuz 7K-OK design. More...
  • L5-1967 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1967. At a Lunar Soviet meeting in October 1967 preliminary agreement was reached to study a follow-on to the first N1-L3 lunar landings. A new N1 model was to be developed to launch a new 'L5' spacecraft. More...
  • IS-A Russian military anti-satellite system. 22 launches, 1967.10.27 (Cosmos 185) to 1982.06.18 (Cosmos 1379). First operational ASAT. Tested in 1967-1971 and deployed through the late 1970's. Design as revised by Yangel and Korolev from Chelomei's original. More...
  • Block D 11S824 Russian space tug. 40 launches, (1967) to (1975). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton. Block D, article number 11S824. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 SOK Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Separates before trans-lunar injection. Jettisonable support cone. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Modification of Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • L3M-1970 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1970. The first design of the L3M lunar lander had the crew of two accommodated in a Soyuz capsule atop the lander. More...
  • Sfera Russian earth geodetic satellite. 18 launches, 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 203) to 1978.12.26 (Cosmos 1067). The Sfera geodetic system covered a broad development for solving problems in geodetics, continental drift, and precise location of cartographic points. More...
  • DLB Lunar Base Russian manned lunar base. Substantial development activity from 1962 to cancellation in 1974. The N1 draft project of 1962 spoke of 'establishment of a lunar base and regular traffic between the earth and the moon'. More...
  • Orlan Russian space suit, operational 1978. The Orlan spacesuit was used for Russian EVA's on Salyut, Mir, and the International Space Station. It was designed by the Zvezda OKB, and derived from the Kretchet suit intended for use on the lunar surface. More...
  • Krechet Russian space suit, tested 1969. The Krechet spacesuit was designed by the Zvezda OKB for use on the lunar surface. It consisted of flexible limbs attached to a one-piece rigid body / helmet unit. More...
  • Nauka Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 45 launches, 1968.03.21 (Nauka) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122 Nauka). The Nauka containers were flown as piggy-back payloads aboard Zenit reconnaissance satellites. They served a dual purpose. More...
  • Zenit-2M Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1968.03.21 (Cosmos 208) to 1979.08.17 (Cosmos 1122). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • IS-P Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 4 launches, 1968.04.24 (Cosmos 217) to 1970.10.20 (Cosmos 373). ASAT Target, launched by R-36. Evidently a derivative of the first IS-A ASAT itself. More...
  • Zenit-4M Russian military surveillance satellite. 61 launches, 1968.10.31 (Cosmos 251) to 1974.07.25 (Cosmos 667). Planning began in mid-1967 for military systems to enter service through 1975. More...
  • N-6 Russian cosmic ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1968.11.16, Proton 4. Cosmic ray measurements. Study of the nature of high and ultra-high energy cosmic rays and their interaction with atomic nuclei. Mass announced at time of launch 17,000 kg. More...
  • LK-700 Block 11 Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Differed from the lateral Block 1 stages in having an engine unit for orientation of the assembly. Main engine of 23,500 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Midcourse manoeuvre/lunar braking stage. More...
  • LK-700 Block 1 Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Three identical stages of 34,491 kg each clustered around the core. Translunar Injection Stage. More...
  • LK-700 VA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. VA Re-entry Capsule. More...
  • Lunar Orbit OPS Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1968. In Chelomei's draft project for the UR-700, he proposed that lunar versions of the Almaz OPS be placed in lunar orbit to conduct detailed reconnaissance of the surface using manned assistance. More...
  • LK-700 Block 1V Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1968. Main engine of 13,400 kgf and three engines for soft landing / midcourse maneuvers of 1,670 kgf each. Trans-earth injection / midcourse manoeuvre stage. More...
  • NAZ-3 Russian space emergency kit, operational 1968. The NAZ-3 emergency-landing kit was used in cosmonaut training in all seasons and extremes of temperature, and on all manner of terrain: mountains, steppes, tundra, desert, taiga, and in water. More...
  • Yantar-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. Survey reconnaissance satellite project of KB Yuzhnoye worked on 1964-1967. More...
  • Yantar-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1968. High resolution reconnaissance satellite project worked on by KB Yuzhnoye 1964-1967. Was to have been derived from Soyuz-R manned spacecraft. More...
  • Venera 2V (V-69) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1969.01.05 (Venera 6) to 1969.01.10 (Venera 6). Spacecraft was very similar to Venera 4 / 1V (V-67) although the descent module was of a stronger design. More...
  • Aelita Russian infrared astronomy satellite. Cancelled 1982. The Aelita infrared astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. More...
  • Mars 5NM Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1974. The 5NM was the first attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1970 to 1974. More...
  • Luna Ye-8 Russian lunar rover. 3 launches, 1969.02.19 (Ye-8 s/n 201) to 1973.01.08 (Luna 21). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1A Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.02.21 (N-1 3L) to 1969.07.03 (N-1 5L). Hybrid spacecraft used in N1 launch tests. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Meteor M 11F614 Russian earth weather satellite. 25 launches, 1969.03.26 (Meteor 1-01) to 1977.04.05 (Meteor 1-27). Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. More...
  • Mars M-69 Russian Mars orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.03.27 (M-69 s/n 521) to 1969.04.02 (M-69 s/n 522). Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars. More...
  • Soyuz Kontakt Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1974. Modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft to test in earth orbit the Kontakt rendezvous and docking system. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-5 Russian lunar lander. 11 launches, 1969.06.14 (Ye-8-5 VA) to 1975.10.16 (Luna 24). Unmanned lunar soil sample return. More...
  • MK-700 Russian manned Mars flyby. Study 1972. Chelomei was the only Chief Designer to complete an Aelita draft project and present it to the Soviet government. More...
  • MKBS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1974. The culmination of ten years of designs for N1-launched space stations, the MKBS would be cancelled together with the N1. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1E Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1969.11.28 (Soyuz 7K-L1E s/n 1) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 382). Modification of Soyuz circumlunar configuration used in propulsion tests of the Block D stage. More...
  • Zenit-4MK Russian military surveillance satellite. 80 launches, 1969.12.23 (Cosmos 317) to 1977.06.22 (Cosmos 920). Modernized high resolution version of the Zenit-4M satellite that went into service in 1972. Maneuverable; (two-tone telemetry). More...
  • Ionosfernaya Russian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.27 (Ionosfernaya?) and 1970.12.02 (Cosmos 381). Ionospheric studies. Used the basic KAUR-1 bus, consisting of a 2. More...
  • Altitude Sounder Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1969. Used the KAUR-1 bus, which consisted of a 2.035 m diameter cylindrical spacecraft body, with solar cells and radiators of the thermostatic temperature regulating system mounted on the exterior. More...
  • MEK Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1969. The Mars Expeditionary Complex (MEK) was designed to take a crew of from three to six to Mars and back with a total mission duration of 630 days. More...
  • Molniya-Yu Russian tracking network technology satellite. Study 1969. This was a modification of the Molniya-1 satellite to test deep space radio-based tracking methods for the Soviet Lunar program. More...
  • N1 Block D Russian space tug. 4 launches, 1969 to 1972. Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Block D adapted as lunar crasher stage More...
  • OS-1 Lunar Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1969. A version of the OS-1 station was proposed for use in lunar orbit. No other details beyond this sketch. More...
  • Yantar-3KF Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1969. Survey reconnaissance satellite system studied in 1969. Not put into production. More...
  • Strela-1M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 371 launches, 1970.04.25 (Cosmos 336) to 2005.10.27 (Mozhaets 5). More...
  • Strela-2M Russian military store-dump communications satellite. 52 launches, 1970.06.27 (Strela-2) to 1994.12.20 (Cosmos 2298). More...
  • Venera 3V (V-70) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1970.08.17 (Venera 7) to 1970.08.22 (Cosmos 359). Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. More...
  • LK Russian manned lunar lander. 3 launches, 1970.11.24 (Cosmos 379) to 1971.08.12 (Cosmos 434). The LK ('Lunniy korabl' - lunar craft) was the Soviet lunar lander - the Russian counterpart of the American LM Lunar Module. More...
  • Baklan Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The Baklan full-pressure suit was developed by Zvezda for the crew of high altitude strategic aviation aircraft.. More...
  • L3M Russian manned lunar base. Study 1970-1972. Follow-on to the L3, a two N1-launch manned lunar expedition designed and developed in the Soviet Union between 1969 and 1974. More...
  • VMSK-4 Russian pressure suit, operational 1970. The VMSK-4 was a partial pressure immersion suit developed for Soviet Naval Aviation pilots. More...
  • Yantar-1KF Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1970. Survey reconnaissance satellite project worked on by Kozlov from 1967, succeeding Yantar-1. To be launched on Soyuz 11A511M launch vehicle. More...
  • Penguin Russian anti-zero-G suit, tested 1975. Prophylactic Body-Loading Suit, in use from 1978-; looked like the standard Russian blue in-flight suit, but had additional elastic bands and pulleys that created artificial force against which the body could work. More...
  • Salyut 1 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1971.04.19 (Salyut 1) and 1972.07.29 (Zarya s/n 122). Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station. More...
  • Soyuz 7KT-OK Russian manned spacecraft. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). This was a modification of Soyuz 7K-OK with a lightweight docking system and a crew transfer tunnel. More...
  • Mars M-71 Russian Mars lander. 3 launches, 1971.05.10 (Cosmos 419) to 1971.05.28 (Mars 3). Mars spacecraft built by Lavochkin for 1971 campaign. The spacecraft consists of a bus/orbiter module and an attached descent/lander module. More...
  • Mars 1986 Russian manned Mars expedition. Studied 1978-1986. NPO Energia resumed study of a Mars project once development began of the new Energia booster in place of the cancelled N1. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-LOK Russian manned lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). The two-crew LOK lunar orbiting spacecraft was the largest derivative of Soyuz developed. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-LS Russian lunar orbiter. 2 launches, 1971.09.28 (Luna 19) to 1974.05.29 (Luna 22). Lunar surface mapping. Lunar Orbit (Selenocentric). Investigation of the moon and near-lunar space from the orbit of an artificial satellite. More...
  • Molniya-2 Russian communications satellite. 20 launches, 1971.11.24 (Molniya 2-01) to 2005.06.21 (Molniya 2-17). Molniya-2 was the elliptical orbit component of the Soviet YeSSS communications satellite system. More...
  • Zenit-4MT Russian military surveillance satellite. 23 launches, 1971.12.27 (Cosmos 470) to 1982.08.03 (Cosmos 1398). Special version of Zenit developed for topographical photography. This was developed by OKB-1 Filial 1 based on the Zenit-4M. More...
  • DS-U2-GKA Soviet-French earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1971.12.27 (Oreol) to 1973.12.26 (Oreol 2). Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. More...
  • Chibis Russian anti-zero-G device, in use from 1971 (Salyut 1) to the ISS era. More...
  • DLB Lunokhod 1 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. More...
  • DLB Lunokhod 2 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. More...
  • DLB Lunokhod 3 Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1971. One of several conceptual models of Lunokhod or Marsokhod pressurized surface rovers planned for Soviet moon or Mars expeditions. More...
  • DLB Beacon Lander Russian lunar logistics spacecraft. Study 1971. In most Soviet manned lunar landing scenarios, versions of the Ye-8 unmanned landers would precede manned landings on the moon. More...
  • LOK PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Unique PAO developed for Soyuz lunar orbiter. Powerful sophisticated engine for lunar orbit rendezvous maneuvers and trans-earth injection. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • N1 Block Sr Russian space tug. Study 1971. Upper stage / space tug - developed 1971-1974 to support manned lunar expedition. Replaced Blok R/Blok S previously under development. More...
  • Romb Russian military target satellite. Study 1971. Radar reflective subsatellites, released by Taifun-1, Taifun-2, and Taifun-3 spacecraft, for calibration of PVO air and space defense radars. More...
  • Sokol-K1 Russian space suit, operational 1971. After the Soyuz 11 tragedy, in which all three unsuited cosmonauts died in a decompression accident, the Soviets scrambled to produce new IVA suits. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-LOK SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Increased heat shield protection and presumably reaction control system propellant for re-entry from lunar distances. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OKS SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Post-Soyuz 1 modification, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Analogue sequencer and computers operate spacecraft. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OKS BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-LOK BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.06.26 (N-1 6L) to 1972.11.23 (LOK). Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-OKS PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 2 launches, 1971.04.23 (Soyuz 10) to 1971.06.06 (Soyuz 11). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • L3M-1972 Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1972. Revised L3M design of the L3M lunar lander for use with the Block Sr crasher stage. The Soyuz return capsule was completely enclosed in a pressurized 'hangar'. More...
  • Venera 3V (V-72) Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1972.03.27 (Venera 8) to 1972.03.31 (Cosmos 482). Venus atmospheric probe; instrumentation included temperature, pressure, and light sensors as well as radio transmitters. More...
  • Energia Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.07 (Intercosmos 6) to 1978.07.02 (Cosmos 1026). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space. More...
  • Prognoz Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1972.04.14 (Prognoz 1) to 1985.04.26 (Intercosmos 23). This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was launched from 1972 for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics. More...
  • Almaz OPS-2 Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1979. The initial Almaz military space station program planned in 1965 consisted of two phases. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T Russian manned spacecraft. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). More...
  • Oko Russian military early warning satellite. 86 launches, 1972.09.19 (Cosmos 520) to 2010.09.30. Work on the Soviet Union's first infrared ICBM launch detection satellite began in 1967 as the USK - space system to observe rocket launches. More...
  • LK-3 Russian manned lunar lander. Reached mock-up stage, 1972. The LK-3 was Chelomei's preliminary design for a direct-landing alternative to Korolev's L3 manned lunar landing design. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Lightweight male/female docking system with roller-type probe, internal transfer tunnel (Collar Length: 0.22 m. Probe Length: 0. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 23 launches, 1972.06.26 (Cosmos 496) to 1981.05.14 (Soyuz 40). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Almaz OPS Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Vladimir Chelomei's Almaz OPS was the only manned military space station ever actually flown. More...
  • Almaz Russian manned space station. 3 launches, 1973.04.03 (Salyut 2) to 1976.06.22 (Salyut 5). Chelomei's Almaz space station was designed to conduct orbital research into the usefulness of manned observation of the earth. More...
  • Salyut 4 Russian manned space station. 2 launches, 1973.05.11 (Cosmos 557) to 1974.12.26 (Salyut 4). Four of the initial DOS-1 versions of a civilian Soviet space station were built using converted Almaz military stations. More...
  • Mars M-73 Russian Mars lander. 4 launches, 1973.07.21 (Mars 4) to 1973.08.09 (Mars 7). The M-73 spacecraft series was built for 1973 Mars missions. More...
  • Bion Russian biology satellite. 11 launches, 1973.10.31 (Cosmos 605) to 1996.12.24 (Bion No. 11). Bion was developed for biological studies of the effects of radiation. More...
  • LEK SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent module was contained within pressurized cabin of LEK ascent stage. Crew may have entered hatch in heat shield. Landing apparatus - Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples.. More...
  • LEK PS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent stage very similar in appearance to that of Apollo LM, with same function - descent from lunar orbit to landing of crewed module on surface of moon. Landing stage - Carry LEK ascent stage from lunar orbit to lunar surface; act as launching platform for LEK ascent stage.. More...
  • LEK VS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Ascent stage, carried a crew of three from the lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Contained within the pressurized cabin was a Soyuz descent module for reentry by the crew into the earth's atmosphere. Ascent stage - Carry crew and Soyuz descent module from lunar surface to trans-earth trajectory. Provide crew quarters and midcourse corrections during return journey from lunar surface to earth.. More...
  • Raduga First Soviet geosynchronous communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.03.26. A single orbital group of two Radugas could handle all communications of the Russian eastern regions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-TM Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo. More...
  • Yantar-2K Russian military surveillance satellite. 30 launches, 1974.05.23 (Yantar-2K failure.) to 1983.06.28 (Cosmos 1471). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-T/A9 Russian manned spacecraft. 8 launches, 1974.05.27 (Cosmos 656) to 1978.06.27 (Soyuz 30). Version of 7K-T for flights to Almaz. Known difference with the basic 7K-T included systems for remote control of the Almaz station and a revised parachute system. More...
  • Meteor-Priroda Russian earth land resources satellite. 5 launches, 1974.07.09 (Meteor 1-18) to 1981.07.10 (Meteor 1-31). More...
  • Soyuz 7K-S Russian manned spacecraft. 3 launches, 1974.08.06 (Cosmos 670) to 1976.11.29 (Cosmos 869). The Soyuz 7K-S had its genesis in military Soyuz designs of the 1960's. More...
  • Luna Ye-8-5M Russian lunar lander. 4 launches, 1974.10.28 (Luna 23) to 1976.08.09 (Luna 24 Return Vehicle). Lunar sample return. Conduct of further scientific investigation of the moon and circumlunar space. More...
  • Molniya-3 Russian communications satellite. 55 launches, 1974.11.21 (Molniya 3-01) to 2003.06.19 (Molniya 3-53). Development of the Molniya-2M communications satellite, later called Molniya-3, began in 1972. Flight trials began in November 1974. More...
  • US-P Russian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 37 launches, 1974.12.24 (Cosmos 699) to 1991.01.18 (Cosmos 2122). The US-P (later known as RTR) was a solar powered EORSAT (Electronic Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite). More...
  • Parus Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1974.12.26. Military satellite which provided navigation information and store-dump radio communications to Soviet naval forces and ballistic missile submarines. More...
  • Albatros Raketoplan Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages. More...
  • Block DM 11S86 Russian space tug. 66 launches, (1974) to (1990). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton. More...
  • LEK Lunar Expeditionary Complex Russian manned lunar base. Cancelled 1974. Although the N1, L3, and DLB projects were cancelled, Glushko still considered the establishment of a moon base to be a primary goal for his country. More...
  • MTKVA Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1974. Manned lifting body spaceplane, designed by Soviet engineers as a recoverable spacecraft in the early 1970's. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Universal docking system designed for ASTP with three petaled locating system and internal transfer tunnel. No automated rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Venera 4V-1 Russian Venus probe. 6 launches, 1975.06.08 (Venera 9) to 1981.11.04 (Venera 14). More...
  • Meteor-2 Russian earth weather satellite. 22 launches, 1975.07.11 (Meteor 2-01) to 1993.08.31 (Meteor 2-21). Successor to the Meteor-1 weather satellite. The Meteor-2 had a longer design operational life (one year vs. More...
  • Zenit-4MKT Russian military surveillance satellite. 27 launches, 1975.09.25 (Cosmos 771) to 1985.09.06 (Cosmos 1681). The Zenit-4MKT / Fram was an adaptation of the recoverable Vostok spacecraft for reconnaissance/remote sensing missions. More...
  • Prognoz SPRN Russian military early warning satellite. 15 launches, 1975.10.08 (Cosmos 775) to 2008.06.26 (Cosmos 2397). Development began of the Soviet Union's Prognoz geosynchronous ballistic missile early warning satellite in 1980. More...
  • Lunokhod LEK Russian manned lunar rover. Study 1973. Lunar rover for the Vulkan Lunar Expedition. The rover provided pressurized quarters for 2 crew, allowing trips up to 200 km from the lunar base at a top speed of 5 km/hr. More...
  • LEK Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1973. Lunar lander for the Vulkan surface base. As in the original LK lunar lander, this would be taken to near zero velocity near the lunar surface by the Vulkan Block V 'lunar crasher' rocket stage. More...
  • LZM Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-Factory Module for the Vulkan surface base. More...
  • LZhM Russian manned lunar habitat. Study 1973. Laboratory-living module. Three story lunar surface residence and laboratory for Vulkan-launched Lunar Expedition. More...
  • RD-301 Russian space tug. Study 1975. Upper stage / space tug using high energy propellants. To have been launched by Proton; ground tested but never flown. More...
  • Molniya-1T Russian military communications satellite. 63 launches, 1976.01.22 (Molniya) to 2004.02.18 (Molniya-1T). This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970. More...
  • Mir-2 Russian manned space station. Study 1989. The Mir-2 space station was originally authorized in the February 1976 resolution setting forth plans for development of third generation Soviet space systems. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 Russian manned spacecraft. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-T modified with installation of East German MF6 multispectral camera. Used for a unique solo Soyuz earth resources mission. More...
  • MiG 105-11 Russian manned spaceplane. 8 launches, 1976.10.11 to 1978.09.15 . Atmospheric flight test version of the Spiral OS manned spaceplane. The 105-11 incorporated the airframe and some of the systems of the planned orbital version. More...
  • Ekran Russian communications satellite. 21 launches, 1976.10.26 (Ekran 1) to 1988.05.06 (Ekran 18). Ekran was the Soviet Union's first geosynchronous satellite. More...
  • Zenit-6U Russian military surveillance satellite. 95 launches, 1976.11.24 (Cosmos 867) to 1984.06.19 (Cosmos 1573). A universal variant of the Zenit spacecraft, used in two altitude ranges, for both observation and high resolution missions. More...
  • TKS VA Russian manned spacecraft module. 13 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 881) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The VA reentry capsule was similar in configuration to the American Apollo, but 30% smaller. Reusable re-entry capsule. More...
  • Tsikada Russian navigation satellite. 20 launches, 1976.12.15 (Cosmos 883) to 1995.07.05 (Cosmos 2315). Tsikada was a complementary civilian version of the Parus military naval navigation satellite system for the Soviet Merchant Marine and Academy of Sciences. More...
  • Block D-1 11S824M Russian space tug. 11 launches, (1976) to (1989). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). More...
  • OPS + TKS Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1976. Designation give to combined TKS+OPS Almaz station. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 SA Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 BO Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. MKF6 Camera replaced docking system and Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system deleted. Four windows, BO separated after retrofire. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • KSI Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 1977. Capsule designed to return film and data materials from the Almaz military space station. More...
  • Yantar-4K2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1991. Improved military photo-reconnaissance satellite, using the basic Yantar-4K1 bus. Boost by the Zenit-2 launch vehicle would have allowed 22 film return capsules to be used over a 180 day mission. More...
  • Yantar-6KS Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Electro-optical imaging operational high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. More...
  • Yantar-6K Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1977. Extremely high resolution version of Yantar studied in 1969. A draft project was completed in May 1977, but the decision was made to keep the basic Yantar-2K satellite bus instead. More...
  • Zenit-4MKM Russian military surveillance satellite. 39 launches, 1977.07.12 (Cosmos 927) to 1980.10.10 (Cosmos 1214). A further modification of the Zenit-4MK, accepted for military service in 1976, entered service in 1978. More...
  • TKS Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). More...
  • Salyut 6 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1977.09.29. The Salyut 6 space station was the most successful of the DOS series prior to Mir. It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 orbits of the earth. More...
  • TKS FGB Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Orbital Living and Service Module. More...
  • TKS BSO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). The BSO was equipped with the retro-rocket for deorbit of the VA capsule following separation from the space station. Deorbit Block. More...
  • TKS SAS Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1977.07.17 (Cosmos 929) to 1985.09.27 (Cosmos 1686). Emergency escape system. More...
  • Progress Russian logistics spacecraft. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Progress took the basic Soyuz 7K-T manned ferry designed for the Salyut space station and modified it for unmanned space station resupply. More...
  • Soyuz T Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967. More...
  • Radio Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 9 launches, 1978.10.26 (Radio Sputnik 1) to 1994.12.26 (Radio-ROSTO RS-15). More...
  • Gorizont Russian communications satellite. 35 launches, 1978.12.19 (Gorizont 1) to 2000.06.06 (Gorizont). Gorizont-1 was designed specifically to support broadcast of the 1980 Olympic Games from Russia. More...
  • Astrofizika Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1978.12.23, Cosmos 1066. Based on the Meteor-1 bus but carried special optical instruments for the observation of lasers on Earth. More...
  • EA Russian manned Mars lander. Studied 1978-1986. Mars landing craft originally designed for aborted 1972 Aelita Mars study by OKB-1, and revived in the 1980's for new Energia-launched Mars expedition studies. More...
  • Mars 5M Russian Mars lander. Cancelled 1978. The 5M was a second attempt by the Lavochkin bureau to design and fly a Soviet Martian soil return mission. Design and development was undertaken from 1974 to 1978. More...
  • Progress OKD Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section. More...
  • Progress PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Derived from Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Progress GO Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Cargo section. More...
  • Soyuz T SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz T PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz T BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...
  • USB Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1978. As platforms for operational versions of space-borne weapons NPO Energia designed a Universal Service Block, based on the DOS-7K space station, in the late 1970's/early 1980's. More...
  • Yantar-4K1 Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1979.04.27. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth. More...
  • Resurs F1-17F41 Russian earth land resources satellite. 29 launches, 1979.09.05 (Cosmos 1127) to 1986.05.28 (Cosmos 1746). The 17F41 was the first of 4 models of the Resurs-F to fly. More...
  • LO Russian manned space station. Study 1984. A later version of the 37K design for civilian experiments, the LO Laboratory Compartment, would be retained in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel. More...
  • NPG Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1986. A later version of the 37K design for military experiments, the NPG Retained Payload, would be mounted in the payload bay of Buran and connected to the orbiter's cockpit area by an access tunnel. More...
  • 37K-Mir Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1983. The basic 37K design consisted of a 4.2 m diameter pressurized cylinder with a docking port at the forward end. It was not equipped with its own propulsion system. More...
  • 37KS Russian manned space station module. Cancelled 1983. Would have been launched by Proton and delivered and docked to the Mir station by a new lighter weight FGO tug. More...
  • Resurs-OE Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1980.06.18 (Meteor 1-30) to 1983.07.24 (Cosmos 1484). Modified Meteor; prototype for Resurs-O1. More...
  • Yantar-2K-M Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1980. Planned upgrade of Yantar-2K. Not put into production. More...
  • Geo-IK Russian earth geodetic satellite. 14 launches, 1981.01.23 (Geo-IK no. 1) to 1994.11.29 (Geo-IK). Development of a second generation geodetic satellite system began in 1977. More...
  • Yantar-1KFT Russian military surveillance satellite. 21 launches, 1981.02.18 (Cosmos 1246) to 2005.09.02 (Cosmos 2415). Version of the Yantar photo satellite for topographic mapping on behalf of the Red Army. More...
  • Iskra Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 3 launches, 1981.07.10 (Iskra) to 1982.11.18 (Iskra 3). Launched from Salyut 7 airlock. Conduct of experiments in the field of amateur radio communications. More...
  • System 49 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1981. System 49 was the design that followed Spiral and preceded MAKS in the Soviet quest for a flexible air-launched manned space launcher. More...
  • System 49-M Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1981. The 49M was an application of the system 49 air-launched design concept, but with a larger carrier aircraft. The orbiter mass was 28 metric tons in orbit, including a 9 metric ton payload in a 8. More...
  • Estafeta Russian military communications satellite. Study 1982. Military nuclear powered communications satellite. Development approved by the Soviet VPK Military-Industrial Commission on 8 January 1982. More...
  • Salyut 7 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1982.04.19. Salyut 7 was the back-up article for Salyut 6 and very similar in equipment and capabilities. More...
  • Potok Russian military communications satellite. 10 launches, 1982.05.18 (Cosmos 1366) to 2000.07.04 (Cosmos 2371). Potok was one element of the second generation global command and control system (GKKRS) developed according to a decree of 17 February 1976. More...
  • BOR-4 Russian manned spaceplane. 4 launches, 1982.06.04 (Cosmos 1374) to 1984.12.19 (Cosmos 1614). BOR-4 were subscale test versions of the Spiral manned spaceplanes. More...
  • Glonass Russian navigation satellite. Operational, first launch 1982.10.12. Glonass was a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system. More...
  • Yantar-4KS1 Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 1982.12.28. More...
  • Block DM-2 11S861 Russian space tug. 100 launches, (1982) to (2001). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. More...
  • Bizan Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1982. Bizan was the 1982 Soviet air-launched spaceplane design iteration between the '49' and 'MAKS' concepts. Like the '49', it was air-launched from atop an An-124 transport. More...
  • Astron Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.03.23. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission. More...
  • Venera 4V-2 Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1983.06.02 (Venera 15) to 1983.06.07 (Venera 16). Venera radar mappers which used an 8 cm band side-looking radar to study the surface properties of Venus. More...
  • BOR-5 Russian spaceplane. 2 launches, 1983.07.04 (BOR-5 Flight 1) and 1984.06.06 (BOR-5 Flight 6). The aerodynamic characteristics of Buran at hypersonic speeds were validated by the BOR-5 1:8 sub-scale model of Buran. More...
  • LKS Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up stage when cancelled in 1983. The LKS was a Chelomei design for a reusable manned winged spacecraft, similar to the later European Hermes spaceplane. More...
  • Multipurpose Satellite Gals Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1983. Heavy radar satellite based on the DOS 17K space station bus and using a KRT-30, a 30 m diameter radiotelescope. More...
  • Yantar-4KS2 Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1983. The Yantar-4KS2 was a heavy military optical reconnaissance satellite, required to have the same capabilities as the KH-11/Crystal reconnaissance satellite of the United States. More...
  • Efir Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1984.03.10 (Cosmos 1543) to 1985.12.27 (Cosmos 1713). Science. Adaptation of the Vostok spacecraft. More...
  • Zenit-8 Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1984.06.11 (Cosmos 1571) to 1994.06.07 (Cosmos 2281). More...
  • Terra-3 Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1984. OKB Vympel was the systems integrator for ground-based laser systems. More...
  • Meteor-3 Russian earth weather satellite. 7 launches, 1984.11.27 (Cosmos 1612) to 1994.01.25 (Meteor 3-06). Meteor-3 began in 1972 as an improved replacement for the Meteor-2 weather satellite. More...
  • Vega 5VK Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1984.12.15 (Vega 1) to 1984.12.21 (Vega 2). The Vega 5VK spacecraft was designed for a mission combining a flyby of the planet Venus followed by an encounter with Halley's Comet. More...
  • Buran Analogue Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. This Buran OK-GLI 'Analogue' was a version of the Buran spaceplane equipped with jet engines to allow it to be flown in handling and landing system tests at subsonic speed in the earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Energia Ozone Replenishment Satellite Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The eroding ozone layer of the earth would be replenished using a constellation of space-based lasers that would bombard the stratosphere at 30 km altitude for 30 years. More...
  • Energia Nuclear Waste Disposal Russian burial satellite. Study 1984. The entire inventory of high-level nuclear waste (100 metric tons) would be permanently disposed of in a solar orbit at 1. 2 AU between Earth and Mars using 10 to 15 launches of the Energia launch vehicle. More...
  • Energia-Buran Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. Article number for combined Energia (launch vehicle) - Buran (manned spaceplane) complex. See Buran for details. More...
  • Energia Polar City Illuminator Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. The Energia launch vehicle could be used to launch 100 orbital reflectors to provide light to cities located in the polar regions. More...
  • Energia Orbital Debris Remover Russian earth environment satellite. Study 1984. A 15 metric ton maneuverable satellite, consisting of an engine unit and a satellite collection mechanism, would maneuver at geosynchronous altitude in orbits with inclinations of between 0 and 14 degrees. More...
  • Energia Control Sat Russian military surveillance satellite. Study 1984. This satellite would consist of a 33 metric ton equipment bus and a 17 metric ton rocket stage. It would be placed in a 600 km / 97 degree orbit for arms control and environment monitoring. More...
  • Globis Russian communications satellite. Studied 1984-1994. Lox/LH2 upper stages launched by Energia would put 21 metric ton communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. More...
  • OK-M1 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M1 manned spaceplane was designed by NPO Molniya as a follow-on to the OK-M of NPO Energia. The OK-M1 was an integrated part of a unique launch vehicle, the MMKS reusable multi-module space system. More...
  • OK-M2 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. The OK-M2 was a manned spaceplane, a straight delta wing joined to a broad fuselage with an upturned nose. More...
  • OK-M Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1984. 1980's design for a spaceplane, smaller than Buran, to replace Soyuz and Progress spacecraft for space station crew rotation/replenishment tasks. More...
  • Strela-3 Russian military store-dump communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1985.01.15. Said to have initially been developed for the GRU. More...
  • Zarya Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1989.' Super Soyuz' replacement for Soyuz and Progress. More...
  • Foton Russian materials science satellite. 15 launches, 1985.04.16 (Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1) to 2007.09.14 (Foton M-2). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for zero-gravity materials processing tests. 400 W available to operate experiments. More...
  • Resurs-O1 Russian earth land resources satellite. 4 launches, 1985.10.03 (Cosmos 1689) to 1998.07.10 (Resurs-O1 No. 4). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Luch Russian military communications satellite. 5 launches, 1985.10.25 (Cosmos 1700) to 1995.10.11 (Luch 1). More...
  • Mir Modules-FGB Russian manned space station. Study 1985. Space station modules derived from the Chelomei TKS ferry. See entries for Kvant-2, Priroda, Spektr, and Kristal for details on each. More...
  • RP Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1985. For interception of enemy ICBM's during boost phase NPO Energia developed a space based rocket interceptor (RP) similar to American 'Brilliant Pebble' systems. More...
  • Vega 5VS Russian Venus probe. Cancelled 1985. Unflown series of Venus probes (which also served as the basis for the Granat satellite). Original plans called for two versions, 5VS and 5VP, both weighing 4850 kg. More...
  • Tu-2000 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. More...
  • Yakovlev MVKS Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. More...
  • VKS Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. The Energia VKS was designed as a hypersonic rocketplane with multi-regime engines, in response to the Soviet Ministry of Defenses' MVKS single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system requirement. More...
  • Mir Russian manned space station. One launch, 1986.02.20. Improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space station with one aft docking port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station. More...
  • Soyuz TM Russian manned spacecraft. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). More...
  • Resurs F1-14F40 Russian earth land resources satellite. 7 launches, 1986.07.16 (Cosmos 1762) to 1988.02.18 (Cosmos 1920). The Resurs-F earth resource satellite was based on the recoverable Zenit-4 spy satellite. More...
  • Koltso Russian military target satellite. One launch, 1986.10.22, Cosmos 1786. Calibration mission. Tentatively identified as third generation replacement for Taifun-2, perhaps to have been launched by the Tsyklon 3 launch vehicle. More...
  • Orlets-2 Russian military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1986.10.22 (GVM) to 2000.09.25 (Cosmos 2372). More...
  • Almaz-T Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. 3 launches, 1986.11.29 (Almaz-T s/n 303 Failure) to 1991.03.31 (Almaz 1). The results of the manned Almaz flights showed that manned reconnaissance from space was not worth the expense. More...
  • Mir complex Russian manned space station. Assembled 1986 to 1996. Designation given to the entire Mir space station. More...
  • Soyuz TM SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz TM BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system . Living section. More...
  • Soyuz TM PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 34 launches, 1986.05.21 (Soyuz TM-1) to 2002.04.25 (Soyuz TM-34). Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Ekran-M Russian communications satellite. 6 launches, 1987.01.30 (Cosmos 1817) to 2001.04.07 (Ekran-M No. 18). Ekran-M provided unique direct television broadcasting service to community users in the central Russian Federation region (Zone 3). More...
  • Plazma-A Russian ion engine technology satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 (Cosmos 1818) to 1987.07.10 (Cosmos 1867). In 1987 two experimental Plazma-A satellites (Cosmos 1818 and 1867) were launched with new-generation Topaz reactors. More...
  • Pirs-1 Russian military naval surveillance radar satellite. 2 launches, 1987.02.02 and 1987.07.10 . More...
  • Kvant Russian manned space station. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). The Kvant spacecraft represented the first use of a new kind of Soviet space station module, designated 37K. More...
  • Polyus Russian military anti-satellite system. One launch, 1987.05.15. The Polyus military testbed was put together on a crash basis as an answer to America's Star Wars program. More...
  • Uragan Space Interceptor Russian manned combat spacecraft. 2 launches, 1987.08.01 (Cosmos 1871) to 1987.08.28 (Cosmos 1873). Russian sources continue to maintain that the Uragan manned spaceplane project never existed. More...
  • Resurs F2 Russian earth land resources satellite. 11 launches, 1987.12.26 (Cosmos 1906) to 1995.09.26 (Resurs F2 N.10). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for remote sensing. More...
  • Kvant FGB Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Used only once, tug docked Kvant module to station, then separated and was commanded to destructive reentry over Pacific Ocean. Space station module tug. More...
  • Kvant AM Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1987.03.31 (Kvant 1). Space station module astrophysics. More...
  • Tyulpan Russian military anti-satellite system target satellite. Study 1987. ASAT target designed to be released and tracked by sensors in original design of Mir Spektr module. May also have been the ASAT targets carried aboard the Polyus star wars testbed. More...
  • Resurs F1-14F43 Russian earth land resources satellite. 18 launches, 1988.05.31 (Cosmos 1951) to 1993.08.24 (Resurs F-19). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Fobos 1F Russian Mars orbiter. 5 launches, 1988.07.07 (Phobos 1) to 1988.07.12 (1F PPS). The 1F spacecraft was flown on the Phobos mission to Mars, consisting of 2 nearly identical spacecraft. More...
  • Buran Russian manned spaceplane. One launch, 1988.11.15. Soviet copy of the US Space Shuttle. Unlike the Shuttle, the main engines were not mounted on Buran and were not reused. More...
  • 37KB Russian manned space station module. One launch, 1988.11.15. Carried in the payload bay of the Buran space shuttle. They could remain attached to the bay or (modified to the 37KBI configuration) be docked to the Mir-2 station. More...
  • Taifun-3 Russian military target satellite. 2 launches, 1988.12.23 (Cosmos 1985) to 1989.12.27 (Cosmos 2053). Specifications for a third generation Taifun-3 system were developed in 1980 with flight trials to have started in 1984. More...
  • Block D-2 11S824F Russian space tug. 3 launches, (1988) to (1996). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by . Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). More...
  • Energia Lunar Expedition Russian manned lunar base. Study 1988. In 1988, with development of the Buran space shuttle completed, Glushko ordered new studies on a lunar based that could be established using the Energia booster. More...
  • KS Russian military orbital bombing system. Study 1988. To co-ordinate the actions of multiple space combat units, NPO Energia proposed in the 1980's a KS space station. More...
  • LOK Energia Russian manned lunar orbiter. Study 1988. Lunar orbiter for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches. More...
  • LK Energia Russian manned lunar lander. Study 1988. Lunar lander for Energia-launched lunar expedition. The LOK and LK lander would be inserted into lunar orbit by separate Energia launches. More...
  • LOK Energia SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent module of Soyuz configuration but 50% larger dimensionally and nearly twice as heavy. Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples. More...
  • LOK Energia PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. The LOK provided a pressurized volume for three crew. Within the cabin was a descent module of the same configuration as Soyuz, but almost 50% larger. Equipment-engine section - Lunar orbit maneuver, trans-orbit propulsion, pressurized crew quarters.. More...
  • LK Energia VS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Although similar in appearance to LEK ascent stage, 80% smaller and no descent module for reentry into earth's atmosphere. Ascent from lunar surface to lunar orbit, dock with LOK Energia.. More...
  • LK Energia PS Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1988. Descent stage similar in appearance to Apollo LM and LEK stages, but of differing dimensions. Descent from lunar orbit to lunar surface, launch platform for ascent stage.. More...
  • MAKS Orbiter Russian manned spaceplane. Reached advanced stage of development testing and prototype construction when project was cancelled in 1988. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the OK-M studies NPO Molniya conducted with NPO Energia. More...
  • Mir-2 KB Salyut Russian manned space station. Cancelled 1988. Alternative design for the Mir-2 space station by KB Salyut. If Polyus had successfully made it to orbit, it might have been the core for such a station. More...
  • Pirs-2 Russian military naval radar satellite. Cancelled 1988. The Pirs-2 was the second phase nuclear-powered active-radar naval targeting spacecraft. More...
  • Etalon Russian earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1989.01.10 (Cosmos 1989) to 1989.05.31 (Cosmos 2024). Passive geodetic satellites, 1415 kg, 1.294 m in diameter, covered with 306 antenna arrays, each with 14 corner cubes for laser reflection. More...
  • Pion Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1989.05.25 (Pion) to 1992.08.19 (Pion 2). Deployed from Resurs F1, which carried two passive separable "Pion" probes to investigate upper atmospheric density. More...
  • Raduga-1 Russian communications satellite. 8 launches, 1989.06.21 (Raduga 1-1) to 2007.12.09 (Raduga-1). The Raduga-1 geosynchronous communications satellite was to have been the basis for the YeSSS-2 second generation Unified Satellite Communication System. More...
  • Orlets-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 8 launches, 1989.07.18 (Cosmos 2031) to 2006.09.14 (Cosmos 2423). Multi-purpose satellite, designed for both close-look and survey missions, equipped with a panoramic camera, equipped with 8 film return capsules. More...
  • Progress M Russian logistics spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Progress M was an upgraded version of the original Progress. New service module and rendezvous and docking systems were adopted from Soyuz T. More...
  • Kvant-2 Russian manned space station. One launch, 1989.11.26, Kvant 2. Kvant-2 was a utility module launched to the Mir station. It provided an airlock, additional electric power, and additional gyrodynes for orienting the station. More...
  • Granat Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.12.01. Granat was a Lavochkin design with the mission of making gamma ray observations in energy ranges of 3 to 200 keV. More...
  • KKO-15 Russian pressure suit, operational 1989. Protective partial pressure suit was used by pilots of Russian high-performance combat aircraft. It featured better performance and G-protection than earlier models . More...
  • Mars 1989 Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1989. In 1989 yet another Mars project was proposed by NPO Energia. More...
  • Progress M OKD Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section. More...
  • Progress M GO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Two Kurs-type rendezvous antennas. Cargo section. More...
  • Progress M PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Zarya VA Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. The Zarya landing module was enlarged from the Soyuz 2.4 m diameter to 4.1 m diameter, while keeping the same shape and L/D coefficient of 0.26 at Mach 6. Reusable re-entry capsule. More...
  • Zarya NO Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. Maneuver system consisted of two engines, each of 300 kgf. Expendable module for orbital maneuvering and experiments. More...
  • Kristall Russian manned space station. One launch, 1990.05.31. Kristal was a dedicated zero-gravity materials and biological science research module for the Mir space station, launched in January 1990 More...
  • Gamma Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1990.07.11. The Gamma USSR/France gamma/x-ray astronomical telescope spacecraft was derived from the Soyuz manned spacecraft and had an unusually long gestation. More...
  • Briz K Russian space tug. 6 launches, (1990) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Rokot. Briz KM differed from Briz K in having 'compact' components, and a special payload truss for the Globalstar dispenser. More...
  • IS-MU Russian military anti-satellite system. Reportedly deployed in 1990. Improved modernized ASAT/ABM. Reportedly deployed in 1980's without flight test, replacing IS-A. Accepted into military service in 1991. More...
  • KRT-25 Radio Telescope Russian radio astronomy satellite. Study 1990. In collaboration with the European Space Agency, a 25 m diameter space radio telescope was studied for launch by Energia in 2001. More...
  • Mayak Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 the Applied Mechanics NPO announced that it was developing a successor to the Molniya series of spacecraft. More...
  • Sokol-KV2 Russian space suit, operational 1990. Improved version of the Sokol IVA suit developed for use aboard Soyuz T. More...
  • Strizh Russian space suit, operational 1990. The Strizh full-pressure suit was developed for the Buran program. It was qualified to protect the cosmonaut in ejections from the spaceplane at altitudes up to 30 km and speeds of up to Mach 3. More...
  • SPK Russian space mobility device, tested 1990. The Soviet Union developed a manned maneuvering unit and flew it from Mir in 1990. More...
  • SovCanStar Russian communications satellite. Study 1990. One of the early Russian-Western satellite programs was SovCanStar, a 1990 joint venture with Canada. More...
  • Tellura Russian earth land resources satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed an unmanned derivative of the TKS manned ferry to conduct earth resources experiments. More...
  • Teknologia Russian materials science satellite. Study 1990. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed an unmanned derivative of the TKS to conduct zero-gravity materials production experiments. More...
  • Informator Russian communications satellite. One launch, 1991.01.29, Oscar 21. Informator was the spacecraft component of the planned Koskon medium earth-orbit communications satellite system. More...
  • Mak Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1991.06.17 (Mak 1) and 1992.10.27 (Mak 2). Launched from Mir airlock. Investigation of features at the Earth's atmosphere. More...
  • Interorbital Tug Russian space tug. Cancelled 1991. Upper stage / space tug - nuclear electric space tug, to be launched by Energia-2. Developed 1978-1991, ultimately cancelled. More...
  • Radiobook Russian communications satellite. Study 1991. The Radiobook network would utilize from 24 to 36 micro-satellites (10 kg or less) in a packet radio network, which could be launched with small boosters, including air-launched missiles. More...
  • Zerkalo Russian communications satellite. In 1991 Lavochkin NPO teamed up with NOOS Space Technologies Ltd. Of Moscow to develop the Zerkalo spacecraft and telecommunications system. More...
  • Gonets-D1 Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. 15 launches, 1992.07.13 (Cosmos 2199) to 2005.12.21 (Gonets D1M 1). Commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite. More...
  • Znamya Russian . One launch, 1992.10.27. Reflector mirror, deployed from Progress M-15 after separation from Mir space station. More...
  • Bioteknologiya Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. In 1991 the Salyut Design Bureau proposed a satellite based on a derivative of the class of spacecraft which serve as the heavy add-on modules for the Mir space station, e.g., Kvant 2 and Kristal. More...
  • ERTA Russian space tug. Study 1992. ERTA (Elecktro-Raketniy Transportniy Apparat) was a nuclear-electric space tug designed to be boosted on medium boosters and provide both propulsion and electrical power for unmanned planetary probes. More...
  • Ekol Russian earth atmosphere satellite. Study 1992. The Lavochkin NPO designed a variety of remote sensing spacecraft based on a new 3-axis controlled satellite bus. More...
  • Forpost Russian military communications satellite. Study 1992. Communications satellite - Soviet Ministry of Defense. No other details available. More...
  • KVRB Russian space tug. Study 1992. Upper stage / space tug - design 1992. High energy upper stage for Proton, never put into production. More...
  • Nord Russian communications satellite. Study 1992. The Lavochkin NPO proposed the Nord highly elliptical communications systems in 1992. Nord was described as a 4-satellite network of 2,300-kg spacecraft launched by the Rus booster. More...
  • Obzor Russian earth resources radar satellite. Study 1992. The Arsenal Design Bureau proposed converting its military ocean reconnaissance spacecraft bus (EORSAT) into a civil remote sensing platform. More...
  • Spektr - Original Russian military anti-satellite system. Study 1989. Chelomei designed a spacecraft bus for space based weapons based on his TKS space tug. This was an alternate / competitive design to the NPO Energia USB. More...
  • Skif-DM Russian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1992. In 1990 KB Salyut proposed using the back-up of the Polyus 'star wars' test bed as a huge zero-gravity materials production facility. More...
  • Space Biotechnological Complex Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. In 1991 the Salyut Design Bureau proposed a Space Biotechnological Complex, for production of pharmaceutical products in zero gravity. More...
  • TMP Russian materials science satellite. Study 1992. The enormous 88 metric ton Engineering Production Module (TMP) was proposed by the Salyut Design Bureau in the early 1990's. More...
  • Tekos Russian materials science satellite. In 1991 Lavochkin NPO proposed this recoverable earth orbital spacecraft design, derived from their Venera planetary spacecraft, for materials and microgravity research missions. More...
  • Start Russian communications technology satellite. One launch, 1993.03.25. Experimental satellite carried on test flight of the Start-1 carrier rocket, a new booster based on SS-25 ICBM. More...
  • Almaz-1B Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1993. More...
  • Globsat Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Salyut Design Bureau proposed the least ambitious of all Russian low earth orbit communications systems. More...
  • LII Spaceplane Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1993. LII (the Gromov Experimental Flight Institute at Zhukovskiy) designed several alternate spaceplane concepts for air-launch from the An-225 transport. These were similar to the various MAKS concepts. More...
  • Progress M2 Russian logistics spacecraft. Cancelled 1993. As Phase 2 of the third generation Soviet space systems it was planned to use a more capable resupply craft for the Mir-2 space station. More...
  • Pallada Russian communications satellite. Study 1993. The Pallada network was devised by the Moscow Radio Communications Research Institute for Commonwealth of Independent States communications services, including voice, telegraph, fax, and data transmissions. More...
  • Progress M VBK Russian manned spacecraft module. Two launched, 1993-1994. This payload return capsule was brought to the Mir space station aboard a Progress M freighter. It was loaded by the cosmonauts aboard the station, then reinstalled in the Progress M. Ballistic landing capsule - return of experimental materials from Mir space station. More...
  • Gals Russian communications satellite. 2 launches, 1994.01.20 (Gals) and 1995.11.17 (Gals-2). Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. More...
  • Ekspress Russian communications satellite. 15 launches, 1994.10.13 to 2009-02-11. The Ekspress series communications satellite closely resembled the Gals spacecraft and shared a similar spacecraft bus. More...
  • Elektro Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 1994.10.31. Elektro was to be the geostationary component of a third generation Soviet meteorological system. Following extended development, it flew only once, in 1994. More...
  • Block DM-2M 11S861-01 Russian space tug. 35 launches, (1994) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. More...
  • Geostar-MSS Russian communications satellite. Study 1994. The Lavochkin Geostar-MSS communications system was designed in association with Moscow NII Radio-communications. More...
  • Mars 1994 Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 1994. Soviet / Russian design for a Mars expedition powered by RD-0410 bi-modal nuclear thermal engines. A crew of five would complete the trip to Mars and back in 460 days. More...
  • Mars Together Russian Mars orbiter. Study 1994. In 1994-95, RKK Energia, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory analyzed the project 'Mars Together'. More...
  • Tyulpan Comsat Russian communications satellite. By 1994 Lavochkin's Tyulpan system was promoted more heavily than its earlier Nord system. More...
  • EKA Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.03.28. Eksperimentalniy Kosmicheskiy Apparat - dummy of test satellite. More...
  • Spektr Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.05.20. Spektr was a module of the Mir space station. It began life as a dedicated military research unit. More...
  • Prognoz-M Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1995.08.02 (Interbol 1) to 1996.08.29 (Interbol 2). Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's. More...
  • Mir-Shuttle Docking Module Russian manned space station. One launch, 1995.11.12. A specialized SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. More...
  • Skipper Russian technology satellite. One launch, 1995.12.28. Aerobraking investigation; satellite provided by Russia, instruments by Utah State University; solar array shorted immediately following deployment and ended mission. More...
  • Almaz-2 Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1995. Plans for an even more sophisticated and capable civilian Almaz 2 spacecraft were made in the early 1990's. Almaz 2's payload mass of 6. More...
  • EVA 2000 Russian space suit, tested 1995. Prototype full pressure suit effort between ESA and USSR to upgrade the Orlan DMA. More...
  • Gelikon Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. An early Applied Mechanics NPO plan to replace Gorizont and Ekran spacecraft revolved around the Gelikon project. More...
  • Konus-A Russian gamma ray astronomy satellite. Study 1995. The Konus-A scientific satellite was developed in 1995-1997 for the Russian Academy of Science and flown as Cosmos 2326. More...
  • Konvert Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The Elas Scientific Production Association was a principal participant in the proposed Kuryer communications system of Konvert spacecraft. More...
  • Signal Russian communications satellite. Study 1995. The RKK Energia and Polyot PO teamed up with other industries to propose the Signal constellation of low earth orbit communications satellites. More...
  • Priroda Russian manned space station. One launch, 1996.04.23. Priroda was the last Mir module launched. It was originally an all-Soviet remote sensing module for combined civilian and military surveillance of the earth. More...
  • Alpha Lifeboat Russian manned rescue spacecraft. Study 1995. 1995 joint Energia-Rockwell-Khrunichev design for space station Alpha lifeboat based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor, cold gas thruster package. Five years on-orbit storage. More...
  • Mars M1 Russian Mars orbiter. 5 launches, 1996.11.16 (Mars-96 (Mars 8)) to (Mars-96 (Mars 8)). More...
  • Arkos Russian communications satellite. Study 1996. Applied Mechanics' Arkos satellite was to have served as the geosynchronous anchor of the Marathon telecommunications network, while the highly elliptical Mayak spacecraft completed the system. More...
  • Zeya Russian earth geodetic satellite. One launch, 1997.03.04. The Zeya satellite was used for navigation and geodesy tests from a sun-synchronous orbit. More...
  • Arkon-1 Russian military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.06.06 (Cosmos 2344) to 2002.07.25 (Cosmos 2392). More...
  • PS Model Russian amateur radio communications satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.05 (Sputnik-40) to 1998.10.25 (Spoutnik-41). Two subscale models of Sputnik 1, were built by students for hand-launch from Mir on fortieth anniversary of Sputnik 1. More...
  • Kupon Russian military communications satellite. One launch, 1997.11.12. Kupon was originally developed by Lavochkin for the third generation GKKRS (Global Space Command and Communications System). Other satellites in the network included Potok and Geizer. More...
  • Resurs F1M Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 1997.11.17 (Resurs F-1M) to 1999.09.28 (Resurs F-1M). Variant of the Resurs-F recoverable earth resources satellite. See Resurs F1-17F40 for a full technical description. More...
  • Block DM-5 17S40 Russian space tug. 6 launches, (1997) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block DM-5. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter. More...
  • Kondor Russian communications satellite. Study 1997. The Khrunichev State Space Research and Production Center (including the Salyut Design Bureau), proposed the Kondor communications system for mobile users. More...
  • Elf Russian technology satellite. Study 1998. Elf was a micro satellite platform developed by KB Arsenal. With a platform weight of 80 kg it could provide 20 W power to 30 kg instrument payloads. More...
  • Kolibor Russian earth seismology satellite. Study 1998. The Kolibor microsatellite platform of KB Arsenal was a universal development of that designed for the Predvestnik earthquake monitoring system. More...
  • Nika-T Russian materials science satellite. Study 1998. By the late 1990's the Foton Design Bureau anticipated testing a much more capable microgravity spacecraft as a follow-on to the successful Foton program. More...
  • Predvestnik Russian civilian surveillance satellite. Study 1998. The Predvestnik satellites were planned to form a space-based earthquake prediction system. More...
  • VKK Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1998. A Russian concept of the 1990's harking back to Chelomei's Raketoplan of three decades earlier. A manned aircraft would be protected during launch and re-entry by an expendable aeroshell heat shield. More...
  • Yamal Russian communications satellite. 4 launches, 1999.09.06 (Yamal 101) to 2003.11.24 (Yamal-200 KA-2). The Yamal communications satellite bus was developed by RKK Energia for Gazprom. More...
  • LMI Russian communications satellite. One launch, 1999.09.26. Lockheed Martin Intersputnik's LMI-1 satellite was a joint Russian-American venture. LMI-1 provided communications services to Eastern Europe and Central Asia. More...
  • Briz M Russian space tug. 2 launches, (1999) to (2000). Upper stage / space tug - in production. New upper stage for Proton, replacing Energia Corporation's Block DM, making Proton an all-Khrunichev launch vehicle. More...
  • Gonets Russian civilian store-dump communications satellite. Study 1999. The first generation store-dump communications Gonets-D system was to have been followed by an advanced Gonets-R design equipped with satellite-to-satellite links. More...
  • Ikar Russian space tug. Study 1999. Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Soyuz. Derived from propulsion module of Yantar spy satellite, over 30 flights to 1998. 50 restarts. More...
  • Progress M1 Russian logistics spacecraft. 11 launches, 2000.02.01 (Progress M1-1) to 2004.01.29 (Progress M1-11). Progress M1 was a modified version of the Progress M resupply spacecraft capable of delivering more propellant than the basic model to the ISS or Mir. More...
  • IRDT Russian manned rescue spacecraft. First launch 2000.02.08. Inflatable re-entry and descent technology vehicle designed to return payloads from space to the earth or another planet. Tested three times, with only one partially successful recovery. More...
  • Simsat Russian technology satellite. 2 launched, 2000.05.16. 660 kg dummy satellite. More...
  • ISS Zvezda Russian manned space station. One launch, 2000.07.12, Zvezda. The Zvezda service module of the International Space Station had its origins a quarter century before it was launched. More...
  • Marpost Russian manned Mars expedition. Study 2000. In December 2000 Leonid Gorshkov of RKK Energia proposed a manned Mars orbital expedition as an alternative to Russian participation in the International Space Station. More...
  • Progress M-SO Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. First launch 2001.09.14. Delivered to the station by the Progress service module, which was jettisoned after docking. More...
  • Reflektor Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The 8 kg Reflektor was built by NII KP in Russia for space debris studies in a joint experiment with the Air Force Research Lab. More...
  • Meteor-3M Russian earth weather satellite. One launch, 2001.12.10. The Meteor-3 weather satellite was to be followed in 1996 by the first of the Meteor-3M class, which was finally put into orbit in 2001. No further launches, and succeeded by the Meteor-M in 2010. More...
  • Kompas Russian earth seismology satellite. 2 launches, 2001.12.10 (Kompas) and 2006.05.26 (Kompas). More...
  • ISS Pirs Russian manned space station module. One launch, 2001.09.14. Russian docking and airlock module for the International Space Station. The Stikovochniy Otsek No. 1 (SO1, Docking Module 1), article 240GK No. More...
  • Kolibri Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2002.03.19. Kolibri was a joint Russian-Australian educational project to allow school children to monitor low frequency waves and particle fluxes in low orbit. More...
  • Soyuz TMA Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2002.10.30. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. After the retirement of the US shuttle in 2011, Soyuz TMA was the only conveying crews to the ISS. Except for the Chinese Shenzhou, it became mankind's sole means of access to space. More...
  • Cosmopolis 21 Russian manned spaceplane. Mock-up unveiled in 2002. On 15 March 2002 Space Adventures unveiled the mock-up of their C-21 (Cosmopolis 21) spaceplane at Zhukovskiy Air Base, Moscow. More...
  • Soyuz TMA SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz TMA BO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system with two Kurs antennae, no tower. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz TMA PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Monitor Russian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2003.06.30 (Monitor-E/SL) and 2005.08.26 (Monitor-E). More...
  • Larets Russian . One launch, 2003.09.27. No information publicly released. TASS claimed this was a radar calibration satellite. More...
  • Angara Briz M Russian space tug. Study 2004. Upper stage / space tug - in development 2004. Launched by Angara launch vehicle family.. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1. More...
  • Kliper Russian manned spaceplane. Study 2004. The Kliper manned spacecraft replacement for Soyuz was first announced at a Moscow news conference on 17 February 2004. More...
  • Universitetskiy Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2005.01.20. Student satellite for radiation studies, ejected from Cosmos 2414. More...
  • Nanosputnik Russian technology satellite. One launch, 2005.02.28. Nanosatellite delivered by Progress M-52 to the International Space Station. 30 cm long, it was released from during a spacewalk on 28 March 2005. More...
  • DSE-Alpha Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. Study 2005. Potential commercial circumlunar manned flights were offered in 2005, using a modified Soyuz spacecraft docked to a Block DM upper stage. More...
  • Yakhta Russian communications satellite. One launch, 2006.06.17, Kazsat 1. RKK Energia-developed communications satellite, believed to be a larger development of the Yamal. More...
  • Meridian Russian new-generation military 12-hour elliptical orbit communications satellite designed to replace the Molniya series. Operational, first launch 2006.12.24. More...
  • Parom Russian logistics spacecraft. Study 2009. In its latest iteration, RKK Energia's Parom was a reusable interorbital tug intended to transport cargo containers and the Kliper manned ferry from low earth orbit to the International Space Station. More...
  • Garpun Military communications and data relay satellite. Replacement for the Potok and Geizer. More...
  • Big Soyuz Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2018. This enlarged version of the Soyuz reentry vehicle shape was one alternative studied for the next-generation Russian launch vehicle. More...
  • PK Russian manned spacecraft. Study 2018. This conical, six-crew space capsule represented the Russian Space Agency's preferred design to support Russian spaceflight in the 2018-2068 period. More...
  • Svetoch Russian military communications satellite. Communications satellite - KGB. No other details available. More...

Associated Engines
  • 11B97 Korolev nuclear electric/xenon rocket engine. 450 mN. Engine for Interorbital Tug for launch by Energia. Developed 1978-1986. Isp=3000s. Powered by nuclear reactor providing 50-150 kWt for 3 to 5 years operation. More...
  • 11D121 Korolev GOX/Kerosene rocket engine. 68.650 kN. N-1 stage 1 (block A) roll control engine. Developed 1969-74. Gimbaling +/- 45 degree. Propellants are fed from main engine (NK-15, NK-33) turbopumps. Isp=313s. Chamber Pressure: 71.60 bar. More...
  • 11D446 Melnikov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.052 kN. Yantar-2K orbital propulsion. In Production. Orbital propulsion system of the Yantar-2K military satellite, including one 11D430, four 11D431, four 11D446, and eight 11D428. Up to 40,000 ignitions. More...
  • 11D49 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 157.5 kN. Kosmos-3M stage 2. Engine has one main and four steering nozzles. Thrust 157.5 + 4 x 25 kN. Precessor was 11D47 in R-14 (derivative ?) stage 2. Isp=303s. First flight 1964. More...
  • 11D458 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.392 kN. In Production. Isp=252s. Small attitude control thruster in Briz upper stage propulsion system S5.98M. Total summmary impulse 14,112 kg-s. Minimum impulse 4 kg-s. Specific impulse also reported as 275 sec. More...
  • 11D428 Melnikov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.110 kN. Yantar-2K orbital propulsion. In Production. Orbital propulsion system of the Yantar-2K military satellite, including one 11D430, four 11D431, four 11D446, and eight 11D428. Up to 40,000 ignitions. More...
  • 11D431 Melnikov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 6 N. Yantar-2K orbital propulsion. In Production. Orbital propulsion system of the Yantar-2K military satellite, including one 11D430, four 11D431, four 11D446, and eight 11D428. Up to 150,000 ignitions. More...
  • 11D43 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1642 kN. Developed 1960-64. Isp=316s. Low-expansion ratio gimbaled variant for Proton stage 1 concept. Configuration 4 x 8D43 clustered with 4 x 11D43 abandoned in favor of 6 x Glushko 11D48 in final Proton design. More...
  • 11D423 Izotov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 134 kN. LK-700S manned lunar lander ascent stage engine. Development ended 1968. Isp=326s. Based UR-100 stage 2 engine. Gas generator cycle; 2 large turbine exhaust pipes. More...
  • 11D430 Melnikov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 29.430 kN. Yantar-2K orbital propulsion. In Production. Orbital propulsion system of the Yantar-2K military satellite, including one 11D430, four 11D431, four 11D446, and eight 11D428. Up to 50 ignitions. Isp=307s. Chamber Pressure: 9.00 bar. More...
  • 11D445 Melnikov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.065 kN. Yantar-2K descent propulsion. In Production. Propulsion system of the Yantar-2K military satellite descent capsule. Up to 10,000 ignitions. Thrust from 0,065 - 0,012 kN. More...
  • 11D53F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 612 kN. N1F 1965 - V. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased and stretched propellant tanks resulting in 20% longer burn time. Isp=346s. More...
  • 11D53M Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 735 kN. N1M 1965 - V. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further increase in thrust of Block V engines. Isp=347s. Used on N-IM 1965 launch vehicle. More...
  • 11D52M Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2745 kN. N1M 1965 - B. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Thrust increased to 280 tonnes per engine. Isp=330s. More...
  • 11D52F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1961 kN. N1F 1965 - B. Study 1965. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased from 150 t each to 200 t. Isp=347s. More...
  • 11D51M Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2843 kN. N1M 1965 - A. Study 1965. As described in N1 improvement study, 1965. Huge modification of Block A engines - sea level thrust increased from 175 tonnes thrust to 250 tonnes. Isp=346s. More...
  • 11D51F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1918 kN. N1F 1965 - A. Study 1965. As described in N1 improvement study, 1965. Block A engine thrust increased. Isp=331s. More...
  • 11D79 Stepanov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 44 kN. Blok D SOZ. In Production. Thrust 1.1-4.5 tf variable. More...
  • 15D23 KBMash solid rocket engine. 892 kN. RT-2 Stage 1. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/aluminium propellant. Chamber pressure 40 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 15D23P TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 980 kN. RT-2P Stage 1. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/ammonium butyl propellant. Chamber pressure 56 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 15D24 TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 431 kN. RT-2 Stage 2. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/aluminium propellant. Chamber pressure 40 kgf/cm2. Average thrust 33 tonnes. More...
  • 15D24P TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 437.3 kN. RT-2P Stage 2. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/ammonium butyl propellant. Chamber pressure 48 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 15D25 KBMash solid rocket engine. 137 kN. RT-2 Stage 3. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/aluminium propellant. More...
  • 15D339 Yuzhnoye. Tsurilnikov solid rocket engine. RT-23 stage II. Out of Production. The case-bound START composite solid propellant charge had a cylindrical-conical umbrella shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • 15D305 Yuzhnoye, Tsurilnikov solid rocket engine. RT-23 stage I. Out of Production. Case-bound OPAL composite solid propellant charge with a star shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • 15D94 TsKB-7 solid rocket engine. 180.4 kN. RT-2P Stage 3. Out of Production. Three gimballed nozzles for steering. Ammonium perchlorate/ammonium butyl propellant. Chamber pressure 48 kgf/cm2. More...
  • 17D11 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 86.3 kN. Buran OMS and verniers. Out of Production. Buran orbital propulsion system, including 2 x 17D12, 38 x 17D15, 8 x RDMT-200K Isp=362s. More...
  • 17D12 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 86.3 kN. Out of Production. Isp=362s. Version of RD-58 for Buran orbital propulsion system 17D11. Used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') for higher specific impulse. More...
  • 17D15 Korolev GOX/Sintin rocket engine. 4 kN. Buran OMS large verniers. Out of Production. Isp=295s. Large verniers for Buran orbital propulsion system 17D11. Uses synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') for high specific impulse. Oxygen is gaseous in system. More...
  • 17D58E Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine.13 N. In Production. Isp=247s. Small attitude control thruster used in Briz, Briz-M upper stage propulsion system S5.98M. More...
  • 17D61 Melnikov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2.943 kN. Ikar stage 4 for Soyuz-Ikar. Design 1999. Isp=325s. Derived from propulsion module of Yantar spysat, with over 30 flights to 1998. Increased versatility compared to Block L due to capability for 50 restarts. More...
  • 293-P Kartukov solid rocket engine. P-70 Ametist. Out of Production. More...
  • 4D10 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 255 kN. R-27 / RSM-25 (SS-N-6). Out of Production. First engine system to be submerged in propellant tank. One main engine chamber plus unknown number (probably 4) of steering thrusters. Thrust 226 + 29 kN. More...
  • 8D415K Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1471 kN. Designed for use in N-1. Development canceled in 1960 when Korolev turned to Kuznetsov for R-9 and N-1 engines after continuous rows with Glushko over performance and propellant types. First flight 1966. More...
  • 8D423 Izotov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 131 kN. Production from 1964. Isp=325s. Single chamber engine for UR-100 stage 2. Gas generator cycle with two large turbine exhaust pipes. First flight 1965. More...
  • 8D43 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 559 kN. UR-500 stage 1 original concept. Hardware. Isp=316s. In early Proton design would be clustered with 4 x Glushko 11D43. Abandoned in favor of 6 x Glushko 11D48, but later developed into the RD-0208 and RD-0210. More...
  • 8D43 + 11D43 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2247.450 kN. Design 1962. Isp=310s. Originally the first stage of the Proton was designed for 4 x fixed 11D43 and 4 x gimballed Kosberg 8D43; replaced by 6 x 11D48 from Glushko in final Proton design. More...
  • 8D725 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 117 kN. Developed 1963-1970. 10 to 12 tonne thrust engine developed for an unstated military requirement. Isp=325s. More...
  • 8D726 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 66.7 kN. GR-1 Stage 3, N-11GR - V. Development based on S1.5400. Isp=350s. More...
  • A6-12 Dushkin rocket engine. 39 kN. V-600. Developed 1955-62. Thrust variable 1500 - 4000 kgf. More...
  • Burlak Stage 1 Russian N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 360 kN. Burlak stage 1. Development ended 1992. Isp=320s. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions. More...
  • Burlak Stage 2 N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 98 kN. Burlak stage 2. Development ended 1992. Isp=330s. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions. More...
  • D-1 Kosberg isopropylnitrate monopropellant rocket engine. 39 kN. Developed 1955-56. Second thrust level at 50%. Explosion of D-1 on test bench in 1956 forced stop of work with mono-propellant OT-152. Sea level thrust 39 kN. More...
  • D-100-II TsNIIMASH electric/xenon rocket engine. 65 mN. Development. Isp=1600s. Hall effect thruster with anode layer, designed for satellite orbital raising. Taken to engineering model stage. More...
  • D-2 Polyarniy Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1373 kN. R-3. Out of Production. Competing engine for 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed from April 1947 until cancellation. Isp=288s. More...
  • D-20 TsNIIMASH electric/xenon rocket engine. 1.5 mN. Development. Isp=1400s. Hall effect thruster with anode layer, designed for satellite station-keeping and attitude control. Taken to engineering model stage. More...
  • D-7 Kosberg isopropylnitrate monopropellant rocket engine. 11.8 kN. Missile by Toropov. Out of Production. Intended for air-air missile by I I Toropov. Uncooled thrust chamber. Sea level thrust 11.8 kN. More...
  • DMT-600 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.600 kN. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 6,000 ignitions Isp=300s. More...
  • DMT-600 MMH Isayev N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 0.600 kN. Hermes. In Production. Version of DMT-600 using MMH in place of UDMH, adaptation to western market (was discussed for European Hermes space plane project). 6,000 ignitions Isp=305s. More...
  • DOK-10 Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. 10 N. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by an iridium-based catalyst, which heated to increase stability. 40,000 ignitions Isp=229s. More...
  • DOK-50 Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. 0.050 kN. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by an iridium-based catalyst, which heated to increase stability. 40,000 ignitions Isp=229s. More...
  • DOT-5 Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. 5 N. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by a wire catalyst, which is electrically heated to 620 K. 550,000 ignitions Isp=230s. More...
  • DOT-25 Isayev monopropellant rocket engine. 0.025 kN. In Production. Pressure-fed monopropellant engine. Thermal decomposition of hydrazine by a wire catalyst, which is electrically heated to 620 K. 60,000 ignitions Isp=234s. More...
  • DST-100A Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.100 kN. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic engine, pressure-fed. Larger nozzle and reduced chamber pressure to increase performance and lifetime in comparison to DST-100. 450,0000 ignitions. Isp=304s. More...
  • DST-200 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.200 kN. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 10,000 ignitions Isp=280s. More...
  • DST-200A Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.20 kN. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic engine, pressure-fed. Larger nozzle and reduced chamber pressure to increase performance and lifetime compared to DST-200. 100,0000 ignitions. Isp=300s. More...
  • DST-25 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.025 kN. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 300,000 ignitions Isp=285s. More...
  • DST-100 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.100 kN. In Production. Bi-propellant hypergolic (self-igniting) engine, pressure-fed. 10,000 ignitions Isp=276s. More...
  • EKR Ramjet Bondaryuk ramjet engine. 6.130 kN. EKR Stage 2. Study 1953. Isp=1580s. Study for an experimental winged cruise missile. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles. More...
  • Hall Electric Thruster TsNIIMASH / Rocketdyne electric/xenon rocket engine. 3 N. Development. Isp=1600s. Satellite orbit raising and station-keeping applications. Electric, pressure-fed. Variable 80 mN - 3.0 N thrust, specific impulse 1600 to 3500 seconds. More...
  • Isayev R-17 Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 131.2 kN. R-17. Out of production. Designation unknown. First flight 1961. More...
  • Isayev V-750V Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 30.4 kN. SAM-missile V-750V. Out of Production. Designation unknown. More...
  • Isayev P-15 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 11.9 kN. P-15 Termit. Out of Production. Designation unknown. Thrust range 11.895-5.43 kN. More...
  • Isayev 218 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 218 (S-25 system). Out of Production. Launch thrust 166 kN. More...
  • Kartukov Soyuz SAS Kartukov solid rocket engine. 785 kN. Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz 7KT-OK, Soyuz 7K-T. Out of Production. Thrust 76 tf at cutout - 80.1tf at ignition. More...
  • Kartukov LL Kartukov solid rocket engine. 14.7 kN. LL-1, LL-2, LL-3. Developed 1946-48. More...
  • KDU-426 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3.089 kN. Soyuz-T orbital correction engine. In Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as long duration engine for correction orbits of satellites. Isp=292s. More...
  • KDU-414 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1.961 kN. Molniya 1, Mars 1, Venera 1, Zond 2-3 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine. Isp=272s. More...
  • KRD-604 Dushkin Nitric acid/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Out of Production. The KRD-604 engine was developed in the late 1930s by OKB Dushkin. It was a combined (powder+liquid) engine, characterized by a new technical approach. More...
  • KRD-61 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 18.8 kN. Luna Ye-8. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine for ascent stage of Luna moon sample return missions. Isp=313s. First flight 1969. More...
  • KRD-442 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 4.38 / 0.17 kN. Orbital propulsion for FGB-derived modules for Mir and ISS. In Production. Main and low-thrust mode. Operation of turbopump without chamber used to pump propellants into tanks from Progress tankers. More...
  • KRD-79 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3.090 kN. Salyut 6, 7and Mir orbital propulsion maneuvering engine. In Production. Probably derived from engine of propulsion system KDU-426. Pressure fed engine. More...
  • KRR-300 Dushkin rocket engine. 98 kN. G-300. Developed 1955-62. Thrust variable 0.1 / 3.0 / 10 tf. More...
  • KTDU-80 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 6.190 kN. Soyuz TM, Progress M. In Production. Isp=326s. Propulsion system included 4 spherical tanks for a total of 880 kg propellant. Developed from NII Mash experimental thruster. 3 thrust levels by 4 valves. More...
  • KTDU-5A Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 45.5 kN. Used on Luna E-6 probes. Out of Production. Isp=287s. First turbopump engine with surface tension propellant management devices in tanks, allowing re-ignition in zero-G. More...
  • KTDU-66 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 4.090 kN. Out of Production. Isp=280s. Maneuvering engine for Salyut 1, derivative of KTDU-35. Longer burn time of 1000 s. Comprised single-chamber main engine plus dual-chamber back-up engine. Thrusts 4.09 + 4.03 kN More...
  • KTDU-417 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 18.920 kN. Luna 15-24 descent stage. Out of Production. Isp=314s. Comprised turbopump-fed high-thrust engine with plus KTDU-417-B low-thrust engine. Eleven ignitions for lunar orbit insertion and orbit corrections. More...
  • KTDU-425A Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 18.890 kN. Mars 4-7, Venera 9-16, Vega 1-2, and Phobos 1-2 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Could be throttled to 9.86/9.5/2870. Chamber pressure 149 - 95 bar. Isp=315s. First flight 1973. More...
  • KTDU-417-B Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3.430 kN. Luna 15-24 used this low thrust engine in system KTDU-417 for soft-landing on the moon. Out of Production. Isp=254s. Pressure-fed engine; could be throttled to 2.06 kN. More...
  • KTDU-35 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 4.09 kN. Out of Production. Isp=280s. Soyuz, Salyut 4 maneuvering engine. KTDU-53 version in L-1 circumlunar spacecraft; KTDU-66 in Salyut 1 space station. Thrusts 4.09 kN main + 4.03 kN secondary. First flight 1966. More...
  • KTDU-425 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 18.850 kN. Mars 2 and 3 maneuver engine. Out of Production. Pump-fed engine. Could be throttled to 7.05 kN / 9.5 MPa / 2850 m/s. . Chamber pressure 133,2 - 95 bar. Isp=312s. More...
  • KTDU-53 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 4.089 kN. Zond 4-7 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine, derivative of KTDU-35 without back-up engine. Isp=280s. More...
  • MIHT-2 solid rocket engine. 490.3 kN. Start-2. In production. Used in Start-2. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-3 MIHT solid rocket engine. 245.2 kN. Start-3. In production. Used in Start-3. Estimated values. Isp=280s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-1 MIHT solid rocket engine. 980.6 kN. Start-1. In production. Used in Start-1. Estimated values. Isp=263s. First flight 1993. More...
  • MIHT-4 MIHT solid rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Start-4. In production. Used in Start-4. Estimated values. Isp=295s. First flight 1993. More...
  • NII 612 kgf NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 6 kN. experimental 612.25 kgf / 0.071 tf / 0.031tf. Developed. Experimental thruster, 3 thrust levels by 4 valves: 6000 N, 0.7 N, 0.3 N. Specific impulse 326 - 286 sec. Isp=286s. More...
  • NK-15VM Kuznetsov lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1960 kN. N-1 stage 2 (block B) replacement. Design 1972. Derivative of NK-15 with kerosene replaced by hydrogen. Canceled before hot-tests. More...
  • NK-15V Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1648 kN. Development ended 1964. Isp=325s. Developed from the NK-9. 8 engines, featuring high-expansion nozzles, used on N1 Stage 2. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-15F Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2180 kN. Development 1966-1972. Isp=350s. Engine had only a very short nozzle, the 24 engines around the periphery were to expand along a common central plug on the first stage of a studied N1 variant. More...
  • NK-19 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 4. Development ended 1964. Based on NK-9 engine. Originally developed for the modernized second stage of the R-9 (abandoned). Also to have been used on GR-1 / 8K713 Stage 2. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-15 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1544 kN. N-1 stage 1 (block A). Development ended 1964. On the basis of NK-9 the NK-15 was developed for the N-1 launcher. 30 were used on the Block A (Stage 1) of the N-1. Isp=318s. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-21 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. N-1 stage 3 (block V). Out of production. Based on NK-9 engine. Propellants kerosene T-1 / LOX. 4 engines used in N-1 stage 3 (block V). Isp=318s. Used on N1 launch vehicle. First flight 1969. More...
  • NK-231 Kuznetsov turbofan engine. 226.5 kN. Tu-160. Development ended 1992. Turbofan engine used in Tu-160. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=1980s. More...
  • NK-39 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 402 kN. N-1F stage 3. Development ended 1971. Isp=352s. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed after the cancellation of the N1. More...
  • NK-31 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 402 kN. Isp=353s. Upgraded version of engines for N-1 stage 4, with multiple ignition capability and increased operational lifetime. Mothballed in 1974. Proposed for Black Colt launch vehicle in 1993. More...
  • NK-33 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1638 kN. N-1F, Kistler stage 1, Taurus II stage 1. Isp=331s. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed in 1975 after the cancellation of the N1. Resurrected for Kistler, then for Taurus. More...
  • NK-33 LH2 Mod + 4 x LACE Kuznetsov air augmented rocket engine. 980.7 kN. N1-MOK. Study 1974. Isp=430s. Ultimate derivative of NK-9. Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. More...
  • NK-35 Kuznetsov lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1960 kN. Design 1972. Derivative of the NK-15 with kerosene replaced by hydrogen. The engine was canceled before hot-tests. Proposed for the UR-700M Mars booster in 1972, but this was not approved either. More...
  • NK-43 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1755 kN. N-1F, Kistler stage 2. Design 1975. Isp=346s. Modified version of original engine with multiple ignition capability. Never flown and mothballed after the cancellation of the N1. Resurrected for Kistler. More...
  • NK-9V Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 441.3 kN. N-1 stage 2 / N-1 stage 3 / R-9 Stage 2. Developed for 2nd stage of the R-9 ICBM (alternative to RD-111 engine by OKB-456). NK-9 with increased expansion ratio. Isp=340s. First flight 1965. More...
  • NK-9V-11D53 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 449 kN. N-1 stage 3 (block V). Out of Production. Modification of NK-9 engine for the N-1 lunar rocket. May be identical to NK-21 (stage 3). Isp=340s. More...
  • NK-9V-11D54 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 392 kN. N-1 stage 4 (block G). Out of Production. Modification of NK-9 engine for the N-1 lunar rocket. May be identical to NK-19 (stage 4). Isp=340s. More...
  • NK-9 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 441.3 kN. R-9, GR-1 stage 1. Isp=327s. Reached phase of stand testing in 1965, but then RD-111 selected. Later planned for 1st Stage of GR-1, but that rocket also cancelled. More...
  • PRD-52 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 784 kN. DBR-1 Yastreb. Out of Production. Thrust 80 tf at ignition, 75 tf at cutout. More...
  • PRD-36 Kartukov solid rocket engine. V-600. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-70 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 400/5V11 stage I. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-15 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 392 kN. Strela-1 missile. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-22 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 3.920 kN. SM-30. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-19M Kartukov solid rocket engine. KSShch Shchuka. Out of Production. More...
  • PRD-61 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 036 Vikhr. Out of Production. More...
  • R-101B.36000-0 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. R-101B/R-108 SAM. Developed 1950-51. Launch thrust 83.3 kN. Single chamber engine designed for use in the R-101B and R-108 (derivative of German Wasserfall). More...
  • R-13 Dushkin Nitric acid/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Out of Production. Developed in the late 1950s by OKB Dushkin. It was a combined (powder+liquid) engine, characterized by a new technical approach conceived by Dushkin in the prewar design of the KRD-604. More...
  • R-200 Dushkin rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Out of Production. Thrust variable 0.8 tf -1.0 tf. More...
  • R-31 Lyulka turbojet engine. 91.2 kN. MiG-25. Out of Production. Used in MiG-25. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=2073s. More...
  • R-56 Blok A Notional Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 4412 kN. R-56 Blok A. Notional engines for polyblock R-56, immense booster/ICBM; planned range 16,000 km. payload 35,000 kg. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Isp=320s. More...
  • R-56 Blok B Notional Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 784 kN. R-56 Blok B. Notional engines for polyblock R-56, immense booster/ICBM; planned range 16,000 km. payload 35,000 kg. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Isp=330s. More...
  • R6-117 Chelomei N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 132 kN. LK-1 Blok A. Developed 1964-66. Developed in cooperation with OKB-117 on the basis of the latter's main engine for the UR-100 stage II. More...
  • RD-0233 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 520 kN. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 1. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=310s. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-0232 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-100N / Rokot Stage 1. Engine unit (DU - dvigatelnaya ustanovka) consisting of 1 RD-0234 for tank pressurization and three RD-0233. First flight 1972. More...
  • RD-0231 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 29 kN. P-700 Granit. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=275s. First flight 1970. More...
  • RD-0212 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 613 kN. Proton stage 3. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0213 maine engine and 4 RD-0214 vernier/steering engines. 8D48 essentially similar to 8D411 and 8D412 and has the same combustion chamber. Isp=324s. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-0234 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 520 kN. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 1. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. Modification of RD-0233 including tank pressurization system. Isp=310s. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-0217 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 219 kN. UR-100, UR-100K stage 1. Out of Production. Staged combustion cycle. Version of RD-0216 without tank pressurization system. Manufacturing until 1974, operational use until 1991. Isp=313s. More...
  • RD-0229M Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 883 kN. Vozdushnyy Start stage 1. Developed 1997. Derivative of RD-0229 for the propellants LOX and liquid natural gas (methane). Initial candidate for stage 1 propulsion of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. More...
  • RD-0229 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 mod-1) stage 2. Out of Production. Main engine. Staged combustion cycle. Used on Ikar launch vehicle. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-0228 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 755 kN. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 mod-1) stage 2. Out of Production. Comprises single-chamber main engine RD-0229 plus four-chamber steering engine RD-0230. Further developed to RD-0255. More...
  • RD-0225 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3.923 kN. Almaz space station orbital maneuvering. Hardware. Originally designed for UR-100 follow-ons spaceships. Two engines used on Almaz space station for orbital maneuvering, Pressure fed. Isp=287s. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-0221 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 78 kN. upper stage of unnamed missile by Mishin. Developed 1965-70. Isp=330s. More...
  • RD-0230 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 mod-1) stage 2 vernier. Out of Production. Vernier engine. Gas generator cycle. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-0216 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 219 kN. UR-100 stage 1. Isp=313s. Staged combustion cycle. Includes tank pressurization system (RD-0217 without tank press.). First launch November 1963, manufactured until 1974, operational until 1991. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-0215 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2450 kN. Developed 1962-65 for heavy Chelomei launcher (UR-900?) stage 1. Isp=310s. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0217 for tank pressurization and three RD-0216. Hardware not hot-tested. More...
  • RD-0213 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Proton stage 3. Design 1962. Version of RD-0210. Staged combustion cycle (Oxidizer pre-burner gas routed to main chamber after driving turbine). Main engine for Proton Stage 3 in system RD-0212. Isp=326s. More...
  • RD-0211 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Proton stage 2. Out of Production. Variant of RD-0210 providing tank pressurization. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=326s. More...
  • RD-0210-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 592 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0210 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=342s. More...
  • RD-0207 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 30.9 kN. UR-200 stage 2 vernier. Developed 1961-64. Gas generator cycle. Four vernier thrusters. Isp=297s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-0210 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Isp=326s. Cluster of four similar engines used in second stage of Proton - one providing tank pressurization (8D412K/RD-0211) and three (8D411K/RD-0210). Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-0209 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 1. Developed 1961-65. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0211 for tank pressurization and three RD-0210. Modification of RD-0208 with tank pressurization. Further developed into RD--0211. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-0208 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. UR-200 stage 1. Developed 1961-65. Stage 1 had three RD-0208 plus one RD-0209. Further developed into RD-0210. More...
  • RD-0411 Kosberg nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 392 kN. Full-size nuclear thermal engine. Design concept 1965-94. Planned full-size nuclear thermal engine for Mars expeditions. Never progressed beyond study stage. Isp=900s. More...
  • RD-0234-CH Kosberg Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 442 kN. Developed 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0234 engine using LOX-liquid methane instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=343s. More...
  • RD-0214 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 30.980 kN. Proton stage 3 vernier. In Production. Based on RD-0207. Four used as steering engines for Proton Stage 3 in system RD-0212. Isp=293s. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-0245-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 214 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0245 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=320s. More...
  • RD-0206 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 575.5 kN. UR-200 stage 2. Developed 1961-64. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=326s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-0750 Kosberg lox/lh2/kerosene rocket engine. 1412 kN. Alternative for Angara central stage, MAKS. Developed 1997-. Isp=455s. Tripropellant derivative of RD-0120. Some components tested in RD-0120TD technology demonstration in cooperation with Aerojet. More...
  • RD-0600 Kosberg laser rocket engine. Space station "Skif". Developed 1970-85. Gas dynamic laser. Working medium gaseous carbon monoxide + air + nitrogen + ethanol. Flow rate up to 100 kg/s. Tests were performed at NII TP. More...
  • RD-020 Bondaryuk ramjet engine. 103 kN. Buran M-42. Development ended 1957. Isp=1500s. Ramjet for Buran cruise missile. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude. More...
  • RD-0410 Kosberg nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 35.3 kN. Experimental nuclear engine, propellant LH2. Developed 1965-94. Isp=910s. Tested at Semipalatinsk test range in 1980s and was "the only operational nuclear engine in the USSR". First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-0256-Methane Kosberg Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 836 kN. Design concept 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0256 engine using LOX-liquid methane instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=353s. More...
  • RD-0256-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 820 kN. Design concept 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0256 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=344s. More...
  • RD-0256 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M2 / RS-20V (SS-18 Mod-4) stage 2. Out of Production. Main engine of system RD-0255. Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1987. More...
  • RD-0255 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 755 kN. R-36M2 / RS-20V (SS-18 Mod-4) stage 2. Comprises of single-chamber main engine RD-0256 plus four-chamber steering engines RD-0257. Development based on RD-0228 with thrust increase by 11%. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-0251 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Further development of RD-0236 steering engine for projected modification of stage 2 of classified Chelomei rocket. Development ceased during study phase. Gas generator cycle. More...
  • RD-0257 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. R-36M2 / RS-20V (SS-18 Mod-4) stage 2 vernier. Out of Production. Steering engine of system RD-0255. Gas generator cycle. First flight 1987. More...
  • RD-0246 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Design concept. Project for further development of RD-0243. More...
  • RD-0234-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 516 kN. Developed 1996-. Proposed variant of RD-0234 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=331s. More...
  • RD-0245 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 211 kN. R-29RM / RSM-54 (SS-N-23) stage 1 vernier. Out of Production. Four-chamber steering engine in system RD-0243 driven by turbine exhaust gas. Isp=300s. First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-0244-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 690 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of RD-0244 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=332s. More...
  • RD-0244 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 682 kN. R-29RM / RSM-54 (SS-N-23) stage 1. Out of Production. Main engine in system RD-0243. Staged combustion cycle. Submerged in propellant tank. Isp=310s. First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-0243 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 825.8 kN. R-29RM stage 1. Out of Production. Isp=300s. Consisted pf single-chamber main engine RD-0244 plus four-chamber steering engines RD-0245 driven by turbine exhaust gas. Engine submerged in propellant tank. More...
  • RD-0242M1 Kosberg N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 98.1 kN. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine for upper stages using MMH in place of UDMH (adaptation to western market ?). Reusable for 6 ignitions total. Throttling to 80%. Isp=343s. More...
  • RD-0242M Kosberg N2O4/MMH rocket engine. 98.1 kN. Design concept 1998-. Isp=335s. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine for upper stages using MMH in place of UDMH. Reusable for 6 ignitions total. Throttling to 80%. More...
  • RD-0242-HC Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 125 kN. Developed 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0242 engine using LOX-kerosene instead of N2O4/UDMH as propellants. Isp=312s. More...
  • RD-0242 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 123.6 kN. sea-based missile booster stage developed 1977-83. Isp=302s. First concept planned N2O4/kerosene as propellant, but changed to N2O4/UDMH. Single ignition, 297 development tests. 50 engines for sale. More...
  • RD-0237 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 4.9 kN. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 3. MIRV service block. Open cycle. Analogous to RD-0225, pressure fed. Steering engine for space vehicles gimbaling +/- 45 degree. Isp=200s. First flight 1972. More...
  • RD-0236 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 15.760 kN. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 2 vernier. Out of Production. Developed in 1969-1974 / problems not solved until 1978. Vernier engines. Gas generator cycle. Isp=293s. More...
  • RD-0235 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 240 kN. UR-100N / RS-18 (SS-19) stage 2. Main engine based on RD-0217 with larger nozzle for altitude operation. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=320s. First flight 1972. More...
  • RD-0250 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Further development of RD-0235 main engine for projected modification of stage 2 of classified Chelomei rocket. Development ceased during study phase. Staged combustion cycle. More...
  • RD-0120 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1961 kN. Energia core stage. Design 1987. Isp=455s. First operational Russian cryogenic engine system, built to the same overall performance specifications as America's SSME, but using superior Russian technology. More...
  • RD-0126E Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 39.2 kN. Upper stages. Design concept 1998-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Single annular chamber with straight expansion nozzle, common turbopump. Isp=472s. More...
  • RD-0126A Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 98 kN. Upper stages. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Single annular chamber with expansion-deflection nozzle, common turbopump. Isp=476s. More...
  • RD-0126 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 39.2 kN. Space tugs or upper stage for Onega or Yastreb versions of Soyuz. Isp=476s. Single annular chamber with expansion-deflection nozzle, separate turbopumps. Design concept 1993. Hot-tests in 1998. More...
  • RD-0124M1 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. Developed 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0124. Obviously same turbopumps, but one single chamber with larger nozzle extension compared to RD-0124M. Isp=359s. More...
  • RD-0124M Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. Developed 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0124. Obviously same turbopumps, but one single chamber. Isp=348s. More...
  • RD-0124-14D23 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 298.640 kN. Propoed in 1993 for Angara stage 2 verniers, Kvant-1 stage 1 vernier. Designed 1986-1990. Isp=331s. Variant of RD-0124 with shortened nozzle for sea-level operation. More...
  • RD-0124 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. In development. Isp=359s. Engine to succeed RD-0110 in second stage of Soyuz. Used staged combustion; chamber pressure increased from 70 to 160 bar, specific impulse from 326 to 359 seconds First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-0122 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 2313 kN. Energia-M core stage. Planned for Angara central stage. Developed 1990-. Isp=460s. Upgrade of RD-0120 engine for Energia-M launcher with increased thrust. Prototype from RD-0120 hardware. More...
  • RD-0120TD Kosberg tri-propellant (lox/lh2/kerosene) rocket engine. 1317 kN. Developed 1990's. Isp=419 / 452s. Experimental version of the RD-0120 engine. Tested by supply of high-pressure kerosene from test bench or adapted existing kerosene pump for tests. More...
  • RD-0120M-CH Kosberg Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 1720 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of the RD-0120M engine using liquid methane instead of hydrogen as propellant. Isp=372s. More...
  • RD-0128 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 98 kN. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. One single chamber with bell nozzle, separate turbopumps. Isp=474s. More...
  • RD-0120-CH Kosberg Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 1576 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed variant of the RD-0120 engine using liquid methane instead of hydrogen as propellant. Isp=363s. More...
  • RD-0109 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 54.520 kN. 8A92 Vostok stage 3, 8K72K stage 3 (block E-Vostok). Out of production. Developed in 15 months. Isp=323s. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-0110MD Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 245 kN. Developed 1994-on. Prototype engine for tests with propellants LOX/liquified natural gas. Tests performed from 30 April 1998 on, test duration 20s. More...
  • RD-0110 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2. Modified to increase reliability. Isp=326s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-0108 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Voskhod 11A57, Molniya 8K78 stage 3. Isp=326s. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-0106 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 304 kN. R-9 stage 2. Gas generator cycle. Isp=330s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-0105 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 49.4 kN. Luna 8K72, Vostok 8K72 upper stage. Out of production. Isp=316s. Developed jointly with OKB-1 in nine months on the basis of OKB-1'ssteering chamber from the RD-107 engine. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-0103 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 34.6 kN. T-3, P-1 aircraft by Sukhoy. Out of Production. Based on RD-0102. Chamber pressure 37.3 - 15.7 bar. Isp=277s. More...
  • RD-0102 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 39.2 kN. Yak-27V aircraft by Yakovlev. Out of Production. Based on RD-0101. Two ignitions possible. Chamber pressure 41,2 - 16,4 bar. Isp=260s. More...
  • RD-0101 Kosberg Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 39.2 kN. E-50A aircraft by Mikoyan. Out of Production. Chamber pressure 42,7 - 22,1 bar. Specific impulse 255 - 248,5 sec. Isp=255s. More...
  • RD-0201 Kosberg Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 58.060 kN. SAM V1100 by Grushin stage 3. Out of Production. Thrust range 59 - 28 kN. Isp=260s. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-0205 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 606.4 kN. UR-200 stage 2. Engine unit consisting of 1 RD-0206 maine engine and 4 RD-0207 vernier/steering engines. Version of 8D44 and 8D45 with extended nozzle. Developed 1961. Isp=322s. First flight 1963. More...
  • RD-0120M Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1961 kN. Energia-M core stage. Development ended 1993. Isp=455s. From 1987 KBKhA worked on upgrading the 11D122 (RD-0120) engine for Energia-M launcher, including the possibility to throttle the engine down to 28% thrust. More...
  • RD-0154 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 294.3 kN. Design concept 2007. Engine proposed to replace RD-110 in Avrora improved version of Soyuz launch vehicle. The single chamber engine had a deployable nozzle extension for improved vacuum specific impulse. More...
  • RD-0107 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. R-9, Molniya 8K78, Voskhod 11A57 stage 3. Out of Production. Gas generator cycle. Isp=326s. More...
  • RD-0203 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 559 kN. UR-200 stage 1. Hardware. DU consisting of 4 RD-0204 gimballed motors. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=311s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-0202 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2236 kN. UR-200 stage 1. Engine unit (DU - dvigatelnaya ustanovka) consisting of 1 RD-0204 for tank pressurization and three RD-0203. Isp=311s. First flight 1963. More...
  • RD-0200 Kosberg Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 58.8 kN. Lavochkin SAM, flew 1960. Out of Production. First liquid rocket engine by OKB-154, evolution of Isayev S2.1200 transferred to Kosberg. Thrust range 59 - 5.9 kN. Sea level specific impulse 230 - 166 sec More...
  • RD-0155 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Design concept 2007. Launch thrust 902.5 kN. Engine proposed to replace RD-107 in Onega and Avrora versions of the Soyuz launch vehicle. More...
  • RD-0204 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 559 kN. UR-200 stage 1. Hardware. Diameter is per chamber. Staged combustion cycle. Variant of RD-0203 with additional pressure sensor. Isp=311s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-0149 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 49 kN. upper stage. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Variant of RD-0141 with larger nozzle. Isp=370s. More...
  • RD-0146 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 98.1 kN. Centaur upper stage (Atlas); high performance upper stages for Onega, Proton, Angara launch vehicles. Design concept 1998-. Isp=463s. More...
  • RD-0145 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 147 kN. upper stage. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Four-chamber variant of RD-0144. Isp=374s. More...
  • RD-0144 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 147 kN. upper stage. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Radiation cooled nozzle extension. Isp=374s. More...
  • RD-0133 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 98 kN. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Four chambers with bell nozzles, common turbopump. Isp=467s. More...
  • RD-0131 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 98 kN. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Single annular chamber with expansion-deflection nozzle, common turbopump. Isp=467s. More...
  • RD-018 Bondaryuk ramjet engine. 98 kN. Buran missile, early version. Out of Production. Isp=1500s. 1.8 m diameter ramjet engine initially considered for Buran M-42. RD-020 adpopted later during development. More...
  • RD-0143A Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 343 kN. Vozdushnyy Start stage 1. Design concept 1998-. Proposed single chamber variant of RD-0143. Selected for stage 1 of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. Isp=370s. More...
  • RD-012U Bondaryuk ramjet engine. 76 kN. Burya. Out of production. 1.2 m diameter ramjet to be used in Burya cruise missile. Thrust is maximum thrust at cruise altitude. Specific impulse is that at cruise design point. Isp=1500s. First flight 1957. More...
  • RD-0132M Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 98 kN. Vozdushnyy Start stage 2. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0132, replacing hydrogen by liquid natural gas. Initially selected for stage 2 of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. More...
  • RD-0132 Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 98 kN. upper stage. Design concept 1996-. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages. Derived from RD-0131, but four chambers with bell nozzles, common turbopump. Isp=469s. More...
  • RD-0134 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 2038 kN. stage 1. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle variant of RD-0139. Isp=358s. More...
  • RD-0139 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 2038 kN. stage 1. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Gas generator cycle with turbine gas injection into supersonic nozzle. Isp=341s. More...
  • RD-0140 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 2086 kN. stage 2. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Gas generator cycle with turbine gas injection into supersonic nozzle. Isp=349s. More...
  • RD-0141 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 2251 kN. stage 1. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Obviously variant of RD-0141 with larger nozzle. Isp=353s. More...
  • RD-0142 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 2353 kN. stage 2. Developed 1998-on. Proposed engine for LOX/liquid natural gas. Staged combustion cycle. Obviously variant of RD-0141 with larger nozzle. Isp=369s. More...
  • RD-0143 Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine. 343 kN. Vozdushnyy Start stage 2. Design concept 1998-. Proposed variant of RD-0124, replacing kerosene by liquid natural gas. Selected for stage 2 of Vozdushnyy Start project by Kompomash. Isp=372s. More...
  • RD-167 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 353 kN. Upper stage. Design concept 1990's. Isp=379s. Proposed upper stage engine, a methane variant of RD-134. Gimbaling +/- 3 degree in two planes. Four chambers with one common turbopump. More...
  • RD-169 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 167 kN. Riksha-0 stage 1. Design concept 1990's. Isp=351s. LOX/Methane engine derived from RD-120. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. In 1996 prototype development was estimated to take four years from go-ahead. More...
  • RD-161-2 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.9 kN. Design concept 1990's. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Version with uncooled nozzle extension. Engine Cycle: closed gas generator. Feed Method: turbopump. Isp=365s. More...
  • RD-161-1 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Development ended 2000. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Basic version. Engine Cycle: closed gas generator. Feed Method: turbopump. Isp=360s. More...
  • RD-160 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Upper stage. Developed 1993-1996. Isp=380s. Methane version of lox / kerosene upper stage engine RD-161. Gimbaling +/- 6 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-146 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 883 kN. Angara stage 2. Design concept 1993-on. Sea-level variant of RD-120 engine. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Kerosene RG-1. More...
  • RD-161P Glushko H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. 24.5 kN. Soyuz M stage 3 (block LM). Developed 1993-. Two thrust levels. Minimum 1500 kgf. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3. Version for H2O2 fuel, concentration 96-98%. Isp=319s. More...
  • RD-135 Glushko lox/lh2 rocket engine. upper stage. Developed -1976. Experimental cryogenic engine. (Ref. May be not correct.) More...
  • RD-134R Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 343 kN. Angara stage 2 vernier. Design concept 1993-on. Proposed in initial study for Angara by RKK Energia in1993. Steering engines for Angara upper stage. Kerosene RG-1. More...
  • RD-134 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 343 kN. upper stage. Design concept. Isp=357s. Proposed upper stage kerosene engine. Gimbaling +/- 3 degree in two planes. Four chamber s with one common turbopump. Nozzle expansion ratio is 170/0.05=3400. More...
  • RD-120K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 873 kN. Soyuz M stage 1, 2. Proposed for X-34. Isp=336s. Sea-level variant of RD-120. As of 1996 RD-120 prototype with 1.8 m diameter had been built, development time estimated for three years. More...
  • RD-120.01 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 784 kN. Design concept. Isp=329s. More...
  • RD-170 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Energia strap-on. Developed 1973-1985. Isp=337s. First flight 1987. Used one-plane gimablling versus the two-plane gimablling required on the RD-171 of the Zenit launch vehicle. Designed for 10 reuses. More...
  • RD-191M Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1976 kN. Angara stage I. Developed 1996-. Single chamber version of the RD-170 / RD-171. Isp=337s. More...
  • RD-119 Glushko lox/udmh rocket engine. 105.5 kN. Kosmos 1 stage 2. Out of production. Isp=352s. Derived from RD-109 motor originally intended for the second stage of a Lox/UDMH version of the R-7. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-120M Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 850.4 kN. PacAstro-2 stage 1. Out of Production. Sea-level variant of RD-120 engine, similar to RD-120K. Gimbaling +/- 6 degree in two planes. Isp=330s. More...
  • RD-184 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. Developed 1996-on. Isp=322s. Attitude correction engine for apogee stage of Riksha-1 launcher project (together with RD-183). Gimbaling +/- 20 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-120 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 833 kN. Zenit stage 2. In production. Isp=350s. High altitude engine used in the Zenit second stage. First production Russian engine to be test fired in the United States (3 test burns were made). First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-118 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 999.601 kN. In production. Isp=311s. Update of RD-107, used in Soyuz ST launcher. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-1KhZ Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 2.940 kN. take-off acelleration of Pe-2R, La-7R, Yak-3, Su-6, Su-7, La-120R airplanes. Developed 1941-46. The RD-1KhZ was a variant of the RD-1 engine with chemical ignition. Production 1944-45. Isp=200s. More...
  • RD-192S Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 2128 kN. Developed 1996-on. Isp=371s. Proposed variant of RD-192. Staged combustion cycle with oxidizer-rich gas generator. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-192.3 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 2089 kN. Developed 1996-on. Proposed variant of RD-192. Gas generator cycle. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. Status 1998 was project based on RD-191 protoype, development estimated for four years. Isp=341s. More...
  • RD-192.2 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 1942 kN. Developed 1996-on. Isp=354s. Proposed variant of RD-192. Staged combustion cycle with fuel-rich gas generator. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-192 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 2138 kN. Isp=356s. Proposed methane-variant of RD-191. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. In 1996 prototype development was estimated to take four years from go-ahead. Nozzle expansion ratio is 262/0.75=349. More...
  • RD-190 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 1000 kN. Riksha-0 stage 1. Developed 1996-. The RD-190 consists of 6 RD-169 engines. Each chamber can be gimbaled individually in two planes by +/- 8 degree. Isp=351s. More...
  • RD-185 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 179 kN. Riksha-0 stage 2. Developed 1996-. Isp=378s. Upper stage version of RD-169 with larger nozzle. Gimbaling +/- 4 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-171 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7903 kN. Zenit stage 1. In production. Isp=337s. RD-171 used two-plane gimablling versus one-plane gimablling on RD-170 developed in parallel for Energia. First flight 1985. More...
  • RD-183 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 9.8 kN. Developed 1996-. Isp=360s. Main engine for apogee stage of Riksha-1 launcher project. Gimbaling +/- 10 degree in two planes. Nozzle expansion ratio is 75/0.055=1364. More...
  • RD-182M Glushko Lox/LNG rocket engine. 882 kN. Vozdushnyy Start stage 1. Developed 1998-. Variant of RD-182 engine for liquid natural gas (mainly CH4). Proposed initial candidate for project Vozdushnyy Start of Kompomash. More...
  • RD-182 Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine. 902 kN. Riksha (-1, -2) stage 1. Developed 1994-. Isp=353s. Methane variant of RD-120K engine. Thrust range and Isp range due to throat diameter and chamber pressure. Gimbaling +/- 6 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-180 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 4152 kN. Atlas III, Atlas V stage 1. In production. Isp=337s. First flight 2000. Two-thrust-chamber derivative of the four-chamber RD-170 used on Zenit. More...
  • RD-174 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7905 kN. Angara stage I. Developed 1995-. More...
  • RD-173 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 8181 kN. Zenit-3 stage 1 (?). Design concept 1990's. Uprated version of RD-171 with 4 chambers, 1 turbo-pump and 2 gas generators. Intended for uprated Zenit named Zenit 3 Isp=337s. More...
  • RD-172 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 8354 kN. Zenit-3 stage 1 (?). Developed -1994. Uprated version of RD-171. To have been qualified for flight 1994. Isp=337s. More...
  • RD-191 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2079 kN. Isp=337s. Proposed for stage 1 of Angara. Single chamber from 4-chamber RD-170 would have been cheap and fast to develop. Only reached the draft project stage by 2003. Gimbaling +/- 8 degree in two planes. More...
  • RD-103M Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 500.1 kN. R-5M 8K51. Isp=248s. First flight 1953. More...
  • RD-107-8D74PS Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. Sputnik 8K71PS-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71PS Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Flown 1957-1958. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=306s. More...
  • RD-107-8D74K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Developed in 1957-1960. Used in strap-ons for Molniya 8K78, R-7A 8K74, Voskhod 11A57, Vostok 8A92, Vostok 8A92M. Isp=313s. Fuel T-1 or RG-1 kerosene. First flight 1959. More...
  • RD-107-8D74-1959 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=313s. Used on Vostok 8K72K launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-107-8D74-1958 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Luna 8K72-0. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=312s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-107-8D74 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. R-7 8K71, Vostok 8K72, Vostok 8K72K strap-ons. Isp=306s. First flight 1957. Used four combustion chambers fed by single turbopump to circumvent combustion instability problems with larger chambers 1950's. More...
  • RD-107-8D728 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996 kN. Molniya 0, Molniya 8K78M-0. OKB Glushko. Used on Molniya 8K78M and 11A57 Stage 0. Propellants kerosene (RG-1 or T-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=314s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-107-11D511P Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 996.4 kN. Soyuz 11A511U2-0. Out of production. OKB Glushko. Used on 11A511U2 Stage 0. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=314s. First flight 1982. More...
  • RD-107-8D76 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 971 kN. Sputnik 8A91-0. Out of Production. OKB Glushko. Used on 8A91 Stage 0. Developed in 1956-1957. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=310s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-105 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 627.6 kN. R-7 ICBM stage 1 (strap-on) initial project. Out of Production. Isp=302s. Single chamber engine intended for the R-7 strap-ons in mid-1950s. Subsequently replaced by the 4 chamber RD-107. More...
  • RD-106 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 645.3 kN. R-7 ICBM stage 2 (core) initial project. Out of Production. Isp=310s. Single chamber engine intended for the R-7 sustainer. Version of RD-105 with larger nozzle. Subsequently replaced by the 4 chamber RD-108. More...
  • RD-103 Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 500 kN. R-5. Out of Production. Isp=243s. Final extrapolation of the V-2 rocket engine in Russia. First flight 1953. More...
  • RD-102 Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 428 kN. R-3A. Development ended 1951. Project for R-3A experimental missile. Stopped in favor of RD-103. Isp=235s. More...
  • RD-101 Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 404 kN. R-2 and V-2A. Isp=237s. Developed simultaneously with the RD-100 but with no German involvement. More compact, increased thrust, increased chamber pressure and higher alcohol concentration. First flight 1949. More...
  • RD-100 Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 304 kN. R-1, V-1A. Isp=237s. Russian copy of the V-2 engine using Russian materials - which made it very difficult! German rocket scientists assisted in its development. First flight 1948. More...
  • RD-1 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 2.940 kN. Take-off acelleration of Pe-2, La-7, Yak-3, Su-6 airplanes. Developed 1941-45. First Russian liquid propellant rocket engine. Production 1944-45. Ignition was by an ethane-air mixture. Isp=200s. More...
  • RD-117PF Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. manned Soyuz-launcher stage 1. Design concept. Update of RD-107. Probably version using Sintin instead of kerosene. More...
  • RD-120.03 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 882 kN. Design concept. Isp=353s. More...
  • RD-107-11D511 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 992 kN. Soyuz 11A511-0, Soyuz 11A511U-0. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=314s. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-110 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1374 kN. Development ended 1949. Isp=285s. For R-3 IRBM, 19 ED-140 7 tonne chambers used as preburners to feed a main mixing chamber, a scale-up of the V-2 production motor. Tested, but technical problems too severe. More...
  • RD-117 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1021.097 kN. Soyuz ST stage 1. In production. Update of RD-107. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components. Isp=310s. First flown 2001. More...
  • RD-103RD Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. M5RD. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-108-11D512 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 997 kN. Soyuz 11A511-1, Soyuz 11A511U-1. Design 2000. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-114 Glushko lox/udmh rocket engine. 1653 kN. Used in ICBM stage 1 (stage 2 was RD-115). Developed 1961-65. Isp=341s. More...
  • RD-113 Glushko lox/udmh rocket engine. 1138 kN. ICBM stage 2 (stage 1 was RD-112). Developed 1960. Upper stage version of RD-112 with larger nozzle. Isp=360s. More...
  • RD-115 Glushko lox/udmh rocket engine. 1726 kN. ICBM stage 2 (stage 1 was RD-114). Developed 1961-65. Upper stage version of RD-114 with larger nozzle. Isp=357s. More...
  • RD-111 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1628 kN. R-9 stage 1. Isp=317s. Developed for R-9 ICBM. It had special flexible pipelines and gimbals, allowing lox loading in 20 minutes. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-109 Glushko lox/udmh rocket engine. 101.6 kN. Developed 1957-60. Isp=334s. Intended for second stage of Lox/UDMH 8K73 version of R-7. Abandoned because of Korolev's refusal to use such a toxic fuel. Later basis for RD-119 used on the Kosmos space launcher. More...
  • RD-108-8D77 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 804 kN. Sputnik 8A91-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-108-8D727K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 976 kN. Molniya 8K78-3. Out of Production. Isp=316s. More...
  • RD-108-11D512P Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1011 kN. Soyuz 11A511U2-1. Out of production. Isp=319s. A 1-2 second specific impulse increase was made possible by the use of synthetic fuel Sintin and a modified mixing head. First flight 1982. More...
  • RD-112 Glushko lox/udmh rocket engine. 1089 kN. ICBM stage 1 (stage 2 was RD-113). Developed 1960. Isp=344s. More...
  • RD-108-8D727 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 977 kN. Molniya 1, Molniya 8K78M-1. OKB Glushko. Used on Molniya 8K78L, 8K78M and 11A57 Stage 1. Propellants kerosene (RG-1 or T-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=316s. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-108-8D75 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 912 kN. R-7 8K71-1, Vostok 8K72-1, Vostok 8K72K-1. OKB Glushko. Used on 8K71 R-7 Stage 1. Developed in 1954-1955. Propellants kerosene (RG-1) / Lox. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=308s. First flight 1957. More...
  • RD-108-8D75-1958 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 941 kN. Luna 8K72-1. Out of production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1958. More...
  • RD-108-8D75-1959 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 941 kN. Out of production. Further development of 8D74-1958, 1958-1959. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. Used on Vostok 8K72K launch vehicle. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-108-8D75K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 941 kN. Molniya 8K78-1, R-7A 8K74-1, Voskhod 11A57-1, Vostok 8A92-1, Vostok 8A92M-1. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=315s. First flight 1959. More...
  • RD-108-8D75PS Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 912 kN. Sputnik 8K71PS-1. Out of Production. Diameter is per chamber. Isp=308s. First flight 1957. More...
  • RD-253-11D48 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1635 kN. Isp=316s. Six gimballed single chamber RD-253s provide the first stage power for the UR-500 Proton launch vehicle. First flown in 1965. More...
  • RD-2MZV-F Dushkin Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Samolet 5. Developed 1946. More...
  • RD-254 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1716 kN. N-1 upper stage, UR-700 stage 3. Study 1961. Proposed for use in N-1. High altitude version of RD-253 for 2nd stages. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-261 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3032 kN. Tsyklon 3 stage 1. In production. Based on RD-251 Isp=301s. First flight 1977. More...
  • RD-262 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 941 kN. Tsyklon 3 stage 2. In production. Based on RD-252 Isp=317s. First flight 1977. More...
  • RD-263 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1155 kN. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 Mod 1) stage 1. Out of Production. Four RD-263 engines combined into RD-264 system. Isp=318s. More...
  • RD-263F Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. Developed 1980. Project to upgrade RD-263. Upgrade was realized in RD-273 engine. More...
  • RD-253-14D14 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1746 kN. Proton KM-1. In production. Developed in 1990s. Isp=317s. First flight 1999. More...
  • RD-253-UR-700 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1745 kN. Designed 1964-1968. UR-700 Stage 3. Development of RD-253 with increased expansion ratio for upper stage use. More...
  • RD-264 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 4521 kN. R-36M / RS-20A (SS-18 Mod 1) stage 1. Consists of four RD-263 engines. Isp=318s. Used on Dnepr launch vehicle. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-268 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1236 kN. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 1. Out of Production. First flight 1976. Modification of RD-263 engine. Isp=319s. First flight 1990. More...
  • RD-270 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 6713 kN. UR-700, R-56 stage 1. Development ended 1968. Isp=322s. Developed 1962-1971, largest rocket engine ever built in the Soviet Union, answer to F-1. Tested but cancelled before combustion instability problems solved. More...
  • RD-270M Glushko exotic N2O4/Pentaborane rocket engine. 7159 kN. Isp=365s. In 1962-1970 Glushko studied use of Pentaborane 'zip' propellants in his monster RD-270 engine. Created immense toxicity problems but increased specific impulse of the engine by 42 seconds. More...
  • RD-273 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1238 kN. Developed 1975-82. Upgrade of RD-263 in 1982 based on RD-263F project. More...
  • RD-274 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 4952 kN. Developed 1975-85. Upgrade of RD-264 engine with increased chamber pressure and thrust. Development stopped due to problems with turbopump shaft balance. More...
  • RD-275 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1745 kN. Proton stage 1. In Production. Uprated version of RD-253, developed in the 1980's. Isp=317s. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-2MZV Dushkin Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 13.7 kN. I-270. Developed 1944-47. Thrust variable 0.1-0.3 tf / 0.35-1.4 tf. More...
  • RD-253 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 1745 kN. In Production. Version of RD-253 with thrust increased by 7%. Included an additional gas generator for tank pressurization. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-216M Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Kosmos-3M stage I. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-280 Glushko N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 117.6 kN. Experimental engine. Study 1961. Experimental engine using Aerozine 50 (50% UDMH + 50% hydrazine) as fuel. Isp=350s. More...
  • RD-210 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 29.850 kN. vertical sounding rocket. Developed -1954. Isp=241s. More...
  • RD-218 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 2592 kN. R-16 stage 1. Isp=289s. Consisted of three RD-217; had 6 combustion chambers and 3 turbines; powered the R-16 ICBM. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-200 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 98.508 kN. vertical sounding rocket. Developed -1951. Isp=234s. More...
  • RD-252 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 940.5 kN. R-36-0 stage 2; Tsyklon 2 stage 2. In production. Used modified chamber from RD-219, nozzle is conventional, so performance is higher. Isp=317s. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-211 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 642.3 kN. long-distance missile. Developed 1952-55. Original four-chamber engine design planned for use on the R-12 IRBM. Abandoned due to limited thrust and the RD-214 was developed in its place. Isp=261s. More...
  • RD-212 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 623 kN. Developed 1952-56. Isp=253s. Original four-chamber engine design planned for the booster stage of the Buran intercontinental ramjet missile. Abandoned due to limited thrust; RD-213 was developed instead. More...
  • RD-213 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 755 kN. Winged rocket M-40 (2). Development ended 1957. Two thrust levels. Ignition with propellant TG-02. Chamber pressure 233,8 / 46,6 bar. Specific impulse 223 / 231 sea level. Isp=254s. More...
  • RD-214 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 730 kN. R-12, Kosmos 11K63 stage 1. Isp=264s. Single turbopump driven by H2O2 gas generator feeding four fixed chambers. Ignition with propellant TG-02. First flight 1957. More...
  • RD-215 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 864 kN. R-14, Kosmos 11K63 stage 1. Out of Production. Original intended use unknown. Two RD-215 clustered to make RD-216. Isp=291s. First flight 1966. More...
  • RD-216 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1728 kN. R-14, Kosmos 11K65 stage 1. Isp=291s. RD-216 was an assembly of 2 RD-215's with 2 combustion chambers and 2 turbines. Two sets of these were in turn used in the first stage of the R-14. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-219 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 883 kN. R-16 stage 2. Isp=293s. Derivative of RD-217 with a truss and piping changes. Despite higher expansion ratio, engine was shorter than first stage version, with relatively low performance. Flown 1960-1972. More...
  • RD-220 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1074 kN. missile stage 1 (stage 2 used RD-221). Developed 1960-. Isp=306s. More...
  • RD-221 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1118 kN. missile stage 2 (stage 1 used RD-220). Developed 1960-. Isp=318s. More...
  • RD-222 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1634 kN. missile stage 1 (stage 2 used RD-223). Developed 1960-61. Precursor to RD-253. Isp=302s. More...
  • RD-223 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1697 kN. missile stage 2 (stage 1 used RD-222). Developed 1960-61. Precursor to RD-253. Isp=314s. More...
  • RD-224 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1778 kN. R-26 stage 1. Out of production. RD-224 is a block of 2 RD-225s. An upper stage thrust chamber was developed under designation U102-000. Isp=294s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-225 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 889 kN. R-26 stage 1. Out of Production. Two clustered together to make RD-224. Isp=294s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-250 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 881 kN. R-36-0 stage 1, Tsyklon 2 stage 1. Out of Production. Assembly of 3 RD-250 units make RD-251. Isp=301s. More...
  • RD-251 Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 2643 kN. R-36-0 stage 1, Tsyklon 2 stage 1. In production. Assembly of 3 RD-250-type units. Isp=301s. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-217 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 865 kN. R-16 stage 1. Out of Production. Original intended use unknown. Three RD-217 clustered to make RD-218. Isp=289s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-2 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 6 kN. experimental. Developed 1945-47. The RD-2 was based on the RD-1 engine. Used chemical ignition. Isp=200s. More...
  • RD-302 Glushko exotic LF2/Ammonia rocket engine. 98 kN. Developed 1960-69. Successor to RD-303 and predecessor to RD-301. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=405s. More...
  • RD-3A Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. R-3A. Out of Production. Project for R-3A experimental missile. Stopped in favour of RD-103. More...
  • RD-36-41 Lyulka turbojet engine. 158.4 kN. T-4. Out of Production. Used in Sukhoi March 3 aircraft. Thrust is maximum sea level thrust; specific impulse is sea level value at that thrust. Isp=1980s. More...
  • RD-303 Glushko exotic LF2/Ammonia rocket engine. Developed 1960-65. Predecessor to RD-302 and RD-301. More...
  • RD-301 Glushko exotic LF2/Ammonia rocket engine. 96.670 kN. Proton K stage 4. Developed 1965-77. Developed by Glushko beginning in 1965. Planned for use in Proton K-4H high energy upper stage. Motor tested but never flown. Isp=400s. First flight 1977. More...
  • RD-3 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 9 kN. experimental. Developed 1950's. The RD-3 was a cluster of three RD-1 engines with a new common turbopump. Ignition was by an ethane-air mixture. Isp=190s. More...
  • RD-350 Glushko exotic LF2/LH2 rocket engine. 98 kN. Design concept 1963-. Studied by Glushko as engine concept with high-energy propellants. Isp=464s. More...
  • RD-410 Glushko nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 68 kN. UR-700M concept. Developed 1960s. More...
  • RD-57 Lyulka lox/lh2 rocket engine. 392 kN. N1 Block S (N-1M). Study 1965. One to have been used in N1 Block S. In fixed chamber version, 3 to 6 to have been used in N1 Block V-III. Engine system includes roll control thruster with 1.29 kN thrust. Isp=456s. More...
  • RD-58 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Isp=349s. High-performance upper-stage engine developed for N1 lunar crasher stage, but saw general use as restartable Block D upper stage of Proton launch vehicle. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-58Z Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 71 kN. Zenit stage 3. Developed 1981-1990. Isp=361s. More...
  • RD-58S Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 86.3 kN. Proton 8K82K / 11S861-01 stage 4 (block DM). Version 17D12 for Buran OMS. Version uses synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') for higher specific impulse. Isp=361s. First flight 1994. More...
  • RD-58M Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM). In production. Isp=353s. First flight 1974. More...
  • RD-57M Lyulka lox/lh2 rocket engine. 397 kN. Vulkan Blok V. Development ended 1976. Isp=461s. Version with extendible nozzle. Length 4.06 / 2.61 m. Specific impulse 461 / 448 sec. Area ratio 170 / 87.6. More...
  • RD-57A-1 Lyulka lox/lh2 rocket engine. 395 kN. Developed 1995-98. Isp=460s. New version of RD-57M for SSTO-demonstrator proposed by Aerojet. Optimized nozzle contour for performance increase, new chamber material for weight reduction. More...
  • RD-56M Isayev lox/lh2 rocket engine. 73.580 kN. Proton and Angara upper stage KVRB, 12KRB upper stage for GSLV (India). In development. Isp=461s. First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-56 Isayev lox/lh2 rocket engine. 69.6 kN. N1 block R. Development ended 1971. Oxygen-hydrogen engine for cryogenic upper stage. Developed but never flown. Design sold to India in 1990's for GSLV. Isp=462s. More...
  • RD-550 Glushko exotic rocket engine. 98.060 kN. Experimental upper stage engine. Developed 1963-70. Isp=400s. Propellants Lox/30% Beryllium+Pentaborane in 70% Hydrazine. More...
  • RD-502 Glushko H2O2/Pentaborane rocket engine. 98.1 kN. Experimental upper stage engine. Developed 1960-66. Isp=380s. Experimental upper stage engine. Program stopped due to toxicity of propellants. Intended for Proton upper stage. First flight 1966. More...
  • RD-54 Lyulka lox/lh2 rocket engine. 392 kN. N1 concept stage III. Developed 1960-75. Isp=440s. More...
  • RD-510 Glushko H2O2/CxHy rocket engine. Developed 1965-75. First flight 1975. More...
  • RD-511 Glushko H2O2/CxHy rocket engine. Developed 1965-75. First flight 1975. More...
  • RD-510T Glushko H2O2/CxHy rocket engine. Developed 1965-75. First flight 1975. More...
  • RD-58MF Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. In Production. Isp=353s. Multi-function variant of RD-58 for uprated upper stages applications (Zenit stage 3, Angara). Block-DM-SL for Sea-Launch may have used RD-58M. More...
  • RD-56M LNG Isayev Lox/LNG rocket engine. 73.5 kN. Vozdushnyy Start stage 2. Developed 1996-. Variant of RD-56M using liquid natural gas in place of hydrogen. First engine tests performed in 1998. More...
  • RD-600 Glushko nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 1960 kN. Isp=2000s. Gas core nuclear engine worked developed 1962-1970 for use in second stage of two-stage interplanetary rockets. More...
  • RD-701 Glushko lox/lh2/kerosene tripropellant rocket engine for air-launched MAKS spaceplane. 4003 kN. Development ended 1988. Isp=415 / 460s. First flight 2001. More...
  • RD-704 Glushko Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant engine. 1966 kN. Developed 1990's. Isp=407 / 452 s. Tripropellant engine, single chamber, derived from RD-701 project. Chamber pressure 294 / 124 bar. First flight 1999. More...
  • RDKS-1 Russian rocket engine. Developed End 40's. Single chamber with turbopump propellant feed. More...
  • RDKS-100 Dushkin Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 980 kN. Sanger. Developed 1946-51. Isp=285s. More...
  • RDMT-2600 NII Mash GOX/Alcohol rocket engine. 2.6 kN. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Isp=270s. More...
  • RDMT-400 X NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.400 kN. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Carbon combustion chamber. Mass may be chamber only. Isp=296s. More...
  • RDMT-8 X NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 8 N. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Isp=296s. More...
  • RDMT-50 NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.050 kN. Kosmos satellites. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Isp=255s. More...
  • RDMT-400A NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.400 kN. Developed 1980's. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Niobium combustion chamber with coating. Isp=290s. More...
  • RDMT-400 NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.400 kN. Almaz, Kvant, Kristall, Spektr, Priroda. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Used in Isayev 11D458 engine. Isp=255s. More...
  • RDMT-200 NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.200 kN. Almaz. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Isp=255s. More...
  • RDMT-0.8 NII Mash nitrogen+helium cold gas thruster. 800 mN. Kosmos satellites. In Production. Low-thrust cold-gas thruster. Specific impulse 70 / 160 sec. Isp=70s. More...
  • RDMT-135 NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.135 kN. Salyut, Mir, Soyuz-T and -TM, Progress, Kosmos-satellites. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Isp=260s. More...
  • RDMT-5 NII Mash air cold gas thruster. 5 N. MMK. In Production. Low-thrust cold-gas thruster. Isp=70s. More...
  • RDMT-12 NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 12 N. Almaz, Kvant, Kristall, Spektr, Priroda. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Predecessor was RDMT-400. Used in Isayev 17D58E engine. Isp=279s. More...
  • RDMT-100 NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 0.100 kN. Salyut, Mir, Soyuz-T and -TM, Progress, Kosmos-satellites. In Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Isp=260s. More...
  • RDMT-0.4 X NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 400 mN. In Production. Experimental low-thrust thruster. Chamber from niobium alloy. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Specific impulse 313 / 302,3 sec. Isp=290s. More...
  • RDMT-200K NII Mash GOX/Kerosene rocket engine. 0.200 kN. Buran. Out of Production. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Mass in ref. NIIMash 95 given as only 2.5 kg. Isp=265s. More...
  • RO-31 Kosberg nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 392 kN. UR-700 Third Stage. Study 1967. Engine proposed for UR-700 third stage to achieve 250 tonne payload to low earth orbit. Probably closely related to RD-0411. More...
  • RPD-04 Dushkin Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Out of Production. More...
  • S-155 Dushkin rocket engine. 39 kN. E-50. Developed 1955-56. Thrust variable 2000 - 4000 kgf. More...
  • S-3-20M5A Dushkin Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. U-21. Developed -1959. Launch thrust 29.4 kN. More...
  • S09.29 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 88 kN. V-300/V-303 (S-25 system). Out of Production. More...
  • S09.502 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. R-101 SAM. Developed 1949-50. Launch thrust 78.4 kN. Four chamber engine designed for use in the R-101 (derivative of German Wasserfall). Abandoned by 1950 in favour of single-chamber engine. More...
  • S1.35800 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 30 kN. R-7 verniers. Out of Production. Thrust variable 2.5-3.1 tf More...
  • S1.5400A Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 67.3 kN. Molniya 8K78M-3. Isp=342s. First flight 1964. More...
  • S1.5400 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 66.7 kN for Molniya 8K78 Stage 3. Flew 1960-1965. Isp=340s. Designed by Korolev; passed to Isayev for production. Began a series of engines leading through the 8D726 for GR-1 to the Block D for the N1 and Proton. More...
  • S2.1100 Isayev rocket engine. V-1000. Out of Production. OKB-2 transferred work on the S2.1100 to OKB-117 in 1958-59. OKB-117 completed development. More...
  • S2.1150 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 671.2 kN. Burya booster. Out of production. Isp=250s. First flight 1957. Engines developed from R-11 S2.253 engine. More...
  • S2.1200 Isayev rocket engine. Developed 1950s middle. OKB-2 transferred work on the S2.1200 to OKB-154 in 1957. The latter used the designation RO-1 for the engine. More...
  • S2.145 Isayev rocket engine. 88 kN. Developed 1950s early. More...
  • S2.253 Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 93.3 kN. R-11 (Scud B) 8A61. Thrust 8300 kgf at sea level. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Isp=251s. First flight 1953. More...
  • S2.253 derivative Isayev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 93.2 kN. EKR (experimental winged missile). Study 1953. Derivative of S2.253 was proposed for use in EKR Stage 1 (project for an experimental winged missile). Isp=250s. More...
  • S2.253A Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 93 kN. R-11FM. Out of Production. Used in R-11FM submarine version of Scud B. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Mixture ratio derived from tank content. 81 kN sea-level. More...
  • S2.721V Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 11.8 kN. KSR. Developed 1956-. More...
  • S2.713 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 252.2 kN. R-13 (SS-N-4). Out of Production. First engine to employ gas generator on main propellants. One main and four vernier thrusters. (Mixture derived ratio from tank content.) More...
  • S2.720 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 34.3 kN. Engine for SAM-missile V-755. Out of Production. Pump-fed engine. Used in engine unit of a special apparatus. Pump-fed engine. 20,4 kN sea level. More...
  • S3.42A Sevruk rocket engine. 166 kN. 217. Out of Production. More...
  • S5.1 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 167 kN. SAM-missiles 217M and 218. Out of Production. Designation unknown. More...
  • S5.3 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 392 kN. R-21 (SS-N-5). Out of Production. First engine to start underwater. 392 kN sea-level. More...
  • S5.3M Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 396.7 kN. R-9 (SS-8) missile stage 1. Out of Production. Proposed for R-9 missile stage 1. Four engines per stage. 396,7 kN sea-level. More...
  • S5.45 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1961 kN. correction engine for Zond-1, Venera-2-8, and others. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as correction engine for spacecraft Zond-1, Vernera-8, and others. Isp=267s. More...
  • S5.4 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 15.830 kN. Vostok/Voskhod retorfire engine; spacecraft maneuvering engine. . Out of Production. Includes 4 small lateral steering nozzles. Isp=266s. More...
  • S5.44 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 177 kN. SAM-missile 5Ya24. Out of Production. Could be throttled. 177-49 kN sea-level. Area ratio 118 - 44. More...
  • S5.51 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 33.196 kN. Hardware 1969. Isp=314s. Complex engine used to maneuver the LOK to a rendezvous with the LK lander in lunar orbit, then propel the LOK out of lunar orbit. Verniers included for midcourse corrections. More...
  • S5.80.1100-0 Isayev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 2.940 kN. Soyuz-2 Blok LM. Developed 1990s. Thrust chamber from KTDU-80 / S5.80 converted to burn Lox/Kerosene. More...
  • S5.92 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Phobos propulsion module, later adapted as Fregat upper stage. In production. Isp=327s. Gas generator cycle. Nominal and low-thrust thrust levels. More...
  • S5.98M Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 19.62 kN. Used on Briz and Briz-M upper stages. Isp=325s. Engine system consists of: main engine (2000 kgf, Isp=325.5s) + 4x11D458 (40 kgf, Isp=252s) + 12x17D58E (1.36 kgf, Isp=247s). 8 restarts. First flight 1990. More...
  • SPRD-15 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 402 kN. S-2 Strela-2 missile, Sopka. Out of Production. Thrust 27 tf at cutout - 41at ignition. More...
  • SPRD-30 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 294 kN. P-15 Termit. Out of Production. Thrust 28 tf at cutout - 30 tf at ignition. More...
  • SPRD-99 Kartukov solid rocket engine. 24.5 kN. MiG-21PFM. Out of Production. More...
  • SPT-70 Stechkin solid rocket engine. 0.098 kN. Yamal. In Production. Thrust variable 1 to 10 kgf Isp=2500s. More...
  • SPT-200 Stechkin solid rocket engine. 0.780 kN. In Production. Thrust variable 8 to 80 kgf Isp=3000s. More...
  • SPT-100-SEP Stechkin solid rocket engine. In Production. The French company SEP is developing this uprated version of the SPT-100 in cooperation with OKB Fakel. Isp=2200s. More...
  • SPT-100 Stechkin electric rocket engine. 0.196 kN. Meteor, Gals. In Production. 1.35 kW Hall thruster. Thrust variable 2 to 20 kgf. Marketed in USA by Space Systems/Loral and Fakel. Isp=2500s. More...
  • SPT-50 Stechkin solid rocket engine. Meteor-Priroda. In Production. More...
  • TAL-WSF TsNIIMASH electric/xenon rocket engine. 12 mN. Isp=1350s. Hall effect thruster with anode layer. Export version of D-55 thruster developed under NASA/BMDO contract for flight test under RHETT-II program. Used for satellite orbital altitude maintenance. More...
  • TAL-100 TsNIIMASH electric/xenon rocket engine. 34 mN. Development. Isp=1450s. Hall effect thruster with anode layer. Export version of D-100-I thruster developed under NASA/BMDO contract. Taken to engineering model stage. More...
  • TAL-38 TsNIIMASH electric/xenon rocket engine. 8 mN. Development. Isp=2500s. Hall effect thruster with anode layer. Export version of D-38, developed under NASA contract for satellite station-keeping and attitude control. Taken to engineering model stage. More...
  • TM-50 TsNIIMASH electric/xenon rocket engine. 250 mN. Development. Isp=3000s. Hall effect thruster with anode layer, designed for satellite orbital raising. Taken to engineering model stage. More...
  • U-1250 Isayev rocket engine. 12.7 kN. Developed 1945-46. Isp=208s. More...
  • U-2000 Isayev rocket engine. 19.6 kN. for SAM. Out of Production. More...
  • U-400-10 Isayev rocket engine. 3.920 kN. Samolet 5. Developed 1946-47. More...
  • U-400-2 Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. Shchuka. Out of Production. More...
  • U102-000 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 468 kN. R-26 stage 2. Out of production. Isp=307s. More...
  • YaRD Type V Korolev nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 392 kN. Study 1963. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. Outgrowth of work done by Bondaryuk and Glushko on YaRD engines for nuclear ICBM's, but using liquid hydrogen as propellant. Isp=900s. More...
  • YaRD Type AF Korolev nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 196 kN. Study 1963. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. Outgrowth of work done by Bondaryuk and Glushko on YaRD engines for nuclear ICBM's, but using liquid hydrogen as propellant. Isp=950s. More...
  • YaRD Type A Korolev nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 177 kN. Study 1963. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. Outgrowth of work done by Bondaryuk and Glushko on YaRD engines for nuclear ICBM's, but using liquid hydrogen as propellant. Isp=900s. More...
  • YaRD Type V-B Korolev nuclear/lh2 rocket engine. 392 kN. Study 1963. Isp=900s. Design considered in N1 nuclear upper stage studies. This version had 7,000 kg bioshield for manned missions. Used liquid hydrogen as propellant. More...
  • YaRD OKB-670 Bondaryuk nuclear/ammonia+alcohol rocket engine. 1667 kN. Development ended 1960. Isp=470s. Proposed for YaRD nuclear-powered ICBM. Propellant was heated in the reactor and exhausted through four expansion nozzles. More...
  • YaRD OKB-456 Glushko nuclear/ammonia rocket engine. 1373 kN. Development ended 1960. Isp=470s. Used nuclear reactor in cylindrical housing, operating at 3000 deg K. Propellant heated in the reactor and exhausted through four expansion nozzles More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Tsiolkovsky Russian orbital launch vehicle. Tsiolkovsky was the first to propose the use of liquid hydrogen and oxygen to propel a rocket, and calculated its performance using the crucial rocket equation V = c ln(Mo/ Me). More...
  • GIRD-09 Russian sounding rocket. The first rocket successfully launched by the Soviet GIRD organisation was a hybrid, using a liquid oxygen to burn gelled petroleum in large casing. Development of the rocket was begun by GIRD's second brigade under M K Tikhonravov. More...
  • GIRD-10 Russian sounding rocket. The first liquid propellant rocket launched in the Soviet Union, the GIRD-10 used liquid oxygen and alcohol propellants, pressure-fed to the combustion chamber by nitrogen gas. More...
  • 212 Russian air-to-surface missile. Korolev's second design for a rocket-propelled cruise missile. It was flight tested twice after his arrest in 1939 but work was then abandoned. More...
  • Katyusha Russian surface-to-surface missile. Unguided rocket built in a variety of calibres and used by the Red Army from 1941 onward. More...
  • RDD Russian tactical ballistic missile. The RDD - Long range rocket - was assigned to Korolev in November 1944 in response to the German V-2. Korolev was given charge of a team of 60 engineers and required to provide a draft project in three days. The resulting two-stage design used Lox/Alcohol propellants and an autopilot for guidance. It was proposed that a 5 tonne thrust rocket, 110 mm in diameter, would be available by 1945. A 250 tonne thrust, solid fuelled, 280 mm diameter, 4 m long rocket would be ready by 1949. These designs evolved into the more refined D-1 and D-2 before being overtaken by the post-war availability of V-2 technology. More...
  • D-1 Russian tactical ballistic missile. Korolev design for a 'long range' rocket prior to orders to copy the V-2. The 1000 kg rocket would have a range of 32 km. Wingspan 1.0 m; 370 kg propellants; minimum range 12..8 km; maximum velocity 854 m/s; maximum altitude 12.5 km. More...
  • D-2 Russian tactical ballistic missile. Korolev design for a 'long range' rocket prior to orders to copy the V-2. Extended-range winged version of the D-1. The 1200 kg rocket would have a range of 76 km. Wingspan 1.5 m; 370 kg propellants; minimum range 20 km; maximum velocity 628 m/s; maximum altitude 10.7 km. More...
  • Baranov SAM Russian surface-to-air missile. First Soviet anti-aircraft barrage rocket, fired in limited numbers during siege of Leningrad, and downing two German aircraft. More...
  • RNII Sounding Rocket Russian sounding rocket. P I Ivanov at RNII (Reaction Scientific Research Institute) developed a four-stage solid rocket capable of reaching 40 km altitude in 1944-1946. Two launches were made, but the project was considered generally unsuccessful and not followed up. More...
  • G-2 The G-2 design objective was to create the first IRBM - to deliver a 1000 kg payload over a 2500 km range. The missile would use three V-2 derived engines with a total thrust of 100 tonnes. A variety of alternate configurations (R-12A through R-12K) were considered by the German team in Russia. These included parallel and consecutive staging, gimballed motors, and other innovations. The R-12K was particularly interesting because it represented a concept later used on the US Atlas missile - jettisoning of the two outboard engines at altitude to significantly improve range. The G-2 was given the secret designation R-6 and overt designation R-12 by the Russians. More...
  • G-1 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The G-1, an improved 600 km range version of the V-2 missile, was the first design produced by Groettrup's German engineering team after they had been moved to Russia. A Soviet state commission found in 1948 that it was superior to Korolev's R-2 concept. Nevertheless the R-2 was put in production instead. More...
  • G-4 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The G-4 was designed by the Groettrup German team in the Soviet Union in competition with Korolev's R-3. Rocket chief Ustinov informed Groettrup of the requirement on 9 April 1949: to deliver a 3000 kg atomic bomb to a 3000 km. This requirement meant a massive improvement over existing V-2 technology. The G-4 was evaluated against Korolev's R-3 on 7 December 1949 - and the G-4 was found to be superior. Neither ended up in production, but the design concepts of the G-4 led directly to Korolev's R-7 ICBM (essentially a cluster of G-4's or R-3A's) and the N1 superbooster. Work on the G-4 continued through 1952. More...
  • R-3 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the long-range R-3 missile was authorised at the same time as the V-2-derived R-1 and R-2 rockets in April 1947. Supplemental authorisation was contained in a government decree of 14 April 1948.The specification was an order of magnitude leap from the other vehicles - to deliver a 3 tonne atomic bomb to any point in Europe from Soviet territory - a required range of 3000 km. To achieve this objective innovative technology was needed in every area of the missile design. Korolev was again in direct competition with the design to the same specification of the captured Germans (Groettrup's G-4). More...
  • G-3 German aerodynamicist Albring designed the G-3 missile for the Russians in October 1949. This would use a rocket-powered Groettrup-designed G-1 as the first stage. The cruise stage would have an aerodynamic layout like that of the Saenger-Bredt rocket-powered antipodal bomber of World War II. Cruising at 13 km altitude, the supersonic missile would carry a 3000 kg warhead to a range of 2900 km. More...
  • Keldysh Bomber Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Soviet version of the Saenger antipodal bomber intensely studied on Stalin's direct orders in 1946-1947. The final study concluded that, given the fuel consumption of foreseeable rocket engines, the design would only be feasible using ramjet engines and greatly advanced materials. This meant that development could only begin in the late 1950's, when such technologies were available. By that time the design had been superseded by more advanced concepts. More...
  • R-1 Russian short range ballistic missile. Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions. More...
  • R-1A Russian short range ballistic test vehicle. Experimental missile for testing warhead separation. More...
  • R-2E Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2E prototype tested technological innovations planned for the production R-2 missile. These included use of an integral fuel tank and a seperable warhead. More...
  • R-2 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry. More...
  • Buran Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Myasishchev aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. The competing Burya design of Lavochkin was launched in July 1957, but the development of unstoppable ICBM's had made intercontinntal cruise missiles oboslete. The equivalent American Navaho project was cancelled ten days later. Korolev's R-7 ICBM completed its first successful test flight in August. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled on November 1957. More...
  • EKR Russian intermediate range cruise missile. B Chertok of NII-8 took the preliminary German R-13 cruise missile design and elaborated it, including consideration of the key problem of long-range automatic astronavigation. By 1951 to 1953 Korolev's design bureau had prepared an experimental design, the EKR. I Lisovich had developed a prototype astronavigation system that met the necessary specifications, and solution of basic problems in use of steel and titanium hot airframe technology had been solved at VIAM (All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials) and MVTU Bauman Institute. An expert commission in 1953 examined the EKR design and felt that there were still many technical problems to be solved, most of which were better handled by an aircraft designer rather than Korolev. More...
  • R-3A Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. So much new technology was involved for the R-3 that it was deemed necessary to build an R-3A intermediate experimental rocket, based on the R-2. This would be flown to test new construction methods, guidance systems, and high energy propellants. The R-3A was specified in 1949 to have a 900 to 1000 km range with a payload of 1530 kg; an unfuelled mass of 4100 kg; 20,500 kg of propellants; and a lift-off thrust of 40 tonnes. The R-3A could also serve as a prototype for a more modest IRBM. Flight tests of the R-3A were scheduled for October 1951. More...
  • YaKhR-2 Russian nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. First large space launcher considered in the Soviet Union. It would have had the same layout as the R-7, but with six strap-ons increased in size by 50%. The core, igniting at altitude, used a nuclear thermal engine using ammonia as propellant. Dropped in favor of development of conventional chemical propulsion. More...
  • 205 Russian surface-to-air missile. Original missile of the S-25 system, development described above. More...
  • G-5 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Some sources indicate the G-5 / R-15 designation was assigned to an ICBM designed by the Groettrup team. If so, it may have been the 'packet of G-4's' that was the direct ancestor of the Korolev R-7. The designation G-5 / R-15 has also been reported as that of the ramjet missile more often referred to as G-3 or R-13. More...
  • Kh-101 Russian air-to-surface missile. Chelomei mobile-launched version of V-1 More...
  • Kh-102 Russian air-to-surface missile. Chelomei mobile-launched version of V-1 More...
  • Krug Russian surface-to-air missile. Ramjet-powered long-range surface-to-air missile, deployed by the Soviet Union and its allies. More...
  • MKR Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A wide range of MKR (intercontinental winged missiles) were studied in 1957-1960 in accordance with a decree of the General Staff. The trade-off studies encompassed long-range air-breathing aircraft, winged rockets, and aircraft launchers for air-breathing missiles. More...
  • R-102 Post-war Russian version of German Schmetterling surface-to-air missile. 16 test flights made at Kapustin Yar between 18 October and 19 December 1949. Not put into production, cancelled in favour of the R-112. More...
  • R-117 Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1950. Developed in competition with the R-112 (derrived from the German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1950 in favour of further development of the R-112. More...
  • R-1V Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1V version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. More...
  • R-1B Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. More...
  • R-101 Post-war Russian version of German Wasserfall surface-to-air missile. Never put into production, but technology used for further surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile developments in Russia. More...
  • R-112 Russian surface-to-air missile. Soviet surface-to-air missile design of 1948-1951. Propulsion and guidance based on that of the R-102 (copy of German Schmetterling) but with new aerodynamics. Cancelled without ever flying in 1951 when decision was made to proceed with a new generation of SAM designs. More...
  • R-108 All-Russian second generation version of the R-101, itself a derivative of the German Wasserfall. Development began in May 1949 but the missile did not reach flight test stage before its cancellation in 1951. More...
  • R-109 Russian derivative of the German Wasserfall, an interim design between the R-101 and R-108. The missile did not reach flight test stage before it was cancellation in 1951. More...
  • S-25 Russian surface-to-air missile. First surface-to-air missile deployed by the Soviet Union. Under a crash program ordered by Stalin, development began in 1951, first guided launch was in 1953, and by 1956, 2,640 launchers were deployed in defence of Moscow. The system was upgraded with improved missiles and ground systems into the 1960's. More...
  • R-1 8A11 Russian short range ballistic missile. Initial production version. More...
  • R-103 Post-war Russian version of German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1947-1951 but abandoned in favour of the R-110. More...
  • R-5 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs. More...
  • R-11 First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives. More...
  • 10Kh Chelomei mobile-launched short range cruise missile derived from the German V-1. Did not reach production. More...
  • 206 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 206 was a version of the 205 using a single-chamber Isayev engine in place of the four-chamber design of the 205. Cancelled in April 1953. More...
  • 207 Russian surface-to-air missile. This was an improvement of the 205 with an improved warhead and reduced cruise thrust. Trials were conducted of the missile in 1953, but it was decided not to put it into service. More...
  • 32B Russian surface-to-air missile. Alternate missile developed for the S-25 system. Technically superior but not put into production, it led to the S-75 and later Soviet surface-to-air missiles. More...
  • T-1 Original conceptual design for ICBM. Final design was R-7 due to unachievability of mass ratio for this single stage design. Data from chart at Russian Space Agency HQ. More...
  • RS Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Soviet Mach 3 manned air-launched ramjet aircraft, developed in 1954-1961, but cancelled before the first full-scale test article could be flown. More...
  • R-1D Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, the ionosphere, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. More...
  • R-11FM First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service. More...
  • R-2R Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. More...
  • R-5M Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5M was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first to launch a live nuclear warhead in test. The technical characteristics were virtually the same as those of the R-5 basic model, except for an increase in the propellant load. 48 launchers were deployed from 1956 to 1968, tipped with nuclear warheads of 80 kiloton, 300 kiloton, or 1 megaton. More...
  • R-1E Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1E version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, air composition, solar radiation, the ionosphere, ozone layer characteristics, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. More...
  • RSS-52 Russian air-launched test vehicle. Hypersonic ramjet-powered research vehicle proposed by Myasishchev in 1958. This version of the cancelled Buran intercontinental cruise missile would have been air-launched at supersonic speed from a derivative of the M-50 bomber. It would then use its own ramjet to accelerate to hypersonic velocity. More...
  • R-11M Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Improved production version of R-11, not retired until 1977. More...
  • 207A Russian surface-to-air missile. The 207A, with numerous improvements to the 205 which had been developed in a crash program, completed trials in 1955 and rapidly replaced the 205 in PVO service. It basically doubled all of the performance characteristics of the 205. More...
  • R-8 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Glushko project 1956 for multistage 650t ICBM powered by Lox/UDMH. More...
  • R-2A Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2A was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 200 km, including properties of the atmosphere from 150-200 km; ultraviolet observations of the sun; recovery of animals from flights to 200 km altitude; and study of the ionosphere at altitudes of 150-200 km. More...
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • R-7 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The world's first ICBM and first orbital launch vehicle. The 8K71 version was never actually put into military service, being succeeded by the R-7A 8K74. More...
  • M-100 Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28. More...
  • Burya A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. Burya launches began in July 1957. The project was cancelled, but the team was allowed final tests in 1961 that demonstrated a 6,500 km range at Mach 3.2 with the 2,350 kg payload. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle. More...
  • Sputnik 8K71PS Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Relatively unmodified R-7 ICBM test vehicles used to launch first two Sputniks. More...
  • 18D Russian surface-to-air missile. Variant of the 18D air-breathing surface-to-air missile using a magnesium alloy in the fuel to double the initial launch thrust. More...
  • 215 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 215 was a derivative of the 207A with a nuclear warhead. It entered service in 1957. More...
  • KR Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. The KR (winged rocket) was a three-stage unmanned boost-glide missile developed at the Tupolev's OKB-156. Work began in 1957. Two alternates were considered for the first stage: a conventional liquid rocket or a special manned aircraft launcher. The second stage was a conventional rocket. The final winged stage included a propulsion section and nuclear warhead. The glider would cut-off at an altitude of 50 km and a velocity of 20,000 km/hr. Planned-over target speed was 7,000 km/hr at 30 km altitude. Work on the project continued only about a year before it was abandoned in favour of the more conventional Tu-123 supersonic cruise missile. The KR would have had a gross weight of 240 tonnes, and delivered a payload of 3 to 5 tonnes over a range of 9,000 to 12,000 km. More...
  • R-110 Larger caliber Russian version of the German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1948-1956 and reached the initial production stage, but cancelled due to the inability to produce an economical rocket with the necessary consistent range accuracy for the barrage role. More...
  • R-15 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye 1000-km range submarine-launched ballistic missile. According to Przybilski, it was related to the light ICBM later designated R-26/8K66. More...
  • S-75 Russian surface-to-air missile. Known in the west as the SA-2 Guideline, this weapon was responsible for the downing of more American aircraft than any missile in history. It was deployed worldwide beginning in 1957, and improvements and updates, many by third parties, continued into the 21st Century. More...
  • Tu-130 Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Three-stage intercontinental boost-glide missile. Studied 1957-1960. More...
  • Tu-123 Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Exotic design for an intercontinental missile using a gas core fission reactor for cruise propulsion. Studied circa 1957. More...
  • R-5A Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments retaining the nose cone of the IRBM, but equipped with a parachute recovery system. Experiments carried included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes, mass spectrometers for atmospheric composition studies, and capsules carrying dogs for zero-gravity biologically research. More...
  • Sputnik 8A91 Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Modified R-7 ICBM used to launch Sputnik 3. More...
  • Luna 8K72 Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine upper stage used for early Soviet unmanned lunar shots. More...
  • R-11A Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Version of the R-11 'Scud' missile used as a sounding rocket. First launched in 1957, and capable of taking 250 to 400 kg of payload to 100 to 160 km altitude. The payloads were enclosed in a spherical re-entry capsule, which was gyro-stabilised to ensure instruments could be pointed precisely at the sun or other astronomical target. More...
  • V-1000 Russian anti-ballistic missile. First Soviet anti-ballistic missile system. Development began in 1956 and the system was tested at Sary Shagan 1960 to 1961. It was clear that enormous development work was needed to achieve an operational anti-ballistic missile system. Therefore work began on the successor A-35 system, although the Americans were led to believe that an operational system was deployed around Moscow. The System A anti-ballistic missile equipped with the V-1000 rocket made the first intercept and destruction in the world using a conventional warhead of an intermediate range ballistic missile warhead coming in at 3 km/s on 4 May 1961. The US did not demonstrate an equivalent capability until 1984. More...
  • 217 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 217 was a version of the V-300 with a variable thrust engine. Entered production. More...
  • 22D Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype surface-to-air missile, using liquid-propellant ramjets in place of the air-augmented solid propellant of the 17D. More...
  • 207T Russian surface-to-air missile. The 207T was an alternative derivative of the 207A with a nuclear warhead. It was developed during 1958 but does not seem to have entered service. More...
  • V-753 Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the SA-2 Guideline. Installed on the test cruiser Dzerzhinsky 1958-1982. Not adopted for fleet use due to the missile's liquid propellants, but exploited for its unique capability, including ability to intercept targets travelling at up to 2300 kph More...
  • R-13 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Developed from 1956-1960. First nuclear-armed SLBM. More...
  • R-5V Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments under the Vertikal international program, equipped with a spherical re-entry capsule and a parachute recovery system. A wide range of international astrophysics and geophysics instruments were carried. More...
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • R-7A Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7A was an improved version of the R-7 first ICBM, and the one actually deployed to pads in Baikonur and Plesetsk. The missile saw service from 1960 to 1968. Four pads at Plesetsk, and one reserve pad at Baikonur, were operational at the peak of deployment in 1962. These were the Soviet Union's only strategic missile deterrent during the Cuban Missile Crisis. More...
  • 217M Russian surface-to-air missile. Developed together with the improved S-25M missile system, the 217M entered production and gave the S-25 an enormous performance in improvement. More...
  • S-75M Russian surface-to-air missile. Last production version. Fakel-designed missile; Almaz upgrade offered. More...
  • OKB-456 Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Glushko nuclear engine heating ammonia as a propellant. More...
  • OKB-670 Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Bondaryuk nuclear engine heating mixed alcohol and ammonia as a propellant. More...
  • Dal-2 Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned next generation high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963. More...
  • Dal-M Russian surface-to-air missile. Planned improved version of the Dal high performance long-range surface-to-air missile developed 1959-1963. Cancelled together with basic the Dal system at the end of 1963. More...
  • Superraket Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. The ancestor of the N1 lunar launch vehicle, this was the first heavy lift launch vehicle actively considered in the USSR. The 2,000 tonne liftoff mass was similar to the later N1 design, but the first stage would use a staggering cluster of around 66 Kuznetsov NK-9 engines (as opposed to the modest 24 NK-15's of the first N1 configuration). The real difference was in the second stage, which used the nuclear YaRD engine, giving the launch vehicle nearly double the later N1's payload capacity. More...
  • R-21 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1962. NATO code Serb may apply to SS-N-6 instead. First subsurface launched SLBM (development began at OKB- 586 and transferred to SKB-385). More...
  • Vostok 8K72 Russian orbital launch vehicle. 8K72 Luna launch vehicle, third stage modified with larger forward cylindrical section to accomodate Vostok-sized spacecraft. Used only for launch of first few prototype Vostoks. More...
  • Molniya 8K78 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Four stage derivative of the R-7 ICBM developed on a crash-program basis in 1960 for Soviet lunar and planetary deep space probe missions. The third stage found later use in the Voskhod and Soyuz launchers. By the 1970's mature versions of the launch vehicle were used almost entirely for launch of Molniya communications satellites and Oko missile early warning spacecraft into elliptical, 12-hour earth orbits. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-7 ICBM with single-engine third stage, uprated from Luna launch vehicle and with forward fairing to accomodate Vostok/Zenit sized spacecraft. 8K72K, used for Vostok manned spacecraft launches and the first Zenit launch attempt. More...
  • 17D Russian surface-to-air missile. Prototype air-breathing surface-to-air missile, using air-augmented solid propellant. More...
  • R-21A Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version of R-21 SLBM on Yankee submarines. More...
  • 208 Russian surface-to-air missile. In this version of the V-300 the warhead was increased to 430 kg to compensate for accuracy problems in the original production version. Cancelled in favour of the 207A. More...
  • 9M/1/TEMP Russian short range ballistic missile. Two-stage deployed short range missile. Four solid motors strapped together, operating in staged pairs. More...
  • M-51 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Intercontinental cruise missile based on M-50 manned bomber. Subsonic cruise with Mach 2 dash into the target area. More...
  • Frog 9 Russian tactical ballistic rocket. US designation; does not appear to have existed. More...
  • Frog 6 Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Designation issued by US DOD, but cannot be linked to any known missile post-cold war. More...
  • Frog 8 Russian tactical ballistic rocket. US designation; does not appear to have existed. More...
  • R-20 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Glushko booster - 2000t, Korolev I evo delo p. 307 More...
  • R-10 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Glushko booster - 1500t, Korolev I evo delo p. 307 More...
  • RM-207 Russian target drone. Retired 207A missiles converted to use as target drones were given this designation and the code name Belka. More...
  • S-200 Russian surface-to-air missile. Enormous surface-to-air missile developed by Grushin after the failure of the Dal project. Deployed in limited numbers and exported to countries in the mideast to defend against American high-altitude, high-speed SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft. More...
  • S-300V Russian surface-to-air missile. Mobile, multiple-target, universal integrated surface-to-air missile. The S-300V system can fire either of two versions of the containerised missiles loaded: long range and medium range. These missiles are given different NATO designations. However any mix of the two missiles can be loaded as needed in the vertical launcher cells. More...
  • Tu-121 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Mach 3 intermediate range cruise missile, tested in 1958-1960 before cancellation. More...
  • Tu-131 Russian surface-to-air missile. Tupolev design for a long-range air-breathing surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. More...
  • Tu-133 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Mach 3 intercontinental range cruise missile, cancelled in 1960 before flight tests began. More...
  • YaRD ICBM Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Single-stage nuclear-powered ICBM designed by OKB-1. More...
  • R-17 Russian short-range ballistic missile. The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. The original design was by Makeyev but the missile itself was produced by the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. More...
  • R-17 Russian short-range ballistic missile. The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2. The original design was by Makeyev but the missile itself was produced by the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. More...
  • R-9 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favoured storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974. More...
  • Romashka Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Pad-launched version. More...
  • 8K79 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Korolev 1961 design for a single stage military rocket. A competing missile was selected for the requirement. More...
  • MR Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev studied this Multimodular Rocket (MR), based on stages already designed for the 8K74 and 8K77 (R-7 and R-9) missiles. As was the case of the 8K74, work on the design was stopped in September 1961. More...
  • 8K713 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM version. Article number sometimes erroneously given as 8K73. More...
  • 8K73 Russian ballistic missile. Korolev project. Possibly designation for variant of GR-1. More...
  • 8K76 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version using storable propellants and Isayev engines. Studied but rejected prior to start of development. More...
  • 8K77 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version with vacuum-isolated liquid oxygen tanks to provide capability to hold ready for instant launch. Studied but never developed. More...
  • 8K711 Russian ballistic missile. Korolev project. No other information available. More...
  • 8K513 Russian anti-satellite missile. ASAT version. Little has emerged about Korolev's ASAT project, designed in competition with Chelomei's in 1961-1964. More...
  • R-9M Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version with Kuznetsov engines in first and second stages. Development undertaken, but cancelled in favour of basic version with RD-111/RD-0106 engines. More...
  • D-6 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First Soviet solid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile. Development began in 1958, but the system was cancelled in 1961 in favour of the D-7 naval version of the RT-15 IRBM (itself in turn cancelled). More...
  • Initial UR-500 Russian orbital launch vehicle. While Chelomei's OKB was still preparing the UR-200 draft project, it was proposed to use this as the basis for the UR-500 heavy universal rocket, with five times the payload capacity. These initial 1961 studies consisted of 4 two-stage UR-200 rockets lashed together, the first and second stages working in parallel in clusters. A third stage would be modified from the UR-200 second stage. However analysis indicated that the payload capacity could not meet the military's requirements. More...
  • MBR Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. 'Sealed unit' liquid propellant ICBM proposed by Reshetnev in 1960. More...
  • PR-90 Russian short range ballistic missile. Short-range air-augmented ballistic missile. Tested concepts for Gnom ICBM. More...
  • P-100 Russian intercontinental cruise missile. Family of sea- or silo- launched Mach 3.5 cruise missiles with ranges up to intercontinental distances. More...
  • P-205 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of a family of long-range cruise missiles was begun in 1956 by Ilyushin. The P-205 was a land-based strategic cruise missile based on the P-20 antiship missile. The land-launch version was developed for the VVS in 1958-1960. There were two submarine projects for the missile, 627A and 653, both designed by OKB-143. Construction of the 627A submarine began at Severodvinsk, but the work on the submarine was cancelled in November 1961. More...
  • R-500 Russian surface-to-air missile. MiG design for an equivalent to the US Bomarc extremely long-range surface-to-air missile. Never got beyond the design stage. More...
  • RT-15M Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Under the original resolution in 1961 starting the RT-2 programme, Makeyev was to develop a submarine-launched version of the RT-15, consisting of the first and second stages of the RT-2. It did not proceed beyond the study stage. More...
  • A-350Zh Russian anti-ballistic missile. Initial version of the A-350 missile. More...
  • R-11A-MV Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Sounding rocket version of R-11 with increased payload. More...
  • A-35 Russian anti-ballistic missile. First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972. More...
  • R-14U Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version, for pad-launch or from silo complex 'Chusovaya'. More...
  • Spiral 50-50 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. The Soviet Air Force had an enduring interest in a horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing, manned, reusable space launch system that could ferry crews and priority supplies between earth and space on the same basis as conventional aircraft. Between 1960 and 1976 Mikoyan developed this manned partially reusable space launch system. It consisted of a reusable hypersonic air-breathing booster; two expendable rocket stages; and the reusable Spiral manned spaceplane. The effort was never properly funded by the government, and by the mid-1970's had only reached the stage of flight tests of subscale versions of Spiral. Development was discontinued in 1976 in favor of the Buran, a copy of the US space shuttle. However it was resurrected in improved form in the 1980's as the MAKS spaceplane. More...
  • RT-1 The RT-1 (RT = rocket, solid in Russian) was the first large Soviet solid propellant ballistic missile. It was developed and tested in 1959-1963, but no production was undertaken due to its poor performance. More...
  • MR-12 Russian sounding rocket. The MR-12 sounding rocket was developed by the Soviet Union as a modern replacement for the MR-1 Meteo. It was a single stage solid rocket with a 170 kg payload. Payload section 1.55 m long, 0.445 m in diameter. More...
  • GR-1 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev's entry in the 'Global Rocket' competition, a missile that could place a nuclear warhead in orbit, where it could come in under or behind American anti-ballistic missile defences, and be deorbited with little warning. Cancelled in 1964 in preference to Yangel's R-36-O. More...
  • Vostok 8A92 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 8A92 was a modernized version of the Vostok booster used for launch of Zenit-2 reconnaisance satellites. More...
  • Molniya 8K78L Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Molniya 8K78L was designed by Korolev's design bureau for launching a manned spacecraft on a flyby of the Moon and return to earth. To achieve this it would have used Lox/LH2 engines in the third and fourth stages. Preliminary design was completed on 8 July 1962, but such technology was years away in the Soviet Union and the project was not pursued further. More...
  • R-5B Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. More...
  • Monoblock UR-500 Russian orbital launch vehicle. During UR-500 design studies, two variants of the first stage were considered: polyblock and monoblock. The monoblock approach was that the first stage be assembled from two separate modules with the same diameter: an upper oxidiser module and a lower fuel and engine block. In assembly trials of this design it proved difficult, because of the height of the first stage, to obtain access to the upper stages and payload atop the rocket. Although there was a payload advantage compared to the more compact polyblock design, this was relatively small and outweighed by the operational difficulties. More...
  • N111 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N111 would use the third and fourth stages of the N1, and the second stage of Korolev's R-9 ICBM. This would result in a lift-off mass of 200 tonnes and a five tonne payload. It could replace the R-7 derived boosters (Vostok and Soyuz) in this payload category. More...
  • N11 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N11 would use the second, third, and fourth stages of the N1. This would give it a lift-off mass of 700 tonnes and a 20 tonne payload into low earth orbit. It could replace Chelomei's Proton launch vehicle in the medium-lift role. More...
  • N11GR Russian orbital missile. This 1962 project was designed by Korolev's OKB as a competitor to Chelomei's UR-500 against the military GR-2 (Global Rocket 2) requirement. The N-11GR was an adaptation of the basic N-11, derived from the second and third stages of the N1 heavy booster. The GR-2 was to be a kind of enormous multiple-warhead FOBS (fractional orbit bombing system). Surrounding the top of the second stage of the rocket, like bullets in an enormous revolver, were six final stages derived from the 8K713 GR-1 last stage. Each stage had a 1,500 kg nuclear warhead. More...
  • Polyblock UR-500 Russian orbital launch vehicle. UR-500 design studies considered two variants of the first stage: polyblock and monoblock. The polyblock variant consisted of a centre large diameter oxidizer tank surrounded by several smaller diameter fuel tanks. This version could be assembled in a special rig with the lateral blocks being sequentially mounted on the centre. In January 1962 this design was chosen as most advantageous, following studies that indicated improved wind loads and bending moment characteristics compared to the monoblock design. The developed version of the design would become known as the Proton. More...
  • P-6 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. More...
  • R-38 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Small, economical ICBM studied by Yangel as an alternative to Chelomei's UR-100. Both one and two stage variants were considered. Work ended when Yangel was ordered to concentrate on R-36. More...
  • UR-700 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The UR-700 was the member of Vladimir Chelomei's Universal Rocket family designed in the 1960's to allow direct manned flight by the LK-700 spacecraft to the surface of the moon. However Korolev's N1 was the selected Soviet super-booster design. Only when the N1 ran into schedule problems in 1967 was work on the UR-700 resumed. The draft project foresaw first launch in May 1972. But no financing for full scale development was forthcoming; by then it was apparent that the moon race was lost. More...
  • Desna Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure. More...
  • N1 1964 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle for the N1-L3 lunar landing mission as described in the draft project of 1964. Design requirement for the single-launch lunar-orbit-rendezvous lunar landing was 2750 tonnes liftoff mass and 95 tonnes low earth orbit payload. The actual N1 that flew in 1969 to 1972 had lighter first and third stages, but never demonstrated a full fuel load using superchilled propellants as planned in the draft project.. More...
  • Sputnik 11A59 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage version of Vostok 11A57. Used for flight test of prototype Chelomei ASAT after cancellation of UR-200 booster and before availability of Tsiklon. More...
  • UR-200 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 11A57 took the large third stage originally developed for the 8K78 interplanetary probe projects and applied it to increasing R-7 low earth orbit performance. It was primarily designed to launch the Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite, but was also used for the Voskhod manned flights and later for a variety of other Zenit series versions. More...
  • UR-200A Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Version that would boost the Raketoplan combat re-entry vehicle, which would use aerodynamic horizontal and vertical manoeuvring to penetrate enemy space defences and be practically invulnerable. More...
  • UR-200B Russian orbital missile. Global rocket version. Would place nuclear warhead into orbit, which would approach United States from any direction at low altitude and be deorbited with little warning time on on enemy targets. More...
  • N11 1963 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. A military variant of the N-11 which would use a powerful third stage, probably derived from the first stage of the 8K713 GR-1, to put up to 24 tonnes in low earth orbit. This was a competitor with Chelomei's UR-500K, which was selected instead for the heavy military payload mission. More...
  • N1 Nuclear A Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. A version of the N1 with a nuclear upper stage was studied by Korolev in 1963. It was concluded that the optimum design would allow a single N1 to launch a direct manned lunar landing and return. However for manned Mars missions, a nuclear electric engine was found to be much more efficient. This essentially killed further consideration of thermal nuclear upper stages within the bureau. More...
  • N1 Nuclear V-B Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. N1 with nuclear upper stage. This variant of the Type V nuclear engine used a very heavy radiation shield to protect the crew of any manned spacecraft payload. More...
  • N1 Nuclear AF Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. A variant of the first alternative considered in the 1963 nuclear N1 study. This was a 'high thrust' version of the Type A engine - apparently with higher propellant rate, lower specific impulse, and lower engine weight. Due to the very low density of the enormous liquid hydrogen upper stages, these immense vehicles would have been very ungainly (and had interesting stress problems during ascent!) More...
  • N1 Nuclear V Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. Second primary alternative considered for the 1963 nuclear N1 study. The immense liquid hydrogen tank of the second nuclear stage would have dwarfed the N1 first stage mounted below it in the shadows. The extremely poor thrust to weight ratio of the Type V engine design compared to that of the Type A remains unexplained. More...
  • RT-25 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Decree 316-157 of 4 April 1961 authorised development of a family of solid propellant launch vehicles utilising various combinations of three stages (the RT-2, RT-15, and RT-25). The RT-25 IRBM used the first and third stages of the RT-2 ICBM. M Yu Tsirulnikov at SKB-172 in Perm was responsible for development of the RT-25. However there was little interest in this variant and in 1963 further development was dropped. More...
  • Variant S Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version with clustered Nylon-S propellant motors. More...
  • Soyuz 11K55 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz B translunar rocket stage. More...
  • Soyuz 11K56 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Soyuz launcher envisioned for the cancelled Soyuz V tanker spacecraft. More...
  • N1 1962 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Final configuration of the N1 at the time of development go-ahead in 1962. The 75 tonne payload was to consist of the Raskat dispenser, which would have delivered 17 multi-megaton nuclear warheads, essentially destroying the United States in a single launch. The design also supported the OS-1 heavy space station and TMK manned Mars flyby requirements - as opposed to any manned lunar landing project. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...
  • N1 1969 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...
  • Kosmos 65S3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Prototype of light satellite launcher using as a first stage the Yangel R-14 (8K65) IRBM. The protoype system was launched eight times before production was handed over to the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Second generation space systems required injection of lighter but higher-altitude Meteor and other satellite payloads into sun-synchronous orbits. The 8A92M version was developed for this purpose. First use was the Meteor launch on 29 June 1977. More...
  • R-5 VAO Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Vertical launch version of the R-5 missile for geophysical experiments using the High-Altitude Automatic Geophysical Station nose cone originally flown on the R-11, equipped with a parachute recovery system. . Experiments carried in the gyro-stabilised payload included solar ultraviolet spectroscopes and x-ray pinhole cameras. More...
  • 218 Russian surface-to-air missile. The 218 was a version of the 217M with a nuclear warhead, which entered service in 1964. More...
  • Frog 5 Russian tactical ballistic rocket. Evidently redundant DOD designation. More...
  • Dolina Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Alternate silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M 2BL Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-2BL upper stage for placement of Oko early-warning satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,000 km. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M ML Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-ML upper stage for placement of communications satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,500 km. More...
  • Taran Russian anti-ballistic missile. Anti-ballistic missile design that was part of the basic capability of the UR-100. Studied in 1962-1964 but abandoned. More...
  • UR-100M SLBM Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100M designation was used for a naval version of the UR-100, developed by Chelomei in 1962-1964. This would fit in the Navy's D-8 launch system. It was rejected in favour of the R-29 from Makeyev, who became the Navy's traditional supplier of SLBM's. More...
  • Zyb Russian zero-G suborbital launch vehicle based on surplus R-27 SLBM. Suborbital; 17-24 min zero G. Payload volume 1.5 cu. M. Payload 650 kg to 1800 km or 1000 kg to 1000 km. More...
  • R-27 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1967. Correct NATO code may be Serb; Sawfly was competitor. Development completed 1968. More...
  • RT-15 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The RT-15 IRBM used the second and third stages if the RT-2 ICBM. After protracted development in 1961-1970 with a range of alternative self-propelled mobile launchers, limited numbers ('few' to 19) of two types of launchers were deployed in 1970. The various transporters tested created confusion in the West (with designations SS-14 Scapegoat and Scamp being applied). More...
  • UR-100 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100 lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history. It remained an enigma outside of intelligence circles in the West until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It allowed the Soviet Union to match, and then surpass the United States in strategic deterrent capability. As such it was Vladimir Chelomei's crowning legacy to his country. More...
  • UR-500 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original UR-500 two stage configuration was designed as a monster ICBM. It was flown four times from 1965, but never deployed as an operational missile. The design was succeeded by three and four stage versions for launching of large payloads into space. More...
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Vostok 11A510 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of R-7 launch vehicle with Vostok second stage and unknown third stage used only twice to launch prototype RORSATs. These satellites were originally to have been launched on the cancelled UR-200 launcher, and operational satellites used Tsyklon-2 launchers. More...
  • Gnom Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Gnom was a unique design which represented the most advanced work ever undertaken on an air-augmented missile capable of intercontinental ranges or orbital flight. Although cancelled in 1965 before flight tests could begin, Gnom was the closest the world aerospace engineering community ever came to fielding an orbital-capable launcher of less than half of the mass of conventional designs. More...
  • N-IF 1965 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IF would be the first follow-on version with increased performance. The first stage engines would be increased in thrust from an average of 150 tonnes to 175 tonnes, and those in the second stage from 150 tonnes to 200 tonnes. The second and third stages would be substantially enlarged. More...
  • N-IM 1965 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IM would mark an tremendous increase in vehicle size and was the ultimate pure liquid oxygen/kerosene version considered. The first stage engines would be increased to 250 tonnes thrust, without reducing reliability, through use of higher engine chamber pressure. Propellant load in the first stage would be almost doubled. Second stage engine thrust would increase to 280 tonnes each and the second and third stages again enlarged. More...
  • N-IUV-III Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IUV-III would replace the N-IU's conventional third stage with a LOX/LH2 cryogenic third stage. This was seen at the time as the first step in exploitation of cryogenic technology in Russia. Although pursued for some time, this large stage never went into development. The more modestly-sized Block R, Block S, and Block SR instead were put into development in the early 1970's. More...
  • N-IMV-II-III Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. N-IMV-II, III was the ultimate conventionally-powered N1 ever considered. It paired the monster N-1M first stage with new cryogenic second and third stages. Both liftoff thrust and payload of this vehicle would have been double that of the American Saturn V. More...
  • N-IMV-III Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Then N-IMV-III would add the Block V-III cryogenic third stage to the first and second stages of the N-IM. This provided the second-highest performance of the variations considered and would certainly have been cheaper than the N-IFV-II, III. More...
  • N-IFV-III Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Then N-IFV-III would add the Block V-III cryogenic third stage to the first and second stages of the N-IF. More...
  • N-IFV-II-III Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. N-IFV-II, III would use only the first stage from the N-1F, and use new cryogenic second and third stages. This cryogenic second stage seems not to have been pursued beyond the study phase. More...
  • N-IU Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N-IU would be the initial production version of the N1 following the mad rush to make the lunar landings. It would have essentially the same payload but would be substantially re-engineered for sharply improved reliability, most notably with autonomously operating engines. It is interesting to note that four years before the disastorous first flight Korolev already foresaw the potential engine problems that would be the downfall of the project. More...
  • RT-20 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. First and third stages of SS-13. Cancelled after 8 test firings. Claims to have been deployed briefly. More...
  • Temp-S.2M Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Temp-S.2M was the first strategic rocket designed by A D Nadiradze at NII-1. The design was abandoned when weight growth made it too heavy for the planned mobile transport. More...
  • RT-2 Development of the RT-2, the Soviet Union's first solid propellant ICBM, was undertaken by Sergei Korolev and his successor from 1961-1968. It was a huge technical challenge, involving technology in which the Russians had no prior experience. The high-priority RT-2 preoccupied Korolev and his team throughout the period of the moon race, and could be considered a factor in the loss of that race to the Americans. In the end only sixty were deployed, but these provided the technical basis for Russian ballistic missiles of the 1980's and beyond. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Initial serial production version was the Kosmos-3, built at the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. Flew only four times, with two failures, before being succeeded by the modernized production version under the responsibility of NPO Polyot. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standardized launch vehicle designed to replace a proliferation of earlier models (8K72, 8A91, 8K74, 8K78, 11A57). Designed initially to support launch of the Soyuz complex (7K manned, 9K rocket stage, and 11k tanker) and Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite. Later 'U' model extended to cover a range of follow-on satellites. Compared to 11A57, the telemetry system was reduced in mass to no more than 150 kg, and engines were cherry-picked for the vehicle core to ensure that specific impulse was no less than 252 seconds at sea level, 315 in vacuum. More...
  • RT-21 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Project work began in 1963 on this three-stage solid propellant ICBM. Five train-launched variants were studied, as well as a silo-launched version. Studies were completed in 1966 but it was decided not to proceed with the concept. More...
  • Soyuz 11A514 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Soyuz launcher with increased payload, designed to launch Soyuz R military reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled along with the Soyuz R project in 1966. Unknown differences to standard Soyuz to reach payload requirement of circa 6700 kg to 65 degree orbit. More...
  • Proton-K/D Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was originally designed to send manned circumlunar spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Guidance to the Block D stage must be supplied by spacecraft. The design was proposed on 8 September 1965 by Korolev as an alternate to Chelomei's LK-1 circumlunar mission. It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon. The Korolev design was selected, and first flight came on 10 March 1967. The crash lunar program led to a poor launch record. Following a protracted ten year test period, the booster finally reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
  • N1M Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1M was to be the first Soviet launch vehicle to use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen high energy cyrogenic propellants. It was designed to launch payloads in support of the LEK lunar expeditions (two cosmonauts on the surface), the DLB (long-duration lunar base), and heavy unmanned satellites into geosynchronous and interplanetary trajectories. As originally conceived, the advanced propellants would be used in all upper stages. However due to delays in Kuznetsov development of a 200 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engine, the final version used an N1 first stage, with a Block V-III second stage, and Blocks S and R third and fourth stages. More...
  • S-225 Russian anti-ballistic missile. Anti-ballistic missile system developed in parallel with the A-35, but not put into production. More...
  • R-70 Standard Russian tactical artillery rocket. More...
  • Proton-K Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...
  • RM-217M Russian target drone. Retired 217M missiles converted to use as target drones were given this designation and used in a large number of versions (code named Zvezda-1, -2, -3, -4, -4MV, -5, -5F). More...
  • UR-700 / RD-350 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. UR-700 with high energy upper stage consisting of 3 x RD-350 LF2/LH2 engines with a total thrust of 450 tonnes. Usable third stage propellant 350 tonnes, payload increased to 215 tonnes More...
  • UR-700 / RO-31 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. UR-700 with high energy upper stage consisting of 7 x RO-31 Nuclear A engines using LH2+Methane propellants with a total thrust of 280 tonnes. Usable third stage propellant 196 tonnes, payload increased to 230 to 250 tonnes More...
  • UR-700 / 11D54 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. UR-700 with high energy upper stage consisting of 9 x RD-54 / 11D54 Lox/LH2 engines with a total thrust of 360 tonnes. Usable third stage propellant 300 tonnes, payload to a 200 km, 51.5 degree orbit increased to 185 tonnes More...
  • UR-100K Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100K was a version of the 8K84M with further improvements in accuracy and capable of delivering three separate (but not independently targeted) re-entry vehicles. More...
  • UR-900 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1962 Vladimir Chelomei proposed a family of modular launch vehicles. In January 1969, Chelomei was proposing the UR-900 for the Mars expedition. A garbled description of this launch vehicle appears in Chertok's memoirs. This would seem to be a version of the UR-700 moon rocket using 15 RD-270 modules in the first and second stages in place as opposed to the nine modules of the UR-700. The third and fourth stages were derived from the UR-500. The booster could deliver 240 tonnes to low earth orbit. More...
  • Vysota Russian intercontinental ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle based on R-29D SLBM. Suborbital; 30-55 min zero G. Payload volume 0.7 cu. m. Payload 115 kg to 5200 km or 1150 kg to 200 km. Liftoff mass 33 tonnes. More...
  • R-29 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile (range 7800 km). First flight 1969. Development completed 1973. The variants of this missile were given three different DoD designations over the years (SS-N-8, SS-N-18, and SS-N-23). More...
  • UR-700M Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1969 the Soviet Union began project Aelita, studying the best method to beat the Americans in landing a man on Mars. Chelomei's team reached the conclusion that a Mars expedition would best be launched by an immense vehicle would allow their MK-700 Mars spacecraft to be orbited in two launches. The proposed UR-700M launch vehicle had a gross lift-off mass of 16,000 metric tons and could deliver 750 metric tons to orbit. By 1972 the Nixon administration had cancelled NASA's plans for manned Mars missions. Perhaps not coincidentally, a Soviet expert commission the same year concluded that the Mars project - and the UR-700M booster - were beyond the technical and economical capabilities of the Soviet Union and should be shelved indefinitely. More...
  • RT-2P Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of the improved RT-2P version of the basic missile was authorised by decree 1004-365 of 18 December 1968. The overriding concern was imminent deployment by the Americans of the Safeguard anti-ballistic missile system, and the need for the missile to have the necessary countermeasures to defeat those defences. More...
  • 9K76 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. More...
  • RT-22 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The RT-22 was a follow-on study to the RT-21 for a train-launched solid-propellant ICBM. It reached the stage of an advanced project in 1969. The three stage rocket would have a total mass of 80 tonnes including its transport container. A train would have a total of 22 cars, six of which would be missile launchers. More...
  • S-300F Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 5V55RM missile. Maximum target speed 4680 kph. More...
  • Temp-S The Temp-S was the first solid propellant tactical guided missile deployed in the USSR. It was designed by A D Nadiradze at NII-1 and formed the basis of subsequent designs leading to current modern Russian ICBM's. More...
  • UR-100M Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The 8K84M was an improved version of the UR-100 with an improved empty mass fraction, a new guidance system, countermeasures capability, and post-boost manoeuvrability to defeat enemy anti-ballistic missile systems. More...
  • MR-25 Russian sounding rocket. Version of the MR-20. More...
  • N1F Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1F would have been the definitive flight version of the N1, incorporating all changes resulting from the four flight tests of the vehicle, including the new Kuznetsov engines and 10% greater liftoff mass by using superchilled propellants in all stages. N1 8L would have been the first N1F configuration flight, with launch planned in the third quarter of 1975 at the time the project was cancelled. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511L Russian orbital launch vehicle. 11A511 with reinforced second stage, large fairing for earth orbit test of LK lunar lander. More...
  • 15Zh45 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The missile was given a different DOD mod designation according to the number of warheads - Mod 1 for the single warhead version, Mod 2 for the triple warhead version. More...
  • S-300 Russian surface-to-air missile. Third generation family of surface-to-air missiles developed in the 1970's based on new principles. The same launch system could use either 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles, of both mid- and long-range types. More...
  • UR-100U Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100U was a development of the UR-100K with improved shock isolation in the silo. More...
  • A-350R Russian anti-ballistic missile. Radiation-hardened version of the A-350. More...
  • N1F Sr Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The final more modest version of the N1F replaced the fourth and fifth stages of the N1 with the single liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen Block Sr stage. Development of the Sr stage was from May 1971 until cancellation of the N1 project in May 1974. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of the Soyuz-M began in 1967 to launch the 6.6 metric ton Soyuz 7K-VI manned military spacecraft into a 65-degree inclination earth orbit. The spacecraft was cancelled, but development continued, and eight were Soyuz-M's were built and used to launch Zenit-4MT reconnaissance satellites in 1971-1976. The differences compared to the Soyuz-U are not known, and what (if anything) differentiated these Zenit-4MT missions from others is also a mystery. More...
  • UR-100N Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • Temp-2S Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. World's first operational mobile ICBM. Deployed in greaty secrecy in 1976-1987 contrary to the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty. More...
  • R-27K Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight October 1972. More...
  • Vertikal-4 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soviet sounding rocket, based on the R-14 IRBM. More...
  • K65M-R Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...
  • Dal Russian surface-to-air missile. Trials of this long range surface-to-air missile were conducted in 1960-1963 but the project was cancelled after the system failed to down a single target. V-200 missiles were installed in the Dal installations built around Leningrad for the failed missile. In a bit of disinformation, the V-400 was paraded in Moscow, and US intelligence, thinking it was operational, applied the SA-5 designation. The SA-5 code was transferred to the V-200 after the La-400 was cancelled. More...
  • Kub Mid-range integral rocket-ramjet Russian surface-to-air missile, widely deployed with Soviet forces and exported to 22 countries. The missile provided one of the great technological surprises in warfare in the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War. More...
  • N1F-L3M Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The N1M was found to be too ambitious. The N1F of 1968 was instead pencilled in to be the first Soviet launch vehicle to use liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen high energy cyrogenic propellants. The N1F would have only used the Block S and Block R fourth and fifth stages in place of the N1's Block G and Block D. More...
  • R-27U Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Development completed 1973. More...
  • RT-2M Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. The RT-2M was a modernised RT-2, developed under Savodskiy at Korolev's bureau beginning in the late 1960's in parallel with the RT-2P and using alternate new engines. This increased both range and payload compared to the RT-20. However the RT-2P was selected for further development. More...
  • Proton-K/DM Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original four stage Proton / Block D configuration was used until 1976, at which time it was replaced by a modernised version equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in geosynchronous orbit and its own self-contained guidance unit. This was accepted into military service in 1978 with the first Raduga launch. The stage was first developed for launch of gesynchronous military communications and early warning satellites (Raduga, Ekran, Gorizont, Potok, SPRN). Its later versions continue in use for launch of MEO and geosynchronous comsats, and was Russia's most successful commercial launcher. More...
  • RLA Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The RLA (Rocket Flight Apparatus) family of modular, lox/kerosene powered vehicles were designed by Glushko in 1974 to meet the Soviet military's third-generation space launch requirements. The approach was rejected by 1976 in favor of the Zenit/Energia family using both lox/kerosene amd lox/hydrogen stages. More...
  • Pioner Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Mobile solid propellant intermediate range multiple warhead ballistic missile. Seen as an enormous threat to NATO. 405 launchers deployed by 1987 when the missile was banned by the INF Treaty. More...
  • R-31 Russian submarine launched ballistic missile. First Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missile to reach production using solid propellants. Deployed from 1980, but withdrawn in 1990 under the terms of the SALT-2 Treaty. More...
  • 9K714B Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. First flight 1974. SS-21 is Tochka SRBM mounted on a ZIL-375 transporter, while SS-23 is the same missile on an 8-wheeled TEL. More...
  • Albatros Unique Russian space shuttle design of 1974. Hydrofoil-launched, winged recoverable first and second stages. Hydrofoil would have been propelled to launch speed by the launch vehicles rocket engines, using a 200 tonne fuel store in the hydrofoil. Advantages: launch from the Caspian Sea into a variety of orbital inclinations, variations in launch track possible to meet range safety requirements. Proposal of Alexeyev/Sukhoi OKBs. More...
  • N1-MOK Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Ultimate derivative of N1. Single-stage-to-orbit vehicle based on N1 Block A. Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 450 km / 97.5 degree MKBS orbit. Briefly described in RKK Energia official history and in some detail in Peter James'
      1974
    book Soviet Conquest from Space! More...
  • RLA-120 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Medium booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 30 metric tons using the RLA-120 core and a 150 metric ton upper stage. Glushko proposed that the RLA-120 would boost reconnaissance satellites and modules of his POS Permanent Orbital Station into a sun synchronous orbit beginning in 1979. The government rejected the RLA concept, but this design led directly to the successful Zenit-2 booster. More...
  • RLA-150 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Super-booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 250 metric tons using six modules as the first stage and the RLA-120 core. Glushko proposed that the booster could launch a Soviet manned Mars landing by 1983. The government rejected the RLA concept, but it did lead to the Energia booster of the 1980's. More...
  • RLA-135 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Heavyweight booster concept with a payload to low earth orbit of 100 metric tons using two modules as the first stage and the RLA-120 core. Glushko proposed that the booster could launch a Soviet manned lunar landing by 1981. The government rejected the RLA concept, but it did lead to the Zenit-2 and Energia boosters of the 1980's. More...
  • UR-500MK Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1975 Chelomei proposed this version of the Proton powered by lox/kerosene NK-33 engines developed for the cancelled N1 moon booster. This would give the Soviet Union an equivalent to the all-new Zenit-2 booster being developed by Glushko, but at a fraction of the time and expense through the use of existing components. The proposal had no chance politically, and was never seriously considered. More...
  • R-29R Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1975; Nov 1978 first sub launch. Developed 1973-1977. 3 MIRV More...
  • Volna SLV Russian launch vehicle based on surplus R-29RL submarine launched ballistic missiles. Suborbital and orbital versions. Payload volume 1.3 cu. M. Payload 115 kg to 3000 km or 1250 kg to 200 km altitude suborbital trajectories, or 120 (260 lb) kg to a 200 km orbit. Liftoff mass 34 tonnes. More...
  • M-100B Russian sounding rocket. Model calibrated with Western sounding rockets and part of the World Meteorological Network. 1,730 launched from 1976-01-07 to 1990-12-. More...
  • MMR-06 Russian sounding rocket. Soviet solid propellant sounding rocket, capable of lofting 5 to 11 kg to 60 km altitude. Launch mass 130 kg, 9 seconds burn time. Nose ejects at apogee. Flown in both conical nose and boosted dart configurations. More...
  • Proton-K/D-1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This derivative of the original four stage Block D / 11S824 version of the Proton was used from 1978 to launch Lavochkin OKB planetary probes (Mars, Venera) and high earth orbit astronomical observatories (Astron, Granat). Guidance to the Block D-1 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. Equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in high orbits or planetary trajectories. More...
  • M-100A Russian sounding rocket. Special modification, only fired twice on 1976-11-10 and 1976-12-22. More...
  • R-29D Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1976. Development completed 1974 according to Makeyev. More...
  • Tochka Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical short-range ballistic missile, deployed from 1976. More...
  • UR-100NU Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of an improved version of the UR-100N was authorised on 16 April 1976 (UR-100NU; U = UTTKh = 'Improved Technical-Tactical Characteristics). Viktor Bugaisk at TsKBM headed the engineering team. The UR-100NU was to have a new warhead dispenser bus and improved guidance system by Vladimir Sergeyev of NII-692. The new system allowed up to six pre-programmed targets to be entered, any one of which could be selected at launch. This allowed deployment of better countermeasures and a considerable improvement in accuracy. More...
  • R-29K Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1977. More...
  • System 49 Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The Spiral project was not cancelled with the decision to proceed with the large Buran spaceplane. Instead flight test of the orbiter continued but the launcher design was rethought. The ambitious Mach 4 air-breathing first stage was abandoned. Instead the rocket stages and the manned Spiral orbiter were mounted on the back of an An-124 subsonic transport. This concept would evolve through the Bizan concept to the MAKS of the 1980's, which reached the hardware development stage. More...
  • UR-530 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Design for an upgraded Proton, replacing the first stage with a cluster of six modular stages derived from the UR-100N first stage. Detail design to the draft project stage was undertaken in 1976-1977 but the much larger and more expensive Energia/Buran system was selected for development instead. More...
  • A-35M Russian anti-ballistic missile. Improved version of the A-35 with radiation-hardened missiles and command centres, improved radars, and capability against tactical missiles fired from Europe against Moscow. Went into operation in 1978. More...
  • MR-20 Russian sounding rocket. Upper atmosphere Soviet sounding rocket, improved version of MR-12, but capable of lofting 135 kg to 250 km altitude. More...
  • A-135 Two-tier Russian anti-ballistic missile system for the defence of Moscow, with both endoatmospheric and exoatmospheric interceptor missiles. After protracted development, the system was said to have gone into operation in 1995. More...
  • 51T6 Russian anti-ballistic missile. Exo-atmospheric interceptor component of A-135 ABM system. More...
  • 3M20 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1979. Four unsuccessful tests in 1980, two successful in 1981. Development completed 1983. SLBM on Typhoon subs. More...
  • R-39 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. SLBM developed for use on Typhoon subs. More...
  • Rif Russian orbital launch vehicle. R-39 SLBM adapted for use as suborbital test vehicle or orbital launch vehicle. More...
  • K65M-RB Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M. More...
  • 15Zh53 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of a modernised version of the 15Zh45 IRBM began at the beginning of the 1980's. Flight trials either began in 1985 or were cancelled prior to their planned start in 1986. In 1988 the project was cancelled following the signature of the INF Treaty that banned intermediate range ballistic missiles. The missile (known to the Pentagon as both the SS-20 Mod 3 and the SS-28) would have had a range of 7500 km with a single warhead, or 5500 km with multiple warheads.

    Compared to the Pioner-U it used a larger launch container, a larger MIRV bus with greater accuracy. The KB Minsk Auto Factory developed a lighter, more comfortable crew cabin - important on constant field deployments. More...

  • R-39M Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Improved version. More...
  • 9M83 Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; inner-layer defense. More...
  • 9M83M Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; inner-layer defense. More...
  • 48N6E Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved version of the 48N6E for the S-400 system, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles at incoming speeds of 4.8 km/s or hypersonic targets flying at 3.0 km/s at 150 km altitude. More...
  • S-300P Russian surface-to-air missile. Original version of the S-300 system for the PVO Air Defence Force using the 5V55R missile More...
  • V-880M Russian surface-to-air missile. Fakel-designed missile; not widely exported until 1980s. More...
  • Topol Russian containerised all-solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos. More...
  • 15Zh45UTTKh Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The UTTKh model featured improved accuracy, range, and MIRV dispersal spread. It was not given a separate DoD 'mod' number. More...
  • 9M82 Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; outer-layer defense. More...
  • 9M96 Russian surface-to-air missile. Improved, longer range version of 9M96 for the S-400. Four 9M96's can be housed in a single 48N6E launch container position. More...
  • 9K79 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. SS-21 is Tochka SRBM mounted on a ZIL-375 transporter, while SS-23 is the same missile on an 8-wheeled TEL. More...
  • Bizan-T Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from catamaran heavy-life aircraft, predecessor of later Gerakl / Molniya-1000 design. 900 tonnes takeoff mass. Release conditions: Suspended load, Mach 0.7 at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. More...
  • R-29RL Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1981. SLBM on Delta 2 subs. 7 MIRV More...
  • System 49-M Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. The 49M was an application of the system 49 design concept, but with a larger carrier aircraft. The system would have a 770 tonne gross takeoff mass. The orbiter/rocket stage combination weighted 370 tonnes, with the orbiter mass being 28 tonnes in orbit, including a 9 tonne payload in a 8.0 m x 3.3 m diameter payload bay. The tripropellant single rocket stage was equipped 1 x NK-43 / 11D112 engine burning Lox/Kerosene and 2 x RD-57 / 11D57 engines burning Lox/LH2. The orbiter could have one or two crew, and was designed for 100 reuses. Development costs for the new heavy lift aircraft and larger orbiter would be too high, and the design was abandoned in favour of the Bizan concept. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted. More...
  • Bizan Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Bizan was the 1982 Soviet air-launched spaceplane design iteration between the '49' and 'MAKS' concepts. Like the '49', it was air-launched from atop an An-124 transport. Unlike the '49', it was a single-stage-to-orbit tripropellant concept. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 DM1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861 with adapter for Lockheed Martin AS 4000 bus spacecraft. More...
  • Shtil Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM. More...
  • 3M65 First flight 1983. As of March 1986 only Russian SLBM in production. More...
  • 9K79-1 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Improved version. More...
  • 9K76B Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Initially designated SS-22 by DoD; redesignated SS-12M Scaleboard B More...
  • Kvant Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Kvant was the Soviet third generation light launch vehicle planned to replace the Kosmos and Tsyklon series. Unlike the vehicles it was to replace, the booster used non-toxic 'environmentally friendly' liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. Although such a light launch vehicle was on Space Forces wish lists since 1972, full scale development was again deferred due to the crash effort on Soviet 'star wars' in the second half of the 1980's. RKK Energia marketed the vehicle design from 1994 to 2001, but could find no source for development funds. More...
  • MAKS Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988 and consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled in 1991. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. A 9,000 kgf experimental engine with 19 injectors was tested. There were 50 test burns proving the separate modes and a smooth switch between them. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990's that development funding could be found. However this did not materialise. MAKS was to have flown by 1998. More...
  • Yakovlev MVKS Russian SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space. It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaux submitted designs. No details of the Yakovlev design have become available to date. More...
  • Tu-2000 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This Soviet equivalent to the US X-30 single-stage-to-orbit scramjet aerospaceplane began development in1986. Three versions were planned: a Mach 6 test vehicle, under construction at cancellation of the program in 1992; a Mach 6 intercontinental bomber; and a single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. More...
  • VKS Russian SSTO winged orbital launch vehicle. RKK Energia's proposed solution to the Soviet government's MVKS requirement for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable aerospaceplane system was this 700-metric-ton, turboramjet/rocket mised propulsion design. Work began in 1986 but abandoned when the Soviet Union collapsed. More...
  • Skorost Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. Soviet medium range ballistic missile, flown once but cancelled after being outlowed by INF Treaty. More...
  • Proton-K/D-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars. Guidance to the Block D-2 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. More...
  • MAKS-M Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable unpiloted verion of MAKS, similar to Interim HOTOL. Air launched from An-225. MAKS was found to have superior payload, lower non-recurring cost and technical risk. MAKS-M would require new materials. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 7.0 m long x 4.6 m diameter. More...
  • MAKS-T Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. All cargo version of MAKS. Air-launched heavy-lift launcher would use an expendable second stage with a payload container. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. Payload bay 13.0 m long x 5.0 m diameter. More...
  • Meteorit Russian intermediate range cruise missile. Development of three variants of this cruise missile was authorised on 9 December 1976. The Meteorit-M strategic version would be deployed from 667M submarines with 12 launchers per boat. The air-launched Meteorit-A would be launched from Tu-95 bombers. The land-based version was designated Meteorit-N. The missile was also sometimes referred to by the code-name Grom. The first test launch, on 20 May 1980, was unsuccessful, as were the next three attempts. The first successful flight did not come until 16 December 1981. The first launch from a 667M submarine took place on 26 December 1983 from the Barents Sea. However all variants were cancelled in 1988 as a result of the INF Treaty. More...
  • VKS-ZhRD+GPVRD Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Horizontal takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle. Mixed rocket / scramjet propulsion. More...
  • VKS-RTO+ZhRD Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Horizontal takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, launch vehicle. Mixed rocket / ramjet propulsion. More...
  • VKS-D Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from An-225. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. More...
  • VKS-G Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from Kholod Mach 5 mother ship. This was a Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Spiral 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s. It was concluded that the extensive development would be required for the combination-cycle engines, resulting in an extended development schedule and high technical risk. The more conservative subsonic-launched MAKS was chosen instead. More...
  • VKS-O Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff, ballistic re-entry, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered, reusable launch vehicle. 550 tonne and 770 tonne gross lift-off mass versions considered. More...
  • VKS-R Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled launched, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/LH2 launch vehicle. 290 tonne and 550 tonne versions considered. Studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s. The wheeled sled would get the vehicle up to a velocity where the wings could provide lift, allowing lower-thrust engines to be used than in a vertical-takeoff design. This saved weight, but velocity losses during lifting flight to orbit almost cancelled the advantage, resulting in the approach being unattractive in comparison to pure vertical-launch or air-launch designs. More...
  • VKS-V Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takeoff, delta winged, single-stage-to-orbit, Lox/Kerosene/LH2 tripropellant rocket engine powered vehicle. 550 tonne gross liftoff mass and 1000 tonne versions studied. Analogous to NASA's Shuttle-2 and RKK Energia's VKS. More...
  • Mikoyan 301 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. The 301 was designed as a military bomber, with a Mach 4 / 4,250 km/hr cruise capability at 25,000 to 27,000 m altitude. It was equipped with two turboramjets, had a gross takeoff mass of 80 tonnes, of which half was fuel. It may be related to the first stage of the MIGAKS two-stage vehicle. More...
  • Rokot Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle, consisting of decommissioned UR-100N ICBMs with a Briz-KM upper stage. More...
  • Rokot K Russian all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Version with Briz-K upper stage. More...
  • S-300PMU-1 48N6E Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for the land forces and export using the advanced 48N6E missile, which doubled the range and greatly increased the effectiveness of the system. Alternatively any of the earlier model 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles could be loaded. More...
  • S-300FM Russian surface-to-air missile. Naval version of the S-300 system using the 48N6Ye missile. Maximum target speed 10,000 kph. More...
  • Antey-2500 Russian surface-to-air missile. The Antey-2500 was a new generation of the S-300V, capable of shooting down re-entry vehicles of IRBMs of up to 2500 km range. More...
  • Albatros ICBM Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Albatros was an ICBM designed by NPO Mashinostroeniya under Chief Designer Gerbert Yefremov according to a decree of 9 February 1987. Like the Yuzhnoye Universal ICBM, it was to be built in enormous numbers in order to defeat any deployment by America of mass missile defences under their Strategic Defence Initiative. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the abandonment of SDI by the United States, the missile was cancelled. More...
  • P-750 Russian intermediate range cruise missile. IOC in 1988 est 1992+. SS-C-5 GLCM banned in INF. More...
  • RSS-40 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. SS-18 Replacement. The designation SS-X-26 was originally assigned to the RSS-40, but the number was reused for another missile after its cancellation. More...
  • MERA Russian sounding rocket. Two-stage small meteorological sounding rocket, consisting of two identical solid rocket motors in tandem, stabilised by fins, topped by a payload dart with instrumentation. More...
  • VKS-DM Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Air launched from Gerakl / NPO Molniya-1000 heavy-lift aircraft, catamaran layout, twin-fuselage triplane. Release conditions: Suspended load, 450,000 kg, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s. More...
  • Burlak Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Burlak air-launched satellite launcher was proposed in 1992 and studied by Germany in 1992-1994. Evidently based on secret anti-satellite missile. Air launched from Tu-160 bomber, released at 13,500 m altitude and Mach 1.7. Development estimated to cost only DM 50 million, but not proceeded with. Burlak/Diana variant would have been launched from Concorde. More...
  • Start-1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned ICBM's. Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 47 tonnes. More...
  • 17K-AM A small two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle proposed for the Russian Air Force in 1993. More...
  • ASA Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched airbreathing single stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia. More...
  • Ajax Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched, air-breathing, single stage to orbit, horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing launch vehicle proposed in Russia. More...
  • Herakles Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle design by NPO Molniya / TsAGI that would utilize air launch from a giant cargo aircraft capable of lifting 900 tonne payloads. The single stage to orbit spaceplane would be released at subsonic velocity. More...
  • LII Spaceplane Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. LII (the Gromov Experimental Flight Institute at Zhukoskiy) designed several alternate spaceplane concepts for air-launch from the An-225 transport. These were similar to the various MAKS concepts. More...
  • MiG-2000 Russian sled-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. Sled-launched single stage to orbit vehicle with air-breathing propulsion to Mach 5 (subsonic combustion). The sled would accelerate the launch vehicle to Mach 0.8. Propellants wer slush hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The vehicle would have a 3000 km cross-range on re-entry. More...
  • MAKS-D Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. NPO Molniya, Antonov, and TsAGI proposed a spaceplane demonstrator project to the European Space Agency in 1993-1994 under the RADEM project. This would be a scaled-back version of the cancelled MAKS spaceplane using existing rocket engines. An unmanned prototype of the MAKS would be fitted out with RD-120 Lox/Kerosene engines. Launched from atop the An-225, the MAKS-D would reach an altitude of 80 to 90 km and a speed of Mach 14 to 15. More...
  • MIGAKS Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Turbojet/ramjet-powered two stage to orbit horizontal takeoff / horizontal landing vehicle. Mach 6 stage separation. The orbiter had a 2000 km cross-range capability with landing on airfields with runways of 3500 m length or more. More...
  • Priboy/Surf Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle using the 1st stage of the SS-N-20 SLBM topped by an SS-N-23 SLBM (RSM-52+RSM-54). Liftoff mass 104 tonnes. Can be launched from stationary or mobile platforms. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on. More...
  • Angara 1.1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The initial flight version would be the Angara 1.1, featuring a single URM core module with the existing Briz upper stage. Payload would be 2.0 tonnes to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). Other vehicle variants were numbered according to the number of URM's. More...
  • Topol M All-Russian solid propellant ICBM set to replace all older models in the first decade of the 21st Century. Designed for mobile deployment on 8-axis transport-launcher RT-2M2/SS-X-29), or placement in existing UR-100N and R-36M silos (RT-2M1/SS-X-27). More...
  • Kvant-1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. From 1996-2001 RSC Energia carried out design studies on the Kvant-1 light launch vehicle with a low earth orbit payload capability of 1.8 to 3.0 metric tons. Market surveys seemed to indicate a need for a new launch vehicle of this class but development funding was not forthcoming. More...
  • Kosmos 65MP Russian orbital launch vehicle. Adaptation of 11K65M launcher for suborbital and single orbit test of subscale prototypes of Spiral and Buran manned spaceplanes (BOR-4 and BOR-5). More...
  • Riksha Russian orbital launch vehicle. New design launch vehicle based on SLBM technology. More...
  • Start Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle based on decommissioned SS-25 ICBM's (differs from ICBM/basic Start-1 in having second stage used twice, in tandem, for increased payload). Launched from mobile transporter. Liftoff mass 60 tonnes. More...
  • Iskander New Russian tactical ballistic missile, conceived as a follow-on to the Scud. First fired on 25 October 1995. More...
  • S-300PMU-2 Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300 system for export using the advanced 48N6E2 missile, capable of shooting down tactical ballistic missiles. More...
  • Grom Russian orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x R-39 St 1 + 1 x R-39 St 2 + 1 x R-39 St 3 More...
  • Proton-K/17S40 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Proton using Block DM-5 / 17S40 fourth stage. This stage has a new payload adapter for use with heavier paylods launched into sub-synchronous orbits. Used for launch of Arkon reconnaisance satellite. More...
  • Norma Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Semi-reusable vertically launched two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The flight profile featured a reusable flyback booster launched from a modular launch platform, an expendable second stage with a reusable orbiter that would have landed vertically. Development cost estimated at $13 billion. More...
  • Orel V7 RSSLV-2 Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Version with Lox/LH2 propellants. More...
  • Orel V2 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. This preferred near-term configuration was a semi-reusable vertical takeoff/horizontal landing two stage launch vehicle. It would use a flyback booster, expendable second stage, and a small manned spaceplane. This was preferred to the Orel V3, which was essentially the earlier MMKS/OK-M1 system with a flyback booster, expendable core tank, and small spaceplane with recoverable main engines. More...
  • Orel V7 RSSLV-3 Russian VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff / vertical landing single stage to orbit. Concept abandoned in favor of Orel V6 by 1998 due to engine reliability concerns. Tripropellant Lox/Kerosene (RG-1)/LH2 version. More...
  • Orel V4 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Fully reusable vertical takeoff, horizontal landing two stage to orbit concept. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6. More...
  • Orel V5 Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertically launched two stage to orbit concept consisting of horizontal landing booster, vertical landing orbiter. Abandoned in favor of Orel V6. More...
  • Orel V6 Fully reusable vertical takeoff / horizontal landing single stage to orbit launch vehicle. The preferred long-term alternative of the Russian Orel launch vehicle study of the 1990's. More...
  • Proton-K/17S40 DM2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 17S40 with payload adapter for deployment of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. More...
  • Yamal Version of the Soyuz proposed with an Ariane 4 or Russian Lox/LH2 upper stage. More...
  • Shtil-1/1N Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM. More...
  • Angara 4A Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 4A had the same configuration as the Angara 1.2 but with a winged, recoverable URM. The booster would have 158 tonnes lift-off mass, and could place a 2.7 tonne payload into a 200 km / 63 deg orbit). The winged URM would have two jet engines and fly back to the Mirniy airfield at Plesetsk for recovery. One problem was that some abort profiles would require overflight of Norway. First flight of this version was predicted for 2003 in 1998. More...
  • Proton/Briz K/M Earlier 8K82K model Proton, but Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaced the Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • 53T6 Russian anti-ballistic missile. Endo-atmospheric interceptor component of A-135 ABM system. More...
  • Angara The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change. More...
  • Orel In the late 1990's the Russian space industry undertook the Orel programme to evaluate technology for future launch vehicles. The goals included evaluation of possible concepts for a future Russian launcher, reusable launch vehicle key technology research and analysis of "X-vehicle" flight demonstrators for technology validation. More...
  • S-300PMU-1 9M96 Russian surface-to-air missile. New version of S-300PMU with 9M96E and 9M96E2 rockets. The system could also fire earlier-model 5V55 or 48N6 series rockets. More...
  • Shtil-2/2N Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM with a special shroud. Liftoff mass 40 tonnes. Stationary launch platform. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Ikar Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Ikar upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for the Kozlov Yantar series of spy satellites. More...
  • 11A513 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. FOBS version. Warhead accuracy 5 km along orbital track, 3 km to either side. OKB-1 estimated warhead would be detected by Western defences only two minutes before it detonated. The designation SS-10 was assigned by the DOD to the UR-200, but was commonly and erroneously applied to the GR-1, which was shown publicly after its cancellation. More...
  • 9M82M Russian surface-to-air missile. Anti-tactical ballistic missile; outer-layer defense. More...
  • Angara 1.2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. First planned upgrade of Angara, the 1.2 version would use a new Block I lox/kerosene upper stage. Payload would be 3.7 tonnes to a 200 km / 63 deg orbit. More...
  • Angara 5A Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 5A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use four universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters surrounding one URM in the core, with a Lox/LH2 upper stage. It could put 5.0 tonnes into geosynchronous orbit, or 8.0 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit. More...
  • Angara 3A Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Angara 3A was a proposed variant of the modular launch vehicle that would use two universal rocket modules (URM's) as boosters flanking one URM in the core, with a Lox/Kerosene upper stage. It could put 14 tonnes into low earth orbit More...
  • Molniya 8K78M SOL Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok SO-L upper stage for placement of Prognoz-class satellites in orbits with apogees of 200,000 km. More...
  • MiG-31NS Russian air-launched orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle air-launched from a MiG-31 fighter. More...
  • Rif-MA Russian orbital launch vehicle. Orbital launch vehicle derived from R-39 SLBM. Air-launched from An-124. Ignition mass 79 tonnes. More...
  • Shtil-3A Russian intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle. Proposed four-stage air-launched orbital launch vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM. Ignition mass 46 tonnes. More...
  • Soyuz M Rus project was to result in first major propulsion upgrade to R-7 family in forty years, using first stage engines derived from those developed for Zenit second stage to boost performance. It would have permitted launches from Plesetsk with same or greater payload than launch of standard Soyuz-U from Baikonur, permitting move of more launch operations back onto Russian territory. Instead the more modest Soyuz ST / Soyuz FG upgrades were made. More...
  • Shtil-3N Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Proposed orbital launch vehicle based on R-29RM SLBM with new third and additional fourth stages. Stationary launch. Liftoff mass 46 tonnes. More...
  • Sodruzhestvo Joint Kazakh-Russian-Ukrainian project announced in 2000 to produce an 'ecologically safe' replacement of the Proton booster that would use Energia launch facilities at Baikonur. No details available, and no more heard about it. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Fregat Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Fregat upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for Lavochkin interplanetary probes. More...
  • S-300PMU-1 5V55U Russian surface-to-air missile. Version of the S-300PMU system for export using the 5V55U missile. More...
  • Variant B Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Version with clustered Nylon-B propellant motors. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Soyuz FG Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST. More...
  • Soyuz-U Russian orbital launch vehicle. Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511U. More...
  • R-29RM Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. SLBM on Delta 4 subs. First flight June 1983. Developed 1973-1986. More...
  • Strela Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Launch vehicle by NPO MASH based on UR-100N's decommissioned from Ukrainian missile fields. 106 tonne liftoff mass. More...
  • Sineva Russian liquid-propellant submarine-launched ballistic missile. First aunch 2004.02.18; entered service 2007. Competitor was the solid-propellant Bulava. More...
  • Bulava Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Solid-propellant Soviet intercontinental-range ballistic missile, equipped with multiple independently targeted warheads. More...
  • Soyuz ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern digital avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Can be used with either Ikar or Fregat upper stages. The 'FG' was the military version. More...
  • Onega Russian orbital launch vehicle. Launch vehicle proposed for the 'Kliper' manned spaceplane in 2004. The 'Onega' was a hitherto-unrevealed massive improvement of the reliable Soyuz. It would deliver double the payload to a space station orbit, and could be available by 2010 if funding was made available. More...
  • S-500 New anti-aircraft, anti-missile system design in competitive development with Antey's S-400 to produce a Russian equivalent to THAAD. More...
  • Proton-M/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Proton-M stages, mated to the older 11S861 upper stage for certain payloads. More...
  • RS-24 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. New mobile, solid-propellant ICBM, heavier than the Topol-M, designed to carry up to ten MIRV warheads and to replace the R-36M2 and UR-100N liquid propellant missiles. More...
  • S-400 Russian surface-to-air missile. Fourth generation surface-to-air missile system that replaced the Army's S-300V (SA-12) and the Air Defence Force's S-300PMU (SA-10). The system would feature twice the engagement area of the S-300PMU. Initial service was by the end of 2007. More...
  • Angara Orel Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Orel, consisted of the Angara 3I plus an MKK spaceplane, similar to the MAKS. This would have a 431 tonne gross lift-off mass, with the spacecraft weighing 13.5 tonnes including a 4.2 tonne payload. This could be an eventual replacement of the Soyuz spacecraft for ferry of crews to space stations. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M DM3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for insertion of Hughes HS-601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M DM4 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. More...
  • Soyuz ST / Fregat ST Uprated Soyuz booster designed for commercial customers. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Uses Fregat upper stage. More...
  • N1 The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MiG Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Barmin Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Barmin Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Tsybin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Tsybin Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • FIAN Russian agency. Physical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences named for P N Lebedev, Russia. More...
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • Myasishchev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Myasishchev Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • MVS Russian agency. Ministry of Defence, Russia. More...
  • RVSN Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Raketniye Voiska Stratigcheskovo Naznacheniya (Russian Strategic Rocket Forces), Russia. More...
  • AN Russian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Academy of Sciences (Russian abbreviation), Russia. More...
  • PKO Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Anti-Ballistic Missile Forces, Russia. More...
  • VMF Russian agency. Voenno-Morskoy Flot (Navy), Russia. More...
  • GMS Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Hydrometeorological Service, Russia. More...
  • Chelomei Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Chelomei Design Bureau, Reutov, Russia. More...
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • MAI Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia. More...
  • IK Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. IK, Russia. More...
  • IKI Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Institute of Space Research, Russia. More...
  • Molniya Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Molniya Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Iskra Russian agency. KB Iskra / Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia. More...
  • UNKS Russian agency. Directorate of the Commander of Space Assets, Russia. More...
  • VKS Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Military Space Force, Russia. More...
  • TsAO Russian agency. Central Aerology Observatory, Russia. More...
  • RAKA Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviakosmos), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Lavochkin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Lavochkin Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...
  • Polyot Russian manufacturer of rockets. AKO Polyot, Omsk, Omsk, Russia. More...
  • Kozlov Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kozlov Central Specialized Design Bureau, Samara, Russia. More...
  • AFR Russian manufacturer. Astronautical Federation of Russia, Russia. More...
  • TsBank Russian agency. Central Bank of the Russian Federation. More...
  • VNIIEM Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. VNII Elektromekhaniki (Russian abbreviation for All-Union Scientific-Research Institute for Electro-Mechanics), Russia. More...
  • Svyaz Russian agency. Kosmicheskaya Sviaz, Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Arsenal Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Arsenal Design Bureau, Saint Petersburg, Russia. More...
  • Eurockot Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Eurockot GmbH, Russia. More...
  • NII KP Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. NII KP, Russia. More...
  • Makeyev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Makeyev Design Bureau, Kolomna, Russia. More...
  • Gazprom Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Gazprom, Russia. More...
  • VKA Russian agency. Military Space Force, Russia. More...
  • Alekseyev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Alekseyev Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Almaz Russian manufacturer of rockets. Almaz Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Altair Russian manufacturer of rockets. Altair Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Bereznyak Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Bereznyak Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Beriev Russian manufacturer of rockets. Beriev Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Bisnovat Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Bisnovat Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Bondaryuk Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Bondaryuk Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Dushkin Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Dushkin, Russia. More...
  • Efremov Russian manufacturer of rockets. Efremov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Elas Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Elas, Russia. More...
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Groettrup Russian manufacturer of rockets. Groettrup Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Grushin Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau named for P D Grushin, Khimki, Russia. More...
  • Ilyushin Russian manufacturer of rockets. Ilyushin Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • IMBP Insitute for the Study of Biomedical Problems, Russia. More...
  • Ivanov Russian manufacturer of rockets. Ivanov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Izotov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Izotov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Kartukov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Kartukov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • KBMash Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. KBMash, Russia. More...
  • KBP Russian manufacturer of rockets. Instrument Production Design Bureau, Tula, Russia. More...
  • Klimov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Klimov, Russia. More...
  • Kosberg Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Kosberg Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Kostin Russian manufacturer of rockets. Kostin Design Bureau, Korolev, Russia. More...
  • Kurchatov Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Kurchatov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Kuznetsov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Kuznetsov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • LII Russian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Flight-Research Institute, Russia. More...
  • Lyapin Russian manufacturer. Lyapin Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Lyulev Russian manufacturer of rockets. Lyulev Design Bureau, Ekaterinburg, Russia. More...
  • Lyulka Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Lyulka Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • MATI Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. MATI, Russia. More...
  • Melnikov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Melnikov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Nadiradze Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Nadiradze, Russia. More...
  • NII Mash Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. NII Mash, Russia. More...
  • Novator Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Novator NPO, Russia. More...
  • Nudelman Russian manufacturer. Precision Engineering Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Pilyugin Scientific Research Institute of Automatics & Instrumental-Building. More...
  • Polikarpov Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Polikarpov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Polyarniy Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Polyarniy Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Raduga Russian manufacturer. Raduga Machine Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Rashkov Russian manufacturer of rockets. Rashkov Design Bureau, Korolev, Russia. More...
  • RuAF Russian agency. Astronautical Federation of Russia, Russia. More...
  • Sevruk Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Sevruk Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Sinilshchikov Russian manufacturer of rockets. Sinilshchikov Design Bureau, Korolev, Russia. More...
  • Stechkin Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Stechkin Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Stepanov Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Stepanov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Sukhoi Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Sukhoi Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Tikhomirov Russian manufacturer of rockets. Tikhomirov Design Bureau, Zhukovsky, Russia. More...
  • Torpov Russian manufacturer. Torpov Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • TsKB-7 Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. TsKB-7, Russia. More...
  • TsNIIMASH Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Central Scientific-Research Institute for Machine Building, Russia. More...
  • Tupolev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Tupolev Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Votinsk Russian manufacturer of rockets. Votinsk, Votinsk, Russia. More...
  • Vympel Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Vympel Central Scientific Production Assoc. , Dubna, Russia More...
  • Yakovlev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Yakovlev Design Bureau, Russia. More...
  • Zvezda Russian manufacturer of spacecraft. Zvezda Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • BONUM BONUM satellites provide domestic Russian television service for Media Most, a Moscow media enterprise. More...
  • EORSAT Naval forces monitoring. Determines position of enemy naval forces through detection and triangulation of their electromagnetic emissions (radio, radar, etc) More...
  • Intercosmos International cooperative satellites with a variety of missions, launched by Soviet boosters. More...
  • ISS Finally completed in 2010 after a torturous 25-year development and production process, the International Space Station was originally conceived as the staging post for manned exploration of the solar systrem. Instead, it was seemed to be the death knell of manned spaceflight. More...
  • Mars Soviet Mars probes were intended to photograph Mars on flyby trajectories, followed by Mars orbit, landing, and Phobos reconnaisance missions. Essentially all of the series failed. More...
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Orlets Sixth-generation reconnaisance satellite. After returning multiple film capsules, the spacecraft is deorbited. More...
  • Oscar Amateur radio satellite network. For over a third of a century a series of OSCAR satellites have been launched in a variety of configurations and by many nations. More...
  • Resurs Zenit-derived satellites used for earth resources studies as part of the 'Resurs' and 'Gektor-Priroda' project. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. More...
  • Strela Military store-dump communications satellite network. The commercial version of GRU Strela-3 military store-dump satellite are designated Gonets-D1. They were to be deployed in a constellation of 12 satellites (2 planes of 6) between 1996 and 1998. Each satellite has a single simultaneous earth-space and space-earth channel. On-board storage is 12 Mbits of data, with a transmission rate of 2.4 kbit/sec. Two preproduction test spacecraft of slightly different configuration called 'Gonets-D' were flown. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Medved Early ballistic missile operating base, 1953-1960, for units deployed with two R-2 launchers, later eight R-5 missiles. More...
  • White Sea Launch Area Submarine-launched ballistic missile area known to have been used for 27 launches from 1955 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Kheysa Soviet arctic sounding rocket launch site, known to have been used for 1950 launches from 1957 to 1990, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Sary Shagan Primary Soviet anti-ballistic missile test site. Known to have been used for 85 launches from 1958 to 2007, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude. The actual number of missile tests ran into the thousands. More...
  • Chelkar Tactical missile site, known to have been used for 32 launches from 1958 to 1962, reaching up to 500 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Gvardeisk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. This was one of the oldest rocket units in the Soviet Union, being first formed at Kapustin Yar, 1950-1953, then deploying to Medved, Novgorod 1953-1960. Earlier had fielded R-1, R-2, and R-5 missiles. These were followed by R-12 IRBM's. More...
  • Manzovka/Ussuriysk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1970, probably operating R-12 launchers. In the 1950's the base for originally fielded two R-1 launchers, followed by eight R-5 launchers. More...
  • Novaya Zemlya Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1961, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Kola Peninsula Launch Area Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 3 launches in 1961, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Birodbidzhan Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1964. Moved to Tatishchevo.. Base for units deployed with R-1, R-2, R-12, and R-14 missiles. More...
  • Bynolzovo Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-on. Perhaps operated R-12 missiles. More...
  • Bologoye/Vypolzovo Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, later 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. At the end of the UR-100's service life 47 of these continued in use with the MR-UR-100. More...
  • Bershet Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM initially. Later 60 light ICBM (UR-100) silos operated, later supplemented by 9 RT-23 mobile ICBM launchers. More...
  • Gladkaya/Krasnoyarsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units operating 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos. By 1993 number of active silos was down to 40. More...
  • Itatka Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1978. Operated R-16 launchers. More...
  • Kostroma Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Operated 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100). 60 of these were later converted to MR-UR-100. After these were retired 12 RT-23 mobile launchers were headquartered here. More...
  • Kozelsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Originally R-9 ICBM launchers were controlled from here. Later 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100) were built. By the time of installation of the updated UR-100N only 70 silos remained operational. More...
  • Nerchinsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1965. Moved to Drovyanaya.. Base for units deployed with 12 R-14 and perhaps R-12 missiles. More...
  • Novosibirsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division from 1961. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM launchers. Later operated 64 heavy ICBM (R-36M) silos. More...
  • Nizhniy Tagil Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, much later 45 RT-2PM mobile missiles. More...
  • Shadrinsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1962. Base for units deployed with R-16 launchers. More...
  • Tomsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1962. Moved to Gladkaya. More...
  • Tyumen Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1964. Base for units deployed with nine R-9 launchers. Moved to Aleisk. More...
  • Teikovo Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present, operating a peak of 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos. By 1993 the number of operational silos had declined to 26. More...
  • Yurya Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, much later 45 RT-2PM mobile missiles. More...
  • Yoshkar-Ola Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Originally operated R-16 ICBM launchers. Later the only base for 60 silos equipped with the RT-2 solid propellant ICBM. These were progressively replaced by RT-2PM missiles. More...
  • Yasnaya/Oloynyaya Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1992, equipped with 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100). Also a base for units deployed with 12 R-14 missiles. More...
  • Sovetskaya Gavan Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 6 launches from 1963 to 1964, reaching up to 402 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Aleisk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Base for units deployed with 30 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M). More...
  • Barents Sea Launch Area Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 119 launches from 1965 to 2007, reaching up to 1270 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Drovyanaya Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. Base for a peak of 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N). Number had declined to 50 by 1993. More...
  • Kartaly Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. Base for 46 heavy ICBM (R-36/R-36M) silos. More...
  • Nenoksa Primary missile testing range of the Russian Navy. Known to have been used for 22 launches from 1965 to 1997, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude, but the number of actual missile tests was in the hundreds. More...
  • Uzhur Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. The division operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36). By the 1990's these were supplemented with 12 RT-23 launchers. More...
  • Molodezhnaya Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1104 launches from 1969 to 1990, reaching up to 108 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Barnaul Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1981-1990. Type of missiles deployed unknown. More...
  • Okhotsk Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 27 launches from 1981 to 2005, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. From 2009 offshore point used for launch of Volna SLBM's from submarines. More...
  • Irkutsk Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1982-present. Division moved from Lithuania. Base for units deployed with 36 RT-2PM launchers. More...
  • Tatishchevo Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Base for units deployed with 110 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N) and later ten RT-23 mobile ICBM launchers. A single live launch was known to have been made from here in 1987, reaching 1000 km altitude. More...
  • Svobodniy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1994, equipped with 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. The number of operational silos declined to 60 by 1993. The break-up of the Soviet Union left the main Russian cosmodrome on foreign territory (Baikonur, in Kazakhstan). The Northern Cosmodrome at Plesetsk did not have facilities for large launch vehicles and was not suited for support of launches into lower-inclination orbits. Therefore Svobodniy Cosmodrome, located 7,777 km east of Moscow, was established as the Second State Space Trials Launch Centre (GIK-2) on 2 February 1996. More...
  • Dombarovskiy Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M). One silo was modified to launch surplus R-36M missiles as orbital launch vehicles, and used for used for 3 launches from 2004 to 2007. More...
  • Vostochniy Vostochniy, Russia's new cosmodrome, was to be constructed at the missile base of Uglegorsk, population 5135, not far from the Svobodniy Cosmodrome. The site would include a modern residential town to accomodate the tens of thousands of workers at the cosmodrome. The space center would be designed to handle the Angara rocket family. More...
  • Kamyshin Base for units deployed with two R-1/R-2 launchers, followed by six R-5. More...
  • Kansk Base for units deployed with 27 RT-2PM missiles. More...
  • Omsk Base for units deployed with launchers for the R-9 ICBM. More...

Associated Stages
  • 15D27 Solid rocket stage. 432.00 kN (97,117 lbf) thrust. Mass 11,300 kg (24,912 lb). More...
  • 15D25 Solid rocket stage. 215.00 kN (48,334 lbf) thrust. Mass 3,500 kg (7,716 lb). More...
  • 15D23 Solid rocket stage. 893.00 kN (200,754 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,600 kg (76,280 lb). More...
  • 15D24 Solid rocket stage. 432.00 kN (97,117 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,600 kg (21,164 lb). More...
  • 15D23P Solid rocket stage. 980.00 kN (220,313 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,550 kg (76,170 lb). More...
  • 15D339 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 25,000 kg. Thrust 1,050.00 kN. More...
  • 15D94 Solid rocket stage. 180.40 kN (40,556 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,640 kg (10,229 lb). More...
  • 53T6-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 12,000 kg. More...
  • 8K513 Blok B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,000/2,100 kg. Thrust 441.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage. More...
  • 8S816 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 32,799/3,000 kg. Thrust 868.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, sea level thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo. More...
  • 8S817 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,611/900 kg. Thrust 131.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo. More...
  • Albatros Carrier Aircraft Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,250,000/210,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers and canards. Engine type and performance, empty weight estimated. More...
  • Albatros Momentum Block Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000,000/1,800,000 kg. Unique hydrofoil launch stage for Albatros. Contains 200,000 kg propellants for acceleration by Albatros stage 1 motors to 50 m/s / 180 km/hr launch conditions. Designed by Alexeyev Hydrofoil/Ekranoplan OKB. More...
  • Albatros Raketoplan Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 320,000/82,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers. More...
  • Angara A-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds. Two thrust levels. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 162 bar. More...
  • Angara Briz M N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,565/1,600 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325.5 seconds. Version proposed as Angara upper stage. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1. More...
  • Angara KVRB Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,300/3,500 kg. Thrust 73.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 461 seconds. Planned version for Angara. 5 restarts. More...
  • Angara Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Product of Khrunichev. Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. More...
  • Angara Stage 2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 75,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Buildt by NPO Energia to Khrunichev design (their own design for Angara and Energia-M were rejected in favor of Khrunichev version). Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. Assumed that engine is throttled back to maintain constant 3-G acceleration. More...
  • Angara UM Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 140,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,094.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337.5 seconds. Can be throttled to 95%. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 257 bar. More...
  • Arsenal NE Tug Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. In 1994-1995 KB Arsenal collaborated with NII PME MAI, NPO Lavochkin, and others in international group to study interplanetary flight using nuclear-electric and solar-electric engines. The final selected design was a nuclear-electric interplanetary tug. More...
  • Atlas IIIA Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 195,628/13,725 kg. Thrust 4,148.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. The American Atlas booster and sustainer engine arrangement was replaced by derivatives of Glushko engines developed for the Ukrainian Zenit launch vehicle. Not capable of single stage to single stage to orbit capability (an Internet spaceflight urban myth). More...
  • Blok SO-L Lox/Kerosene rocket stage. 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,200 kg (13,669 lb). More...
  • Briz-KM N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,700/1,700 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Briz KM differs from Briz K in having 'compact' components, special payload truss for Globalstar dispenser. The truss is 1.8 m in diameter and has a volume of 8.8 m3. More...
  • Buran M-41 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 755.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 254 seconds. Booster for Buran missile. Four used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass. Specific impulse estimated. More...
  • Buran M-42 Ramjet missile stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 103.90 kN. Specific impulse 1500 seconds. Boosted by 4 x Glushko-engined boosters. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude with 3,500 kg warhead. Wing area 98 square meters; diameter of ramjet 2.0 m. Never reached flight test. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass. More...
  • Burlak Stage 1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,000/1,800 kg. Thrust 357.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Masses, thrust, specific impulse estimated based on total vehicle mass of 28.5 tonnes and first stage burn time of 140 seconds. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions. More...
  • Burlak Stage 2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,400/900 kg. Thrust 98.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Masses, thrust, specific impulse estimated based on total vehicle mass of 28.5 tonnes and first stage burn time of 140 seconds. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions. More...
  • Burya Ramjet missile stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,865/13,000 kg. Thrust 76.00 kN. Specific impulse 1500 seconds. Boosted by 2 x R-11 derivative boosters. 6,500 km tested, 8,000 km specified, cruise at Mach 3.2 at 18-20 km altitude with 2,350 kg warhead. Flight tested 1957 - 1960. Wing area 60 square meters; diameter of ramjet inlet 1.7 m. Total missile mass 97,215 kg; gross masses prorated, empty masses estimated. More...
  • Burya booster Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/4,000 kg. Thrust 771.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. Booster for Burya missile. Two used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Engines developed by Isayev from R-11 S2.253 engine. Early Buryas had S2.1100 engine. Masses estimated based on known total vehicle mass. More...
  • EKR Stage 2 Ramjet test vehicle stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,484/1,167 kg. Thrust 6.13 kN. Specific impulse 1580 seconds. Second stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Range 730 km with flight time of 927 seconds. Lift to drag 2.51, wing area 3.31 square meters. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles. More...
  • EKR Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,390/1,564 kg. Thrust 107.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Boosted second stage to ramjet ignition conditions. More...
  • Energia RCS Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 84.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Energia payload orbital insertion. More...
  • Energia M Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 272,000/28,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. More...
  • Energia Core Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 905,000/85,000 kg. Thrust 7,848.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 453 seconds. More...
  • Energia EUS Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 77,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 1,962.03 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. More...
  • ERTA Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,000/12,000 kg. Thrust 0.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 3000 seconds. At the beginning of the 1990's a new type of nuclear generator was studied, that would have a capacity of 150 kW in the transport role and provide 10-40 kW to power spacecraft systems while coasting. This was designated ERTA (ElecktroRaketnovo Transportnovo Apparat). More...
  • Fregat N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,535/1,100 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. Upper stage developed from propulsion bus for Lavochkin lunar and planetary probes (Luna Ye-8, Mars M1, Fobos 1F). 20 restarts. More...
  • GR-1 Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 80,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,676.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Payload 4,000 kg (2.2 MT nuclear warhead). Range 13,000 km or orbital. Accuracy (90%) 5 km in range and 3 km in dispersion. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. More...
  • GR-1 Stage 3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,500/1,000 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. This stage was a close cousin of that developed for the Molniya launch vehicle. More...
  • Grom-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 25,000 kg. More...
  • Ikar N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,164/820 kg. Thrust 2.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. Derived from propulsion module of Yantar spysat, over 30 flights to 1998. 50 restarts. More...
  • Interorbital Tug Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 65,700/15,700 kg. Thrust 0.03 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 3000 seconds. Beginning in 1978 the 11B97 nuclear electric engine was studied for use in a reusable interorbital space tug for launch by Energia-Buran. In 1982, according to the decree of 5 February 1981, NPO Energia developed for the Ministry of Defence the interorbital tug Gerkules with 550 kWt maximum output and continuous operation in the 50-150 kWt range for 3 to 5 years. In 1986 a civilian interorbital tug was studied to solve the specific application of transporting heavy satellites of 100 tonnes to geostationary orbit, launched by Energia. More...
  • Kholod Turbo-ramjet powered rocket launch aircraft. Loaded mass 550,000 kg. Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Sprial 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s. More...
  • Kvant Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 3,216.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. 4 11D121 verniers. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • Kvant-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 74,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 1,102.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 335 seconds. 4 RD-0124-14D23 verniers. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • Luna 8K72-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 990.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds. More...
  • Luna 8K72-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,300/6,900 kg. Thrust 936.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Luna 8K72-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,100/1,120 kg. Thrust 49.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • MAKS Orbiter Lox/Kerosene/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,600/18,600 kg. Thrust 3,618.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 437 seconds. Empty mass without 9300 kg payload. More...
  • MiG-25 Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 32,136/19,995 kg. Thrust 182.34 kN. Specific impulse 2073 seconds. Mikoyan Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 750 kg (6.3 m length x 2.2 m wingspan) at 3,161 kph at 24,000 m altitude More...
  • MIHT-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated More...
  • MIHT-4 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/300 kg. Thrust 9.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,600/6,798 kg. Thrust 976.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Molniya M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/1,050 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,660/1,160 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Standardized improved version for Molniya-type communications satellite payloads. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,770 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,100/1,080 kg. Thrust 65.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Stage designed as fourth stage to take R-7 launched payloads into deep space. Adapted from the Luna / Vostok third stage, but with restart capability. The 700 kg BOZ ullage motors and stabilisation platform jettisoned prior to main stage burn. Original version. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78M-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,800/1,976 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Molniya 8K78-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • N-11 1963 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Conjectural stage derived from GR-1 stage 1 to match total mass given of launch vehicle. More...
  • N-11 Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 485,000/47,000 kg. Thrust 11,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Derived from N1 Block B, with large number of engines and expansion ratio adjusted for sea level operation. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. More...
  • N-11 Block B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Derived from N1 Block V. More...
  • N-111-A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,540.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Variant of N1 Block V for first stage use. Number of engines would have to be increased and reduced expansion ratio nozzles fitted for sea level use. Least attractive of N1 variants and seems not to have been pursued after draft project. More...
  • N-111-Ab Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,694.37 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Alternate weight breakdown. More...
  • N-11GR - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,200/1,700 kg. Thrust 88.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Orbital MIRV stage. Six of these stages clustered around Block B; each stage would have had a 1500 kg nuclear warhead. More...
  • N1 1964 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,942,000/192,000 kg. Thrust 49,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. First stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Block A modified with six additional engines and propellant increased by 550 tonnes by using chilled propellants. More...
  • N1 1964 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Second stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Specific impulse estimate down one second from 1962 draft project. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. More...
  • N1 1962 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 1962 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,778.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 1962 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,384,000/117,000 kg. Thrust 39,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Earlier design for the Block A. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 1964 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given. More...
  • N1 Block V-III Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 325,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 2,350.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. N1 improvement study, 1965. Lox/LH2 replacement for Block V third stage. Pursued into 1966 and later, but later efforts concentrated on Block S, R, and SR cryogenic stages. More...
  • N1 Block V-II Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 805,000/115,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. N1 improvement study, 1965. Lox/LH2 replacement for Block B second stage. More...
  • N1 Block B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 560,700/55,700 kg. Thrust 14,039.98 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 Block V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 188,700/13,700 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. As flown. More...
  • N1 Block Sr Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 77,900/11,500 kg. Thrust 147.88 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 441 seconds. Upper stage developed 1971-1974 to support manned lunar expedition. Replaced Blok R/Blok S previously under development. Capable of five restarts and 11 days of flight. Could insert 24 tonnes into lunar orbit or 20 tonnes into geosynch orbit. More...
  • N1 Block S Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 58,000/8,000 kg. Thrust 392.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. Designed 1965-1971 as replacement for N-1 Blok G. Cancelled in 1971 in favor of development of single stage, Block Sr. More...
  • N1 Block R Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,000/4,300 kg. Thrust 73.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. Designed 1965-1971 as replacement for N-1 Blok D. Cancelled 1971 in favor of Blok Sr; revived and developed in 1974-1976. First static test Oct 12 1976. Two stages tested 1976-1977. Strangely never replaced Blok D on Proton. More...
  • N1 Block G Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,800/6,000 kg. Thrust 446.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • N1 Block D Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,200/3,500 kg. Thrust 83.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. Block D as originally designed as a lunar crasher stage More...
  • N1 Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,880,000/130,000 kg. Thrust 50,300.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962. More...
  • N1 Nuclear AF Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800,000/150,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 810 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. More...
  • N1 Nuclear V Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,500,000/500,000 kg. Thrust 14,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 900 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. More...
  • N1 Nuclear V-Bioshield Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000,000/650,000 kg. Thrust 19,600.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 900 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. More...
  • N1 Nuclear A Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700,000/250,000 kg. Thrust 6,860.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 900 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass. More...
  • N1-MOK Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,200,000/300,000 kg. Thrust 15,600.00 kN. Specific impulse 430 seconds. Ultimate derivative of N1 Block A: Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 400 kg MKBS orb More...
  • N1F Block V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210,000/13,700 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. More...
  • N1F Block B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 620,000/55,700 kg. Thrust 14,040.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Includes 3,500 kg for Stage 2-3 interstage. More...
  • N1F Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,070,000/126,230 kg. Thrust 49,675.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage. More...
  • N1F 1965 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 300,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased and stretched propellant tanks with almost 50% increase. More...
  • N1F 1965 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,940,000/200,000 kg. Thrust 57,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Block A engine thrust increased but little additional propellant. More...
  • N1F 1965 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,600.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased from 150 t each to 200 t and stretched propellant tanks. More...
  • N1M 1965 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,800,000/375,000 kg. Thrust 85,300.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Huge modification of Block A, almost double propellant capacity, engines increased from 175 tonnes thrust to 250 tonnes. More...
  • N1M 1965 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 620,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 21,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block B and thrust increased again to 280 tonnes per engine. More...
  • N1M 1965 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block V. More...
  • N1U 1965 - B Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. More...
  • N1U 1965 - A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,934,000/195,000 kg. Thrust 49,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. More...
  • N1U 1965 - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model. More...
  • Proton K-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 167,828/11,715 kg. Thrust 2,399.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. More...
  • Proton-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 134,900/13,180 kg. Thrust 2,399.19 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Proton UR-500 second stage. Flew only on two-stage version of Proton. Empty mass is correct; all other values estimated based on UR-500 Stage 2 original design and UR-500K stage 2 figures. More...
  • Proton KM-4 Briz M N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 22,170/2,370 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. New upper stage for Proton, replacing Energia Corporation's Block DM, making Proton an all-Khrunichev launch vehicle. The Khrunichev-built Briz-M upper stage is a derivative of the flight-proven Briz -K stage (as used on the Rokot booster). More...
  • Proton KM-4 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,500/3,000 kg. Thrust 73.58 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 461 seconds. Planned version for Proton. Never developed. More...
  • Proton KM-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 613.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326.5 seconds. More...
  • Proton KM-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,400/31,000 kg. Thrust 10,532.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. More...
  • Proton K-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,747/4,185 kg. Thrust 630.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. More...
  • Proton K-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,510/31,100 kg. Thrust 10,470.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Proton 17S40 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/3,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-5. Commercial version is Block DM2, with Iridium dispenser, designed for insertion of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter. More...
  • Proton 11S861-01 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,650/2,650 kg. Thrust 83.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 361 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2M, article number 11S861-01. Commercial versions are Block DM3, with Saab payload dispenser, for insertion of Hughes HS 601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit; and Block DM4, for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit.. With guidance unit, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Capable of boosting heavier payloads than 11S861 through use of higher-performance 'sintin' synthetic kerosene fuel. More...
  • Proton 11S861 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. Commercial version designated Block DM1 and is equipped with Saab payload adapter for insertion of AS 4000 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. With improved guidance system as compared to 11S86, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Used from 1982 to present. More...
  • Proton 11S86 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,550/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM; article number 11S86. With guidance unit, designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous/ medium earth orbit. Used from 1974 to 1990. Succeeded by 11S861. More...
  • Proton 11S824M Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,000/1,830 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824. Used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary/high earth orbit spacecraft from 1976 to 1989. More...
  • Proton 11S824F Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,900/1,800 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824M. Used for launch of Lavochkin Mars-bound spacecraft in 1988 and 1996. More...
  • Proton 11S824 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,360/1,800 kg. Thrust 83.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Originally designed as N1-L3 lunar expedition launch vehicle lunar orbit insertion/lunar crasher stage. Before it could fly on the N1, it was adapted for use with Proton UR-500K as a fourth stage for manned circumlunar flight. It was then further used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary spacecraft. In the 1970's it was adopted by the Soviet military and standardized for launch of geostationary satellites. More...
  • Proton K-4H LF2/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,700/3,000 kg. Thrust 98.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 401 seconds. More...
  • R-1 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,630/4,066 kg. Thrust 307.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 233 seconds. Payload 815 / 483 kg. Range 270 km. Maximum altitude 77 km. Time of flight 5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1465 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally. More...
  • R-11 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,660/955 kg. Thrust 93.28 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Enlargement/elaboration of German Wasserfall SAM. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives. Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Source: Wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow. More...
  • R-11FM Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,473/1,080 kg. Thrust 92.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Accuracy 1.5 km in range, 0.75 km lateral. More...
  • R-13 Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 13,700 kg. More...
  • R-17 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,385/1,645 kg. Thrust 93.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. Developed from Russian storable fuel tactical missile. Original R-11 designed by Korolev OKB, subsequent developments by Makeyev OKB. Using calculations of Gerald Bull, stretched and clustered as basis of Iraqi ICBM/satellite launch vehicle. More...
  • R-2 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,632/4,592 kg. Thrust 404.11 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 237 seconds. Payload 1350 / 508 kg. Range 550 km. Maximum altitude 171 km. Time of flight 7.5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 2175 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally. More...
  • R-21-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 16,600 kg. More...
  • R-29-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg. Thrust 682.00 kN. More...
  • R-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/5,480 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed April 1947 to 1949 before cancellation. More...
  • R-31 RV Bus Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,300 kg. Thrust 3.92 kN. Bus powered by four solid propellant motors mounted 90 degrees to each other, each 60 kg mass, 0.77 m long, 0.28 m diameter. More...
  • R-39-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 53,700 kg. Thrust 2,060.00 kN. More...
  • R-3A Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,900/3,500 kg. Thrust 434.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds. Further incremental upgrade of R-2. Payload 500 kg. Range 935 km. Developed from 1949 to October 1951. Cancelled, work combined with 8K14 development. More...
  • R-5 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,250/3,250 kg. Thrust 479.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 244 seconds. More...
  • R-7 8K71-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,100/3,500 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 306 seconds. More...
  • R-7 8K71-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,300/7,500 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. More...
  • R-7A 8K74-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,700/7,300 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • R-7A 8K74-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,800/3,200 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • R-9A Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,600/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,595.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311.4 seconds. Payload 3,500 kg. Range 13,000 km. Accuracy (90%) 8 km in range and 5 km in dispersion with radio guidance; 20 km / 10 km with inertial guidance. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • R-9A Stage 2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,900/2,500 kg. Thrust 304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage. More...
  • Rif-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. More...
  • Rokot-3 Briz N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,565/1,600 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. High performance storable liquid engine. The basic stage can be adapted with 'wrap-around' propellant tanks for Proton booster applications. More...
  • RT-1-2 Solid rocket stage. 500.00 kN (112,404 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb). More...
  • RT-1-3 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg. Thrust 240.00 kN. More...
  • RT-23-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 15,000 kg. Thrust 206.00 kN. More...
  • Shtil'-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,160/6,500 kg. Thrust 1,011.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 319 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz ST-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz ST-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 999.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz ST-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 44,400/3,810 kg. Thrust 1,021.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 20.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 360 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Multiple restart engine. More...
  • Soyuz M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Proposed improved version. Not developed. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,400 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,810/3,550 kg. Thrust 996.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 997.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Current version. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 44,500/3,784 kg. Thrust 994.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,700 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,500 kg. Thrust 977.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,000/3,550 kg. Thrust 994.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Soyuz M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,200/3,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. More...
  • Sputnik 8A91-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,000/7,100 kg. Thrust 804.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Sputnik 8K71PS-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 94,000/7,495 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. More...
  • Start-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. All estimated More...
  • Start-2 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,000/1,500 kg. Thrust 490.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated except stage gross mass More...
  • Superraket Block A Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,150,000/100,000 kg. Thrust 33,656.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Ancestor of N1 Block A; conical liquid oxygen/kerosene stage using massive cluster of Kuznetsov engines. Gross mass estimated based on 2,000 tonne total vehicle weight; empty mass estimated. More...
  • Superraket Block B Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 8,330.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 550 seconds. Nuclear engine operating at 3500 deg K. Mass estimated; empty mass calculated. More...
  • T-4 Mach 3 rocket carrier. Loaded/empty mass 114,400/55,600 kg. Thrust 633.50 kN. Specific impulse 1980 seconds. Sukhoi experimental interceptor - delta wing with forward canards. A modification to be used as first stage in Sukhoi proposal for Spiral manned spaceplane project. Maximum release conditions: 25,000 kg at 3,000 kph at 20,000 m altitude More...
  • Temp-2S-3 Solid rocket stage. 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,700 kg (19,180 lb). More...
  • Topol'-M-1 Solid rocket stage. 980.00 kN (220,313 lbf) thrust. Mass 26,000 kg (57,320 lb). More...
  • Topol'-M-2 Solid rocket stage. 490.00 kN (110,156 lbf) thrust. Mass 13,000 kg (28,660 lb). More...
  • Topol'-M-3 Solid rocket stage. 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,000 kg (13,228 lb). More...
  • Tsyklon 2-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,200/400 kg. Thrust 77.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Integral portion of payload. More...
  • Tsyklon 3-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,600/1,407 kg. Thrust 78.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. More...
  • Tu-2000 Airbreathing Slush LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 882.00 kN. Specific impulse 1550 seconds. Aerospaceplane to compete with American X-30. Single stage to orbit, scramjet air breather. Tupolev assigned to start work in 1993. Mockup built, and some subscale flights to Mach 6 on tactical missiles of scramjet model, but project now dormant due to lack of funds. Wing area 160 square meters, wing sweep 70 degrees. Two crew. More...
  • UR-100N MIRV Bus N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,100/725 kg. Thrust 4.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds. More...
  • UR-100N Stage 1N N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 77,150/5,695 kg. Thrust 1,778.66 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. More...
  • UR-100N Stage 2N N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,195/1,485 kg. Thrust 214.27 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. Engine has one main engine and four verniers. Verniers continue to burn for 19 seconds after mainstage shutoff. More...
  • UR-200-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 107,500/6,600 kg. Thrust 2,235.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Developed 1960-1965. Orevo has sectioned hardware. All data accurate except empty mass prorated between first and second stages. More...
  • UR-200-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,810/2,400 kg. Thrust 612.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Developed 1960-1965. Orevo has sectioned hardware. All data accurate except empty mass prorated between first and second stages. More...
  • UR-700M-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,250,000/500,000 kg. Thrust 102,013.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on follow-on RD-170 engines. More...
  • UR-700-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,072,000/75,600 kg. Thrust 20,182.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. More...
  • UR-700M-3 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000,000/200,000 kg. Thrust 11,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on performance requirements. More...
  • UR-700-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,210,000/222,100 kg. Thrust 40,364.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. Includes propellant tanks which fed stage two engines from liftoff to first stage cutoff. More...
  • UR-700-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 399,400/26,000 kg. Thrust 5,139.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 328 seconds. More...
  • UR-700M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,000,000/750,000 kg. Thrust 204,027.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on follow-on RD-170 engines. More...
  • UR-700-4 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 33,500/1,900 kg. Thrust 131.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. Estimated empty mass. Three used to propell LK-700 spacecraft towards moon. More...
  • V-1000-0 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg. Thrust 1,962.00 kN. More...
  • V-1000-1 Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Thrust 103.00 kN. More...
  • VKS-R Sled Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100,000 kg. Sled studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s. More...
  • Volna-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg. Thrust 682.00 kN. More...
  • Volna-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
  • Voskhod 11A57-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,710 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,710 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 49.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,000/6,500 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92-0 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 54.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92-1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8K72K-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 54.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. More...
  • Vostok 8A92M-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,100/1,100 kg. Thrust 54.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. More...
  • Vulkan 1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800,000/80,000 kg. Thrust 7,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 452 seconds. Original version of Energia core as used on Vulkan booster, with in-line upper stages and payloads. Developed 1974-1976; cancelled when Energia / Buran development begun. More...
  • Vulkan Blok V Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 411.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. Upper stage design by KB Saturn for manned lunar expedition, large geosynchronous platform launch. More...
  • Vysota-1 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg. Thrust 682.00 kN. More...
  • Vysota-2 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. More...
  • YaKhR-2 Strap-on Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/8,250 kg. Thrust 2,393.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. R-7 strap-ons increased in size dimensionally 50%, equipped with 6 engines from R-9. Boost nuclear thermal core stage to altitude before ignition of nuclear engine. Masses calculated based on vehicle total weight and performance. More...
  • YaKhR-2 Core Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 180,000/22,000 kg. Thrust 1,660.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Engines in development by Bondayuk and Glushko. Alternate propellants ammonia only or ammonia/alcohol mixture. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Masses calculated based on given vehicle gross weight and performance. More...
  • YaRD ICBM OKB-456 Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,400/8,600 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Nuclear-propelled ICBM with engines in development by Glushko. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Payload 2,600 kg to 14,000 km. Empty mass, vehicle length calculated. More...
  • YaRD ICBM OKB-670 Nuclear/Ammonia+Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 96,000/8,800 kg. Thrust 1,660.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Nuclear-propelled ICBM with engines in development by Bondayuk. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Payload 4,000 kg to 14,000 km. Empty mass, vehicle length calculated. More...
  • Zenit-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,720 kg. Thrust 84.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Zenit. More...

Russia Chronology


1879 - .
  • Tsiolkovskiy's Astronomical Drawings - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tsiolkovskiy. Summary: While living in Ryazan with his father's family, he published his first known scientific work. It schematically depicted the Solar System and the distances between planets..

1879 December 21 - .
1883 - .
  • Tsiolkovskiy's Free Space - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tsiolkovskiy. Tsiolkovsky considered the possibility of living in outer space and the effects of zero gravity. For the first time he included a drawing of a spacecraft that could orient itself in space with the help of reactive jets (but not change its position by propulsive rockets).

1885 May 8 - .
  • Birth of Phillip Von Doepp - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: Russian-German expert in guided missile aero design during WW2. Fluent in Russian. Member of the German rocket team, arrived in America under Project Paperclip on 1945.11.16. Worked at Wright Field and in California aerospace..

1888 November 10 - .
1893 December 17 - .
  • Birth of Bernhard Gerhardt - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Kept there until 1957, the longest of any of the team members..

1894 April 5 - .
1894 June 1 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Arkadyevich Blagonravov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. President, Academy Artillery Sciences 1946-1950, leading development of first Soviet sounding rockets. Soviet representative to UN COPUOS and negotiator with NASA on cooperative space projects in early 1960's..

1895 June 11 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Bulganin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian Minister of Defense 1947-1949 and 1953-1955. Chaired Special Committee 2 1947-1949. Chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers, and heavily involved in the negotiations over freedom of space issue for overflight of territories..

1895 August 21 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Pavlovich Vinogradov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Chemical and Analytical Chemistry. Specialised in lunar sample analysis..

1896 December 1 - .
1898 January 8 - .
  • Birth of Ludwig Leihfeld - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Dept. 61/ Laboratory..

1898 November 9 - .
  • Birth of Hugo Broetler - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Shop 55..

1898 November 23 - .
1899 January 1 - .
  • Birth of Robert Tschechner - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German specialist engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacture; Laboratory Department..

1899 March 29 - .
  • Birth of Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria - . Nation: Georgia; Russia. Summary: Georgian-Russian officer. Soviet security apparatus chief until toppled after death of Stalin 1953. In charge of Soviet development of nuclear weapons and rocketry, 1944-1953..

1899 September 9 - .
1900 January 8 - .
1900 June 3 - .
1900 July 29 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Klavdiyevich Tikhonravov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Pioneering Soviet engineer and space visionary. Designer at Nll-4 and Korolev design bureau. Leader in development of Sputnik and Vostok spacecraft. Also performed early ICBM work and was pioneering rocketeer at GIRD and Nll-3..

1900 August 28 - .
  • Birth of Oswald Putze - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1900 September 11 - .
1901 April 4 - .
1901 May 21 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Konstantinovich Tumanskiy - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1955-1973 of OKB-300. Specialised in aircraft turbine engines but also produced spacecraft attitude control engines..

1901 November 19 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Andreyevich Vitka - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. First Deputy Chief Designer 1954-1961 of Glushko design bureau. Specialised in rocket engines..

1902 January 2 - .
1902 February 16 - .
1902 February 18 - .
  • Birth of Friedrich Boenisch - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1902 May 11 - .
1902 August 10 - .
  • Birth of Alfred Grevesmuehl - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German scientist in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Director of Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1902 September 28 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Mikhailovich Myasishchev - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer 1951-1960 of OKB-23. Developed innovative M-4, M-50 bombers, Buran cruise missiles, and VKA spaceplane. Bureau merged with Chelomei, 1960. Later Director of TsAGI. Regained his own design bureau just before his death..

1902 November 9 - .
  • Birth of Mitrofan Ivanovich Nedelin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Deputy Minister of Defence 1955-1959. First Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1959-1964. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe..

1903 - .
  • Tsiolkovskiy's The Investigation of Space by Means of Reactive Devices - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tsiolkovskiy. Summary: Here he first outlined his theory of spaceflight and published the basic equation for reaching space by rocket that is still known to students as the 'Tsiolkovsky Equation'. It was the first theoretical proof of the possibility of spaceflight..

1903 January 12 - .
  • Birth of Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. Father of Soviet atomic bomb at KB-11. Managed development of first hydrogen bomb. Design coordinated with Korolev's design bureau for use on R-7 ICBM..

1903 February 13 - .
1903 March 18 - .
1903 April 29 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Ivanovich Krylov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Commander-in-Chief Strategic Missile Forces, 1963-1972. Opponent of piloted space programs..

1903 May 1 - .
1903 July 13 - .
  • Birth of Wilhelm Knack - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1903 October 17 - .
  • Birth of Andrei Antonovich Grechko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Deputy Minister of Defence 1967-1976. Opponent of piloted space programs..

1903 December 14 - .
  • Birth of Semyon Ariyevich Kosberg - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1965 of OKB-154. Led work on engines for ICBMs and launchers..

1904 February 25 - .
1904 August 21 - .
1904 October 7 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Ignatyevich Rudenko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Air Force 1958-1968. Oversaw cosmonaut training..

1904 November 17 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Fedorovich Tveretskiy - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. First Commander of Special Purpose Brigade (precursor to the Strategic Missile Forces), 1946-49..

1905 August 5 - .
  • Birth of Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian Chief Designer, brother of Stalin’s foreign minister, headed MiG design bureau, preeminent manufacturer of light Soviet fighters. Dabbled in rocketplanes and built and flew the MiG-105 Spiral spaceplane..

1905 August 15 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Grigoryevich Mrykin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. First Deputy Commander of GURVO 1955-1965. Strategic Missile Forces liaison with space units..

1905 September 25 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Ivanovich Vetoshkin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian politician. First Deputy Chairman of Military-industrial Commission 1958-1965. Directorate Chief in Ministry of Armaments..

1905 September 29 - .
  • Birth of Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian government official. First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs. Chaired KGB 1954-1958..

1905 December 23 - .
  • Birth of Paver Vladimirovich Tsybin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian Chief Designer OKB-256 1945-1959. Designs: LL rocketplanes, RS Mach 3 ramjet aircraft, PKA spaceplane. Bureau closed, worked for Korolev on Vostok, Soyuz, AMS and Molniya satellites. Deputy Designer of Buran space shuttle, 1974-1992..

1906 January 1 - .
  • Birth of Henrik Winskowski - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German design engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61..

1906 September 10 - .
1906 October 1 - .
1906 December 21 - .
  • Birth of Grigoriy Ivanovich Voronin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1939-1985 of OKB-124. Specialised in life support systems for spacecraft..

1907 January 12 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for creating the first long range ballistic missiles, the first space launchers, the first artificial satellite, and putting the first man in space. After his premature death the Soviets lagged in space..

1907 January 14 - .
  • Birth of Vasili Mikhailovich Ryabikov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian government official. Chief of Third Chief Directorate of Council of Ministers 1951-1953. Chaired Military-Industrial Commission 1955-1957and Sputnik State Commission..

1907 January 24 - .
1907 January 25 - .
  • Birth of Norair Martirosovich Sisakyan - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. Early space medicine specialist at the Second Division of Biological Sciences under the Academy of Sciences..

1907 February 7 - .
1907 February 7 - .
1907 February 22 - .
  • Birth of Walter Schierhorn - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German welding engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55..

1907 May 1 - .
1907 November 14 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Ivanovich Sedov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. Chaired the Commission for Promotion of Interplanetary Flights. Public spokesman for the Soviet space program..

1908 February 20 - .
1908 March 23 - .
  • Birth of Arkhip Mikhailovich Lyulka - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1946-1981 of OKB-165. Specialised in cryogenic engines for the N1..

1908 March 30 - .
1908 May 10 - .
  • Birth of Rudolf Chwalczyk - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Shop 55..

1908 May 18 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Alekseyevich Pilyugin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1948-1982 of Nll-885 and NII AP. Specialised in missile and spaceship guidance..

1908 June 27 - .
1908 June 30 - .
  • Tunguska Explosion - . Nation: Russia.

1908 August 18 - .
  • Birth of Frol Romanovich Kozlov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian politician. Secretary of Central Committee for defence and space 1960-1963..

1908 August 25 - .
1908 August 28 - .
1908 September 2 - .
  • Birth of Valentin Petrovich Glushko - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer, responsible for all large liquid propellant engines for missiles and LVs. Led Glushko bureau, 1946-1974; Headed NPO Energia 1974-1989, directing development of Energia launch vehicle and Buran spaceplane..

1908 September 6 - .
1908 October 18 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Petrovich Kamanin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian VVS Officer, first commander of Soviet cosmonaut detachment 1960-1971. Advocate of piloted spaceflight, fought constantly for VVS role in space, blamed loss of space race on Korolev's insistence on using automated systems..

1908 October 24 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Mikhailovich Isayev - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer at OKB-2, 1947-1971. Developed storable rocket engines for missiles, supplying innovative engines for Scuds, SLBM's. Leading designer of restartable space engines for satellites, manned spacecraft, and space stations..

1908 October 30 - .
  • Birth of Dmitri Fedorovich Ustinov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian politician. Primary manager of the Soviet missile and space programs 1946-1976. In charge of development of Soviet rocketry 1946-1957. Chairman of the VPK 1957-1963. Secretary of Central Committee for Defence and Space 1965-1976..

1908 November 9 - .
1908 November 12 - .
1909 March 17 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Pavlovich Barmin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1941-1993 of GSKB SpetsMash; pre-eminent Soviet designer of rocket launch complexes..

1909 April 5 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Sergeyevich Ryazanskiy - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1946-1951 and 1955-1987 of Nll-885. Specialised in missile and spacecraft radio guidance..

1909 December 25 - .
  • Birth of Gleb Yevgenyevich Lozino-Lozinskiy - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian Chief Designer of spaceplanes, headed NPO Molniya 1976-2001. Developed the Buran space shuttle and MAKS spaceplane. Earlier had headed the Spiral spaceplane project at MiG 1965-1976..

1910 January 8 - .
  • Birth of Heinz Haase - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union thereafter. Graduate engineer who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Deputy in charge of the Oxygen Plant..

1910 April 1 - .
1910 April 23 - .
  • Birth of Ivan Ivanovich Utkin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1960-1970 of NII IT. Specialised in spacecraft memory data recorders..

1910 July 11 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Nikolayevich Vernov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. Director of NII-Yash of Moscow State University 1960-1982. Specialised in science experiments..

1910 October 30 - .
1911 January 14 - .
  • Birth of Lev Mikhailovich Gaidukov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Soviet Lieutenant General, headed group that acquired German rocket technology and engineers, 1945-1946. In 1949 made Chief of State Commissions for rocket testing; in 1960 named head of the Second Directorate of the RVSN..

1911 February 10 - .
  • Birth of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Chief Theoretician of the Soviet missile and space programmes, 1946-1978. Played a key role in virtually every space project decision until his death. He was President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR from 1961 to 1975..

1911 June 22 - .
1911 June 23 - .
1911 October 25 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer 1954-1971 of OKB-586. Preeminent designer of ballistic missiles and light satellites. His Ukraine bureau designed the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's; the heavy R-16, R-36, and R-36M ICBM's; and the Zenit space launcher,.

1912 March 1 - .
  • Birth of Boris Yevseyevich Chertok - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Pioneering Russian guidance and control engineer, key member of Korolev's design team 1946-1992. Deputy Chief Designer 1956-1992, created Soyuz and N1 LV control systems. His frank biography is a key source for Soviet space history..

1912 March 6 - .
  • Birth of Erich Drews - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German coppersmith in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Manufacturing; Department Laboratory..

1912 May 31 - .
  • Birth of Georgi Ivanovich Petrov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Space Research 1965-1973. Conducted aerodynamic research at NII-1 before being named Director..

1912 June 8 - .
  • Birth of Arthur Pilz - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German master mechanic in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Test Bench; Laboratory Department..

1912 October 18 - .
1912 December 19 - .
1913 March 11 - .
  • Birth of Boris Nikolayevich Petrov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer, Department Chief 1951-1980 of the Institute of Control Problems, chair of the Inter-Cosmos Council, which promoted cooperation in space among eastern European nations during the height of the Cold War, 1966-1980..

1913 March 27 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Ivanovich Nosov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Chief of launch command of Baikonur 1955-1958. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe..

1913 April 27 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Ivanovich Kuznetsov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1946-1989 of Nll-10 and NII-44. Specialised in missile and spaceship gyroscopes..

1913 June 2 - .
1913 June 24 - .
1913 July 14 - .
1913 August 6 - .
1913 October 8 - .
  • Birth of Hans Eiseler - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German graduate engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61..

1914 April 29 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Vasilyevich Struminskiy - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian scientist. Director of Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 1966-1971. Specialised in liquid hydrogen..

1914 May 23 - .
1914 June 30 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomei - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer 1955-1984 of OKB-52. Leading designer of cruise missiles and ICBMs. Fought for lead role in space launchers and manned spacecraft. Led work on UR-100, UR-200 ICBM's, Proton LV, Raketoplan, Almaz, TKS manned spacecraft..

1914 August 6 - .
1914 October 9 - .
  • Birth of Georgi Aleksandrovich Tyulin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. First Deputy Chairman of GKOT 1961-1965. First Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1965-1976. Chaired many State Commissions..

1914 November 14 - .
1914 November 25 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Fedorovich Tolubko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. First Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Strategic Missile Forces 1960-1968. Commander-in-Chief 1972-1985..

1915 January 18 - .
1916 April 15 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Stepanovich Lidorenko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer of NII IT. Specialised in power sources for spacecraft, including Sputnik..

1916 April 16 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Vasilyevich Smirnov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian government official. Chaired the Military-Industrial Commission 1963-1985. Director of YuzhMash Plant 1952-1961..

1916 November 5 - .
1916 December 26 - .
1917 January 18 - .
  • Birth of Vasili Pavlovich Mishin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Soviet Chief Designer, superseding Korolev, 1966-1974. Led the bureau in the flight test stages of the L1 and N1-L3 manned lunar programs, the Soyuz, and the Salyut space station. Replaced by Glushko after failures in all of these programs..

1917 June 25 - .
  • Birth of Petr Aleksandrovich Tyurin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1953-1981 of KB Arsenal. Specialised in L3 components and later performed EORSAT work..

1917 June 30 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Petrovich Izotov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1960-1983 of OKB- 117. Although predominately an aircraft turbine engine designer, he also developed the engines for Chelomei's UR-100 missile and LK-700 manned lunar lander..

1917 August 26 - .
  • Birth of Alfred Klippel - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Electrical Circuits; Shop 55..

1917 October 23 - .
1918 May 29 - .
1918 July 20 - .
  • Birth of Grigoriy Vasilyevich Kisunko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1953-1975 of KB-1 and later of OKB-30. Led work on early anti-ballistic missiles and ASATs..

1918 July 24 - .
  • Birth of Otto Meier - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Oxygen Plant; Laboratory Department..

1918 August 9 - .
1918 August 30 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Aleksandrovich Afanasyev - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian politician. First Minister of General Machine Building, in charge of the Soviet ballistic rocket and space industries, from 1965-1983..

1918 September 27 - .
1918 September 27 - .
  • Birth of Andrei Grigoryevich Karas - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer, Commander, TsUKOS / GUKOS 1965-1979. Ended WW2 as commander of an artillery corps. After study at Dzerzhinsky, assigned to Kapustin Yar from 1951, followed by assignments at 4 NIIP MO and Baikonur. Chief of TsKIK 1959-1965..

1918 November 1 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Pavlovich Morozov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian officer. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Fortes 1962-1967..

1918 November 4 - .
  • Birth of Werner Baum - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German engineer, member of Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952 as Deputy of the Chief and Technical Designer; Dept. 61..

1918 November 7 - .
1918 November 27 - .
  • Birth of Boris Yevgenyevich Paton - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Director of Institute of Electrical Welding from 1953. Developed equipment for N1 fabrication and the Vulkan space welding unit..

1918 December 12 - .
  • Birth of Oleg Georgyevich Gazenko - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician. Director of IMBP 1969-1988. Performed early work on space medicine..

1919 January 5 - .
  • Birth of Rosemarie Tannhaeuser - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German manager. Member of the German Rocket Team in the Soviet Union after WW2. Secretary who worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked as Secretary in Dept. 61/Shop 55..

1919 February 11 - .
  • Birth of Siegfried Reinhard - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German designer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952. Worked in Engineering and Design; Dept. 61..

1919 September 14 - .
  • Birth of Vladislav Nikolayevich Bogomolov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer 1971-1985 of Isayev rocket engine design bureau. Succeeded Isayev after his death..

1919 September 22 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Vasilyevich Melnikov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1960-1974 at Korolev design bureau. Specialised in engines, including Blok D..

1919 October 1 - .
  • Birth of Dmitri Ilich Kozlov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian Chief Designer. Lead Designer for the R-7 ICBM, then headed Samara bureau for production engineering for the Soyuz rocket, Zenit and Yantar reconnaisance satellites..

1919 October 22 - .
  • Birth of Heinz Knittel - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: German precision mechanic, in the rocket team in Russia. Worked on rocket engine development in Glushko's bureau 1947-1952 in the Test Bench and Laboratory Departments. One of the group that fired V-2 rockets at Kapustin Yar in 1946..

1919 November 14 - .
  • Birth of Kerim Aliyevich Kerimov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian officer. First Commander of TsUKOS 1964-1965. Directorate Chief of Ministry of General Machine Building 1965-1974..

1920 January 2 - .
  • Birth of Isaac Asimov - . Nation: Russia; USA. Summary: Jewish-American writer. Writer of science fiction and popular science..

1920 April 6 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Ivanovich Savin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian chief designer. General Designer from 1962 of KB-1 and TsNII Kometa. Specialised in the hardware for the Soviet RORSAT. EORSAT, and ASAT programs..

1920 May 11 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Petrovich Radovskiy - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of OKB-456. Specialised in rocket engines and succeeded Glushko 1989..

1920 July 28 - .
1920 September 13 - .
  • Birth of Lisa Neumeister - . Nation: Germany; Russia. Summary: Wife of a German engineer in WW2, member of the Rocket Team in the Soviet Union, worked as a translator for rocket engine developers in Glushko's design bureau from 1947 to 1952..

1920 December 28 - .
1921 February 20 - .
1921 February 26 - .
1921 August 31 - .
  • Birth of Vyecheslav Mikhailovich Kovtunenko - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer of NPO Lavochkin 1977-1995. Kovtunenko started his career at the Yangel design bureau, where was responsible for satellite design..

1921 November 28 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Alekeseyevich Vasilyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian officer. Commander of GURVO 1964-1967. Chaired the Scientific-Technical Committee of the Strategic Missile Forces 1967-1969..

1922 January 18 - .
  • Birth of Oleg Genrikhovich Ivanovskiy - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer 1971-1983 of Lavochkin design bureau. Began career at Korolev's bureau, working on Sputnik and Vostok..

1922 February 17 - .
1922 March 10 - .
1922 March 14 - .
1922 May 12 - .
  • Birth of Abram Moiseyevich Genin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian officer. Directorate Chief of Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine 1964-1975..

1922 July 13 - .
  • Birth of Petr Stepanovich Pleshakov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian government official. Director of TsNII-108 1958-1964. Minister of Radio Industry 1974-1987..

1923 May 21 - .
  • Birth of Pavel Artemyevich Agadzhanov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian officer. Deputy Chief for Scientific Research at Central KIK Tracking Centre, 1957-1971..

1923 August 29 - .
1923 October 17 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Fedorovich Utkin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian chief designer. Deputy Chief Designer 1961-1971 of Yangel design bureau. Succeeded Yangel as Chief Designer in 1971. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, left the Ukraine in 1990 to become head of TsAGI in Moscow..

1924 March 22 - .
  • Birth of Yevgeni Ilich Ostashev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian officer. First Directorate Chief of Baikonur 1956-1960. Died in the Nedelin catastrophe..

1924 August 4 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Nikolayevich Benderov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot. Graduated from the Zhukovsky, 1950. Worked as an engineer and senior test pilot for Tupolev. Flew MiG-21 Tu-144 wing testbed. Proposed on 1964.06.29 as cosmonaut for Voskhod flights, but not confirmed..

1924 October 25 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Petrovich Makeyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1985 of SKB-385. Leading designer of tactical and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Innovations included submerged engines, stellar-updated inertial navigation, and extendible nozzles..

1924 November 10 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Fedorovich Reshetnev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer and General Designer 1961-1996 of OKB-10, primary Soviet designer of communications and navigation satellites..

1924 December 31 - .
1925 February 4 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Lavrentyevich Lapygin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer, then Chief Designer of Pilyugin design bureau. Specialised in guidance and succeeded Pilyugin 1982..

1925 June 26 - .
1926 January 11 - .
1926 February 7 - .
1926 August 31 - .
1926 October 26 - .
1927 March 12 - .
  • Birth of Dmitri Alekseyevich Polukhin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1973-1993 of Chelomei design bureau Filial 1. Led the development of Proton..

1927 March 16 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 1, Soyuz 1. First person to die during spaceflight when the parachute lines of Soyuz 1 tangled and it crashed to earth. Cosmonaut training March 1960 - 3 April 1961. Call sign: Rubin (Ruby)..

1927 September 4 - .
1927 October 6 - .
  • Birth of Boris Vladimirovich Balmont - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian politician. First Deputy Minister of General Machine Building 1976-1981. Chief of Chief Directorate of Ministry of General Machine Building 1965-1973..

1927 November 25 - .
  • Birth of Boris Arkadyevich Dorofeyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Deputy Chief Designer of Korolev design bureau. Chief Designer for N1 rocket 1972-1974. He was demoted in 1974 after the cancellation of the N1 programme..

1928 January 21 - .
1928 February 23 - .
  • Birth of Vasili Grigoryevich Lazarev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch..

1928 February 26 - .
1928 June 1 - .
1929 September 5 - .
  • Birth of Andrian Grigoryevich Nikolayev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Chuvash-Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 3, Soyuz 9. First person to fly more than one day in space. Married Valentina Tereshkova, and fathered first child born to parents that had both flown in space..

1930 January 21 - .
1930 March 14 - .
  • Birth of Boris Ivanovich Gubanov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer. Leading manager at the Yangel and Korolev design bureaus, 1972-1993..

1930 June 2 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Petrovich Artyukhin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 14. Member of first military space station mission..

1930 June 8 - .
1930 June 11 - .
1930 September 23 - .
1931 February 24 - .
1931 March 29 - .
1931 March 30 - .
  • Birth of Dr Aleksey Vasilyevich Sorokin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1964-1964. Soviet Air Force Physician. On the staff of the cosmonaut training center, working in the field of aerospace medicine.Later head of department at several scientific institutes..

1931 May 25 - .
1931 July 3 - .
1931 July 20 - .
  • Birth of Marina Lavrentrevna Vasliyevna Popovich - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer at Antonov, VVS officer and test pilot, holder of 13 aviation world records, wife of cosmonaut Pavel Popovich, world-renowned UFO expert..

1932 January 3 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Petrovich Kuklin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1963-1975. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons (heart problems) in July 1975 . Worked on the General Staff of the Soviet Air Force until retirement in 1987..

1932 March 24 - .
1932 April 4 - .
1932 April 15 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Stepanovich Porvatkin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Technical Air Force School, 1952. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy, Monino, 1960. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - 18 August 1967. Worked at NPO Energia..

1932 April 29 - .
1932 June 2 - .
1932 August 25 - .
1932 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Nikolayevich Burdayev - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Air Force Engineering Academy, doctorate degree, 1987. Cosmonaut training from May 1967 - 18 August 1969. Worked as trainer at the Gagarin Center. Professor in space ballistics from 1994..

1932 September 18 - .
1932 October 25 - .
  • Birth of Dr Lev Nikolayevich Smirenny - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1986. Medical Doctor. Graduated from Moscow Physical-Engineering Institute, 1956. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Chief of a laboratory at IMBP..

1933 January 6 - .
  • Birth of Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 12, Soyuz 18-1, Salyut 6 EP-1, Salyut 6 EO-5. Survived first manned spaceflight abort during launch..

1933 January 18 - .
1933 January 29 - .
1933 February 12 - .
  • Birth of Ivan Nikolayevich Anikeyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Left with Filatyev and Nelyubov after alcohol incident. After discharge, again served as Air Force pilot and then navigation officer for ground control services of the Soviet Air Force..

1933 March 15 - .
1933 August 19 - .
1933 September 10 - .
  • Birth of Yevgeni Vassilyevich Khrunov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4/5. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft..

1933 September 18 - .
1934 January 13 - .
1934 March 9 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 1. First person in space. Due to his fame, the Soviet leadership did not want to risk him on another flight, but later relented. Died in a 1968 MiG trainer crash while requalifying for flight status..

1934 March 31 - .
  • Birth of Grigori Grigoyevich Nelyubov - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1963. Discharged with Anikeyev and Filatuev after alcohol incident. Returned to Air Force duties in Siberia, underwent increasing depression, killed in 1966 when hit by a train..

1934 May 30 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Voskhod 2, Soyuz 19 (ASTP). First person to walk in space. Flew in first USA/USSR docking mission. Cancelled missions included first Soviet circumlunar flight and first military space station mission..

1934 July 13 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Stanislavovich Yeliseyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 4/5, Soyuz 8, Soyuz 10. Member of first crew to transfer between spacecraft..

1934 August 2 - .
1934 August 15 - .
  • Birth of Valentin Stepanovich Varlamov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1960-1961. Left team after fracturing a vertebra in a diving accident in July 1960. Worked in the Soviet space program as a flight instructor for new cosmonauts within the TsPK..

1934 November 14 - .
  • Birth of Rudolf Alekseyevich Gulyayev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian scientist cosmonaut, 1967-1968. Scientist, Institute of Terrastrial Magnetism & Radiowaves of AN. Cosmonaut training May 1967 - August 1968. Left cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Worked as a research scientist at IZMIRAN..

1934 December 3 - .
1934 December 18 - .
1935 January 7 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Nikolayevich Kubasov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 6, Soyuz 19 (ASTP), Salyut 6 EP-5. Flew in first docking mission between American and Soviet spacecraft. Missed two chances to be first engineer on a Soviet space station (Cosmos 557 and Soyuz 11)..

1935 February 1 - .
1935 April 20 - .
1935 July 8 - .
1935 August 3 - .
1935 September 11 - .
  • Birth of Gherman Stepanovich Titov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Vostok 2. Second person in orbit. Youngest person in space. Left cosmonaut team for brilliant career in the space forces after deciding his future spaceflight prospects were nil..

1935 September 19 - .
  • Death of Konstantin E Tsiolkovskiy - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tsiolkovskiy. Summary: Chief Soviet theorist of spaceflight, developed mathematics of rocketry and space travel, identifying basic rocket and spacecraft designs. But work little known outside the Soviet Union, did not influence Goddard and Oberth..

1935 November 14 - .
  • Birth of Gennadi Aleksandrovich Dolgopolov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1966-1967. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI), 1959 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Retired due to medical reasons. Worked thereafter at NPO Energia..

1935 November 23 - .
  • Birth of Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 7, Soyuz 11. Member of first space station crew, however perished during landing. From 1958 a civilian engineer, Korolev OKB, involved in the development of the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft..

1936 February 26 - .
1936 September 27 - .
1936 October 7 - .
1936 October 31 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Nikolayevich Gaidukov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian navigator cosmonaut, 1967-1978. Retired due to medical reasons (injured during parachute training). Worked as an engineer until 1988, when he retired from all work for medical reasons..

1936 November 6 - .
1937 March 4 - .
1937 March 6 - .
  • Birth of Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian cosmonaut. First woman in space, aboard Vostok 6. But the flight was propaganda and future spaceflight opportunities did not develop. Was married to cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev. Later a leading Communist politician..

1937 April 14 - .
1937 May 7 - .
1937 May 31 - .
  • Birth of Vladislav Ivanovich Gulyayev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1963-1968. Graduated from Soviet Navy Engineering School Cosmonaut training January 1963 - 21 January 1965. Resigned for medical reasons after an accident. Worked at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center..

1937 August 17 - .
1937 September 6 - .
1937 October 11 - .
  • Birth of Dr Georgi Vladimirovich Machinski - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1972-1974. Worked at the IMBP in Moscow. Left cosmonaut group for medical reasons after being injured in an automobile accident. He resumed work at the IMBP, reaching the position of senior-scientist..

1937 November 26 - .
1938 May 10 - .
1938 August 16 - .
  • Birth of Oleg Grigoryevich Kononenko - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1980-1980. Graduated from Zhukovsky Air Force Institute, 1975 Civilian test pilot. Cosmonaut training December 1978 - July 1980..

1939 February 3 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Yevgenyevich Preobrazhensky - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1980. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute Soviet Air Force, liaising with aircraft industrial enterprises. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked at Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center..

1939 February 13 - .
1939 March 8 - .
1939 March 25 - .
  • Birth of Aleksei Anatoliyevich Grechanik - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a flight to the Almaz space station. Engineer at the Kosmos Pavillon in Moscow..

1939 May 6 - .
1939 May 14 - .
1939 June 2 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Vasilyevich Illarionov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1970-1992. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, 1967 Soviet Air Force, specialized in communications systems. Served as CapCom during several Soyuz missions. Also involved in the Buran program..

1939 June 26 - .
  • Birth of Ansar Ilgamovich Sharafutdinov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Tatar-Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1968. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons. Retired from active military duty in 1985. Later taught at a Higher School..

1939 August 16 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Viktorovich Ryumin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Soyuz 25, Salyut 6 EO-3, Salyut 6 EO-4, STS-91. Was married to astronaut Yelena Kondakova. 371 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB.

1939 October 2 - .
1939 October 26 - .
1940 January 14 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Grigoryevich Makrushin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1987. Studied from 1957 to 1963 at Leningrad Institute of Aircraft Design (LIAP). Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Returned to NPO Mashinostroenniye..

1940 March 7 - .
1940 April 4 - .
1940 April 9 - .
  • Birth of Vasily Dmitriyevich Shcheglov - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1972. Graduated from Yeisk Higher Military Pilot School, 1963 Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Withdrawn from cosmonaut team for medical reasons..

1940 September 10 - .
  • Birth of Yevgeni Nikolayevich Khludeyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1965-1988. Graduated from Kiev AF Academy of Engineering,1962. Cosmonaut training November 1965 - December 1967. Worked as research scientist at the Gagarin Center. Involved in the Buran program from 1986 - 1988..

1940 September 28 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Segeyevich Ivanchenkov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-2, Salyut 7 EP-1. Graduated MAI, 1964 Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB. Trained for a Buran flight. From 1993 served as deputy director of 29th Department, RKK Energia..

1940 October 6 - .
  • Birth of Boris Dmitriyevich Andreyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1972-1983. Off flight roster for medical reasons. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB.

1940 October 28 - .
  • Birth of Gennadi Mikhailovich Strekalov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-5, Soyuz T-8, Soyuz T-10-1, Salyut 7 EP-3, Mir EO-7, Mir EO-18. Survived first manned launch pad abort. Flew in space six times. Civilian Engineer, Korolev OKB..

1940 December 31 - .
1941 February 26 - .
  • Birth of Dmitri Andreyevich Yuyukov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1973-1987. Graduated from MAI, 1965 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Trained for a TKS flight to the Almaz military space station. Sector Head, NPO Mashinostroyeniye. From worked at GKNPTs Khrunishchev..

1941 April 14 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Pavlovich Fyodorov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1965-1974. Graduated from E.N. Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School, 1963. Cosmonaut training November 1965-December 1967. Flight controller in Kaliningrad until he retired in 1992..

1941 July 14 - .
1941 July 20 - .
1941 August 15 - .
1941 August 27 - .
1941 December 23 - .
1942 January 8 - .
1942 January 12 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Sergeyevich Kozelsky - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Kachinsk, 1963; Monino, 1981. Cosmonaut training 1967.05-1969.08.18. Later Deputy Mir Flight Director. Retired in 1992..

1942 January 29 - .
1942 April 11 - .
  • Birth of Anatoli Nikolayevich Berezovoi - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-1. Graduated from Air Force Academy. Retired for medical reasons (due to injuries he received as the victim in an armed robbery). From 1992 to 1999, Deputy President, Russian Space Federation..

1942 April 14 - .
1942 April 24 - .
1942 April 27 - .
  • Birth of Dr Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on Mir LD-2, Mir LD-4. Longest single space flight (437 days). 678 cumulative days in space. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems..

1942 May 13 - .
1942 June 8 - .
1943 February 20 - .
1943 March 27 - .
1943 August 13 - .
1944 January 12 - .
1944 February 15 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Serebrov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Soyuz T-8, Mir EO-5, Mir EO-14. Ten spacewalks. 372 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO..

1944 February 21 - .
1944 July 13 - .
1944 August 1 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Viktorovich Romanenko - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 6 EO-1, Salyut 6 EP-8, Mir LD-1. Father of cosmonaut Roman Romanenko. 430 cumulative days in space..

1945 February 7 - .
  • Death of Petr Ivanovich Fedorov - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Fedorov. Summary: Russian officer. First Director of NII-l 1944-1945. Oversaw the early search for the A-4..

1945 May 20 - .
1945 October 20 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Ivanovich Kozlov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1970-1973. Graduated from Higher Air Force School of Pilots, 1968 Soviet Air Force parachutist. Left cosmonaut group due to medical problems. Served on Russian Air Force Staff. Retired as a Colonel on 6 March 1996..

1946 March 9 - .
1946 April 19 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Viktorovich Zabolotski - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1984-1997. Cosmonaut training September 1985 - 1987. Buran Test Pilot. Civilian test pilot at the Zhukovsky Flight Test Center of LII..

1946 August 18 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Aleksandrovich Romanov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman-Higher School, Moscow, 1970 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. Worked with NPO Salyut..

1946 November 11 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Alekseyevich Solovyov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EO-3, Mir EO-1. Member of first crew to fly between two space stations during a single mission. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

1947 January 3 - .
1947 February 26 - .
1947 March 15 - .
1947 June 30 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Petrovich Sheffer - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1985-1996. Was married to cosmonaut Tamara Zakharova..

1947 July 28 - .
1947 October 6 - .
1947 October 8 - .
  • Birth of Dr Yelena Ivanovna Dobrokvashina - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1980-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Biological Medical Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Returned to work at the IMBP..

1948 January 16 - .
  • Birth of Anatoliy Yakovlevich Solovyov - . Nation: Latvia; Russia. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EP-2, Mir EO-6, Mir EO-12, Mir EO-19, Mir EO-24. Record number of spacewalks and time spent on space walks. 651 cumulative days in space..

1948 August 8 - .
  • Birth of Svetlana Yevgenyevna Savitskaya - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Salyut 7 EP-2, Salyut 7 EP-4. Test pilot, engineer, second woman in space. First woman to walk in space..

1948 October 15 - .
1948 October 28 - .
1948 November 18 - .
1948 December 31 - .
  • Birth of Viktor Mikhailovich Afanasyev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-8, Mir EO-15, Mir EO-27, ISS EP-2. 555 cumulative days in space. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred toTsPK, 1987. Call sign: Derbent (Derbent - Russian city).

1949 February 20 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Yevgeniyevich Turovets - . Nation: Russia; USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut, 1977-1980. Test pilot, Gromov Flight Research Institute. Selected as a cosmonaut for the Buran program in 1977 by the Gromov Flight Test Center, but the selection was not confirmed by the government commission..

1949 May 9 - .
1949 June 12 - .
1949 October 3 - .
1950 February 15 - .
1950 June 1 - .
  • Birth of Gennadi Mikhailovich Manakov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-7, Mir EO-13. Buran Test Pilot, 1985-1987. Transferred to TsPK cosmonaut detachment 1987. Call sign: Vulkan (Volcano)..

1950 June 25 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Georiyevich Ivanov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut, 1978-1980. Graduated from Higher Air Force School, Katchinsk, 1971 Major and pilot, Soviet Air Force. Cosmonaut training 23 August 1976 - 30 January 1979..

1950 July 16 - .
1950 September 28 - .
  • Birth of Vitali Aleksandrovich Lopota - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Chechen engineer. General Designer of TsNII-RTK from 1991 to 2007. General Designer of RKK Energia from 2007.

1950 October 1 - .
  • Birth of Dr Boris Vladimirovich Morukov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut. Flew on STS-106. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems.

1950 December 12 - .
1951 January 20 - .
1951 April 21 - .
1951 August 3 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Aleksandrovich Yemelyanov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1984-1992. Graduated from MAI, 1974 Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Cosmonaut training November 1985 - October 1986. Left cosmonaut cadre for medical reasons. Manager for AO TPK "Prodmarket"..

1951 August 20 - .
1952 March 8 - .
1952 April 22 - .
1952 May 28 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Mkrtychovich Gevorkyan - . Nation: Armenia; Russia. Summary: Armenian-Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1978-1987. Graduated from Bauman Technical Higher School, Moscow, 1975 Civilian Engineer, Chelomei OKB. From 1991 General Director of Science Corporation "Terra"..

1952 August 10 - .
1952 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2R. LV Configuration: R-2R RUD 1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 October 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2R. LV Configuration: R-2R RUD 2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 October 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2R. LV Configuration: R-2R RUD 3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 October 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2R. LV Configuration: R-2R RUD 4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2R. LV Configuration: R-2R RUD 5.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1952 October 28 - .
  • Birth of Dr Mikhail Georgiyevich Potapov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1985. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training October 1979 - July 1980. Later Chief of Laboratory 174 at IMBP..

1952 October 29 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Ivanovich Tokarev - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian test pilot cosmonaut. Flew on STS-96, ISS EO-12. Russian Air Force test pilot, flying 44 types of aircraft and helicopters. Selected as Buran test pilot in 1987. From 1994, commander cosmonaut group for aerospace systems..

1953 March 3 - .
  • Birth of Dr Aleksandr Viktorovich Borodin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1978-1993. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Worked again at IMBP..

1953 March 5 - .
  • Birth of Valeri Grigoryevich Korzun - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-22, ISS EO-5. 381 cumulative days in space. Call sign: Fregat (Frigate)..

1953 March 5 - .
1953 April 14 - .
1953 April 29 - .
  • Birth of Nikolai Mikhailovich Budarin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-19, Mir EO-25, ISS EO-6. Made nine spacewalks. 444 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

1953 May 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 May 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 July 9 - .
1953 July 30 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Nikolayevich Balandin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. Flew on Mir EO-6. Left cosmonaut corps for medical reasons and returned to NPO Energia until departing in 1994. Then President of Lendint-Association until 2000..

1953 August 31 - .
  • Birth of Pavel Vladimirovich Vinogradov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-24, ISS EO-13. 380 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energiya NPO..

1953 October 14 - .
  • Birth of Dr Olga Nikolayevna Klyushnikova - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian physician cosmonaut, 1979-1986. Civilian Physician, Institute of Medical Biological Problems. Cosmonaut training from October 1979 - July 1980. Did not complete training, when the government commission did not confirm his selection..

1953 October 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 53090220.
  • NII-88 Production - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1953 October 30 - .
1953 November 15 - .
1953 December 23 - .
  • Death of Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria - . Nation: Georgia; Russia. Related Persons: Beria. Summary: Georgian-Russian officer. Soviet security apparatus chief until toppled after death of Stalin 1953. In charge of Soviet development of nuclear weapons and rocketry, 1944-1953..

1953 December 26 - .
1954 January 12 - .
1954 February 20 - .
1954 April 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 April 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 6 - .
1954 May 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 22 - .
1954 June 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • ZAV586 Prod GIM-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 June 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 Prod. missile.
  • ZAV586 Prod GIM-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 July 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S0-6.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 September 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K1-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K1-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K2-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K2-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 D21-14.
  • UBP - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 November 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 December 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 December 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 December 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 December 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1955 January 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 409.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 408.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-5.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 K3-17.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 January 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 K3-18.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 January 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 K3-19.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 January 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 403.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5. LV Configuration: R-5 K3-20.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1955 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 402.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1955 February 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K5-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K4-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 K3-8.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-12.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-15.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-13.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-16.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S3-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K7-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K8-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 March 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K6-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 March 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-5D.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi).

1955 March 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K0-10.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 April 3 - .
1955 April 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K0-11.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S1-20 TAD.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-20 TAD.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K8-12.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K2-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K6-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S3-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S6-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 9 - .
1955 July 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S0-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S0-4.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi).

1955 August 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S7-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 406.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S0-5.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S0-8.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S0-7.
  • UGCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S8-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S9-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 September 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S11-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S10-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 October 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S12-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 November 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S13-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 November 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 415.
  • Generator-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 November 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S14-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 December 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S15-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 December 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S16-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 December 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S18-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S17-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S19-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S19-19.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 January 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-7.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 January 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-8.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 January 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 465.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S1-1.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 S1-3.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 February 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-19.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 February 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-11.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 February 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-12.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 February 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-2.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 February 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A1-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 February 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-3.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1956 February 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-4.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1956 February 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M S1-9.
  • LKI 1A - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1956 March 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A2-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 March 14 - .
  • Birth of Natalya Dmitriyevna Kuleshova - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1980-1992. Graduated from Moscow Aviation Institute named after Grigori (Sergo) K. Ordzhonikidze, 1978. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO. From 1992 she worked as an engineer at NPO Energia, Department 292..

1956 April 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-1.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A3-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 May 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 1T.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 May 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0105.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 May 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 4T-1.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 May 13 - .
  • Birth of Aleksandr Yuryevich Kaleri - . Nation: Latvia; Russia. Summary: Latvian-Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-11, Mir EO-22, Mir EO-28, ISS EO-8. 609 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

1956 May 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 3T-1.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 5T-2.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 2T-1.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 7T-2.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 6T-2.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 8T-2.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 10T-3.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1UK 9T-3.
  • Project T-3 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-5.
  • Production launch - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1956 July 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 207.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 July 18 - .
  • Death of Ivan Gerasimovich Zubovich - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Zubovich. Summary: Russian government official. Deputy Minister of Armaments 1949-1951. Deputy Chairman of Special Committee 2..

1956 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A3-5.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 July 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S19-18.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 August 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M S1-10.
  • KS Prod. test - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M A1-13.
  • LKI 1B - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 September 9 - .
1956 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M A1-6.
  • LKI 1B - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1956 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M A1-16.
  • LKI 1B - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 September 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-1TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 September 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-2TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 September 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M A1-17.
  • LKI 1B - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1956 September 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A4-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 October 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 102.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 October 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 103.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 October 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0310.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 October 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A3-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 October 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 104.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-3TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A5-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 November 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 303.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 November 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-6TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 November 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-4TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 November 20 - .
  • Birth of Vladimir Gayevich Severin - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1990-1995. Son of design bureau chief Gay Ilich Severin..

1956 December 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A1-5TS.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1956 December 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 103?.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-20.
  • KS - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 January 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-4T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1957 January 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0406.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 January 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0408.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 January 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0920.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 February 20 - .
1957 February 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A2-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 A1-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 February 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 M1-25.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 March 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-12TS.
  • TMP-2 GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-7TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-13TS.
  • TMP-2 GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-15TS.
  • TMP-2 GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 March 30 - .
  • Birth of Yelena Vladimirovna Kondakova - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-17, STS-84. Engineer, first Russian woman to fly in space for other than propaganda reasons. Was married to astronaut Valeriy Ryumin. Civilian Engineer, Energia NPO.

1957 April 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M M1-25.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 April 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M M1-22.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 May 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 M2-25.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 0419.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 0418.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 June 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0405.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 June 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0406.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 June 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A683-V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M2-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 June 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A681-V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 July 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0417RD.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 52080416.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K2-5.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-17TS.
  • GCh/RUD - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 July 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 0415.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 July 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0409.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 July 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 0414.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 July 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 5208413.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 July 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-16TS.
  • GCh/RUD - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 July 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0407.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 July 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0408.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 July 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0419.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0319RD.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-18TS.
  • GCh/RUD - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 53010116.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0217RD.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 5 - .
1957 August 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0216.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SP-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0215.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-12.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-14.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B7-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 August 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M686.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-13.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M583.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M581.
  • ZI - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M M1-28.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1957 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M M1-29.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1957 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 August 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M M1-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1957 August 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M M1-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1957 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M M1-27.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1957 September 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-1.
  • Generator-5 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-19TS.
  • TMP-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-14TS.
  • TMP-2 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 21 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0412.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 21 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0410.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 22 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0411.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 23 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-15.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M3-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 September 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M689.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M681.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 29 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0414.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 September 30 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 0413.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 1 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K2-11.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 2 - . Launch Site: Urda. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-11.
  • Tactical launcher - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 5108088423.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6816.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 5108088419.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 9 - .
  • Birth of Yuri Vladimirovich Usachyov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-15, Mir EO-21, STS-101, ISS EO-2. 552 cumulative days in space..

1957 October 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120312.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120311.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 5108088422.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120313.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 0101.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 14 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 5108088429.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 53081319.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 53091511.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 53040818.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 October 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 53050110.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120309.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 October 30 - .
1957 November 1 - .
  • Death of Aleksei Ledovskiy. Reported killed in a sub-orbital flight in November 1957. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Ledovskiy. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut. In 1959 Italian news reported a series of cosmonaut deaths on suborbital flights, among these Ledovsky. No historical evidence ever emerged of any Soviet suborbital flights..

1957 November 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-2.
  • Generator-5 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 November 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120308.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6812.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M68688.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6814.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6811.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6817.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 November 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M4-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 December 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6815.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 December 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6818.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 December 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M6813.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1957 December 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-25.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-3.
  • Generator-5 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1957 December 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-25T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M4-4T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 December 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M4-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 January 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 53030610.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 January 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 53071201.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 January 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 53091713.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 January 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 53120317.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 January 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 D2111.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 February 1 - .
  • Death of Serenti Shiborin. Reported killed on a sub-orbital flight in February 1958. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shiborin. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut. Oberth claimed in 1959 that a pilot was killed on a sub-orbital flight from Kapustin Yar in early 1958. Italian press linked Shiborin name to this flight. No other evidence..

1958 February 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 February 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 519088433.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 February 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-3TSK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 February 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-18.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 March 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-5TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 March 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-19.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 March 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A6-84V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 March 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B2-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 March 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B3-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 April 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A6-85V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 April 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B4-20TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-6TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A6-82V.
  • Vibrator - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 K2-19.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 May 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 K6-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 May 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 K1-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 May 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 K9-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 May 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B5-20T.
  • UBP - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-4TK.
  • UBP/VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 May 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-67.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 May 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 June 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-10TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 June 21 - .
  • Birth of Gennadi Ivanovich Padalka - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian pilot cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-26, ISS EO-9, ISS EO-19. 585 cumulative days in space..

1958 June 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-8TK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1958 June 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B6-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 52080408.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120418.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 52080407.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 52080410.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-12.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120416.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 July 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120415.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 July 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-1TSK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 July 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-9TSK.
  • VV GCh - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 July 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 52120417.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 July 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 52080411.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 51120504.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 51120106.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 51120107.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 51120301.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1958 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 51120303.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1958 July 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M A2-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 July 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-21.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 August 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-22.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 August 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 52090501.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 August 18 - .
1958 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalyov - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, Energia NPO, 1985-2009. Flew on Mir EO-4, Mir LD-3, STS-60, STS-88, ISS EO-1, ISS EO-11. World record for total duration spent in space (803 days). First Russian to fly aboard an American spacecraft. Flew in space six times..

1958 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K3-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 M2-18.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-23.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M3-18.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 D2115.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 M2-3D.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-24.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1958 September 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 K2-16.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A3-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 A3-6 (DUP?).
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-8.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 22 - .
1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M5-2TSK.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M4-17.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M4-26.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B8-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 September 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 October 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B1-6T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 October 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B1-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 October 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B2-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 October 31 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B2-9T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 November 4 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M M1-4 8K51D.
  • GCh Fakel - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 November 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B3-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 November 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B1-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 November 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-3 8K52.
  • Zvezda - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1958 December 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B3-6T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 December 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-20T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1958 December 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-5 8K52.
  • Zvezda - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 460 km (280 mi).

1958 December 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-8T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1958 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B4-2T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B4-10.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 January 3 - .
1959 January 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-18T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B1-15.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B6897.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 53060204.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-17.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 January 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-1. LV Configuration: R-1 D217.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1959 January 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B681.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-4 8K52.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 February 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-17TA.
  • Gotovnost-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M3-19.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 M2-23.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-16T.
  • Gotovnost-1 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 March 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-18TA.
  • Gotovnost-1 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 March 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B10-19TA.
  • Gotovnost-3 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 March 12 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I1-15T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I1-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 March 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I2-15T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 March 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I2-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 April 7 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M I1-20TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 April 9 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-8 8K52.
  • Zvezda - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 April 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B2-16T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 April 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 April 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B2-12T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 April 24 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B2-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 April 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-5M. LV Configuration: R-5M B1-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1959 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I2-3T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 I2-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B2-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 April 29 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M B2-14.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 May 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S6-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S9-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S6-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11. LV Configuration: R-11 B2-20.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-1.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 May 22 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-9.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 1 - .
  • Death of Mirya Gromova. Reported killed in a test of a winged rocket-powered aircraft in 1959. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gromova. Summary: Russian phantom cosmonaut. Soviet test pilot said to have flown a 'space airplane' into oblivion 1959.12. No evidence ever surfaced in post-Glasnost Russia to back up the claim..

1959 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-7.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 5 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-4.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I1-5T.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I3-1TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 June 6 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S6-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I3-2TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 June 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-8.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-3.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I1-5TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 June 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-2.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-2. LV Configuration: R-2 S2-6.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1959 June 17 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I3-4TS.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1959 June 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Vehicle: R-11M. LV Configuration: R-11M I3-3TS.
  • - . Nation: