Encyclopedia Astronautica

Almaz-1V unmanned earth resources satellite. Development was authorised in 1986 but the project was abandoned after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Credit: Khrunichev
Russian civilian surveillance radar satellite. Study 1993.

Civilian derivative of the Almaz-1V military radarsat, developed for international earth resources missions, including a 3 band sounder with 5 to 7 m resolution and a high-resolution scanning infrared system.

Work began on a successor to the Almaz reconnaissance platform in 1973. This Almaz-1V was to have a 5 to 7 m resolution radar ground mapping system, coupled with a 2.5 to 4 m optical camera. It was designed to be man-tended by the TKS logistics spacecraft. 100 engineers applied for training on the system, but the medical commission cleared only six for cosmonaut training.

However the Soviet military showed no interest in use of the Almaz-T by the mid-1980's. The Ministry of Defense was satisfied with the performance of its new electro-optical satellites. Finally the Academy of Sciences agreed to take the project over. A VPK decree of 12 April 1986 required Almaz 1B to be developed for international earth resources missions, including a 3 band sounder with 5 to 7 m resolution and a high-resolution scanning infrared system. The existing military Almaz-T's would be flown as prototypes of this design.

The first Almaz-1B was to have been launched in 1993 on a two year mission. Almaz-1B would have carried three synthetic aperture radars: SAR-10 (9.6 cm wavelength, 5-40 m resolution, 25-300 km swath); SAR-70 (70 cm wavelength, 15-60 m resolution, 100-150 km swath), and a 3.6 cm wavelength SAR with 5-7 m resolution. Multi-spectral scanners, including MSU-E and MSU-SK, would also carried as well as a Balkan-2 lidar. However a lack of funding postponed the flight of Almaz-1B to late 1997 before it faded from sight.

AKA: Almaz-1V.
Gross mass: 18,550 kg (40,890 lb).
Thrust: 7.84 kN (1,763 lbf).
Specific impulse: 291 s.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-0225 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3.923 kN. Almaz space station orbital maneuvering. Hardware. Originally designed for UR-100 follow-ons spaceships. Two engines used on Almaz space station for orbital maneuvering, Pressure fed. Isp=287s. First flight 1974. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • AN Russian agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. Academy of Sciences (Russian abbreviation), Russia. More...
  • Reshetnev Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Reshetnev Design Bureau, Krasnoyarsk-26/Zhelenogorsk, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

  • Johnson, Nicholas L; and Rodvold, David M, Europe and Asia in Space 1993-1994, USAF Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM 80907, 1995..
  • Gorodnichev, Yu P, et. al., 80 let GKNPTs imemi M V Khrunicheva, GKNPTs i Khrunicheva, 1995.
  • Yeteyev, Ivan, Operezhaya vremya, Ocherki, Moscow, 1999..
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..

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