Encyclopedia Astronautica
Anna



anna1b.jpg
Anna 1B
American earth geodetic satellite. 2 launches, 1962.05.10 (Anna 1A) and 1962.10.31 (Anna 1B).

ANNA was a geodetic research satellite with the primary missions of measuring the strength and direction of the Earth's gravitational field, locating the centre of the Earth's mass and marking off positions on the Earth.

ANNA weighed 160 kg, was 0.91m in diameter and was powered by a band of solar cells around its equator supported by nickel cadmium batteries. A broad band spiral antenna was painted on the sphere, and the instrument tray was centrally mounted on the inside. Named for Army, Navy, Air Force and NASA. its sponsors, ANNA was launched October 31, 1962. The satellite contained optical, radio ranging and radio Doppler instrumentation. The optical system was a high intensity optical beacon activated by programmed command to set off a series of 5 light flashes 5.6 seconds apart. These were photographed by ground stations. The Navy Doppler frequency system was also still operable on command. Despite deterioration of the satellite's solar cells by the artificial radiation belt, ANNA had provided a large amount of geodetic information and permitted highly accurate positioning of tracking stations relative to the centre of the Earth. Findings of the Air Force flashing light and the Navy Doppler frequency measurement systems agreed to accuracies of 20 meters or better. The Army's radio-ranging system ceased operation in orbit too early to yield comparative data. Prime Contractor: The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

AKA: Army-Navy-NASA.
Gross mass: 160 kg (350 lb).
First Launch: 1962.05.10.
Last Launch: 1962.10.31.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Thor Able-Star American orbital launch vehicle. As Thor Able but with enlarged Ablestar second stage with 2 1/2 x greater burn time. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • APL American manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD, Laurel, Maryland, USA. More...
  • USN American agency overseeing development of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. USN Joint Task Force 7, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Bramscher, Robert G, "A Survey of Launch Vehicle Failures", Spaceflight, 1980, Volume 22, page 351.
  • Aerospace Yearbook, 1966,
  • NASA Report, NASA/MOTS optical observations of the ANNA 1B satellite, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17B Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17A Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Pad 17A supported Thor, Delta, and Delta II launches into the 21st Century. More...

Anna Chronology


1962 May 10 - . 12:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Able-Star. LV Configuration: Thor Ablestar 314 AB011. FAILURE: Able-Star failed to ignite.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Anna 1A - . Payload: Anna 1A. Mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Anna. Decay Date: 1962-05-10 . COSPAR: F620510A. Summary: USN, USAF, US Army, NASA joint program..

1962 October 31 - . 08:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Able-Star. LV Configuration: Thor Ablestar 319 AB012.
  • Anna 1B - . Mass: 161 kg (354 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: Anna. USAF Sat Cat: 446 . COSPAR: 1962-B-Mu-1. Apogee: 1,181 km (733 mi). Perigee: 1,075 km (667 mi). Inclination: 50.1000 deg. Period: 107.90 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

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