Encyclopedia Astronautica
Apollo Direct TLM


American manned spacecraft module. Study 1961. Final letdown, translation hover and landing on the lunar surface from 1800 m above the surface was performed by the terminal landing module. Engine thrust could be throttled down to 1546 kgf.

The engine was presumed to be based on a reasonable development of any one of three on-going engine programs for Apollo of the time: Aerojet General's 3600 kgf thrust Transtage engine; Reaction Motors' Model TD-294 4500 kgf thrust LEM research engine; or the 4500 kgf thrust engine under investigation by Rocketdyne for possible use in the LEM. The engine in the terminal landing module was ablatively cooled, throttleable, and had an expansion ratio of 20:1.

Recovery Equipment: 336 kg (740 lb).

Gross mass: 2,773 kg (6,113 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,240 kg (2,730 lb).
Height: 1.98 m (6.49 ft).
Diameter: 5.89 m (19.32 ft).
Thrust: 50.12 kN (11,268 lbf).

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Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Apollo Direct 2-Man American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 75% scale 2-man Apollo command module. More...
  • Gemini Lunar Lander American manned lunar lander. Study 1961. A direct lunar lander design of 1961, capable of being launched to the moon in a single Saturn V launch through use of a 2-man Gemini re-entry vehicle instead of the 3-man Apollo capsule. More...

See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • McDonnell American manufacturer of spacecraft. McDonnell, St Louis, USA. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/MMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favour in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance. More...

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