Encyclopedia Astronautica
Apollo CSM



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Apollo CSM
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Apollo 15 CSM
Apollo 15 CSM over Lunar Surface
Credit: NASA
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Apollo CSM / LM
Apollo Command Service Module and Lunar Module
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Apollo CSM
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Apollo CSM
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Apollo vs N1-L3
Apollo CSM / LM vs L3 Lunar Complex
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Apollo CSM
Apollo CSM with Launch Escape Tower
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Apollo CSM Interior
Interior of the Apollo Command Service Module on display at Kennedy Space Centre, Florida.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Apollo Competitors
Credit: NASA
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Apollo with Vanes
Credit: NASA
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Convair Apollo
Credit: NASA
American manned lunar orbiter. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). The Apollo Command Service Module was the spacecraft developed by NASA in the 1960's as a standard spacecraft for earth and lunar orbit missions.

Block II CSM's were the only version to fly manned, and they successfully ferried crews to the moon, to the Skylab space station, and to a joint docking with the Russian Soyuz. No production was undertaken after the initial run of 13 Block II capsules - Apollo was abandoned in favor of the Shuttle as the ferry for American manned spaceflight. Forty years later, the Shuttle was to be retired, and a design similar to the Apollo, the CEV, was conceived as the Shuttle's 'replacement'.

Characteristics

Unit Cost $: 77.000 million. Crew Size: 3. Habitable Volume: 6.17 m3. RCS total impulse: 3,774 kgf-sec. Spacecraft delta v: 2,804 m/s (9,199 ft/sec). Electric System: 690.00 kWh. Electric System: 6.30 average kW.

AKA: Command Service Module.
Gross mass: 30,329 kg (66,863 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 11,841 kg (26,104 lb).
Height: 11.03 m (36.18 ft).
Thrust: 97.86 kN (22,000 lbf).
Specific impulse: 314 s.
First Launch: 1964.05.28.
Last Launch: 1975.07.15.
Number: 22 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Apollo Lunar Landing American manned lunar expedition. Begun in 1962; first landing on the moon 1969; sixth and final lunar landing 1972. The project that succeeded in putting a man on the moon. More...
  • Apollo SM American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). More...
  • Apollo CM American manned spacecraft module. 22 launches, 1964.05.28 (Saturn 6) to 1975.07.15 (Apollo (ASTP)). More...
  • AES Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. AES (Apollo Extension Systems) was planned as the first American lunar base. It would involve minimal modification of Apollo hardware. The Apollo CSM would be modified for long duration lunar orbit storage. More...
  • ALSS Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. The ALSS (Apollo Logistics Support System) Lunar Base would require a new development, the LM Truck, to allow delivery of up to 4100 kg in payload to the lunar surface. More...
  • LESA Lunar Base American manned lunar base. Cancelled 1968. LESA (Lunar Exploration System for Apollo) represented the ultimate lunar base concept studied by NASA prior to the cancellation of further Saturn V production in June 1968. More...

Associated Engines
  • AJ10-137 Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine. 97.5 kN. Apollo SPS. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as Apollo SM engine. Isp=312s. More...

See also
  • Lunar Orbiters Manned lunar orbiters and orbiting stations were rarely designed for this purpose alone, but usually used in a lunar-orbit rendezvous lunar landing scenario together with a separate lunar lander. They were more powerful than circumlunar manned spacecraft in that they required substantial propellant to brake into and get out of lunar orbit. More...
  • Saturn I Von Braun launch vehicle known as 'Cluster's Last Stand' - 8 Redstone tanks around a Jupiter tank core,powered by eight Jupiter engines. Originally intended as the launch vehicle for Apollo manned circumlunar flights. However it was developed so early, no payloads were available for it. More...
  • Saturn V America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture. Despite the study of innumerable variants, production was ended after only 12 were built and America spent the next fifty years in a pointless slow-motion withdrawal from manned space exploration. More...

Associated Flights
  • Apollo 7 Crew: Cunningham, Eisele, Schirra. First manned test of the Apollo spacecraft. Although the systems worked well, the crew became grumpy with head colds and talked back to the ground. As a result, NASA management determined that none of them would fly again. Backup crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young. More...
  • Apollo 8 Crew: Anders, Borman, Lovell. First manned flight to lunar orbit. Speed (10,807 m/s) and altitude (378,504 km) records. Mission resulted from audacious decision to send crew around moon to beat Soviets on only second manned Apollo CSM mission and third Saturn V launch. Backup crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Haise. More...
  • Apollo 9 Crew: McDivitt, Schweickart, Scott. First manned test of the Lunar Module. First test of the Apollo space suits. First manned flight of a spacecraft incapable of returning to earth. If rendezvous of the Lunar Module with the Apollo CSM had failed, crew would have been stranded in orbit. Backup crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon. More...
  • Apollo 10 Crew: Cernan, Stafford, Young. Speed record (11,107 m/s). Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon. LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of moon but did not land. Backup crew: Cooper, Eisele, Mitchell. More...
  • Apollo 11 Crew: Aldrin, Armstrong, Collins. First manned lunar landing. The end of the moon race and public support for large space programs. The many changes made after the Apollo 204 fire paid off; all went according to plan, virtually no problems. Backup crew: Anders, Haise, Lovell. More...
  • Apollo 12 Crew: Bean, Conrad, Gordon. Second manned lunar landing. Precision landing near Surveyor 3 that landed in 1967. Lightning struck the booster twice during ascent. Decision was made to press on to moon, despite possibility landing pyrotechnics damaged. Backup crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. More...
  • Apollo 13 Crew: Haise, Lovell, Swigert. Altitude (401,056 km) record. Fuel cell tank exploded en route to the moon, resulting in loss of all power and oxygen. Only through use of the still-attached LM as a lifeboat could the crew survive to return to earth. Backup crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young.Support crew: Brand, Lousma, Kerwin. More...
  • Apollo 14 Crew: Mitchell, Roosa, Shepard. Third manned lunar landing. Only Mercury astronaut to reach moon. Five attempts to dock the command module with the lunar module failed for no apparent reason - mission saved when sixth was successful. Hike to Cone Crater frustrating; rim not reached. Backup crew: Cernan, Engle, Evans.Support crew: Chapman, McCandless, Pogue. More...
  • Apollo 15 Crew: Irwin, Scott, Worden. First use of lunar rover on moon. Beautiful images of crew prospecting at edge of Hadley Rille. One of the three main parachutes failed, causing a hard but survivable splashdown. Backup crew: Brand, Gordon, Schmitt. More...
  • Apollo 16 Crew: Duke, Mattingly, Young. Second Apollo mission with lunar rover. CSM main engine failure detected in lunar orbit. Landing almost aborted. Backup crew: Haise, Mitchell, Roosa. More...
  • Apollo 17 Crew: Cernan, Evans, Schmitt. Final Apollo lunar landing mission. First geologist to walk on the moon. Backup crew: Duke, Roosa, Young. More...
  • Skylab 2 Crew: Conrad, Kerwin, Weitz. Record flight duration. Crew had to conduct major repairs to get damaged station in operation. Astronaut flung into space during release of solar wing. High temperatures in station brought down by deployment of sunshade. Backup crew: McCandless, Musgrave, Schweickart. More...
  • Skylab 3 Crew: Bean, Garriott, Lousma. Installed twinpole solar shield on EVA; performed major inflight maintenance; doubled record for length of time in space. Leaks in Apollo CSM thrusters led to preparation of a rescue mission. Decided to make landing with faulty thrusters instead. Backup crew: Brand, Lenoir, Lind. More...
  • Skylab 4 Crew: Carr, Gibson Edward, Pogue. Record flight duration. Final Skylab mission; included observation and photography of Comet Kohoutek among numerous experiments. Rebellion by crew against NASA Ground Control overtasking led to none of the crew ever flying again. Backup crew: Brand, Lenoir, Lind. More...
  • Apollo (ASTP) Crew: Brand, Slayton, Stafford. First international joint manned space mission; first docking between two spacecraft launched from different countries. Crew nearly killed by toxic propellant vapours dumped into the cabin air supply during re-entry. Backup crew: Bean, Evans, Lousma. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Saturn I American orbital launch vehicle. Von Braun launch vehicle known as 'Cluster's Last Stand' - 8 Redstone tanks around a Jupiter tank core,powered by eight Jupiter engines. Originally intended as the launch vehicle for Apollo manned circumlunar flights. However it was developed so early, no payloads were available for it. More...
  • Little Joe II American test vehicle. Little Joe II was an enlarged version of the Little Joe concept used in the Mercury program, used to test the Apollo capsule launch escape system. The vehicle was designed by General Dynamics. Six to nine solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing. More...
  • Saturn V American orbital launch vehicle. America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture. More...
  • Saturn IB American orbital launch vehicle. Improved Saturn I, with uprated first stage and Saturn IVB second stage (common with Saturn V) replacing Saturn IV. Used for earth orbit flight tests of Apollo CSM and LM. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • North American American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. North American, Palmdale, El Segundo. Downey, CA, USA More...

Associated Programs
  • Apollo The successful US project to land a man on the moon. More...
  • ASTP Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system. More...
  • Skylab First and only US space station to date. Project began life as Apollo Orbital Workshop - outfitting of an S-IVB stage with docking adapter with equipment launched by several subsequent S-1B launches. Curtailment of the Apollo moon landings meant that surplus Saturn V's were available, so the pre-equipped, five times heavier, and much more capable Skylab resulted. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Ertel , Ivan D; Morse , Mary Louise; et al, The Apollo Spacecraft Chronology Vol I - IV NASA SP-4009, NASA, 1966-1974. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautical and Astronautical Events of 1961 Report of NASA to the Committee on Science and Astronautics US House of Representatives 87th Cong 2d Sess, NASA, 1962. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Gatland, Kenneth, Manned Spacecraft, Macmillan, New York, 1968.
  • Baker, David, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown, New York, 1981.
  • Brooks, Courtney G, Grimwood, Hames M, Swenson, Lloyd S, Chariots for Apollo, Government Printing Office, 1989. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Chaikin, Andrew, A Man on the Moon, Viking, New York, 1994.
  • Furniss, Tim, Manned Spaceflight Log, Jane's, London, 1986.
  • Turnill, Reginald,, The Observer's Spaceflight Directory, Frederick Warne, London, 1978.
  • Wilson, Keith T., "EVA Log 1965-1997", Spaceflight, 1998, Volume 40, page 85.
  • Wade, Mark, "World Manned Spacecraft Characteristics", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1981, Volume 34, page 425.
  • Loftus, J P, "An Historical Overview of NASA Manned Spacecraft and their Crew Stations", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1985, Volume 38, page 354.
  • Kraft, Christopher C, editor, Manned Spacecraft: Engineering Design and Operation, NASA, 1968..
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Cassutt, Michael and Slayton, Deke, Deke! U.S. Manned Space: from Mercury to the Shuttle, Tom Doherty Associates, New York, 1994.
  • Kamanin, N P, Skritiy kosmos, Infortext, Moscow, 1995.
  • Oberg, James, and Cassutt, MIchael, "Phantom Space Crews", Spaceflight, Vol 26, June 1984, p. 274.
  • Ezell, Edward Clinton and Ezell, Linda Neuman, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA History Series SP-4209, 1978.
  • NASA Report, Block II Apollo Operations Handbook Volume 1, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo Command Module News Reference (1968), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo spacecraft familiarization: NASA support manual - December 1965, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, NASA support manual: Apollo spacecraft familiarization - December 1966, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo Spacecraft & Systems Familiarization (9/15/67), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Guidance & Control Systems - Block II (2/10/67), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Guidance & Control Systems - Block II (9/15/67), Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, The Apollo Parachute Landing System - September 1968, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo Command and Service Module Stabilization and Control System Design Survey - December 1968, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo Visibility Handbook - October 1968, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo service propulsion system rocket engine optimized SPS injector development and verification program, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo heat shield phase 1 , Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo: Guidance and control system , Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Apollo: Guidance and control system 2, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, A Brief Investigation of CSM Rescue of LEM, Project Apollo, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Extension of Investigation of CSM Rescue of LEM, Project Apollo, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Space Navigation Guidance and Control, Volume 1, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Space Navigation Guidance and Control, Volume 2, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC34 Saturn I launch complex. Saturn I and IB program launch complex, built 1959-1961. Four Saturn I and three Saturn IB vehicles were launched from Complex 34 between 27 October 1961 and 12 October 1968. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC39B Shuttle, Saturn V, Saturn I launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program in 1963-1966. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC39A Shuttle, Saturn V launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. Construction began in December 1963. Complex 39A was completed on 4 October 1965. Complex 39A supported two unmanned and nine manned Saturn V/Apollo missions between 9 November 1967 and 8 December 1972. The site also supported the launch of the Skylab space station on 14 May 1973. Both complexes were modified to support Space Shuttle missions later on. Complex 39A supported the first Space Shuttle launch on 12 April 1981. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC37B Saturn I, Delta IV launch complex. Complexes 34 and 37 were designed to support NASA's Saturn I and Saturn IB program. Complex 37 was built in 1962, and it was occupied by NASA in January 1963. Complex 37 supported eight Saturn I and Saturn IB missions, including the first flight of an unmanned Apollo lunar module, between 29 January 1964 and 23 January 1968. Complexes 34 and 37 were mothballed in November 1971, and their service structures were scrapped in April 1972. NASA retained control of both complexes, and both sites became NASA tour stops. More...

Apollo CSM Chronology


1957 October 14 - .
  • National space flight program proposed - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. The Rocket and Satellite Research Panel, established in 1946 as the V-2 Upper Atmosphere Research Panel and renamed the Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel in 1948, together with the American Rocket Society proposed a national space flight program and a unified National Space Establishment. The mission of such an Establishment would be nonmilitary in nature, specifically excluding space weapons development and military operations in space. By 1959, this Establishment should have achieved an unmanned instrumented hard lunar landing and, by 1960, an unmanned instrumented lunar satellite and soft lunar landing. Manned circumnavigation of the moon with return to earth should have been accomplished by 1965 with a manned lunar landing mission taking place by 1968. Beginning in 1970, a permanent lunar base should be possible.

1958 January 12 - .
  • Special Committee on Space Technology established - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: NACA established a Special Committee on Space Technology to study the problems of space flight. H. Guyford Stever of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was named Chairman. On November 21, 1957, NACA had authorized formation of the Committee..

1958 October 25 - .
  • Stever Committee report on the civilian space program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. The Stever Committee, which had been set up on January 12, submitted its report on the civilian space program to NASA. Among the recommendations:
    • A vigorous, coordinated attack should be made upon the problems of maintaining the performance capabilities of man in the space environment as a prerequisite to sophisticated space exploration.
    • Sustained support should be given to a comprehensive instrumentation development program, establishment of versatile dynamic flight simulators, and provision of a coordinated series of vehicles for testing components and subsystems.
    • Serious study should be made of an equatorial launch capability.
    • Lifting reentry vehicles should be developed.
    • Both the clustered- and single-engine boosters of million-pound thrust should be developed.
    • Research on high-energy propellant systems for launch vehicle upper stages should receive full support.
    • The performance capabilities of various combinations of existing boosters and upper stages should be evaluated, and intensive development concentrated on those promising greatest usefulness in different categories of payload.

1959 February 5 - .
  • Working Group on Lunar Exploration established by NASA - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. A Working Group on Lunar Exploration was established by NASA at a meeting at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Members of NASA, JPL, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, California Institute of Technology, and the University of California participated in the meeting. The Working Group was assigned the responsibility of preparing a lunar exploration program, which was outlined: circumlunar vehicles, unmanned and manned; hard lunar impact; close lunar satellites; soft lunar landings (instrumented). Preliminary studies showed that the Saturn booster with an intercontinental ballistic missile as a second stage and a Centaur as a third stage, would be capable of launching manned lunar circumnavigation spacecraft and instrumented packages of about one ton to a soft landing on the moon.

1959 February 17 - .
  • Exploration of the moon a NASA responsibility - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Roy. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Roy W. Johnson, Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), testified before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics that DOD and ARPA had no lunar landing program. Herbert F. York, DOD Director of Defense Research and Engineering, testified that exploration of the moon was a NASA responsibility.

1959 June 25-26 - .
  • Steps toward a manned lunar landing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. At the second meeting of the Research Steering Committee on Manned Space Flight, held at the Ames Research Center, members presented reports on intermediate steps toward a manned lunar landing and return.

    Bruce T. Lundin of the Lewis Research Center reported to members on propulsion requirements for various modes of manned lunar landing missions, assuming a 10,000-pound spacecraft to be returned to earth. Lewis mission studies had shown that a launch into lunar orbit would require less energy than a direct approach and would be more desirable for guidance, landing reliability, etc. From a 500,000 foot orbit around the moon, the spacecraft would descend in free fall, applying a constant-thrust decelerating impulse at the last moment before landing. Research would be needed to develop the variable-thrust rocket engine to be used in the descent. With the use of liquid hydrogen, the launch weight of the lunar rocket and spacecraft would be 10 to 11 million pounds. Additional Details: here....


1959 August-September - .
  • Meetings of the STG New Projects Panel to discuss an advanced manned space flight program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Meetings of the STG New Projects Panel to discuss an advanced manned space flight program. .

1959 August 12 - .
  • The New Projects Panel of Space Task Group (STG) met for the first time. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Gemini Parachute. The New Projects Panel of Space Task Group (STG) met for the first time, with H. Kurt Strass in the chair. The panel was to consider problems related to atmospheric reentry at speeds approaching escape velocity, maneuvers in the atmosphere and space, and parachute recovery for earth landing. Alan B. Kehlet of STG's Flight Systems Division was assigned to initiate a program leading to a second-generation capsule incorporating several advances over the Mercury spacecraft: It would carry three men; it would be able to maneuver in space and in the atmosphere; the primary reentry system would be designed for water landing, but land landing would be a secondary goal. At the next meeting, on August 18, Kehlet offered some suggestions for the new spacecraft. The ensuing discussion led panel members to agree that a specifications list should be prepared as the first step in developing an engineering design requirement.

1959 August 12 - .
  • NASA's future manned space program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Source Selection. The STG New Projects Panel (proposed by H. Kurt Strass in June) held its first meeting to discuss NASA's future manned space program. Present were Strass, Chairman, Alan B. Kehlet, William S. Augerson, Jack Funk, and other STG members. Strass summarized the philosophy behind NASA's proposed objective of a manned lunar landing : maximum utilization of existing technology in a series of carefully chosen projects, each of which would provide a firm basis for the next step and be a significant advance in its own right. Additional Details: here....

1959 August 18 - .
  • First major new NASA project to be a second-generation reentry capsule - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. At its second meeting, STG's New Projects Panel decided that the first major project to be investigated would be the second-generation reentry capsule. The Panel was presented a chart outlining the proposed sequence of events for manned lunar mission system analysis. The target date for a manned lunar landing was 1970.

1959 August 31 - .
  • Lunar flights to originate from space platforms in earth orbit - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. A House Committee Staff Report stated that lunar flights would originate from space platforms in earth orbit according to current planning. The final decision on the method to be used, "which must be made soon," would take into consideration the difficulty of space rendezvous between a space platform and space vehicles as compared with the difficulty of developing single vehicles large enough to proceed directly from the earth to the moon.

1959 September - .
  • MIT study of the guidance and control design for a variety of space missions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Summary: A study of the guidance and control design for a variety of space missions began at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory under a NASA contract..

1959 September 28 - .
  • Lenticular-shaped vehicle proposed for the lunar mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Source Selection. At the third meeting of STG's New Projects Panel, Alan B. Kehlet presented suggestions for the multimanned reentry capsule. A lenticular-shaped vehicle was proposed, to ferry three occupants safely to earth from a lunar mission at a velocity of about 36,000 feet per second.

1959 November 19 - .
  • Importance of weight of end vehicle in the lunar landing mission - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goett. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. In a memorandum to the members of the Research Steering Committee on Manned Space Flight, Chairman Harry J. Goett discussed the increased importance of the weight of the "end vehicle" in the lunar landing mission. This was to be an item on the agenda of the third meeting of the Committee, to be held in early December. Abe Silverstein, Director of the NASA Office of Space Flight Development, had recently mentioned to Goett that a decision would be made within the next few weeks on the configuration of successive generations of Saturn, primarily the upper stages, Silverstein and Goett had discussed the Committee's views on a lunar spacecraft. Goett expressed the hope in the memorandum that members of the Committee would have some specific ideas at their forthcoming meeting about the probable weight of the spacecraft.

    In addition, Goett informed the Committee that the Vega had been eliminated as a possible booster for use in one of the intermediate steps leading to the lunar mission. The primary possibility for the earth satellite mission was now the first-generation Saturn and for the lunar flight the second-generation Saturn.


1960 January 28 - .
  • NASA's Ten-Year Plan presented to Congress - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glennan. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. In testimony before the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Richard E. Horner, Associate Administrator of NASA, presented NASA's ten-year plan for 1960-1970. The essential elements had been recommended by the Research Steering Committee on Manned Space Flight. NASA's Office of Program Planning and Evaluation, headed by Homer J. Stewart, formalized the ten-year plan.

    On February 19, NASA officials again presented the ten-year timetable to the House Committee. A lunar soft landing with a mobile vehicle had been added for 1965. On March 28, NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan described the plan to the Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. He estimated the cost of the program to be more than $1 billion in Fiscal Year 1962 and at least $1.5 billion annually over the next five years, for a total cost of $12 to $15 billion. Additional Details: here....


1960 January - .
  • Name Apollo suggested - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth; Faget; Silverstein. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. At a luncheon in Washington, Abe Silverstein, Director of the Office of Space Flight Programs, suggested the name "Apollo" for the manned space flight program that was to follow Mercury. Others at the luncheon were Don R. Ostrander from NASA Headquarters and Robert R. Gilruth, Maxime A. Faget, and Charles J. Donlan from STG.

1960 March 3-5 - .
  • Advanced manned space flight program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Source Selection. At a NASA staff conference at Monterey, Calif., officials discussed the advanced manned space flight program, the elements of which had been presented to Congress in January. The Goddard Space Flight Center was asked to define the basic assumptions to be used by all groups in the continuing study of the lunar mission. Some problems already raised were: the type of heatshield needed for reentry and tests required to qualify it, the kind of research and development firings, and conditions that would be encountered in cislunar flight. Additional Details: here....

1960 March 8 - .
  • Preliminary guidelines for the advanced manned spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: STG formulated preliminary guidelines by which an "advanced manned spacecraft and system" would be developed. These guidelines were further refined and elaborated; they were formally presented to NASA Centers during April and May..

1960 April 1-May 3 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-2.
  • Guidelines for an advanced manned spacecraft program presented by STG - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. Members of STG presented guidelines for an advanced manned spacecraft program to NASA Centers to enlist research assistance in formulating spacecraft and mission design.

    To open these discussions, Director Robert R. Gilruth summarized the guidelines: manned lunar reconnaissance with a lunar mission module, corollary earth orbital missions with a lunar mission module and with a space laboratory, compatibility with the Saturn C-1 or C-2 boosters (weight not to exceed 15,000 pounds for a complete lunar spacecraft and 25,000 pounds for an earth orbiting spacecraft), 14-day flight time, safe recovery from aborts, ground and water landing and avoidance of local hazards, point (ten square-mile) landing, 72-hour postlanding survival period, auxiliary propulsion for maneuvering in space, a "shirtsleeve" environment, a three-man crew, radiation protection, primary command of mission on board, and expanded communications and tracking facilities. In addition, a tentative time schedule was included, projecting multiman earth orbit qualification flights beginning near the end of the first quarter of calendar year 1966.


1960 April 1-May 3 - .
  • Advanced manned spacecraft program guidelines for aborted missions and landing - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery; CSM Source Selection. In discussing the advanced manned spacecraft program at NASA Centers, Maxime A. Faget of STG detailed the guidelines for aborted missions and landing:

    1. The spacecraft must have a capability of safe crew recovery from aborted missions at any speed up to the maximum velocity, this capability to be independent of the launch propulsion system.
    2. A satisfactory landing by the spacecraft on both water and land, avoiding local hazards in the recovery area, was necessary. This requirement was predicated on two considerations: emergency conditions or navigation errors could force a landing on either water or land; and accessibility for recovery and the relative superiority of land versus water landing would depend on local conditions and other factors. The spacecraft should be able to land in a 30-knot wind, be watertight, and be seaworthy under conditions of 10- to 12-foot waves.
    3. Planned landing capability by the spacecraft at one of several previously designated ground surface locations, each approximately 10 square miles in area, would be necessary. Studies were needed to assess the value of impulse maneuvers, guidance quality, and aerodynamic lift over drag during the return from the lunar mission. Faget pointed out that this requirement was far less severe for the earth orbit mission than for the lunar return.
    4. The spacecraft design should provide for crew survival for at least 72 hours after landing. Because of the unpredictability of possible emergency maneuvers, it would be impossible to provide sufficient recovery forces to cover all possible landing locations. The 72-hour requirement would permit mobilization of normally existing facilities and enough time for safe recovery. Locating devices on the spacecraft should perform adequately anywhere in the world.
    5. Auxiliary propulsion should be provided for guidance maneuvers needed to effect a safe return in a launch emergency. Accuracy and capability of the guidance system should be studied to determine auxiliary propulsion requirements. Sufficient reserve propulsion should be included to accommodate corrections for maximum guidance errors. The single system could serve for either guidance maneuvers or escape propulsion requirements.

1960 April 1-May 3 - .
  • Guidelines for human factors in the advanced manned spacecraft program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. Stanley C. White of STG outlined at NASA Centers the guidelines for human factors in the advanced manned spacecraft program:
    1. A "shirtsleeve" spacecraft environment would be necessary because of the long duration of the lunar flight. This would call for a highly reliable pressurized cabin and some means of protection against rapid decompression. Such protection might be provided by a quick-donning pressure suit. Problems of supplying oxygen to the spacecraft; removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, toxic gases, and microorganisms from the capsule atmosphere; basic monitoring instrumentation; and restraint and couch design were all under study. In addition, research would be required on noise and vibration in the spacecraft, nutrition, waste disposal, interior arrangement and displays, and bioinstrumentation.
    2. A minimum crew of three men was specified. Studies had indicated that, for a long-duration mission, multiman crews were necessary and that three was the minimum number required.
    3. The crew should not be subjected to more than a safe radiation dose. Studies had shown that it was not yet possible to shield the crew against a solar flare. Research was indicated on structural materials and equipment for radiation protection, solar-flare prediction, minimum radiation trajectories, and the radiation environment in cislunar space.

1960 April 1-May 3 - .
  • Command and communications guidelines for the advanced manned spacecraft program listed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Command and communications guidelines for the advanced manned spacecraft program were listed by STG's Robert G. Chilton at NASA Centers:

    1. Primary command of the mission should be on board. Since a manned spacecraft would necessarily be much more complex and its cost much greater than an unmanned spacecraft, maximum use should be made of the command decision and operational capabilities of the crew. Studies would be needed to determine the extent of these capabilities under routine, urgent, and extreme emergency conditions. Onboard guidance and navigation hardware would include inertial platforms for monitoring insertion guidance, for abort command, and for abort-reentry navigation; optical devices; computers; and displays. Attitude control would require a multimode system.
    2. Communications and ground tracking should be provided throughout the mission except when the spacecraft was behind the moon. Voice contact once per orbit was considered sufficient for orbital missions. For the lunar mission, telemetry would be required only for backup data since the crew would relay periodic voice reports. Television might be desirable for the lunar mission. For ground tracking, a study of the Mercury system would determine whether the network could be modified and relocated to satisfy the close-in requirements of a lunar mission. The midcourse and circumlunar tracking requirements might be met by the deep-space network facilities at Goldstone, Calif., Australia, and South Africa. Both existing and proposed facilities should be studied to ensure that frequencies for all systems could be made compatible to permit use of a single beacon for midcourse and reentry tracking.

1960 April-May - .
  • Guidelines for an advanced manned spacecraft program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Presentation by STG members of the guidelines for an advanced manned spacecraft program to NASA Centers..

1960 April 15 - .
  • Guidelines for the advanced manned spacecraft program presented by STG - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Briefings on the guidelines for the advanced manned spacecraft program were presented by STG representatives at NASA Headquarters..

1960 April 15 - .
  • STG brief advanced manned spacecraft program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. STG members, visiting Moffett Field, Calif., briefed representatives of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Flight Research Center, and Ames Research Center on the advanced manned spacecraft program. Ames representatives then described work at their Center which would be applicable to the program: preliminary design studies of several aerodynamic configurations for reentry from a lunar trajectory, guidance and control requirements studies, potential reentry heating experiments at near-escape velocity, flight simulation, and pilot display and navigation studies. STG asked Ames to investigate heating and aerodynamics on possible lifting capsule configurations. In addition, Ames offered to tailor a payload applicable to the advanced program for a forthcoming Wallops Station launch.

1960 April 18 - .
  • Space Exploration Program Council - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. In a memorandum to NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan, Robert L. King, Executive Secretary of the Space Exploration Program Council (SEPC), reported on the status of certain actions taken up at the first meeting of the Council:

    • Rather than appoint a separate Senior Steering Group to resolve policy problems connected with the reliability program, SEPC itself tentatively would be used. A working committee would be appointed for each major system and would and rely on the SEPC for broad policy guidance,
    • Proposed rescheduling of the first Atlas-Agena 13 lunar mission for an earlier flight date was abandoned as impractical.

1960 May 2 - .
  • Proposed advanced manned spacecraft program presented to von Braun - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Members of STG presented the proposed advanced manned spacecraft program to Wernher von Braun and 25 of his staff at Marshall Space Flight Center. During the ensuing discussion, the merits of a completely automatic circumlunar mission were compared with those of a manually operated mission. Further discussions were scheduled.

1960 May 3 - .
  • Proposed advanced manned spacecraft program presented to Lewis Research Center - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. STG members presented the proposed advanced manned spacecraft program to the Lewis Research Center staff. Work at the Center applicable to the program included: analysis and preliminary development of the onboard propulsion system, trajectory analysis, and development of small rockets for midcourse and attitude control propulsion.

1960 May 12 - .
  • Discussion on the advanced manned spacecraft program at Langley - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goett; Low, George. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. A discussion on the advanced manned spacecraft program was held at the Langley Research Center with members of STG and Langley Research Center, together with George M. Low and Ernest O. Pearson, Jr., of NASA Headquarters and Harry J. Goett of Goddard Space Flight Center. Floyd L. Thompson, Langley Director, said that Langley would be studying the radiation problem, making configuration tests (including a lifting Mercury) , and studying aerodynamics, heating, materials, and structures.

1960 May 25 - .
  • Advanced Vehicle Team to make preliminary design for advanced multiman spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth; Maynard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: STG formed the Advanced Vehicle Team, reporting directly to Robert R. Gilruth, Director of the Mercury program. The Team would conduct research and make preliminary design studies for an advanced multiman spacecraft.. Additional Details: here....

1960 June 21 - .
  • Radiation and its effect on manned space flight - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Source Selection. Robert O. Piland, Head of the STG Advanced Vehicle Team, and Stanley C. White of STG attended a meeting in Washington, D. C., sponsored by the NASA Office of Life Sciences Programs, to discuss radiation and its effect on manned space flight. Their research showed that it would be impracticable to shield against the inner Van Allen belt radiation but possible to shield against the outer belt with a moderate amount of protection. Additional Details: here....

1960 July 25 - .
  • Name Apollo approved for the advanced manned space flight program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Glennan; Goett; Silverstein. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. NASA Director of Space Flight Programs Abe Silverstein notified Harry J. Goett, Director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, that NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan had approved the name "Apollo" for the advanced manned space flight program. The program would be so designated at the forthcoming NASA-Industry Program Plans Conference.

1960 July 28 - .
  • Apollo Program Announced - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Silverstein. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Name 'Apollo' selected by Silverstein. Conference with aerospace industry outlined NASA's plans for circumlunar and lunar flight..

1960 July 28-29 - .
  • Announcement of the Apollo program to American industry - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. The first NASA-Industry Program Plans Conference was held in Washington, D.C. The purpose was to give industrial management an overall picture of the NASA program and to establish a basis for subsequent conferences to be held at various NASA Centers. The current status of NASA programs was outlined, including long-range planning, launch vehicles, structures and materials research, manned space flight, and life sciences.

    NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced that the advanced manned space flight program had been named "Apollo." George M. Low, NASA Chief of Manned Space Flight, stated that circumlunar flight and earth orbit missions would be carried out before 1970. This program would lead eventually to a manned lunar landing and a permanent manned space station. Additional Details: here....


1960 August 8 - .
  • Tentative program of the Goddard industry conference to be held on August 30 outlined - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goett. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. In a memorandum to Abe Silverstein, Director of NASA's Office of Space Flight Programs, Harry J. Goett, Director of Goddard Space Flight Center, outlined the tentative program of the Goddard industry conference to be held on August 30. At this conference, more details of proposed study contracts for an advanced manned spacecraft would be presented. The requirements would follow the guidelines set down by STG and presented to NASA Headquarters during April and May. Three six-month study contracts at $250,000 each would be awarded.

1960 August 30 - .
  • Industry briefing on feasibility studies for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. The Goddard Space Flight Center GSFC conducted its industry conference in Washington, D.C., presenting details of GSFC projects, current and future. The objectives of the proposed six-month feasibility contracts for an advanced manned spacecraft were announced. Additional Details: here....

1960 September 13 - . Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-2.
  • Apollo Study Bidder's Conference - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Bidder's conference for circumlunar Apollo. Specification: Saturn C-2 compatability (6,800 kg mass for circumlunar mission); 14 day flight time; three-man crew in shirt-sleeve environment..

1960 September 13 - .
  • STG briefing for prospective bidders for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: An STG briefing was held at Langley Field, Va., for prospective bidders on three six-month feasibility studies of an advanced manned spacecraft as part of the Apollo program. A formal Request for Proposal was issued at the conference..

1960 September 30 - October 3 - .
  • STG Evaluation Board for advanced manned spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Charles J. Donlan of STG, Chairman of the Evaluation Board which would consider contractors' proposals on feasibility studies for an advanced manned spacecraft, invited the Directors of Ames Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Flight Research Center, Lewis Research Center, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center to name representatives to the Evaluation Board. The first meeting was to be held on October 10 at Langley Field, Va.

1960 October 4 - .
  • Evaluation Boards formed to consider industry proposals for Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget; Goett. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Members were appointed to the Technical Assessment Panels and the Evaluation Board to consider industry proposals for Apollo spacecraft feasibility studies. Members of the Evaluation Board were: Charles J. Donlan (STG), Chairman; Maxime A. Faget (STG) ; Robert O. Piland (STG), Secretary; John H. Disher (NASA Headquarters Office of Space Flight Programs); Alvin Seiff (Ames); John V. Becker (Langley); H. H. Koelle (Marshall); Harry J. Goett (Goddard), ex officio; and Robert R. Gilruth (STG), ex officio.

1960 October 9 - .
  • Contractors' proposals for an advanced manned spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Contractors' proposals on feasibility studies for an advanced manned spacecraft were received by STG. Sixty-four companies expressed interest in the Apollo program, and of these 14 actually submitted proposals: The Boeing Airplane Company; Chance Vought Corporation; Convair/Astronautics Division of General Dynamics Corporation; Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc.; Douglas Aircraft Company; General Electric Company; Goodyear Aircraft Corporation; Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation; Guardite Division of American Marietta Company; Lockheed Aircraft Corporation; The Martin Company; North American Aviation, Inc.; and Republic Aviation Corporation. These 14 companies, later reduced to 12 when Cornell and Guardite withdrew, were subsequently invited to submit prime contractor proposals for the Apollo spacecraft development in 1961. The Technical Assessment Panels began evaluation of contractors' proposals on October 10.

1960 October 21 - .
  • Design constraints for in-house study of the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: A staff meeting of STG's Flight Systems Division was held to fix additional design constraints for the in- house design study of the Apollo spacecraft.

    Fundamental decisions were made as a result of this and a previous meeting on September 20.. Additional Details: here....


1960 October 21 - .
  • Evaluation completed on proposals for an advanced manned spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. The Technical Assessment Panels presented to the Evaluation Board their findings on the contractors' proposals for feasibility studies of an advanced manned spacecraft. On October 24, the Evaluation Board findings and recommendations were presented to the STG Director.

1960 October 25 - .
  • Apollo Initial Study Contracts - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: From 16 bids, Convair, General Electric, and Martin selected to conduct $250,000 study contracts. Meanwhile Space Task Group Langley undertakes its own studies, settling on Apollo CM configuration as actually built by October 1960..

1960 October 25 - .
  • Convair, General Electric, and Martin selected to prepare Apollo spacecraft feasibility studies - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. NASA selected three contractors to prepare individual feasibility studies of an advanced manned spacecraft as part of Project Apollo. The contractors were Convair/Astronautics Division of General Dynamics Corporation, General Electric Company, and The Martin Company.

1960 October 27 - November 2 - .
  • General Electric, Martin, and General Dynamics negotiate Apollo systems study contracts - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Representatives of the General Electric Company, The Martin Company, and Convair/Astronautics Division of General Dynamics Corporation visited STG to conduct negotiations on the Apollo systems study contracts announced on October 25. The discussions clarified or identified areas not completely covered in company proposals. Contracts were awarded on November 15.

1960 November 22 - .
  • MIT navigation and guidance support for Project Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. STG held a meeting at Goddard Space Flight Center to discuss a proposed contract with MIT Instrumentation Laboratory for navigation and guidance support for Project Apollo. The proposed six-month contract for $100,000 might fund studies through the preliminary design stage but not actual hardware. Milton B. Trageser of the Instrumentation Laboratory presented a draft work statement which divided the effort into three parts: midcourse guidance, reentry guidance, and a satellite experiment feasibility study using the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory. STG decided that the Instrumentation Laboratory should submit a more detailed draft of a work statement to form the basis of a contract. In a discussion the next day, Robert G. Chilton of STG and Trageser clarified three points:

    1. The current philosophy was that an onboard computer program for a normal mission sequence would be provided and would be periodically updated by the crew. If the crew were disabled, the spacecraft would continue on the programmed flight for a normal return. No capability would exist for emergency procedures.
    2. Chilton emphasized that consideration of the reentry systems design should include all the guideline requirements for insertion monitoring by the crew, navigation for aborted missions, and, in brief, the whole design philosophy for manned flight.
    3. The long-term objective of a lunar landing mission should be kept in mind although design simplicity was of great importance.
    Chilton and Trageser agreed that the purpose of the Apollo program was the development of manned space flight system capability, not simply circumnavigation of the moon with an encapsulated man.

1960 November 29 - .
  • Briefing on the Apollo and Saturn programs - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. A joint briefing on the Apollo and Saturn programs was held at Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC, attended by representatives of STG and MSFC. Maxime A. Faget of STG and MSFC Director Wernher von Braun agreed that a joint STG-MSFC program would be developed to accomplish a manned lunar landing. Areas of responsibility were: MSFC launch vehicle and landing on the moon; STG - lunar orbit, landing, and return to earth.

1960 December 2 - .
  • Study program on the guidance aspects of Project Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Milton B. Trageser of MIT Instrumentation Laboratory transmitted to Charles J. Donlan of STG the outline of a study program on the guidance aspects of Project Apollo. He outlined what might be covered by a formal proposal on the Apollo spacecraft guidance and navigation contract discussed by STG and Instrumentation Laboratory representatives on November 22.

1960 December 6-8 - .
  • First technical review of the General Electric Apollo feasibility study - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. The first technical review of the General Electric Company Apollo feasibility study was held at the contractor's Missile and Space Vehicle Department. Company representatives presented reports on the study so that STG representatives might review progress, provide General Electric with pertinent information from NASA or other sources, and discuss and advise as to the course of the study.

1960 December 7-9 - .
  • Martin presented the first technical review of its Apollo feasibility study - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery; CSM Source Selection. The Martin Company presented the first technical review of its Apollo feasibility study to STG officials in Baltimore, Md. At the suggestion of STG, Martin agreed to reorient the study in several areas: putting more emphasis on lunar orbits, putting man in the system, and considering landing and recovery in the initial design of the spacecraft.

1960 December 14-15 - .
  • Frst technical review of the Convair Apollo feasibility study - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Convair/Astronautics Division of the General Dynamics Corporation held its first technical review of the Apollo feasibility study in San Diego, Calif. Brief presentations were made by contractor and subcontractor technical specialists to STG representatives. Convair/Astronautics' first approach was oriented toward the modular concept, but STG suggested that the integral spacecraft concept should be investigated.

1960 December 22 - .
  • MIT proposal for a study of a navigation and guidance system for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Summary: The MIT Instrumentation Laboratory submitted a formal proposal to NASA for a study of a navigation and guidance system for the Apollo spacecraft..

1961 January 6 - .
  • Low Committee established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. The Manned Lunar Landing Task Group (Low Committee) set up by the Space Exploration Program Council was instructed to prepare a position paper for the NASA Fiscal Year 1962 budget presentation to Congress. The paper was to be a concise statement of NASA's lunar program for Fiscal Year 1962 and was to present the lunar mission in term of both direct ascent and rendezvous. The rendezvous program would be designed to develop a manned spacecraft capability in near space, regardless of whether such a technique would be needed for manned lunar landing. In addition to answering such questions as the reason for not eliminating one of the two mission approaches, the Group was to estimate the cost of the lunar mission and the date of its accomplishment, though not in specific terms. Although the decision to land a man on the moon had not been approved, it was to be stressed that the development of the scientific and technical capability for a manned lunar landing was a prime NASA goal, though not the only one. The first meeting of the Group was to be held on January 9.

1961 January 9 - . LV Family: Nova. Launch Vehicle: Nova 4L.
  • First meeting of the Manned Lunar Landing Task Group - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Silverstein. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. At the first meeting of the Manned Lunar Landing Task Group, Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Director of the Office of Space Flight Programs Abe Silverstein, and Director of the Office of Advanced Research Programs Ira H. Abbott outlined the purpose of the Group to the members. After a discussion of the instructions, the Group considered first the objectives of the total NASA program:

    1. the exploration of the solar system for knowledge to benefit mankind; and
    2. the development of technology to permit exploitation of space flight for scientific, military, and commercial uses.
    NASA's lunar program was a logical step toward these objectives. In current lunar program planning, three steps were projected:

    1. a manned landing on the moon with return to earth,
    2. limited manned lunar exploration, and
    3. a scientific lunar base.
    To accomplish the first step, a great increase in launch vehicle capability would be needed beyond that provided by current funding. A comparison of a three-million-pound-thrust and a six-million-pound-thrust Nova launch vehicle was made. It was estimated that a 60,000- to 80,000-pound payload to escape velocity would be needed for a manned lunar landing mission.

1961 January 10 - .
  • STG briefed on Convair Apollo feasibility study - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Representatives of STG visited Convair Astronautics Division of the General Dynamics Corporation to monitor the Apollo feasibility study contract. The meeting consisted of several individual informal discussions between the STG and Convair specialists on configurations and aerodynamics, heating, structures and materials, human factors, trajectory analysis, guidance and control, and operation implementation.

1961 January 11 - .
  • Three of the Apollo Technical Liaison Groups held their first meetings - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Source Selection. Three of the Apollo Technical Liaison Groups (Trajectory Analysis, Heating, and Human Factors) held their first meetings at the Ames Research Center.

    After reviewing the status of the contractors' Apollo feasibility studies, the Group on Trajectory Analysis discussed studies being made at NASA Centers. An urgent requirement was identified for a standard model of the Van Allen radiation belt which could be used in all trajectory analysis related to the Apollo program,

    The Group on Heating, after consideration of NASA and contractor studies currently in progress, recommended experimental investigation of control surface heating and determination of the relative importance of the unknowns in the heating area by relating estimated "ignorance" factors to resulting weight penalties in the spacecraft. The next day, three members of this Group met for further discussions and two areas were identified for more study: radiant heat inputs and their effect on the ablation heatshield, and methods of predicting heating on control surfaces, possibly by wind tunnel tests at high Mach numbers.

    The Group on Human Factors considered contractors' studies and investigations being done at NASA Centers. In particular, the Group discussed the STG document, "Project Apollo Life Support Programs," which proposed 41 research projects. These projects were to be carried out by various organizations, including NASA, DOD, industry, and universities. Medical support experience which might be applicable to Apollo was also reviewed.


1961 January 11 - .
  • Briefing given to the Saturn Guidance Committee on the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. J. Thomas Markley of the Apollo Spacecraft Project Office reported to Associate Director of STG Charles J. Donlan that an informal briefing had been given to the Saturn Guidance Committee on the Apollo program. The Committee had been formed by Don R. Ostrander, NASA Director of the Office of Launch Vehicle Programs, to survey the broad guidance and control requirements for Saturn. The Committee was to review Marshall Space Flight Center guidance plans, review plans of mission groups who intended to use Saturn, recommend an adequate guidance system for Saturn, and prepare a report of the evaluation and results during January. Members of STG, including Robert O. Piland, Markley, and Robert G. Chilton, presented summaries of the overall Apollo program and guidance requirements for Apollo.

1961 January 12-13 - .
  • Martin progress on the Apollo feasibility study contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery; CSM Source Selection. Representatives of STG visited The Martin Company in Baltimore, Md., to review the progress of the Apollo feasibility study contract. Discussions on preliminary design of the spacecraft, human factors, propulsion, power supplies, guidance and control, structures, and landing and recovery were held with members of the Martin staff.

1961 January 12 - .
  • First meetings of three of the Apollo Technical Liaison Groups - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Three of the Apollo Technical Liaison Groups Structures and Materials, Configurations and Aerodynamics, and Guidance and Control held their first meetings at the Ames Research Center.

    The Group on Structures and Materials, after reviewing contractors' progress on the Apollo feasibility studies, considered reports on Apollo-related activities at NASA Centers. Among these activities were work on the radiative properties of material suitable for temperature control of spacecraft (Ames), investigation of low-level cooling systems in the reentry module (Langley), experiments on the landing impact of proposed reentry module shapes (Langley), meteoroid damage studies (Lewis), and the definition of suitable design criteria and safety factors to ensure the structural integrity of the spacecraft STG.

    The Group on Configurations and Aerodynamics recommended :

    • Investigations to determine the effects of aerodynamic heating on control surfaces.
    • Studies of the roll control maneuvers with center of gravity offset for range control.
    • Tests of packaging and deployment of paraglider and multiple parachute landing systems.
    • Studies to determine the effects of jet impingement upon the static and dynamic stability of the spacecraft.
    The various spacecraft configurations under consideration by the Apollo feasibility study contractors were reviewed:

    1. The General Electric Company effort was being concentrated on the Mark-ll, NERV, RVX (9 degree blunted cone), elliptical cone, half-cone, and Bell Aerospace Corporation Dyna-Soar types.
    2. The Martin Company was studying the M-1 and M-2 lifting bodies, the Mercury with control flap, the Hydrag (Avco Corporation), and a winged vehicle similar to Dyna-Soar. In addition, Martin was proposing to investigate the M-1-1, a lifting body halfway between the M-1 and the M- 2; a flat-bottomed lifting vehicle similar to the M-1-1 ; a lenticular shape; and modified flapped Mercury (the Langley L-2C).
    3. Convair/Astronautics Division of the General Dynamics Corporation had subcontracted the major effort on reentry to Avco, which was looking into five configurations: a Mercury-type capsule, the lenticular shape, the M-1, the flat-face cone, and half-cone.
    The Group for Guidance and Control drew up a list of suggestions for research and development programs:

    • An "absolute emergency" navigation system in which the crew would use only a Land camera and a slide rule.
    • The possible applications of the equipment and test programs to be used on Surveyor.
    • The question whether Apollo lunar landing trajectories should be based on minimum fuel expenditure - if so, doubts were raised that the current STG concept would accomplish this goal.
    • The question whether radio ranging could be used to reduce the accuracy requirements for celestial observations and whether such a composite system would fall within the limits set by the Apollo guidelines.
    • The effects of lunar impact on the return spacecraft navigation equipment.
    • Studies of hardware drift-error in the guidance and navigation systems and components.
    • A study of the effect of rotating machinery aboard the spacecraft on attitude alignment and control requirements.
    • Problems of planet tracking when the planetary disk was only partially illuminated.
    • A study of the transient effects of guidance updating by external information.
    • One adequate guidance and control concept to be mechanized and errors analyzed and evaluated.
    • The effects of artificial g configurations on observation and guidance.
    • The development of a ground display mission progress evaluation for an entire mission
    • An abort guidance sequence including an abort decision computer and pilot display
    • An earth orbit evaluation of the position computer input in a highly eccentric orbit (500- to 1000-mile perigee, 60,000-mile apogee).

1961 January 19 - .
  • Studies of manned lunar and interplanetary expeditions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: The Marshall Space Flight Center awarded contracts to the Douglas Aircraft Company and Chance Vought Corporation to study the launching of manned exploratory expeditions into lunar and interplanetary space from earth orbits..

1961 January 25 - .
  • Study on the feasibility of refueling a spacecraft in orbit - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. Summary: NASA announced that the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation had been awarded a contract by the Marshall Space Flight Center to study the feasibility of refueling a spacecraft in orbit..

1961 January 31-February 1 - .
  • Apollo feasibility study progress - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Members of STG met with representatives of the Convair Astronautics Division of the General Dynamics Corporation and Avco Corporation to monitor the progress of the Apollo feasibility study. Configurations and aerodynamics and Apollo heating studies were discussed. Current plans indicated that final selection of their proposed spacecraft configuration would be made by Convair Astronautics within a week. The status of the spacecraft reentry studies was described by Avco specialists.

1961 February 7 - .
  • MIT selected for a study of a navigation and guidance system for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Summary: NASA selected the Instrumentation Laboratory of MIT for a six-month study of a navigation and guidance system for the Apollo spacecraft..

1961 March 20 - .
  • STG met to plan general requirements for a proposal for advanced manned spacecraft development - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Management personnel from NASA Headquarters and STG met to plan general requirements for a proposal for advanced manned spacecraft development..

1961 March 29-30 - .
  • Convair selects M-1 design for Apollo in preference to lenticular configuration - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Source Selection. William W. Petynia of STG visited the Convair Astronautics Division of General Dynamics Corporation to monitor the Apollo feasibility study contract. A selection of the M-1 in preference to the lenticular configuration had been made by Convair. May 17 was set as the date for the final Convair presentation to NASA.

1961 April 10-12 - .
  • Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Trajectory Analysis commented on Apollo specification - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. The Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Trajectory Analysis met at STG and began preparing material for the Apollo spacecraft specification. It recommended:

    • STG should take the initiative with NASA Headquarters in delegating responsibility for setting up and updating a uniform model of astronomical constants.
    • The name of the Group should be changed to Mission Analysis to help clarify its purpose.
    • A panel should be set up to determine the scientific experiments which could be done on board, or in conjunction with the orbiting laboratory, so that equipment, weight, volumes, laboratory characteristics, etc., might be specified

1961 April 10-12 - .
  • Preparation of material for the Apollo spacecraft specification discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; CSM Structural. The Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Structures and Materials discussed at STG the preparation of material for the Apollo spacecraft specification. It decided that most of the items proposed for its study could not be specified at that time and also that many of the items did not fall within the structures and materials area. A number of general areas of concern were added to the work plan: heat protection, meteoroid protection, radiation effects, and vibration and acoustics.

1961 April 10-12 - .
  • Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Instrumentation and Communications drafted guidelines - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. The Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Instrumentation and Communications met at STG and drafted an informal set of guidelines and sent them to the other Technical Liaison Groups:

    • Instrumentation requirements: all Groups should submit their requests for measurements to be made on the Apollo missions, including orbital, circumlunar, and lunar landing operations.
    • Television: since full-rate, high-quality television for the missions would add a communications load that could swamp all others and add power and bandwidth requirements not otherwise needed, other Groups should restate their justification for television requirements.
    • Temperature environment; heat normally pumped overboard might be made available for temperature control systems without excessive cost and complexity.
    • Reentry communications; continuous reentry communications were not yet feasible and could not be guaranteed. It was suggested that all Groups plan their systems as though no communications would exist at altitudes between about 250,000 feet and 90,000 feet.
    • Vehicle reentry and recovery: if tracking during reentry were desired, it would be far more economical to use a water landing site along the Atlantic Missile Range or another East Coast site.
    • Digital computer : the onboard digital computer, if it were flexible enough, would permit the examination of telemetry data for bandwidth reduction before transmission.
    • Antenna-pointing information: the spacecraft should have information relative to its orientation so that any high-gain directive antenna could be positioned toward the desired location on earth.
    The Group then discussed the preparation of material for the Apollo spacecraft specification.

1961 April 10-12 - .
  • STG / Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Human Factors discussed Apollo spacecraft specification - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit; CSM Source Selection. At STG the Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Human Factors discussed the proposed outline for the spacecraft specification. Its recommendations included:

    • NASA Headquarters Offices should contact appropriate committees and other representatives of the scientific community to elicit recommendations for scientific experiments aboard the orbiting laboratory to be designed as a mission module for use with the Apollo spacecraft.
    • NASA should sponsor a conference of recognized scientists to suggest a realistic radiation dosage design limit for Apollo crews.

1961 April 10-12 - .
  • Second meeting of the Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Configurations and Aerodynamics at STG - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Source Selection. At the second meeting of the Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Configurations and Aerodynamics at STG, presentations were made on Apollo-related activities at the NASA Centers: heatshield tests (Ames Research Center); reentry configurations (Marshall Space Flight Center); reentry configurations, especially lenticular (modified) and spherically blunted, paraglider soft-landing system, dynamic stability tests, and heat transfer tests (Langley Research Center); tumbling entries in planetary atmospheres (Mars and Venus) (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); air launch technique for Dyna-Soar (Flight Research Center); and steerable parachute system and reentry spacecraft configuration (STG). Work began on the background material for the Apollo spacecraft specification.

1961 April 10-13 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft specification work - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. In preparing background material for the Apollo spacecraft specification at STG, the Apollo Technical Liaison Group for Mechanical Systems worked on environmental control systems, reaction control systems, auxiliary power supplies, landing and recovery systems, and space cabin sealing.

1961 April 25 - .
  • Contract for the liquid-hydrogen liquid-oxygen fuel cell - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. A conference was held at Lewis Research Center between STG and Lewis representatives to discuss the research and development contract for the liquid-hydrogen liquid-oxygen fuel cell as the primary spacecraft electrical power source. Lewis had been provided funds approximately $300,000 by NASA Headquarters to negotiate a contract with Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division of United Aircraft Corporation for the development of a fuel cell for the Apollo spacecraft. STG and Lewis representatives agreed that the research and development should be directed toward the liquid-hydrogen - liquid-oxygen fuel cell. Guidelines were provided by STG:

    • Power output requirement for the Apollo spacecraft was estimated at two to three kilowatts.
    • Nominal output voltage should be about 27.5 volts.
    • Regulation should be within +/- 10 percent of nominal output voltage.
    • The fuel cell should be capable of sustained operation at reduced output (10 percent of rated capacity, if possible).
    • The fuel cell and associated system should be capable of operation in a space environment.
    Lewis planned to request a pilot model of the fuel cell of about 250 watts capacity, capable of unattended operation. Contract negotiations were expected to be completed by May 2 and the model delivered within 12 months of the contract award.

1961 May 5 - .
  • First draft of the Apollo spacecraft specification - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. STG completed the first draft of "Project Apollo, Phase A, General Requirements for a Proposal for a Manned Space Vehicle and System" (Statement of Work), an early step toward the spacecraft specification. A circumlunar mission was the basis for planning.

1961 May 7 - .
  • Initial Study Contracts - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. In initial study contracts, Martin proposed vehicle similar to the Apollo configuration that would eventually fly and closest to STG concepts. GE proposed design that would lead directly to Soyuz. Convair proposed a lifting body concept. All bidders were influenced by STG mid-term review that complained that they were not paying enough attention to conical blunt-body CM as envisioned by STG.

1961 May 15 - .
  • Final study contract reports. - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. The final reports on the feasibility study contracts for the advanced manned spacecraft were submitted to STG at Langley Field, Va., by the General Electric Company, Convair Astronautics Division of General Dynamics Corporation, and The Martin Company. These studies had begun in November 1960.

1961 May 22 - .
  • Second draft of the Apollo spacecraft specification - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: The second draft of a Statement of Work for the development of an advanced manned spacecraft was completed, incorporating results from NASA in-house and contractor feasibility studies..

1961 June 16 - .
  • Fleming Committee Report: lunar mission could be accomplished within the decade - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seamans. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. The Fleming Committee, which had been appointed on May 2, submitted its report to NASA associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., on the feasibility of a manned lunar landing program. The Committee concluded that the lunar mission could be accomplished within the decade. Chief pacing items were the first stage of the launch vehicle and the facilities for testing and launching the booster. It also concluded that information on solar flare radiation and lunar surface characteristics should be obtained as soon as possible, since these factors would influence spacecraft design. Special mention was made of the need for a strong management organization.

1961 June - .
  • Project Apollo feasibility studies assessed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. STG completed a detailed assessment of the results of the Project Apollo feasibility studies submitted by the three study contractors: the General Electric Company, Convair/Astronautics Division of the General Dynamics Corporation, and The Martin Company. (Their findings were reflected in the Statement of Work sent to prospective bidders on the spacecraft contract on July 28.)

1961 July 18 - .
  • NASA-Industry Apollo Technical Conference - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. 1,000 persons from 300 potential Project Apollo contractors and government agencies attended the conference. STG pushed the conical CM shape, in defiance of Gilruth's preference for the competitive blunt body/lifting body designs. Scientists from NASA, the General Electric Company, The Martin Company, and General Dynamics/Astronautics presented the results of studies on Apollo requirements. Within the next four to six weeks NASA was expected to draw up the final details and specifications for the Apollo spacecraft.

1961 July 28 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • NASA invitation to bids for Apollo prime contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Original Specification; CSM Source Selection. NASA invited 12 companies to submit prime contractor proposals for the Apollo spacecraft by October 9: The Boeing Airplane Company, Chance Vought Corporation, Douglas Aircraft Company, General Dynamics/Convair, the General Electric Company, Goodyear Aircraft Corporation, Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, The Martin Company, North American Aviation, Inc., and Republic Aviation Corporation. Additional Details: here....

1961 July 28 - .
  • Source Evaluation Board to evaluate contractors' proposals for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget; Chamberlin. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. NASA Associate Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., appointed members to the Source Evaluation Board to evaluate contractors' proposals for the Apollo spacecraft. Walter C. Williams of STG served as Chairman, and members included Robert O. Piland, Wesley L. Hjornevik, Maxime A. Faget, James A. Chamberlin, Charles W. Mathews, and Dave W. Lang, all of STG; George M. Low, Brooks C. Preacher, and James T. Koppenhaver (nonvoting member) from NASA Headquarters; and Oswald H. Lange from Marshall Space Flight Center. On November 2, Faget became the Chairman, Kenneth S. Kleinknecht was added as a member, and Williams was relieved from his assignment.

1961 July-September - .
  • Work statements for the Apollo guidance and navigation system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Summary: The MIT Instrumentation Laboratory and NASA completed the work statements for the Laboratory's program on the Apollo guidance and navigation system and the request for quotation for industrial support was prepared..

1961 July - .
  • Polaris program experience studied for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Ralph Ragan of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, former director of the Polaris guidance and navigation program, in cooperation with Milton B. Trageser of the Laboratory and with Robert O. Piland, Robert C. Seamans, Jr., and Robert G. Chilton, all of NASA, had completed a study of what had been done on the Polaris program in concept and design of a guidance and navigation system and the documentation necessary for putting such a system into production on an extremely tight schedule. Using this study, the group worked out a rough schedule for a similar program on Apollo.

1961 August 7 - .
  • Additional Panels evaluate proposals for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: STG appointed members to the Technical Subcommittee and to the Technical Assessment Panels for evaluation of industry proposals for the development of the Apollo spacecraft..

1961 August 9 - .
  • First Apollo development contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. NASA selected MIT's Instrumentation Laboratory to develop the guidance-navigation system for Project Apollo spacecraft. This first major Apollo contract was required since guidance-navigation system is basic to overall Apollo mission. The Instrumentation Laboratory of MIT, a nonprofit organization headed by C. Stark Draper, has been involved in a variety of guidance and navigation systems developments for 20 years. This first major Apollo contract had a long lead-time, was basic to the overall Apollo mission, and would be directed by STG.

1961 August 14 - .
  • Atmospheric requirement for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. STG requested that a program be undertaken by the U.S. Navy Air Crew Equipment Laboratory, Philadelphia, Penna., to validate the atmospheric composition requirement for the Apollo spacecraft. On November 7, the original experimental design was altered by the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). The new objectives were:

    • Establish the required preoxygenation time for a rapid decompression (80 seconds) from sea level to 35,000 feet.
    • Discover the time needed for equilibrium (partial denitrogenation) at the proposed cabin atmosphere for protection in case of rapid decompression to 35,000 feet.
    • Investigate the potential hazard associated with an early mission decompression - i.e., before the equilibrium time was reached, preceded by the determined preoxygenation period.
    • Conduct any additional tests suggested by the results of the foregoing experiments.

1961 August 14-15 - .
  • Apollo pre-proposal bidders' briefing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM Source Selection. STG held a pre-proposal briefing at Langley Field, Va., to answer bidders' questions pertaining to the Request for Proposal for the development of the Apollo spacecraft. 14 companies (Boeing, Vought, Douglas, GD, Goodyear, Grumman, Lockheed, Martin, McDonnell, Radio Corp, Republic, STL) attended. The winning bidder would receive contract for CSM (but not LM, if any) and integrate spacecraft with launch vehicle.

1961 August 16 - .
  • STG Panels formed for evaluation of proposals for the development of the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: STG appointed members to the Business Subcommittee and to the Business Assessment Panels for evaluation of industry proposals for the development of the Apollo spacecraft..

1961 September 12-13 - .
  • Progress review of the Apollo navigation and guidance system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Representatives of STG and NASA Headquarters visited the Instrumentation Laboratory of MIT to discuss the contract awarded to the Laboratory on August 9 and progress in the design and development of the Apollo spacecraft navigation and guidance system. They mutually decided that a draft of the final contract should be completed for review at Instrumentation Laboratory by October 2 and the contract resolved by October 9. Revisions were to be made in the Statement of Work to define more clearly details of the contract. Milton B. Trageser of the Laboratory, in the first month's technical progress report, gave a brief description of the first approach to the navigation and guidance equipment and the arrangement of the equipment within the spacecraft. He also presented the phases of the lunar flight and the navigation and guidance functions or tasks to be performed. Other matters discussed were a space sextant and making visual observations of landmarks through cloud cover.

1961 September - .
  • Concepts of Apollo navigation equipment described - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Richard H. Battin published MIT Instrumentation Laboratory Report R-341, "A Statistical Optimizing Navigation Procedure for Space Flight," describing the concepts by which Apollo navigation equipment could make accurate computations of position and velocity with an onboard computer of reasonable size.

1961 October 4 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft guidance and navigation progress - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Source Selection. Representatives of STG visited the Instrumentation Laboratory of MIT for the second monthly progress report meeting on the Apollo spacecraft guidance and navigation contract. A number of technical topics were presented by Laboratory speakers: space sextant visibility and geometry problems, gear train analysis, vacuum environmental approach, midcourse guidance theory, inertial measurement unit, and gyro. The organization of the Apollo effort at the Laboratory was also discussed. A preliminary estimate of the cost for both Laboratory and industrial support for the Apollo navigation and guidance system was presented: $158.4 million through Fiscal Year 1966.

1961 October 9 - .
  • Bids received for Apollo prime contractor - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Five Bidding Teams: GD/Avco; GE/Douglas/Grumman/STL; McDonnell/Lockheed/Hughes/Vought; Martin/North American.

1961 October 11 - .
  • Presentations by industrial teams on the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Officials of STG heard oral reports from representatives of five industrial teams bidding on the contract for the Apollo spacecraft: General Dynamics/Astronautics in conjunction with the Avco Corporation; General Electric Company, Missile and Space Vehicle Department, in conjunction with Douglas Aircraft Company, Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, and Space Technology Laboratories, Inc.; McDonnell Aircraft Corporation in conjunction with Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Hughes Aircraft Company, and Chance Vought Corporation of Ling-Temco-Vought, Inc.; The Martin Company; and North American Aviation, Inc. Additional Details: here....

1961 October 31 - .
  • New information on the Apollo spacecraft roll inertia, pitch and yaw inertia, and attitude jets - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Robert G. Chilton of STG gave the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory new information based on NASA in- house studies on the Apollo spacecraft roll inertia, pitch and yaw inertia, and attitude jets.

    David G. Hoag, MIT, personal notes, October 1961..


1961 November 6 - .
  • An Apollo Egress Working Group was formed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery; CSM Source Selection. An Apollo Egress Working Group, consisting of personnel from Marshall Space Flight Center, Launch Operations Directorate, and Atlantic Missile Range, was formed on November 2. Meetings on that date and on November 6 resulted in publication of a seven-page document, "Apollo Egress Criteria." The Group established ground rules, operations and control procedures criteria, and space vehicle design criteria and provided requirements for implementation of emergency egress system.

1961 November 7-9 - .
  • MIT contract for the Apollo navigation and guidance system discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Source Selection. Representatives of MSC and NASA Headquarters visited the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory to discuss clauses in the contract for the Apollo navigation and guidance system, technical questions proposed by MSC, and work in progress. Topics discussed included the trajectories for the SA-7 and SA-8 flights and the estimated propellant requirements for guidance attitude maneuvers and velocity changes for the lunar landing mission. Presentations were made on the following subjects by members of the Laboratory staff: the spacecraft gyro, Apollo guidance computer logic design, computer displays and interfaces, guidance computer programming, horizon sensor experiments, and reentry guidance.

1961 November 24 - .
  • Bid Evaluation for Prime Contractor Completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Summary: Bid ratings: Martin 6.9; GD 6.6; North American 6.6; GE 6.4; McDonnell 6.4.

1961 November 27 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft Statement of Work expanded - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Original Specification; CSM Source Selection. Summary: The original Apollo spacecraft Statement of Work of July 28 had been substantially expanded, including a single-engine service module propulsion system using Earth-storable, hypergolic propellants.. Additional Details: here....

1961 November 28 - .
  • North American awarded Apollo prime contract - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM Source Selection. Despite an announcement at Martin on 27 November that they had won the Apollo program, the decision was reversed at the highest levels of the US government. NASA announced instead that the Space and Information Systems Division of North American Aviation, Inc., had been selected to design and build the Apollo spacecraft. The official line: 'the decision by NASA Administrator James E. Webb followed a comprehensive evaluation of five industry proposals by nearly 200 scientists and engineers representing both NASA and DOD. Webb had received the Source Evaluation Board findings on November 24. Although technical evaluations were very close, NAA had been selected on the basis of experience, technical competence, and cost'. NAA would be responsible for the design and development of the command module and service module. NASA expected that a separate contract for the lunar landing system would be awarded within the next six months. The MIT Instrumentation Laboratory had previously been assigned the development of the Apollo spacecraft guidance and navigation system. Both the NAA and MIT contracts would be under the direction of MSC.

1961 November 29-30 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Emergency switchover from Saturn to Apollo guidance as backup discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: On a visit to Marshall Space Flight Center by MIT Instrumentation Laboratory representatives, the possibility was discussed of emergency switchover from Saturn to Apollo guidance systems as backup for launch vehicle guidance..

1961 December 4 - .
  • Project Apollo Statement of Work completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The Project Apollo Statement of Work for development of the Apollo spacecraft was completed. A draft letter based on this Statement of Work was presented to NAA for review. A prenegotiation conference on the development of the Apollo spacecraft was held at Langley Field, Va.

1961 December 5-20 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • NASA negotiations with NAA on the Apollo spacecraft contract were held at Williamsburg, Va - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. NASA negotiations with NAA on the Apollo spacecraft contract were held at Williamsburg, Va. Nine Technical Panels met on December 11 and 12 to review Part 3, Technical Approach, of the Statement of Work. These Panels reported their recommended changes and unresolved questions to the Technical Subcommittee for action. Later in the negotiations, NASA and NAA representatives agreed on changes intended to clarify the original Statement of Work. Among these was the addition of the boilerplate program. Two distinct types of boilerplates were to be fabricated: those of a simple cold-rolled steel construction for drop impact tests and the more complex models to be used with the Little Joe II and Saturn launch vehicles. The Little Joe II, originally conceived in June 1961, was a solid-fuel rocket booster which would be used to man-rate the launch escape system for the command module.

    In addition, the Apollo Project Office, which had been part of the MSC Flight Systems Division, would now report directly to the MSC Director and would be responsible for planning and directing all activities associated with the completion of the Apollo spacecraft project. Primary functions to be performed by the Office would include:

    • Monitor the work of the Apollo Principal Contractor NAA and Associate Contractors.
    • Resolve technical problems arising between the Principal Contractor and Associate Contractors which were not directly resolved between the parties involved.
    • Maintain close liaison with all Apollo contractors to keep fully and currently informed on the status of contract work, potential schedule delays, or technical problems which might impede progress.
    (On January 15, 1962, the Apollo Spacecraft Project Office was established at MSC.)

    Letter contract No. NAS 9-150, authorizing work on the Apollo development program to begin on January 1, 1962, was signed by NASA and NAA on December 21. Under this contract, NAA was assigned the design and development of the command and service modules, the spacecraft adapter, associated ground support equipment, and spacecraft integration. Formal signing of the contract followed on December 31.


1961 December 18-19 - .
  • First design-study Apollo space sextant produced - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Fred T. Pearce, Jr., of MSC visited the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory to discuss the first design-study space sextant produced at the Laboratory, The instrument was intended to be used with the guidance computer. The working mockup was demonstrated and the problem of the effect of the vehicle motion on the sextant was discussed.

1961 December 21 - .
  • Four major subcontractors for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. NAA's Space and Information Systems Division selected four companies as subcontractors to design and build four of the major Apollo spacecraft systems. The Collins Radio Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, received the telecommunications systems contract, worth more than $40 million; Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company, Minneapolis, Minn., received the stabilization and control systems contract, $30 million; AiResearch Manufacturing Company, division of The Garrett Corporation, Los Angeles, Calif., was awarded the environmental control system contract, $10 million; and Radioplane Division of Northrop Corporation, Van Nuys, Calif., was selected for the parachute landing system contract, worth more than $1 million. The total cost for the initial phase of the NAA contract was expected to exceed $400 million.

1962 January-February - .
  • Requests for Quotation for Apollo guidance and navigation system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. The Requests for Quotation on production contracts for major components of the Apollo spacecraft guidance and navigation system, comprising seven separate items, were released to industry by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. (The Source Evaluation Board, appointed on January 31, began its work during the week of March 5 and contractors were selected on May 8.)

1962 January 15 - .
  • Apollo Spacecraft Project Office established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The Apollo Spacecraft Project Office (ASPO) was established at MSC. Charles W. Frick was selected as Manager of the new Office, to assume his duties in February. Frick had been Chief of Technical Staff for General Dynamics Convair. Robert O. Piland was appointed Deputy Manager of ASPO and would serve as Acting Manager until Frick's arrival. ASPO would be responsible for the technical direction of NAA and other industrial contractors assigned to work on the Apollo spacecraft. Additional Details: here....

1962 January 22 - .
  • First Apollo engineering order issued - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: The first Apollo engineering order was issued to fabricate mockups of the Apollo command and service modules..

1962 January - .
  • Storable liquid propellant selected for Apollo service module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. The solid propellant called for in the original NAA proposal on the service module propulsion system was replaced by a storable, hypergolic propellant. Multitank configurations under study appeared to present offloading capabilities for alternative missions.

1962 January - .
  • Apollo command module heatshield requirements established for several design trajectories - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Command module heatshield requirements, including heating versus time curves, were established by NAA for several design trajectories. A computer program method of analyzing the charring ablation process had been developed. By this means, it was possible to calculate the mass loss, surface char layer temperature, amount of heat conducted through the uncharred ablation material and insulation into the cabin, and temperature profile through the ablator and insulation layers. In February, NAA determined that a new and more refined computer program would be needed.

1962 January - .
  • Preliminary layouts of the Apollo command module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. NAA engineers began preliminary layouts to define the elements of the command module (CM) configuration. Additional requirements and limitations imposed on the CM included reduction in diameter, paraglider compatibility, 250 pounds of radiation protection water, redundant propellant tankage for the attitude control system, and an increase in system weight and volume. Additional Details: here....

1962 February 7 - .
  • Single-engine design for the Apollo service module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. On the basis of a study by NAA, a single-engine configuration was chosen as the optimum approach for the service module propulsion subsystem. The results of the study were presented to MSC representatives and NAA was authorized to issue a work statement to begin procurement of an engine for this configuration. Agreement was also reached at this meeting on a vacuum thrust level of 20,000 pounds for the engine. This would maintain a thrust-to-weight ratio of 0.4 and allow a considerable increase in the lunar liftoff weight of the spacecraft.

1962 February 9 - .
  • General Electric selected for Apollo support - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA announced that the General Electric Company had been selected for a major supporting role in the Apollo project, to provide integration analysis of the total space vehicle (including booster-spacecraft interface), ensure reliability of the entire space vehicle, and develop and operate a checkout system.

1962 February 13 - .
  • Contract for Apollo launch escape system rocket - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. A contract for the escape rocket of the Apollo spacecraft launch escape system was awarded to the Lockheed Propulsion Company by NAA. The initial requirements were for a 200,000-pound-thrust solid- propellant rocket motor with an active thrust-vector-control subsystem. Additional Details: here....

1962 February - .
  • Apollo command module couch redesign - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. The command module crew couch was repositioned and redesigned because of numerous problems. In the new design, an adjustable hand controller, similar to that used on the X-15, would be attached to an adjustable arm rest. The head rest could be regulated for an approximate four-inch movement, while the side head support was limited in movement for couch-module clearance. The adjustable leg support included a foot controller which could be folded up.

    The center couch, including the crewman parachute and survival kit, could be folded out to a sleep position and stowed under either remaining couch. Allowance was made for the crewman to turn over.

    Principal problems remaining were the difficulty of removing the center couch and providing the clearances needed for the couch positions specified for various phases of the lunar mission.


1962 March 2 - .
  • Marquardt to build the reaction control rocket engines for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: The Marquardt Corporation was selected by NAA's Space and Information Systems Division to design and build the reaction control rocket engines for the Apollo spacecraft. The contract was signed during April..

1962 March 3 - .
  • Aerojet-General named for the Apollo service module propulsion system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: The Aerojet-General Corporation was named by NAA as a subcontractor for the Apollo service module propulsion system..

1962 March 6 - .
  • The staffing for the MSC Apollo Spacecraft Project Office was announced - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Caldwell. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. The organizational elements and staffing for the MSC Apollo Spacecraft Project Office was announced:

    Office of Project Manager
    Charles W. Frick, Project Manager

    Robert O. Piland, Deputy Project Manager

    Command and Service Module
    Caldwell C. Johnson, Chief

    William F. Rector, Special Assistant

    Calvin H. Perrine, Flight Technology

    Lee N. McMillion, Crew Systems

    David L. Winterhalter, Sr., Power Systems

    Wallace D. Graves, Mechanical Systems

    Milton C. Kingsley, Electrical Systems

    (Vacant), Ground Support Equipment

    Lunar Landing Module
    Robert O. Piland, Acting Chief
    Guidance and Control Development
    David W. Gilbert, Chief

    Jack Barnard, Apollo Office at MIT

    Systems Integration
    Paul F. Weyers, Chief

    (Vacant), Reliability and Quality Control

    Emory F. Harris, Operations Requirements

    Robert P. Smith, Launch Vehicle Integration

    Owen G. Morris, Mission Engineering

    Marion R. Franklin, Ground Operational Support Systems

    Apollo Office at NAA
    Herbert R. Ash, Acting Manager

    Alan B. Kehlet, Engineering

    Alan B. Kehlet, Acting Manager, Quality Control and Engineering

    Herbert R. Ash, Acting Manager, Business Administration

    Planning and Resources
    Thomas F. Baker, Chief

1962 March 8 - .
  • Contract for the Apollo spacecraft fuel cell to Pratt & Whitney - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Summary: NAA awarded a development contract for the Apollo spacecraft fuel cell to Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division of United Aircraft Corporation..

1962 March 13 - .
  • Apollo program to be given DX priority - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Lyndon; Kennedy; Webb. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. James E. Webb, NASA Administrator, recommended to President John F. Kennedy that the Apollo program be given DX priority (highest priority in the procurement of critical materials). He also sent a memorandum to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Chairman of the National Aeronautics and Space Council, requesting that the Council consider advising the President to add the Apollo program to the DX priority list.

1962 March 15-16 - .
  • First monthly meeting of the Apollo design and review team to survey NAA's progress - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget; Kraft; Maynard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell; CSM Heat Shield. Charles W. Frick, Manager of the MSC Apollo Spacecraft Project Office, together with Maxime A. Faget, Charles W. Mathews, Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., John B. Lee, Owen E. Maynard, and Alan B. Kehlet of MSC and George M. Low of the NASA Office of Manned Space Flight, visited NAA at Downey, Calif. This was the first monthly meeting of the Apollo design and review team to survey NAA's progress in various areas, including the Apollo spacecraft heatshield, fuel cells, and service module.

1962 March 23 - .
  • Avco selected for ablative material for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: The Avco Corporation was selected by NAA to design and install the ablative material on the Apollo spacecraft outer surface..

1962 March 23 - .
  • Wind tunnel tests on two configurations of Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: Wind tunnel tests were completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and at Langley Research Center on two early configurations of Apollo spacecraft models..

1962 March-November - .
  • Apollo guidance and navigation system defined - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. The Apollo guidance and navigation system was defined in more detail as more information from NASA MIT studies was received on new requirements for the system. As a result, the scope of the component development tasks given to all the guidance and navigation subcontractors was substantially increased.

1962 April 1-7 - .
  • Design criteria of the Apollo service module for the lunar landing maneuver - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing. Summary: NAA was directed by the MSC Apollo Spacecraft Project Office to begin a study to define the configuration and design criteria of the service module which would make the lunar landing maneuver and touchdown..

1962 April 2-3 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Meeting at NASA Headquarters reviews the lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) technique for Project Apollo - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard; Shea; Geissler; Horn. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM LES; CSM Recovery; CSM SPS; CSM Television. A meeting to review the lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) technique as a possible mission mode for Project Apollo was held at NASA Headquarters. Representatives from various NASA offices attended: Joseph F. Shea, Eldon W. Hall, William A. Lee, Douglas R. Lord, James E. O'Neill, James Turnock, Richard J. Hayes, Richard C. Henry, and Melvyn Savage of NASA Headquarters; Friedrich O. Vonbun of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); Harris M. Schurmeier of Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Arthur V. Zimmeman of Lewis Research Center; Jack Funk, Charles W. Mathews, Owen E. Maynard, and William F. Rector of MSC; Paul J. DeFries, Ernst D. Geissler, and Helmut J. Horn of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC); Clinton E. Brown, John C. Houbolt, and William H. Michael, Jr., of Langley Research Center; and Merrill H. Mead of Ames Research Center. Each phase of the LOR mission was discussed separately.

    The launch vehicle required was a single Saturn C-5, consisting of the S-IC, S-II, and S-IVB stages. To provide a maximum launch window, a low earth parking orbit was recommended. For greater reliability, the two-stage-to-orbit technique was recommended rather than requiring reignition of the S-IVB to escape from parking orbit.

    The current concepts of the Apollo command and service modules would not be altered. The lunar excursion vehicle (LEV), under intensive study in 1961, would be aft of the service module and in front of the S-IVB stage. For crew safety, an escape tower would be used during launch. Access to the LEV would be provided while the entire vehicle was on the launch pad.

    Both Apollo and Saturn guidance and control systems would be operating during the launch phase. The Saturn guidance and control system in the S-IVB would be "primary" for injection into the earth parking orbit and from earth orbit to escape. Provisions for takeover of the Saturn guidance and control system should be provided in the command module. Ground tracking was necessary during launch and establishment of the parking orbit, MSFC and GSFC would study the altitude and type of low earth orbit.

    The LEV would be moved in front of the command module "early" in the translunar trajectory. After the S-IVB was staged off the spacecraft following injection into the translunar trajectory, the service module would be used for midcourse corrections. Current plans were for five such corrections. If possible, a symmetric configuration along the vertical center line of the vehicle would be considered for the LEV. Ingress to the LEV from the command module should be possible during the translunar phase. The LEV would have a pressurized cabin capability during the translunar phase. A "hard dock" mechanism was considered, possibly using the support structure needed for the launch escape tower. The mechanism for relocation of the LEV to the top of the command module required further study. Two possibilities were discussed: mechanical linkage and rotating the command module by use of the attitude control system. The S-IVB could be used to stabilize the LEV during this maneuver.

    The service module propulsion would be used to decelerate the spacecraft into a lunar orbit. Selection of the altitude and type of lunar orbit needed more study, although a 100-nautical-mile orbit seemed desirable for abort considerations.

    The LEV would have a "point" landing (±½ mile) capability. The landing site, selected before liftoff, would previously have been examined by unmanned instrumented spacecraft. It was agreed that the LEV would have redundant guidance and control capability for each phase of the lunar maneuvers. Two types of LEV guidance and control systems were recommended for further analysis. These were an automatic system employing an inertial platform plus radio aids and a manually controlled system which could be used if the automatic system failed or as a primary system.

    The service module would provide the prime propulsion for establishing the entire spacecraft in lunar orbit and for escape from the lunar orbit to earth trajectory. The LEV propulsion system was discussed and the general consensus was that this area would require further study. It was agreed that the propulsion system should have a hover capability near the lunar surface but that this requirement also needed more study.

    It was recommended that two men be in the LEV, which would descend to the lunar surface, and that both men should be able to leave the LEV at the same time. It was agreed that the LEV should have a pressurized cabin which would have the capability for one week's operation, even though a normal LOR mission would be 24 hours. The question of lunar stay time was discussed and it was agreed that Langley should continue to analyze the situation. Requirements for sterilization procedures were discussed and referred for further study. The time for lunar landing was not resolved.

    In the discussion of rendezvous requirements, it was agreed that two systems be studied, one automatic and one providing for a degree of manual capability. A line of sight between the LEV and the orbiting spacecraft should exist before lunar takeoff. A question about hard-docking or soft-docking technique brought up the possibility of keeping the LEV attached to the spacecraft during the transearth phase. This procedure would provide some command module subsystem redundancy.

    Direct link communications from earth to the LEV and from earth to the spacecraft, except when it was in the shadow of the moon, was recommended. Voice communications should be provided from the earth to the lunar surface and the possibility of television coverage would be considered.

    A number of problems associated with the proposed mission plan were outlined for NASA Center investigation. Work on most of the problems was already under way and the needed information was expected to be compiled in about one month.

    (This meeting, like the one held February 13-15, was part of a continuing effort to select the lunar mission mode).


1962 April 4 - .
  • Mockup of the Apollo command module made public - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: A mockup of the Apollo command module, built by the Space and Information Systems Division of NAA, was made public for the first time during a visit to NAA by news media representatives..

1962 April 6 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Request for proposal for the Little Joe II launch vehicle - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The request for a proposal on the Little Joe II test launch vehicle was submitted to bidders by a letter from MSC, together with a Work Statement. Five launches, which were to test boilerplate models of the Apollo spacecraft command module in abort situations, were called for: three in 1963 and two in 1964. Additional Details: here....

1962 April 6 - .
  • Thiokol selected for Apollo launch escape tower jettison motors - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: The Thiokol Chemical Corporation was selected by NAA to build the solid-fuel rocket motor to be used to jettison the Apollo launch escape tower following a launch abort or during a normal mission..

1962 April 11 - .
  • DX (highest) priority for the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kennedy. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: President John F, Kennedy designated the Apollo program including essential spacecraft, launch vehicles, and facilities as being in the highest national priority category (DX) for research and development and for achieving operational capability..

1962 April 19-20 - .
  • Monthly NAA-NASA Apollo spacecraft design review - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Discussions at the monthly NAA-NASA Apollo spacecraft design review included:

    • Results of an NAA study on environmental control system (ECS) heating capabilities for lunar night operations were presented. The study showed that the system could not provide enough heating and that the integration of ECS and the fuel cell coolant system was the most promising source for supplemental heating.
    • The launch escape system configuration was approved. It embodied a 120inch tower, symmetrical nose cone, jettison motor located forward of the launch escape motor, and an aerodynamic skirt covering the escape motor nozzles. This configuration change in the escape rocket nozzle cant angle was intended to prevent impingement of hot gases on the command module.
    • MSC senior personnel directed NAA to study the technical penalties and scheduling effects of spacecraft design capabilities with direct lunar landing and lunar rendezvous techniques.

1962 April - .
  • Apollo inflight nuclear radiation instrumentation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. NAA determined that preliminary inflight nuclear radiation instrumentation would consist of an onboard system to detect solar x-ray or ultraviolet radiation and a ground visual system for telemetering solar flare warning signals to the command module. The crew would have eight to ten minutes warning to take protective action before the arrival of solar flare proton radiation.

1962 April - .
  • Shock attenuation in the Apollo command module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. NAA developed a concept for shock attenuation along the command module Y-Y axis by the use of aluminum honeycomb material. Cylinders mounted on the outboard edge of the left and right couches would extend mechanically to bear against the side compartment walls.

1962 April - .
  • Three major changes made by NAA in the Apollo space-suit circuit - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Three major changes were made by NAA in the Apollo space-suit circuit:

    1. The demand oxygen regulator was moved downstream of the crew to prevent a sudden drop of pressure when a crewman opened his face plate.
    2. The suit manifold would now have a pressure-controlled bypass to prevent variable flow to other crew members if one crewman increased or decreased oxygen flow. The manifold would also include a venturi in each suit-inlet connection to prevent a loss of oxygen flow to other crew members if the suit of one crewman should rupture. In this situation, the venturi would prevent the damaged suit flow out from exceeding the maximum flow of demand regulators.
    3. The circuit water evaporator and coolant loop heat exchanger of the suit were integrated into one by fluid exchange to make it smaller. A coolant-temperature control was also provided for sunlight operation on the moon.
    In addition, a suit inlet-outlet was added to the command module sleeping quarters, and the cabin fan was shifted so that it would operate as an intake fan during the post-landing phase.

1962 April - .
  • Changes in the Apollo environmental control system (ECS) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell; CSM Recovery. NAA studies resulted in significant changes in the command module environmental control system (ECS).

    1. Among modifications in the ECS schematic were included:
      1. Reduction in the cooling water capacity
      2. Combining into one command module tank the potable water and cooling water needed during boost
      3. Elimination of the water blanket for radiation protection.
    2. More water would be generated by the fuel cells than necessary and could be dumped to decrease lunar landing and lunar takeoff weight.
    3. Airlock valving requirements would permit two or more crewmen to perform extravehicular operation simultaneously. Area control of the space radiator to prevent coolant freezing was specified.
    4. A new concept to integrate heat rejection from the spacecraft power system and the ECS into one space radiator subsystem was developed. This subsystem would provide full versatility for both lunar night and lunar day conditions and would decrease weight and complexity.
    5. Because of the elimination of the lunar supplemental refrigeration system and deployable radiators, the water-glycol coolant system was modified:
      1. Removal from the service module of the coolant loop regenerative heat exchanger
      2. Replacement by a liquid valving arrangement of the gas-leak check provision at the radiator panels
      3. Changeover to a completely cascaded system involving the suit-circuit heat exchanger, cabin heat exchanger, and electronic component coldplate.
    In addition, a small, regenerative heat exchanger was added in the command module to preheat the water-glycol. A separate coolant branch to the inertial measurement unit section of the electronic system provided for the more critical cooling task required in that area.

1962 April - .
  • Configuration of the Apollo command module forward compartment changed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: The basic design configuration of the command module forward compartment was changed by the relocation of two attitude control engines from the lower to the upper compartment area, where less heat flux would be experienced during reentry..

1962 April 30 - .
  • Apollo service module propulsion engine contract to Aerojet - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: The contract for the Apollo service module propulsion engine was awarded by NAA to Aerojet-General Corporation. The estimated cost of the contract was $12 million. NAA had given Aerojet-General authority April 9 to begin work..

1962 May 3 - .
  • Purchase request for Apollo wind tunnel support services from the Air Force - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. A purchase request was being prepared by NASA for wind tunnel support services from the Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center in the amount of approximately $222,000. These wind tunnel tests were to provide design parameter data on static stability, dynamic stability, pressure stability, and heat transfer for the Apollo program. The funds were to cover tests during June and July 1962. Approximately $632,000 would be required in Fiscal Year 1963 to fund the tests scheduled to December 1962.

1962 May 4-5 - .
  • Comprehensive test plan for verifying the overall integrity of the heatshield - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. At the monthly Apollo spacecraft design review meeting at NAA, MSC representatives recommended that NAA and Avco Corporation prepare a comprehensive test plan for verifying the overall integrity of the heatshield including flight tests deemed necessary, without regard for anticipated hunch vehicle availability.

1962 May 4 - .
  • Source Evaluation Board for selecting Apollo navigation and guidance completed its evaluation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. The Source Evaluation Board for selecting Apollo navigation and guidance components subcontractors completed its evaluation of bids and technical proposals and submitted its findings to NASA Headquarters. Preliminary presentation of the Board's findings had been made to NASA Administrator James E. Webb on April 5.

1962 May 5 - .
  • NAA's Apollo spacecraft letter contract increased - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC processed a purchase request to increase NAA's spacecraft letter contract from $32 million to $55 million to cover NAA's costs to June 30, 1962. (Pending the execution of a definitive contract (signed August 14, 1963), actions of this type were necessary).

1962 May 8 - .
  • Three contractors for the Apollo guidance and navigation system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. NASA announced the selection of three companies for the negotiation of production contracts for major components of the Apollo spacecraft guidance and navigation system under development by the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. The largest of the contracts, for $16 million, would be negotiated with AC Spark Plug Division of General Motor Corporation for fabrication of the inertial, gyroscope-stabilized platform of the Apollo spacecraft; for development and construction of ground support and checkout equipment; and for assembling and testing all parts of the system. The second contract, for $2 million, would be negotiated with the Raytheon Company to manufacture the digital computer aboard the spacecraft. Under the third contract, for about $2 million, Kollsman Instrument Corporation would build the optical subsystems, including a space sextant, sunfinders, and navigation display equipment.

1962 May - .
  • NAA studies on Apollo prototype crew couch - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: NAA studies on the prototype crew couch included one on the use of the center couch for supporting a crewman at the astrosextant during lunar approach and another on the displacement of outboard couches for access to equipment areas..

1962 May - .
  • Study of integrating the Apollo fuel cell and environmental control heat rejection systems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. NAA evaluated the possibility of integrating the fuel cell and environmental control system heat rejection into one system. The integrated system proved to be unsatisfactory, being 300 pounds heavier and considerably more complex than the two separate systems. A preliminary design of separate fuel cell radiators, possibly located on the service module, was started by NAA.

1962 May - .
  • Apollo command module reaction control system selected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. The command module reaction control system (RCS) selected by NAA was a dual system without interconnections. Either would be sufficient for the entire mission.

    For the service module RCS, a quadruple arrangement was chosen which was basically similar to the command module RCS except that squib valves and burst discs were eliminated.


1962 May - .
  • Apollo spacecraft crew hatch concept - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. NAA decided to retain the inward-opening pull-down concept for the spacecraft crew hatch, which would use plain through bolts for lower sill attachment and a manual jack-screw device to supply the force necessary to seat and unseat the hatch.

    Concurrently, a number of NAA latching concepts were in preparation for presentation to NASA, including that of an outward-opening, quick- opening crew door without an outer emergency panel. This design, however, had weight and complexity disadvantages, as well as requiring explosive charges.


1962 May - .
  • Apollo command module toxic materials - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. NAA began compiling a list of command module materials to be classified selectively for potentially toxic properties. These materials would be investigated to determine location (related to possible venting of gases), fire resistance, exposure to excessive temperatures, gases resulting from thermal decomposition, and toxicity of gases released under normal and material-failure conditions. Although a complete examination of every material was not feasible, materials could be grouped according to chemical constituency and quantity of gases released.

1962 May - .
  • Layouts of Apollo command module windows - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: Layouts of three command module observation window configurations were made by NAA. A study disclosed that sufficient direct vision for lunar landing was not feasible and that windows could not be uncovered during reentry..

1962 May - .
  • First reliability prediction for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The first reliability prediction study for the Apollo spacecraft was completed by NAA. Assuming all systems as series elements and excluding consideration of alternative modes, redundancies, or inflight maintenance provisions, the study gave a reliability estimate of 0.731. This analysis provided a basis from which means of improving reliability would be evaluated and formulated.

1962 May - .
  • Telescope requirements for the Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Telescope requirements for the spacecraft were modified after two study programs had been completed by NAA.

    A study on the direct vision requirement for lunar landing showed that, to have a simultaneous direct view of the lunar landing point and the landing feet without changing the spacecraft configuration, a periscope with a large field of view integrated with a side window would be needed. A similar requirement on the general-purpose telescope could thus be eliminated, reducing the complexity of the telescope design.

    Another study showed that, with an additional weight penalty of from five to ten pounds, an optical drift indicator for use after parachute deployment could easily be incorporated into the general-purpose telescope.


1962 May - .
  • Apollo emergency flight mode for lunar mission reentry - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. A feasibility study was completed by NAA on the ballistic (zero-lift) maneuver as a possible emergency flight mode for lunar mission reentry. Based upon single-pass and 12 g maximum load-factor criteria, the guidance corridor would be nine nautical miles. When atmospheric density deviations were considered (+/- 50 percent from standard), the allowable corridor would be reduced to four nautical miles. Touchdown dispersions within the defined corridor exceeded 2500 nautical miles.

1962 May - .
  • Preliminary requirement for spacecraft docking - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. NAA completed a preliminary requirement outline for spacecraft docking. The outline specified that the two spacecraft be navigated to within a few feet of each other and held to a relative velocity of less than six inches per second and that they be steered to within a few inches of axial alignment and parallelism. The crewman in the airlock was assumed to be adequately protected against radiation and meteoric bombardment and to be able to grasp the docking spacecraft and maneuver it to the sealing faces for final clamp.

1962 May - .
  • Urine management system recommended - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Two NAA analyses showed that the urine management system would prevent a rise in the command module humidity load and atmospheric contamination and that freeze-up of the line used for daily evacuation of urine to the vacuum of space could be prevented by proper orificing of the line.

1962 June 7 - . LV Family: Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • von Braun recommends lunar orbit rendezvous mode for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo Lunar Landing; CSM Recovery; CSM SPS. Wernher von Braun, Director, Marshall Space Flight Center, recommended to the NASA Office of Manned Space Flight that the lunar orbit rendezvous mode be adopted for the lunar landing mission. He also recommended the development of an unmanned, fully automatic, one-way Saturn C-5 logistics vehicle in support of the lunar expedition; the acceleration of the Saturn C-1B program; the development of high-energy propulsion systems as a backup for the service module and possibly the lunar excursion module; and further development of the F-1 and J-2 engines to increase thrust or specific impulse.

1962 June 10-11 - .
  • NAA directed to design an earth landing system for an Apollo CM passive touchdown mode - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM LES; CSM Recovery. NAA was directed by the Apollo Spacecraft Project Office at the monthly design review meeting to design an earth landing system for a passive touchdown mode to include the command module cant angle limited to about five degrees and favoring offset center of gravity, no roll orientation control, no deployable heatshield, and depressurization of the reaction control system propellant prior to impact. At the same meeting, NAA was requested to use a single "kicker" rocket and a passive thrust-vector-control system for the spacecraft launch escape system.

1962 June 11 - .
  • VVS Conference: Military Use of Space - the Short-Term Perspective - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Vershinin; Rudenko; Malinovskiy. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V; Apollo CSM. The projection is made that the US will surpass the USSR in space in 1963-1964. Kennedy's 1961 speech announcing the Apollo project to land on the moon was passed to Vershinin for comment, but no reply was ever received. Rudenko, Vershinin, and especially Malinovskiy see no role for piloted space flight, let alone flights to the moon. America, with its superior electronics capability, is still proceeding with development of manned spacecraft that require the active piloting of the astronaut. Why then, Kamanin fumes, is the USSR trying to develop completely automated manned spacecraft? Military space is being run in the USSR by men who know nothing of it, he notes. Rudenko is ill, and not even at the conference.

1962 June 16-22 - .
  • 100 percent oxygen atmosphere for Apollo would save 30 pounds - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: Results of a preliminary investigation by NAA showed that a 100 percent oxygen atmosphere for the command module would save about 30 pounds in weight and reduce control complexity..

1962 June 16 - .
  • Apollo propulsion to be tested at White Sands - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: NASA announced that the Apollo service module propulsion system would be tested at a new facility at White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex..

1962 June 18 - .
  • Location of the onboard space sextant in the Apollo command module changed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. As the result of considerable joint engineering effort and discussion by NAA and MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, the location of the onboard space sextant in the command module was changed from the main instrument panel to the wall of the lower equipment bay. The instrument would penetrate the hull on the hot side during reentry and the navigator would have to leave his couch to make navigation sightings and to align the inertial measurement unit.

1962 Summer-Fall - .
  • Microcircuits to be used on the Apollo computer - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: NASA and MIT agreed that the Instrumentation Laboratory would use the microcircuit for the prototype Apollo onboard computer. The Fairchild Controls Corporation microcircuit was the only one available in the United States..

1962 June 22 - .
  • Results of the study on lunar mission mode selection - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. Joseph F. Shea, NASA Deputy Director of Manned Space Flight (Systems), presented to the Manned Space Flight Management Council the results of the study on lunar mission mode selection. The study included work by personnel in Shea's office, MSC, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The criteria used in evaluating the direct ascent technique, earth orbit rendezvous connecting and fueling modes, and lunar orbit rendezvous were: the mission itself, weight margins, guidance accuracy, communications and tracking requirements, reliability (abort problems), development complexity, schedules, costs, flexibility, growth potential, and military implications.

1962 June - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Study of repair of J-2 engine in space - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Five NASA scientists, dressed in pressure suits, completed an exploratory study at Rocketdyne Division of the feasibility of repairing, replacing, maintaining, and adjusting components of the J-2 rocket while in space. The scientific team also investigated the design of special maintenance tools and the effectiveness of different pressure suits in performing maintenance work in space.

1962 July 6 - .
  • Apollo employment at NAA reached 14,119 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Employment at NAA's Space and Information Systems Division reached 14,119, an increase of 7,000 in seven months..

1962 July 10-11 - .
  • Apollo atmosphere to be pure oxygen - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. At the monthly Apollo spacecraft design review meeting with NAA, MSC officials directed NAA to design the spacecraft atmospheric system for 5 psia pure oxygen. From an engineering standpoint, the single-gas atmosphere offered advantages in minimizing weight and leakage, in system simplicity and reliability, and in the extravehicular suit interface. Additional Details: here....

1962 July 16 - .
  • Beech selected build the Apollo fuel cell vessels - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Summary: Beech Aircraft Corporation was selected by NASA to build the spherical pressure vessels that would be used to store in the supercritical state the hydrogen-oxygen reactants for the spacecraft fuel cell power supply..

1962 July - .
  • Control layouts for Apollo command module windows completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: NAA completed control layouts for all three command module windows, including heatshield windows and sightlines. Structural penalties were investigated, window-panes sized, and a weight-comparison chart prepared..

1962 July - .
  • Apollo Command module flotation studies - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Command module (CM) flotation studies were made by NAA, in which the heatshield was assumed to be upright with no flooding having occurred between the CM inner and outer walls. The spacecraft was found to have two stable attitudes: the desired upright position and an unacceptable on-the-side position 128 degrees from the vertical. Further studies were scheduled to determine how much lower the CM center of gravity would have to be to eliminate the unacceptable stable condition and to measure the overall flotation stability when the CM heatshield was extended.

1962 July - .
  • Docking methods for Apollo investigated - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. NAA investigated several docking methods. These included extendable probes to draw the modules together; shock-strut arms on the lunar excursion module with ball locators to position the modules until the spring latch caught, fastening them together; and inflatable Mylar and polyethylene plastic tubing. Also considered was a system in which a crewman, secured by a lanyard, would transfer into the open lunar excursion module. Another crewman in the open command module airlock would then reel in the lanyard to bring the modules together.

1962 July - .
  • Camera selected for Apollo mission photo documentation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. A 70-mm pulse camera was selected by NAA for mission photodocumentation. The camera was to be carried in the upper parachute compartment. Because of the lack of space and the need for a constant power supply for a 35-watt heating element, NAA was considering placing the camera behind the main display panel. The advantages of this arrangement were that the camera would require less power, be available for changing magazines, and could be removed for use outside the spacecraft.

    One 16-mm camera was also planned for the spacecraft. This camera would be positioned level with the commander's head and directed at the main display panel. It could be secured to the telescope for recording motion events in real time such as rendezvous, docking, launch and recovery of a lunar excursion module, and earth landing; it could be hand-held for extravehicular activity.


1962 July - .
  • Modified method of cooling Apollo selected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. A modified method of cooling crew and equipment before launch and during boost was tentatively selected by NAA. Chilled, ground-support-equipment-supplied water-glycol would be pumped through the spacecraft coolant system until 30 seconds before launch, when these lines would be disconnected. After umbilical separation the glycol, as it evaporated at the water boiler, would be chilled by Freon stored in the water tanks.

1962 July - .
  • Optimum configuration of Apollo transponder equipment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. A study was made by NAA to determine optimum location and configuration of the spacecraft transponder equipment. The study showed that, if a single deep space instrumentation facility transponder and power amplifier were carried in the command module instead of two complete systems in the service module, spacecraft weight would be reduced, the system would be simplified, and command and service module interface problems would be minimized. Spares in excess of normal would be provided to ensure reliability.

1962 July - .
  • Air recirculation system of Apollo command module rearranged - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Air recirculation system components of the command module were rearranged to accommodate a disconnect fitting and lines for the center crewman's suit. To relieve an obstruction, the cabin pressure regulator was relocated and a design study drawing was completed.

1962 July - .
  • Final design of the command module forward heatshield release mechanism - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: Final design of the command module forward heatshield release mechanism was completed by NAA..

1962 July - .
  • Design of heatshield for Apollo boilerplates completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: NAA completed the analysis and design of the Fibreglass heatshield. It duplicated the stiffness of the aluminum heatshield and would be used on all boilerplate spacecraft..

1962 July 31 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft design criteria - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The Manned Space Flight Management Council decided that the Apollo spacecraft design criteria should be worked out under the guidance of the Office of Manned Space Flight (OMSF) Office of Systems. These criteria should be included in the systems specifications to be developed. A monthly exchange of information on spacecraft weight status should take place among the Centers and OMSF. Eldon W. Hall of the Office of Space Systems would be responsible for control of the detailed system weights.

1962 July - .
  • Emergency blow-out hatch study - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. NAA's evaluation of the emergency blow-out hatch study showed that the linear-shaped explosive charge should be installed on the outside of the command module, with a backup structure and an epoxy-foam-filled annulus on the inside of the module to trap fragmentation and gases. Detail drawings of the crew hatch were prepared for fabrication of actual test sections.

1962 July - .
  • Control layout of the command module aft compartment released - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. The control layout of the command module aft compartment was released by NAA. This revised drawing incorporated the new umbilical locations in the lower heatshield, relocated the pitch-and-yaw engines symmetrically, eliminated the ground support equipment tower umbilical, and showed the resulting repositioning of tanks and equipment.

1962 July - .
  • Deployment of the Apollo forward heatshield before tower jettison studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. After the determination of the basic design of the spacecraft sequencer schematic, the effect of the deployment of the forward heatshield before tower jettison was studied by NAA. The sequence of events of both the launch escape system and earth landing system would be affected, making necessary the selection of different sequences for normal flights and abort conditions. A schematic was prepared to provide for these sequencing alternatives.

1962 August 1 - .
  • Project Officers for Apollo CSM and LEM contracts named - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: At MSC, J. Thomas Markley was appointed Project Officer for the Apollo spacecraft command and service modules contract, and William F. Rector was named Project Officer for the lunar excursion module contract..

1962 August 2 - .
  • Heatshield for Apollo boilerplate 1 completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The heatshield for Apollo command module boilerplate model 1 was completed five days ahead of schedule..

1962 August 6 - .
  • MIT ordered Honeywell computer for work on the Apollo spacecraft navigation system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. The MIT Instrumentation Laboratory ordered a Honeywell 1800 electronic computer from the Minneapolis- Honeywell Regulator Company's Electronic Data Processing Division for work on the Apollo spacecraft navigation system. After installation in 1963, the computer would aid in circuitry design of the Apollo spacecraft computer and would also simulate full operation of a spaceborne computer during ground tests.

1962 August 7 - .
  • Apollo BP- 25 impact test in the Pacific Ocean - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: The first completed boilerplate model of the Apollo command module, BP- 25, was subjected to a one-fourth-scale impact test in the Pacific Ocean near the entrance to Los Angeles Harbor. Three additional tests were conducted on August 9..

1962 August 10 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Algol motor for Little Joe II booster - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: NASA selected the Aerojet-General Algol solid-propellant motor to power the Little Joe II booster, which would be used to flight-test the command and service modules of the Apollo spacecraft..

1962 August 11 - .
  • NASA schedule for Apollo command and service modules - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. A NASA program schedule for the Apollo spacecraft command and service modules through calendar year 1965 was established for financial planning purposes and distributed to the NASA Office of Manned Space Flight, Marshall Space Flight Center, and MSC. The key dates were: complete service module drawing release, May 1, 1963; complete command module drawing release, June 15, 1963; manufacture complete on the first spacecraft, February 1, 1964; first manned orbital flight, May 15, 1965. This tentative schedule depended on budget appropriations.

1962 August 13-14 - .
  • Reduction in reaction control thrust for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: NAA suggested that the pitch, roll, and yaw rates required for the Apollo guidance and navigation system would permit reduction in the reaction control thrust..

1962 Mid-August - .
  • First Apollo boilerplate command module, BP-25, delivered for water recovery and handling tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. The first Apollo boilerplate command module, BP-25, was delivered to MSC for water recovery and handling tests. Flotation, water stability, and towing tests were conducted with good results. J. Thomas Markley of MSC described all spacecraft structural tests thus far as "successful."

1962 August 22 - .
  • Contractor for Apollo CM reaction controls changed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: Responsibility for the design and manufacture of the reaction controls for the Apollo command module was shifted from The Marquardt Corporation to the Rocketdyne Division of NAA, with NASA concurrence..

1962 August 22 - .
  • Length of the Apollo service module increased - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: The length of the Apollo service module was increased from 11 feet 8 inches to 12 feet 11 inches to provide space for additional fuel..

1962 August - .
  • Decision to redesign Apollo command module fuel cell radiator - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Summary: A final decision was made by NAA to redesign the command module fuel cell radiator and associated tubing to accommodate a 30-psi maximum pressure drop. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division agreed to redesign their pump for this level..

1962 August - .
  • First tests incorporating data acquisition in the Apollo test program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: The first tests incorporating data acquisition in the Apollo test program were conducted at El Centro, Calif. They consisted of monitoring data returned by telemetry during a parachute dummy-load test..

1962 August - .
  • Revised NAA Objectives Document - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The revised NAA Summary Definitions and Objectives Document was released. This revision incorporated the lunar orbit rendezvous concept, without lunar excursion module integration, and a revised master phasing schedule, reflecting the deletion of the second-stage service module. The NAA Apollo Mission Requirements and Apollo Requirements Specifications were also similarly re-oriented and released.

1962 August - .
  • Basic Apollo CM airlock and docking design - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. The establishment of a basic command module (CM) airlock and docking design criteria were discussed by NAA and NASA representatives. While NASA preferred a closed-hatch, one-man airlock system, NAA had based its design on an open-hatch, two-man airlock operation.

    Another closed-hatch configuration under consideration would entirely eliminate the CM airlock. Astronauts transferring to and from the lunar excursion module would be in a pressurized environment constantly.


1962 August - .
  • Limited testing planned of fire hazards in pure oxygen atmosphere for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: A preliminary NAA report was completed on a literature search concerning fire hazards in 100 percent oxygen and oxygen-enriched atmospheres. This report showed that limited testing would be warranted..

1962 August - .
  • Apollo launch escape control system eliminated - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. The launch escape thrust-vector-control system was replaced by a passive system using a "kicker" rocket as directed by NASA at the June 10-11 design review meeting, The rocket would be mounted at the top of the launch escape system tower and fired tangentially to impart the necessary pitchover motion during the initial phase of abort. The main motor thrust was revised downward from 180, 000 to 155, 000 pounds and aligned 2.8 degrees off the center line. A downrange abort direction was selected; during abort the spacecraft and astronauts would rotate in a heels over head movement.

1962 August - .
  • Layouts of Apollo CM telescope installation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Layouts of a command module (CM) telescope installation in the unpressurized upper parachute compartment were completed by NAA. The concept was for the telescope to extend ten inches from the left side of the spacecraft. The light path would enter the upper bulkhead through the main display panel to an eyepiece presentation on the commander's side of the spacecraft. A static seal (one-half-inch-thick window) would be used to prevent leakage in the pressurized compartment. The installation was suitable for use in the lunar orbit rendezvous mission and would allow one man in the CM to accomplish docking with full visual control.

1962 August - .
  • Apollo design criteria for food reconstitution bags - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: NAA established design criteria for materials and processes used in food reconstitution bags. An order was placed for polypropylene material with a contoured mouthpiece. This material would be machined and then heat-fused to a thermoplastic bag..

1962 August - .
  • Preliminary studies determine Apollo radiation instrument location - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Preliminary studies were made by NAA to determine radiation instrument location, feasibility of shadow-shielding, and methods of determining direction of incidence of radiation. Preliminary requirements were established for the number and location of detectors and for information display.

1962 August - .
  • Effects of crew motions on Apollo attitude control negligible - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: An NAA study indicated that the effects of crew motions on spacecraft attitude control would be negligible..

1962 August - .
  • Apollo command module waste management system analysis completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. The command module waste management system analysis, including a new selection valve, revised tubing lengths, odor removal filter, and three check valves, was completed by NAA for a 5 psia pressure. There was only a small change in the flow rates through the separate branches as a result of the change to 5 psia.

1962 August - .
  • Apollo CM high-altitude abort attitude orientation studies completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. NAA completed attitude orientation studies, including one on the control of a tumbling command module (CM) following high-altitude abort above 125,000 feet. The studies indicated that the CM stabilization and control system would be adequate during the reentry phase with the CM in either of the two possible trim configurations.

1962 August - .
  • Details of the Apollo spacecraft described - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. Robert R. Gilruth, Director of MSC, presented details of the Apollo spacecraft at the Institute of the Aerospace Sciences meeting in Seattle, Wash. During launch and reentry, the three-man crew would be seated in adjacent couches; during other phases of flight, the center couch would be stowed to permit more freedom of movement. The Apollo command module cabin would have 365 cubic feet of volume, with 22 cubic feet of free area available to the crew: "The small end of the command module may contain an airlock; when the lunar excursion module is not attached, the airlock would permit a pressure-suited crewman to exit to free space without decompressing the cabin. Crew ingress and egress while on earth will be through a hatch in the side of the command module."

1962 September 4 - .
  • Interim Apollo flight operation plan for Fiscal Year 1963 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. An interim Apollo flight operation plan for Fiscal Year 1963, dated August 28, calling for funding of $489.9 million, was transmitted to NASA Headquarters from MSC. System requirements were under study to determine the feasibility of cost reduction to avoid schedule slippage.

1962 September 6 - .
  • Apollo mockups, and boilerplates deleted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: NASA deleted five Apollo mockups, three boilerplate spacecraft, and several ground support equipment items from the NAA contract because of funding limitations..

1962 September 7 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate model BP-1 accepted by NASA - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Apollo command module boilerplate model BP-1 was accepted by NASA and delivered to the NAA Engineering Development Laboratory for land and water impact tests. On September 25, BP-1 was drop-tested with good results. Earth-impact attenuation and crew shock absorption data were obtained.

1962 September 10 - .
  • Apollo command module boilerplate model BP-3 shipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Apollo command module boilerplate model BP-3, showing the arrangement of the cabin interior, was shipped to MSC..

1962 September 10 - .
  • Fire in a simulated Air Force space cabin - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Fire broke out in a simulated space cabin at the Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Tex., on the 13th day of a 14-day experiment to determine the effects of breathing pure oxygen in a long-duration space flight. One of the two Air Force officers was seriously injured. The cause of the fire was not immediately determined. The experiment was part of a NASA program to validate the use of a 5 psia pure oxygen atmosphere for the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft.

1962 Early September - .
  • Wooden mockup of Apollo command module received - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC reported that it had received a completed wooden mockup of the interior arrangement of the Apollo command module (CM). An identical mockup was retained at NAA for design control. Seven additional CM and service module (SM) mockups were planned: a partial SM and partial adapter interface, CM for exterior cabin equipment, complete SM, spacecraft for handling and transportation (two), crew support system, and complete CSM's. A mockup of the navigation and guidance equipment had been completed. A wooden mockup of the lunar excursion module exterior configuration was fabricated by NAA as part of an early study of spacecraft compatibility requirements.

1962 September 11 - .
  • Apollo White Sands Missile Range space facility announced - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. J. Thomas Markley, command and service module Project Officer at MSC, announced details of the space facility to be established by NASA at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). To be used in testing the Apollo spacecraft's propulsion and abort systems, the WSMR site facilities would include two static-test-firing stands, a control center blockhouse, various storage and other utility buildings, and an administrative services area.

1962 September 23-October 6 - .
  • Deletion and improvement of equipment reduced the weight of the Apollo CSM by 1,239 pounds - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Television. Deletion of non-critical equipment and improvement of existing systems reduced the weight of the command and service modules by 1,239 pounds, with a target reduction of 1,500 pounds.

    Among the items deleted from the command module (CM) were exercise and recreation equipment, personal parachutes and parachute containers located in the couches, individual survival kits, solar radiation garments, and eight-ball displays. A telescope, cameras and magazines considered scientific equipment, and a television monitor were deleted from the CM instrumentation system.


1962 September 24 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • First Apollo Little Joe II launch to be for qualification - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: General Dynamics/Convair recommended and obtained NASA's concurrence that the first Little Joe II launch vehicle be used for qualification, employing a dummy payload..

1962 September - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo spacecraft weights - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. The Apollo spacecraft weights had been apportioned within an assumed 90,000 pound limit. This weight was termed a "design allowable." A lower target weight for each module had been assigned. Achievement of the target weight would allow for increased fuel loading and therefore greater operational flexibility and mission reliability. The design allowable for the command module was 9,500 pounds; the target weight was 8,500 pounds. The service module design allowable was 11,500 pounds; the target weight was 11,000 pounds. The S-IVB adapter design allowable and target weight was 3,200 pounds. The amount of service module useful propellant was 40,300 pounds design allowable; the target weight was 37,120 pounds. The lunar excursion module design allowable was 25,500 pounds; the target weight was 24,500 pounds.

1962 September - .
  • Reliability goal for the Apollo mission set at 90% - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC reported that the reliability goal for design purposes in the spacecraft Statement of Work for the Apollo mission was 0.9. The probability that the crew would not be subjected to conditions in excess of the stated limits was 0.9, and the probability that the crew would not be subjected to emergency limits was 0.999. The initial Work Statement apportionment for the lunar excursion module was 0.984 for mission success and 0.9995 for crew safety. Other major system elements would require reapportionment to reflect the lunar orbit mission.

1962 September - .
  • Three fuel cells to supply power for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. MSC reported that the three liquid-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen fuel cells would supply the main and emergency power through the Apollo mission except for the earth reentry phase. Two of the fuel cells would carry normal electrical loads and one would supply emergency power. Performance predictions had been met and exceeded in single-cell tests. Complete module tests would begin during the next quarter. The liquid-hydrogen liquid-oxygen reactants for the fuel cell power supply were stored in the supercritical state in spherical pressure vessels. A recent decision had been made to provide heat input to the storage vessels with electrical heaters rather than the water-glycol loop. Three zinc-silver oxide batteries would supply power for all the electrical loads during reentry and during the brief periods of peak loads. One of the batteries was reserved exclusively for the postlanding phase. Eagle Picher Company, Joplin, Mo., had been selected in August as subcontractor for the batteries.

1962 September - .
  • Meteoroid test and ballistic ranges established for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. MSC reported that meteoroid tests and ballistic ranges had been established at the Ames Research Center, Langley Research Center, and NAA. These facilities could achieve only about one half of the expected velocity of 75,000 feet per second for the critical-sized meteoroid. A measured improvement in the capability to predict penetration would come from a test program being negotiated by NAA with General Motors Corporation, whose facility was capable of achieving particle velocities of 75,000 feet per second.

1962 September - .
  • Apollo lunar excursion module guidance system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC reported that the lunar excursion module guidance system was expected to use as many components as possible identical to those in the command and service modules. Studies at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory indicated that the changes required would simplify the computer and continue the use of the same inertial measurement unit and scanning telescope.

1962 September - .
  • Apollo wind tunnel program in eighth month - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: The Apollo wind tunnel program was in its eighth month. To date, 2,800 hours of time had been used in 30 government and private facilities..

1962 September - .
  • Apollo training requirements planning 40 percent complete - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. MSC reported that Apollo training requirements planning was 40 percent complete. The preparation of specific materials would begin during the first quarter of 1964. The crew training equipment included earth launch and reentry, orbital and rendezvous, and navigation and trajectory control part-task trainers, which were special-purpose simulators. An early delivery would allow extensive practice for the crew in those mission functions where crew activity was time-critical and required development of particular skills. The mission simulators had complete mission capability, providing visual as well as instrument environments. Mission simulators would be located at MSC and at Cape Canaveral.

1962 September - .
  • Structural design of the Apollo command module 65 percent complete - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: Release of the structural design of the Apollo command module was 65 percent complete; 100 percent release was scheduled for January 1 963..

1962 September - .
  • External natural environment of the Apollo spacecraft reconsidered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. The external natural environment of the Apollo spacecraft as defined in the December 18, 1961, Statement of Work had been used in the early Apollo design work. The micrometeoroid, solar proton radiation, and lunar surface characteristics were found to be most critical to the spacecraft design.

1962 September - .
  • Arnold facilities to be used for development of the Apollo reaction control and propulsion systems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. MSC reported that Arnold Engineering Development Center facilities at Tullahoma, Tenn., were being scheduled for use in the development of the Apollo reaction control and propulsion systems. The use of the Mark I altitude chamber for environmental tests of the command and service modules was also planned.

1962 October 1 - .
  • Apollo pad abort boilerplate command module BP-6 scheduled for delivery by mid-April 1963 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: The pad abort boilerplate command module, BP-6, to qualify the launch escape system, was scheduled for delivery to White Sands Missile Range by mid-April 1963. A pad abort test of BP-6 was scheduled for May 15, 1963..

1962 October 10 - .
  • Honeywell subcontract for Apollo stabilization and control system amended - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: The Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company letter subcontract for the Apollo stabilization and control system was suspended by NAA and amended in accordance with the current design concepts,.

1962 October 30 - .
  • Apollo drogue parachutes wind tunnel tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth reported to the Manned Space Flight Management Council that the Apollo drogue parachutes would be tested in the Langley Research Center wind tunnels..

1962 October 31 - .
  • NAA completed the firm-cost proposal for the definitive Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: NAA completed the firm-cost proposal for the definitive Apollo program and submitted it to NASA. MSC had reviewed the contract package and negotiated a program plan position with NAA..

1962 October - .
  • New launch escape tower configuration designed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. A new launch escape tower configuration with an internal structure that would clear the launch escape motor exhaust plume at 30,000 feet was designed and analyzed by NAA. Exhaust impingement was avoided by slanting the diagonal members in the upper bay toward the interior of the tower and attaching them to a ring.

1962 October - .
  • Digital computer program for calculating Apollo command module loads - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Recovery. Summary: An NAA digital computer program for calculating command module heatshield and couch system loads and landing stability was successful. Results showed that a five-degree negative-pitch attitude was preferable for land landings..

1962 October - .
  • Apollo personal communications system to have a duplex capability with a simplex backup - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. The revised NAA recommendation for a personal communications system consisted of a duplex capability with a simplex backup. Simultaneous transmission of voice and biomedical data with a break-in capability would be possible. Two changes in spacecraft VHF equipment would be needed: a dual-channel in place of a single-channel receiver, and a diplexer for use during duplex operation.

1962 October - .
  • Valves of the Apollo CM environmental control system modified for 5.0 psia oxygen - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. The valves of the command module (CM) environmental control system were modified to meet the 5.0 psia oxygen operating requirements. All oxygen partial pressure controls were deleted from the system and the relief pressure setting of 7 +/- 0.2 psia was changed to 6 +/- 0.2 psia. The CM now could be repressurized from 0 to 5.0 psia in one hour.

1962 October - .
  • Incandescent lamps to be used for the Apollo command module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Incandescent lamps would be used for floodlighting the command module because they weighed less than fluorescent lamps and took up less space while increasing reliability and reducing system complexity. A 28- volt lamp was most desirable because of its compatibility with the spacecraft 28-volt dc power system. Laboratory tests with a 28-volt incandescent lamp showed that heat dissipation would not be a problem in the vacuum environment but that a filament or shock mount would have to be developed to withstand vibration. An incandescent quartz lamp was studied because of its small size and high concentration of light.

1962 October - .
  • Study proposed moving the crew and couches - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. An NAA study on the shift of the command module center of gravity during reentry proposed moving the crew and couches about ten inches toward the aft equipment bay and then repositioning them for landing impact.

    A review of body angles used for the current couch geometry disclosed that the thigh-to-torso angle could be closed sufficiently for a brief period during reentry to shorten the overall couch length by the required travel along the Z-Z axis. The more acute angle was desirable for high g conditions. This change in the couch adjustment range, as well as a revision in the lower leg angle to gain structure clearance, would necessitate considerable couch redesign.


1962 October - .
  • Proposed designs for Apollo view port covers prepared - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Proposed designs for view port covers on the crew-hatch window, docking ports, and earth landing windows were prepared by NAA. Design planning called for these port covers to be removed solely in the space environment. (Crew members would not use such windows during launch and reentry phases.) NAA,

1962 October - .
  • Study of Apollo reentry temperatures - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. NAA completed a study of reentry temperatures. Without additional cooling, space suit inlet temperatures were expected to increase from 50 degrees F at 100,000 feet to 90 degrees F at spacecraft parachute deployment. The average heat of the command module inner wall was predicted not to exceed 75 degrees F at parachute deployment and 95 degrees F on landing, but then to rise to nearly 150 degrees F.

1962 October - .
  • Apollo CM blowout emergency escape hatch not needed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. Elimination of the requirement for personal parachutes nullified consideration of a command module (CM) blowout emergency escape hatch. A set of quick-acting latches for the inward-opening crew hatch would be needed, however, to provide a means of egress following a forced landing. The latches would be operable from outside as well as inside the pressure vessel. Outside hardware for securing the ablative panel over the crew door would be required as well as a method of releasing the panel from inside the CM.

1962 October - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Technique for separating the Apollo command and service modules during an abort - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. The technique tentatively selected by NAA for separating the command and service modules from lower stages during an abort consisted of firing four 2000-pound-thrust posigrade rockets mounted on the service module adapter. With this technique, no retrorockets would be needed on the S-IV or S-IVB stages. Normal separation from the S-IVB would be accomplished with the service module reaction control system.

1962 November 2 - .
  • Preliminary design of Apollo CM crew accessories and survival equipment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: NAA completed the release of the layout and preliminary design of command module crew accessories and survival equipment..

1962 November 5 - .
  • Walls of the Apollo spacecraft to provide most of the radiation shielding required for the crew - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: William L. Gill, Chief of Crew Systems Division's Radiation Branch, MSC, said that the walls of the Apollo spacecraft would provide most of the radiation shielding required for the crew. Astronauts would have special shielding devices only for their eyes..

1962 November 9 - .
  • Raytheon contracted for the Apollo spacecraft guidance computer - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: The Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) and the Raytheon Company came to terms on the definitive contract for the Apollo spacecraft guidance computer..

1962 November 13 - .
  • Westinghouse to build power conversion units for the Apollo command module - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. North American Aviation, Inc., selected the Aerospace Electrical Division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation to build the power conversion units for the command module (CM) electrical system. The units would convert direct current from the fuel cells to alternating current.

1962 November 15 - .
  • Firings of the prototype Apollo service propulsion engine completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. The Aerojet-General Corporation reported completion of successful firings of the prototype service propulsion engine. The restartable engine, with an ablative thrust chamber, reached thrusts up to 21,500 pounds. (Normal thrust rating for the service propulsion engine is 20,500.)

1962 November 17 - .
  • Four injured when an electrical spark ignited a fire in a Navy altitude chamber - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Four Navy officers were injured when an electrical spark ignited a fire in an altitude chamber, near the end of a 14-day experiment at the U.S. Navy Air Crew Equipment Laboratory, Philadelphia, Pa. The men were participating in a NASA experiment to determine the effect on humans of breathing pure oxygen for 14 days at simulated altitudes.

1962 November 19 - .
  • Requirements for the Apollo CSM stabilization and control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: North American defined requirements for the command and service modules (CSM) stabilization and control system..

1962 November - .
  • Changes in the layout of the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Recovery. North American made a number of changes in the layout of the CM:

    • Putting the lithium hydroxide canisters in the lower equipment bay and food stowage compartments in the aft equipment bay.
    • Regrouping equipment in the left-hand forward equipment bay to make pressure suit disconnects easier to reach and to permit a more advanced packaging concept for the cabin heat exchanger.
    • Moving the waste management control panel and urine and chemical tanks to the right-hand equipment bay.
    • Revising the aft compartment control layout to eliminate the landing impact attenuation system and to add tie rods for retaining the heatshield.
    • Preparing a design which would incorporate the quick release of the crew hatch with operation of the center window (drawings were released, and target weights and criteria were established).
    • Redesigning the crew couch positioning mechanism and folding capabilities.
    • Modifying the footrests to prevent the crew's damaging the sextant.

1962 November - .
  • Contract for wind tunnel tests of the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: MSC awarded a $222,000 contract to the Air Force Systems Command for wind tunnel tests of the Apollo spacecraft at its Arnold Engineering Development Center, Tullahoma, Tenn..

1962 November - .
  • Motorola to produce the Apollo spacecraft S-band transponder - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Collins Radio Company selected Motorola, Inc., Military Electronics Division, to develop and produce the spacecraft S-band transponder. The transponder would aid in tracking the spacecraft in deep space; also, it would be used to transmit and receive telemetry signals and to communicate between ground stations and the spacecraft by FM voice and television links. The formal contract with Motorola was awarded in mid-February 1963.

    Also, Collins awarded a contract to the Leach Corporation for the development of command and service module (CSM) data storage equipment. The tape recorders must have a five-hour capacity for collection and storage of data, draw less than 20 watts of power, and be designed for in-flight reel changes.


1962 November - .
  • New heatshield design for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: Extensive material and thermal property tests indicated that a Fiberglas honeycomb matrix bonded to the steel substructure was a promising approach for a new heatshield design for the CM..

1962 November - .
  • Problems with the Apollo CM's aerodynamic characteristics - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. North American reported several problems involving the CM's aerodynamic characteristics; their analysis of CM dynamics verified that the spacecraft could - and on one occasion did - descend in an apex-forward attitude. The CM's landing speed then exceeded the capacity of the drogue parachutes to reorient the vehicle; also, in this attitude, the apex cover could not be jettisoned under all conditions. During low-altitude aborts, North American went on, the drogue parachutes produced unfavorable conditions for main parachute deployment.

1962 November - .
  • First Apollo CM inertial reference integrating gyro - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. AC Spark Plug Division of General Motors Corporation assembled the first CM inertial reference integrating gyro (IRIG) for final tests and calibration. Three IRIGs in the CM navigation and guidance system provided a reference from which velocity and attitude changes could be sensed. Delivery of the unit was scheduled for February 1963.

1962 December 3 - .
  • Photographic equipment needed for Apollo missions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The MSC Apollo Spacecraft Project Office (ASPO) outlined the photographic equipment needed for Apollo missions. This included two motion picture cameras (16- and 70-mm) and a 35-mm still camera. It was essential that the camera, including film loading, be operable by an astronaut wearing pressurized gloves. On February 25, 1963, NASA informed North American that the cameras would be government furnished equipment.

1962 December 5 - .
  • Spacesuited astronaut use of Apollo navigation equipment studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. At a meeting held at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Instrumentation Laboratory, representatives of MIT, MSC, Hamilton Standard Division, and International Latex Corporation examined the problem of an astronaut's use of optical navigation equipment while in a pressurized suit with helmet visor down. MSC was studying helmet designs that would allow the astronaut to place his face directly against the helmet visor; this might avoid an increase in the weight of the eyepiece. In February 1963, Hamilton Standard recommended adding corrective devices to the optical system rather than adding corrective devices to the helmet or redesigning the helmet. In the same month, ASPO set 52.32 millimeters 2.06 inches as the distance of the astronaut's eye away from the helmet. MIT began designing a lightweight adapter for the navigation instruments to provide for distances of up to 76.2 millimeters (3 inches).

1962 December 8 - .
  • North American released the Request For Proposals on the Apollo mission simulator - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. With NASA's concurrence, North American released the Request For Proposals on the Apollo mission simulator. A simulated CM, an instructor's console, and a computer complex now supplanted the three part- task trainers originally planned. An additional part-task trainer was also approved. A preliminary report describing the device had been submitted to NASA by North American. The trainer was scheduled to be completed by March 1964.

1962 December 11 - .
  • First static firing of the Apollo tower jettison motor - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: The first static firing of the Apollo tower jettison motor, under development by Thiokol Chemical Corporation, was successfully performed..

1962 December 12 - .
  • Approaches for sea-markers to indicate the location of the Apollo spacecraft after a water landing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Northrop Corporation's Ventura Division, prime contractor for the development of sea-markers to indicate the location of the spacecraft after a water landing, suggested three possible approaches:

    1. A shotgun shell type that would dispense colored smoke.
    2. A floating, controlled-rate dispenser (described as an improvement on the current water-soluble binder method).
    3. A floating panel with relatively permanent fluorescent qualities.
    Northrop Ventura recommended the first method, because it would produce the strongest color and size contrast and would have the longest life for its weight.

1962 December 13 - .
  • Vacuum chamber required at Florida to test Apollo spacecraft systems during prelaunch checkout - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: MSC officials, both in Houston and at the Preflight Operations Division at Cape Canaveral, agreed on a vacuum chamber at the Florida location to test spacecraft systems in a simulated space environment during prelaunch checkout..

1962 December 15 - .
  • First working model of the Apollo CM crew couch was demonstrated - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. The first working model of the crew couch was demonstrated during an inspection of CM mockups at North American. As a result, the contractor began redesigning the couch to make it lighter and simpler to adjust. Design investigation was continuing on crew restraint systems in light of the couch changes. An analysis of acceleration forces imposed on crew members during reentry at various couch back and CM angles of attack was nearing completion.

1962 December 18 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft atmosphere of pure oxygen at 5 psia acceptable - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth reported to the MSF Management Council that tests by Republic Aviation Corporation, the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine SAM at Brooks Air Force Base, Tex., and the U.S. Navy Air Crew Equipment Laboratory (ACEL) at Philadelphia, Pa., had established that, physiologically, a spacecraft atmosphere of pure oxygen at 3.5 newtons per square centimeter (five pounds per square inch absolute (psia)) was acceptable. During the separate experiments, about 20 people had been exposed to pure oxygen environments for periods of up to two weeks without showing adverse effects. Two fires had occurred, one on September 10 at SAM and the other on November 17 at ACEL. The cause in both cases was faulty test equipment. On July 11, NASA had ordered North American to design the CM for 3.5 newtons per square centimeter (5-psia), pure-oxygen atmosphere.

1962 December 21 - .
  • Apollo CM boilerplate (BP) 3 delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. Summary: North American delivered CM boilerplate (BP) 3, to Northrop Ventura, for installation of an earth-landing system. BP-3 was scheduled to undergo parachute tests at El Centro, Calif., during early 1963..

1962 December 26 - .
  • Honeywell submitted proposal for the Apollo stabilization and control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: The Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company submitted to North American cost proposal and design specifications on the Apollo stabilization and control system, based upon the new Statement of Work drawn up on December 17..

1962 December 28 - .
  • Static fireing of launch escape system pitch-control motors - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: Lockheed Propulsion Company successfully static fired four launch escape system pitch-control motors. In an off-the-pad or low-altitude abort, the pitch-control motor would fix the trajectory of the CM after its separation from the launch vehicle..

1962 December 28 - .
  • First test firings of the Apollo CM reaction control engines - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: North American's Rocketdyne Division completed the first test firings of the CM reaction control engines..

1962 December 28 - .
  • Radiation to develop the Apollo CM telemetry system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. North American selected Radiation, Inc., to develop the CM pulse code modulation (PCM) telemetry system. The PCM telemetry would encode spacecraft data into digital signals for transmission to ground stations. The $4.3 million contract was officially announced on February 15, 1963.

1962 December - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Convair contract negotiations for the Apollo Little Joe II launch vehicle - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA and General Dynamics/Convair (GD/C) began contract negotiations on the Little Joe II launch vehicle, which was used to flight-test the Apollo launch escape system. The negotiated cost was nearly $6 million. GD/C had already completed the basic structural design of the vehicle.

1962 December - .
  • Contract for Apollo CSM C-band transponder to American Car and Foundry - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. The contract for the development and production of the CSM C-band transponder was awarded to American Car and Foundry Industries, Inc., by Collins Radio Company. The C-band transponder was used for tracking the spacecraft. Operating in conjunction with conventional, earth-based, radar equipment, it transmitted response pulses to the Manned Space Flight Network,

1962 December - .
  • Operational factors in Apollo water and land landings - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. MSC Flight Operations Division examined the operational factors involved in Apollo water and land landings. Analysis of some of the problems leading to a preference for water landing disclosed that:

    • Should certain systems on board the CM fail, the spacecraft could land as far as 805 kilometers 500 miles from the prime recovery area. This contingency could be provided for at sea, but serious difficulties might be encountered on land.
    • Because Apollo missions might last as long as two weeks, weather forecasting for the landing zone probably would be unreliable.
    • Hypergolic fuels were to remain on board the spacecraft through landing. During a landing at sea, the bay containing the tanks would flood and seawater would neutralize the liquid fuel or fumes from damaged tanks. On land, the possibility of rupturing the tanks was greater and the danger of toxic fumes and fire much more serious.
    • Should the CM tumble during descent, the likelihood of serious damage to the spacecraft was less for landings on water.
    • On land, obstacles such as rocks and trees might cause serious damage to the spacecraft.
    • The spacecraft would be hot after reentry. Landing on water would cool the spacecraft quickly and minimize ventilation problems.
    • The requirements for control during reentry were less stringent in a sea landing, because greater touchdown dispersions could be allowed.
    • Since the CM must necessarily be designed for adequate performance in a water landing all aborts during launch and most contingencies required a landing at sea , the choice of water as the primary landing surface could relieve some constraints in spacecraft design.

1962 December - .
  • General arrangement of the Apollo CM instrument panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: MSC reported that the general arrangement of the CM instrument panel had been designed to permit maximum manual control and flight observation by the astronauts..

1962 December - .
  • Reliability-crew safety design reviews for the Apollo CM environmental control system (ECS) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. In the first of a series of reliability-crew safety design reviews on all systems for the CM, North American examined the spacecraft's environmental control system (ECS). The Design Review Board approved the overall ECS concept, but made several recommendations for further refinement. Among these were:

    • The ECS should be made simpler and the system's controls should be better marked and located.
    • Because of the pure oxygen environment, all flammable materials inside the cabin should be eliminated.
    • Sources of possible atmospheric contamination should be further reviewed, with emphasis upon detecting and controlling such toxic gases inside the spacecraft.

1962 December - .
  • Static firings of the Apollo launch escape motor - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: North American reported three successful static firings of the launch escape motor. The motor would pull the CM away from the launch vehicle if there were an abort early in a mission..

1963 January 2 - .
  • Contract for large vacuum chambers for Apollo testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. MSC awarded a $3.69 million contract to the Radio Corporation of America

    RCA Service Company to design and build two vacuum chambers at MSC. The facility was used in astronaut training and spacecraft environmental testing. using carbon arc: lamps, the chambers simulated the sun's intensity, permitting observation of the effects of solar heating encountered on a lunar mission. At the end of July, MSC awarded RCA another contract (worth $3,341,750) for these solar simulators.


1963 January 8 - .
  • Existing C-band tracking radars to be modified to increase range for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. After studying the present radar coverage provided by ground stations for representative Apollo trajectories, North American recommended that existing C-band radars be modified to increase ranging limits. The current capability for tracking to 920 kilometers (500 nautical miles), while satisfactory for near-earth trajectories, was wholly inadequate for later Apollo missions. Tracking capability should be extended to 59,000 kilometers (32,000 nautical miles), North American said; and to improve tracking accuracy, transmitter power and receiver sensitivity should be increased.

1963 January 16-February 15 - .
  • Apollo CM reentry heating rates discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Representatives of North American, Langley Research Center, Ames Research Center, and MSC discussed CM reentry heating rates. They agreed on estimates of heating on the CM blunt face, which absorbed the brunt of reentry, but afterbody heating rates were not as clearly defined. North American was studying Project Mercury flight data and recent Apollo wind tunnel tests to arrive at revised estimates.

1963 January 16-February 15 - .
  • Airborne Instruments Laboratory contracted for Apollo CM recovery antenna system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: North American awarded Airborne Instruments Laboratory, a division of Cutler-Hammer, Inc., a contract for the CM recovery antenna system. NAA,.

1963 January 17 - .
  • Digital up-data link for Gemini acceptable for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., of MSC's Flight Operations Division (FOD), advised ASPO that the digital up-data link being developed for the Gemini program appeared acceptable for Apollo as well. In late October 1962, representatives of FOD and ASPO had agreed that an independent up-data link a means by which the ground could feed current information to the spacecraft's computer during a mission was essential for manned Apollo flights. Kraft proposed that the Gemini-type link be used for Apollo as well, and on June 13 MSC ordered North American to include the device in the CM.

1963 January 18 - .
  • Two aerodynamic strakes added to Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM LES. Two aerodynamic strakes were added to the CM to eliminate the danger of a hypersonic apex-forward trim point on reentry. (During a high-altitude launch escape system (LES) abort, the crew would undergo excessive g forces if the CM were to trim apex forward. During a low-altitude abort, there was the potential problem of the apex cover not clearing the CM. The strakes, located in the yaw plane, had a maximum span of one foot and resulted in significant weight penalties. Additional Details: here....

1963 January 24 - .
  • Crew mobility evaluation of the ILC Apollo pressure suit conducted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. The first evaluation of crew mobility in the International Latex Corporation (ILC) pressure suit was conducted at North American to identify interface problems. Three test subjects performed simulated flight tasks inside a CM mockup. CM spatial restrictions on mobility were shown. Problems involving suit sizes, crew couch dimensions, and restraint harness attachment, adjustment, and release were appraised. Numerous items that conflicted with Apollo systems were noted and passed along to ILC for correction in the continuing suit development program.

1963 February 1 - .
  • Apollo CM heatshield development program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. NASA authorized North American to extend until June 10 the CM heatshield development program. This gave the company time to evaluate and recommend one of the three ablative materials still under consideration. The materials were subjected to tests of thermal performance, physical and mechanical properties, and structural compatibility with the existing heatshield substructure. North American sought also to determine the manufacturing feasibility of placing the materials in a Fiberglas honeycomb matrix bonded to a steel substructure.

1963 February 6 - .
  • Full-scale firings of redesigned Apollo service propulsion engine - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: Aerojet-General Corporation, Sacramento, Calif., began full-scale firings of a service propulsion engine with a redesigned injector baffle..

1963 February 8 - .
  • Definitive contract let to Raytheon Company for command module (Apollo CM) onboard digital computer - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC issued a definitive contract for $15,029,420 to the Raytheon Company, Space and Information Systems Division, to design and develop the CM onboard digital computer. The contract was in support of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, which was developing the Apollo guidance and navigation systems. Announcement of the contract was made on February 11.

1963 February 11 - .
  • The first inertial reference integrating gyro for Apollo was accepted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: The first inertial reference integrating gyro produced by AC Spark Plug was accepted by NASA and delivered to the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory..

1963 February 15 - .
  • North American Apollo impact test facility completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. The North American Apollo impact test facility at Downey, Calif., was completed. This facility consisted mainly of a large pool with overhead framework and mechanisms for hydrodynamic drop tests of the CM. Testing at the facility began with the drop of boilerplate 3 on March 11.

1963 February 18 - .
  • Bell to provide propellant tanks for the Apollo CSM reaction control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. North American selected Bell Aerosystems Company to provide propellant tanks for the CSM reaction control system. These tanks were to be the "positive expulsion" type (i.e., fuel and oxidizer would be contained inside flexible bladder; pressure against one side of the device would force the propellant through the RCS lines).

1963 February 19 - .
  • Apollo CM boilerplate 19 shipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: North American shipped CM boilerplate 19 to Northrop Ventura for use as a parachute test vehicle..

1963 February 21 - .
  • MSC issued a Request for Proposals (due by March 13) for a radiation altimeter system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC issued a Request for Proposals (due by March 13) for a radiation altimeter system. Greater accuracy than that provided by available radar would be needed during the descent to the lunar surface, especially in the last moments before touchdown. Preliminary MSC studies had indicated the general feasibility of an altimeter system using a source-detector-electronics package. After final selection and visual observation of the landing site, radioactive material would be released at an altitude of about 30 meters 100 feet and allowed to fall to the surface. The detector would operate in conjunction with electronic circuitry to compute the spacecraft's altitude. Studies were also under way at MSC on the possibility of using laser beams for range determination.

1963 February 25 - .
  • Batteries independent of the main electrical system in the Apollo CM to fire all pyrotechnics - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: MSC ordered North American to provide batteries, wholly independent of the main electrical system in the CM, to fire all pyrotechnics aboard the spacecraft..

1963 February 26 - .
  • Apollo centrifuge facility - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Summary: NASA selected Ford, Bacon, and Davis, Inc., to design MSC's flight acceleration facility, including a centrifuge capable of spinning a simulated CM and its crew at gravity forces equal to those experienced in space flight..

1963 February 27 - .
  • Elgin subcontract for central timing equipment for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Elgin National Watch Company received a subcontract from North American for the design and development of central timing equipment for the Apollo spacecraft. (This equipment provided time-correlation of all spacecraft time-sensitive events. Originally, Greenwich Mean Time was to be used to record all events, but this was later changed.

1963 March 4 - .
  • Apollo solid parachute from Pioneer Parachute - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. As a parallel to the existing Northrop Ventura contract, and upon authorization by NASA, North American awarded a contract for a solid parachute program to the Pioneer Parachute Company. (A solid parachute is one with solid (unbroken) gores; the sole opening in the canopy is a vent at the top. Ringsail parachutes (used on the Northrop Ventura recovery system) have slotted gores. In effect, each panel formed on the gores becomes a "sail.")

1963 March 5 - .
  • Contract to Perkin-Elmer for an Apollo carbon dioxide measurement system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. MSC awarded a $67,000 contract to The Perkin-Elmer Corporation to develop a carbon dioxide measurement system, a device to measure the partial carbon dioxide pressure within the spacecraft's cabin. Two prototype units were to be delivered to MSC for evaluation. About seven months later, a $249,000 definitive contract for fabrication and testing of the sensor was signed.

1963 March 5 - .
  • Disadvantages of the land recovery mode for Apollo missions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. The Mission Analysis Branch (MAB) of MSC's Flight Operations Division cited the principal disadvantages of the land recovery mode for Apollo missions. Of primary concern was the possibility of landing in an unplanned area and the concomitant dangers involved. For water recovery, the main disadvantages were the establishment of suitable landing areas in the southern hemisphere and the apex-down flotation problem. MAB believed no insurmountable obstacles existed for either approach.

1963 March 6 - .
  • First Block I Apollo pulsed integrating pendulum accelerometer delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. The first Block I Apollo pulsed integrating pendulum accelerometer, produced by the Sperry Gyroscope Company, was delivered to the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. (Three accelerometers were part of the guidance and navigation system. Their function was to sense changes in spacecraft velocity.)

1963 March 6 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • North American completed Apollo boilerplate (BP) 9 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. North American completed construction of Apollo boilerplate (BP) 9, consisting of launch escape tower and CSM. It was delivered to MSC on March 18, where dynamic testing on the vehicle began two days later. On April 8, BP-9 was sent to MSFC for compatibility tests with the Saturn I launch vehicle.

1963 March 8 - .
  • Apollo CM boilerplate (BP) 6 moved to the Apollo Test Preparation Interim Area at Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. North American moved CM boilerplate (BP) 6 from the manufacturing facilities to the Apollo Test Preparation Interim Area at Downey, Calif. During the next several weeks, BP-6 was fitted with a pad adapter, an inert launch escape system, and a nose cone, interstage structure, and motor skirt.

1963 March 25 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • First Little Joe II completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. General Dynamics Convair completed structural assembly of the first launcher for the Little Joe II test program. During the next few weeks, electrical equipment installation, vehicle mating, and checkout were completed. The launcher was then disassembled and delivered to WSMR on April 25, 1963.

1963 March 25-31 - .
  • North American analyzed lighting conditions in the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. North American analyzed lighting conditions in the CM and found that glossy or light-colored garments and pressure suits produced unsatisfactory reflections on glass surfaces. A series of tests were planned to define the allowable limits of reflection on windows and display panel faces to preclude interference with crew performance.

1963 March 26 - .
  • Beginning of Apollo CM environmental control system tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. MSC announced the beginning of CM environmental control system tests at the AiResearch Manufacturing Company simulating prelaunch, ascent, orbital, and reentry pressure effects. Earlier in the month, analysis had indicated that the CM interior temperature could be maintained between 294 K (70 degrees F) and 300 K (80 degrees F) during all flight operations, although prelaunch temperatures might rise to a maximum of 302 K (84 degrees F).

1963 March 26-28 - .
  • Meeting to define Apollo CM-space suit interface problem areas - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM ECS. A meeting was held at North American to define CM-space suit interface problem areas. Demonstrations of pressurized International Latex suits revealed poor crew mobility and task performance inside the CM, caused in part by the crew's unavoidably interfering with one another.

    Other items received considerable attention: A six-foot umbilical hose would be adequate for the astronaut in the CM. The location of spacecraft water, oxygen, and electrical fittings was judged satisfactory, as were the new couch assist handholds. The astronaut's ability to operate the environmental control system (ECS) oxygen flow control valve while couched and pressurized was questionable. Therefore, it was decided that the ECS valve would remain open and that the astronaut would use the suit control valve to regulate the flow. It was also found that the hand controller must be moved about nine inches forward.


1963 March - .
  • Allison to fabricate the Apollo SM fuel and oxidizer tanks - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: North American selected two subcontractors to build tankage for the SM: Allison Division of General Motors Corporation to fabricate the fuel and oxidizer tanks; and Airite Products, Inc., those for helium storage..

1963 - During the second quarter - .
  • Revised angles for the crew couch in the Apollo CM considered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. To provide a more physiologically acceptable load factor orientation during reentry and abort, MSC was considering revised angles for the crew couch in the CM. To reduce the couch's complexity, North American had proposed adjustments which included removable calf pads and a movable head pad.

1963 April 3 - .
  • Preference for a fixed Apollo CM crew couch - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. At a North American design review, NASA representatives expressed a preference for a fixed CM crew couch. This would have the advantages of simplified design, elimination of couch adjustments by the crew, and better placement of the astronauts to withstand reentry loads. NASA authorized North American to adopt the concept following a three-week study by the company to determine whether a favorable center of gravity could be achieved without a movable couch.

    Use of the fixed couch required relocation of the main and side display panels and repositioning of the translational and rotational hand controllers. During rendezvous and docking operations, the crew would still have to adjust their normal body position for proper viewing.


1963 April 10 - .
  • Link to build Apollo lunar mission simulators - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. North American awarded a $9.5 million letter contract to the Link Division of General Precision, Inc., for the development and installation of two spacecraft simulators, one at MSC and the other at the Launch Operations Center. Except for weightlessness, the trainers would simulate the entire lunar mission, including sound and lighting effects.

1963 April 16-May 15 - .
  • Changes in Apollo boilerplate 22 LES test - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: On the basis of wind tunnel tests and analytical studies, North American recommended a change in the planned test of the launch escape system (LES) using boilerplate 22. . Additional Details: here....

1963 April 16-May 15 - .
  • North American simplified the Apollo CM water management system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. North American simplified the CM water management system by separating it from the freon system. A 4.5- kilogram (10-pound) freon tank was installed in the left-hand equipment bay. Waste water formed during prelaunch and boost, previously ejected overboard, could now be used as an emergency coolant. The storage capacity of the potable water tank was reduced from 29 to 16 kilograms (64 to 36 pounds) and the tank was moved to the lower equipment bay to protect it from potential damage during landing. These and other minor changes caused a reduction in CM weight and an increase in the reliability of the CM's water management system.

1963 April 16-May 15 - .
  • Simmonds Precision build electronic propellant gauge for Apollo service propulsion system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. North American chose Simmonds Precision Products, Inc., to design and build an electronic measurement and display system to gauge the service propulsion system propellants. Both a primary and a backup system were required by the contract, which was expected to cost about 2 million.

1963 April 18 - .
  • Contract for solid propellant motors for the Apollo launch escape system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: North American signed a 6 million definitive contract with Lockheed Propulsion Company for the development of solid propellant motors for the launch escape system. Work on the motors had begun on February 13, 1962, when Lockheed was selected..

1963 April 25-26 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft landing and recovery procedures reviewed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. At ASPO's request, Wayne E. Koons of the Flight Operations Division visited North American to discuss several features of spacecraft landing and recovery procedures. Koon's objective, in short, was to recommend a solution when ASPO and the contractor disagreed on specific points, and to suggest alternate courses when the two organizations agreed. A question had arisen about a recovery hoisting loop. Neither group wanted one, as its installation added weight and caused design changes. In another area, North American wanted to do an elaborate study of the flotation characteristics of the CM. Koons recommended to ASPO that a full-scale model of the CM be tested in an open-sea environment.

    There were a number of other cases wherein North American and ASPO agreed on procedures which simply required formal statements of what would be done. Examples of these were:

    • Spacecraft reaction control fuel would be dumped before landing (in both normal and abort operations)
    • The "peripheral equipment bay" would be flooded within 10 minutes after landing
    • Location aids would be dye markers and recovery antennas.

1963 May 3 - .
  • Qualification drop test series for the earth landing system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. At El Centro, Calif., Northrop Ventura conducted the first of a series of qualification tests for the Apollo earth landing system (ELS). The test article, CM boilerplate 3, was dropped from a specially modified Air Force C-133. The test was entirely successful. The ELS's three main parachutes reduced the spacecraft's rate of descent to about 9.1 meters (30 feet) per second at impact, within acceptable limits.

1963 May 6 - .
  • Carbon dioxide sensors to be part of Apollo environmental control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: NASA authorized North American to procure carbon dioxide sensors as part of the environmental control system instrumentation on early spacecraft flights..

1963 May 20 - .
  • Contract to Westinghouse for study of potential physiological damage by cosmic radiation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: In support of NASA's manned space flight programs, Ames Research Center awarded a $150,000 contract to Westinghouse Electric Corporation for a one-year study of potential physiological damage in space caused by cosmic radiation..

1963 May 24 - .
  • Problems with side-arm controller location and armrest design inside the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. North American demonstrated problems with side-arm controller location and armrest design inside the CM. Major difficulties were found when the subject tried to manipulate controls while wearing a pressurized suit. North American had scheduled further study of these design problems.

1963 May 28 - .
  • Apollo lunar landing mission duration profiles approved - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth reported to the MSF Management Council that the lunar landing mission duration profiles, on which North American would base the reliability design objectives for mission success and crew safety and which assumed a 14-day mission, had been documented and approved. The contractor had also been asked to study two other mission profile extremes, a 14-day mission with 110-hour transearth and translunar transfer times and the fastest practicable lunar landing mission.

1963 May 29 - .
  • Three methods of providing a recovery hoisting loop on the Apollo CM considered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. The Operational Evaluation and Test Branch of MSC's Flight Operations Division considered three methods of providing a recovery hoisting loop on the CM: loop separate from the spacecraft and attached after landing, use of the existing parachute bridle, and loop installed as part of the CM equipment similar to Mercury and Gemini. Studies showed that the third method was preferable.

1963 May - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Major change to the Little Joe II launch vehicle - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA and General Dynamics Convair negotiated a major change on the Little Joe II launch vehicle contract. It provided for two additional launch vehicles which would incorporate the attitude control subsystem (as opposed to the early fixed-fin version). On November 1, MSC announced that the contract amendment was being issued. NASA Headquarters' approval followed a week later.

1963 June - .
  • Most Apollo CM subsystem designs frozen - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Most CM subsystem designs frozen..

1963 June 3 - .
  • ITT to provide battery chargers for the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: North American announced that it had selected ITT's Industrial Products Division to provide battery chargers for the CSM, designed for an operational lifetime of 40,000 hours..

1963 June 4 - .
  • Definitive Apollo contract with North American delivered to NASA Headquarters - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: The $889.3 million definitive Apollo contract with North American was delivered to NASA Headquarters for review and approval. The target date for approval was extended to June 30..

1963 June 6 - .
  • Recommendations on Apollo postlanding water survival equipment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The Operational Evaluation and Test Branch of MSC's Flight Operations Division made the following recommendations on Apollo postlanding water survival equipment:

    • Development should continue on a three-man life raft for the Apollo mission.
    • A 12-hour-duration dye marker packet should be passively deployed on impact. An additional 18 hours of dye marker should be stored in the survival kit.
    • Two radio beacons of the type being developed for Gemini should be included in the survival kit.
    • Water egress safety features in the Mercury and Gemini space suits should be included in the Apollo space suit.
    • All Apollo equipment which might be involved in water egress, survival, and recovery situations should be configured for water landings.

1963 June 10 - .
  • Backup testing program completed on alternate ablative materials for the Apollo CM heatshield - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. North American completed a backup testing program (authorized by MSC on November 20, 1962) on a number of ablative materials for the CM heatshield. Only one of the materials (Avcoat 5026-39) performed satisfactorily at low temperatures. During a meeting on June 18 at MSC, company representatives discussed the status of the backup heatshield program. This was followed by an Avco Corporation presentation on the primary heatshield development. As a result, MSC directed North American to terminate its backup program. Shortly thereafter, MSC approved the use of an airgun to fill the honeycomb core of the heatshield with ablative material.

1963 June 10 - .
  • Up-data link (UDL) to be included on the Apollo LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications; LM Communications. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., of the MSC Flight Operations Division, urged that an up-data link (UDL) be included on the LEM. In general, the UDL would function when a great deal of data had to be transmitted during a time-critical phase. It would also permit utilization of the ground operational support system as a relay station for the transmission of data between the CM and LEM. In case of power failure aboard the LEM, the UDL could start the computer faster and more reliably than a manual voice link, and it could be used to resume synchronization in the computer timing system.

1963 June 12 - .
  • Skip lunar reentry trajectories studied for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: The Mission Analysis Branch (MAB) of MSC's Flight Operations Division studied the phenomenon of a spacecraft's "skip" when reentering the earth's atmosphere from lunar trajectories and how that skip relates to landing accuracies.. Additional Details: here....

1963 June 14 - .
  • Definitive contract for the navigation and guidance equipment for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: NASA Headquarters approved a definitive contract for $35,844,550 with AC Spark Plug for the manufacture and testing of navigation and guidance equipment for the CM. This superseded a letter contract of May 30, 1962..

1963 June 14-15 - .
  • Mockup review of the Apollo mission simulator - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Summary: At its plant in Binghampton, N. Y., Link Division of General Precision, Inc., held a mockup review of the Apollo mission simulator. A number of modifications in the instructor's console were suggested..

1963 June 20 - .
  • Definitive contract with Allison for the Apollo service propulsion system propellant tanks - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: North American signed (and NASA approved) a definitive contract with Allison Division of General Motors for the service propulsion system propellant tanks..

1963 June 21-27 - .
  • Avien to develop the steerable S-band antenna for the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Summary: North American awarded a contract, valued at $2.8 million, to Avien, Inc., to develop the steerable S-band antenna for the CSM..

1963 June 22 - .
  • Design of the Apollo CM's stabilization and control system frozen - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: North American officially froze the design of the CM's stabilization and control system..

1963 June 26 - .
  • First full-scale firing of the Apollo SM engine - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. The first full-scale firing of the SM engine was conducted at the Arnold Engineering Development Center. At the start of the shutdown sequence, the engine thrust chamber valve remained open because of an electrical wiring error in the test facility. Consequently the engine ran at a reduced chamber pressure while the propellant in the fuel line was exhausted. During this shutdown transient, the engine's nozzle extension collapsed as a result of excessive pressure differential across the nozzle skin.

1963 June 28 - .
  • Apollo Pioneer tri-conical solid parachutes canceled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: A cluster of two Pioneer tri-conical solid parachutes was tested; both parachutes failed. Because of this unsatisfactory performance, the Pioneer solid-parachute program was officially canceled on July 15..

1963 June 28 - .
  • Apollo CSM data storage equipment modified to incorporate a fast-dump capability - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Summary: The CSM data storage equipment was modified to incorporate a fast-dump capability. Data could thus be recorded at a low speed for later playback at high speed to ground stations..

1963 June - .
  • Apollo mission success predictions continued to be less than the apportioned values - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: North American reported that mission success predictions continued to be less than the apportioned values. For example, the environmental control subsystem had a predicted mission reliability of 0.9805, compared to a 0.997675 apportionment..

1963 July 1-2 - .
  • Apollo CM boilerplate 6 shipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: North American shipped Apollo CM boilerplate 6 and its ground support equipment to WSMR..

1963 July 9-10 - .
  • Review of the Apollo CM main display console - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: North American held a review of the CM main display console, which would be compatible with the fixed couch and new panel location. The contractor's drawings and comments by the astronauts were then reviewed by MSC..

1963 July 10 - .
  • Several restraint systems for the sleeping area in the equipment bay area of the Apollo CM studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. North American reported that it had tried several types of restraint systems for the sleeping area in the equipment bay area of the CM. A "net" arrangement worked fairly well and was adaptable to the constant wear garment worn by the crew. However, North American believed that a simpler restraint system was needed, and was pursuing several other concepts.

1963 July 10 - .
  • Prototype engine for the Apollo SM reaction control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: The Marquardt Corporation began testing the prototype engine for the SM reaction control system. Preliminary data showed a specific impulse slightly less than 300 seconds..

1963 July 15-16 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Little Joe II qualification test vehicle shipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: The Little Joe II qualification test vehicle was shipped from the General Dynamics Convair plant to WSMR, where the test launch was scheduled for August..

1963 July 16-August 15 - .
  • Testing of the launch escape system pitch control motor - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: North American reported that Lockheed Propulsion Company had successfully completed development testing of the launch escape system pitch control motor..

1963 July 18 - .
  • Apollo launch escape system with a redundant tower separation device - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: MSC authorized North American to fit the launch escape system with a redundant tower separation device. This equipment incorporated an explosive bolt and shaped charge cutter..

1963 July 28-August 3 - .
  • ASPO reported that a different type of stainless steel would be used for the Apollo CM heatshield - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. ASPO reported that a different type of stainless steel would be used for the CM heatshield. The previous type proved too brittle at cryogenic temperatures. Aside from their low temperature properties, the two metals were quite; similar and no fabrication problems were anticipated.

1963 August 14 - .
  • Definitive contract for Apollo command and service modules signed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA Administrator James E. Webb signed the definitive contract with North American for the development of the Apollo CSM. This followed by almost two years North American's selection as prime contractor, The $938.4 million cost-plus-fixed-fee agreement was the most valuable single research and development contract in American history. The contract called for the initial production (i.e., through May 15, 1965) of 11 mockups, 15 boilerplate vehicles, and 11 production articles.

1963 August 15-September 21 - .
  • Mobility tests of the Apollo prototype space suit - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Cockpit. MSC Crew Systems Division conducted mobility tests of the Apollo prototype space suit inside a mockup of the CM. Technicians also tested the suit on a treadmill. The subjects' carbon dioxide buildup did not exceed two percent; their metabolic rates were about 897,000 joules (850 BTU) per hour at vent pressure, 1,688,000 joules at 2.4 newtons per square centimeter (1,600 BTU at 3.5 psi), and 2,320,000 joules at 3.5 newtons per square centimeter (2,200 BTU at 5.0 psi).

1963 August 21 - .
  • Mission constraints on the flexibility possible with Apollo lunar launch operations studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. John P. Bryant, of the Flight Operations Division's (FOD) Mission Analysis Branch (MAB), reported to FOD that the branch had conducted a rough analysis of the effects of some mission constraints upon the flexibility possible with lunar launch operations. (As a base, MAB used April and May 1968, called "a typical two-month period.") First, Bryant said, MAB used the mission rules demanded for the Apollo lunar landing (e.g., free-return trajectory; predetermined lunar landing sites; and lighting conditions on the moon - "by far the most restrictive of the lot"). Next, MAB included a number of operational constraints, ones "reasonably representative of those expected for a typical flight," but by no means an "exhaustive" list:

    • A minimum daily launch window of three hours.
    • A 26-degree maximum azimuth variation.
    • An earth landing within 40 degrees of the equator.
    • A minimum of three successive daily launch windows.
    • A daylight launch with at least three hours of daylight following liftoff.
    • Transposition and docking in sunlight.
    • Use of but one of the two daily windows available for translunar injection.
    Bryant advised that, taken just by themselves, these various constraints, both mission and operational, had a "restrictive effect" and that operational flexibility was thereby "dramatically curtailed." Moreover, "there are still a number of possible constraints which have not been considered which could still further affect the size of the ultimate launch window" (and the list was "increasing almost daily"): requirements for tracking coverage and for lighting during rendezvous and reentry; and restrictions imposed by solar activity, launch environment, and - no small matter - weather conditions at the launch site.

    "The consequences," Bryant concluded, "of imposing an ever-increasing number of these flight restrictions is obvious - the eventual loss of almost all operational flexibility. The only solution is . . . (a) meticulous examination of every constraint which tends to reduce the number of available launch opportunities," looking toward eliminating "as many as possible."


1963 Week of August 30 - .
  • Apollo CM ablation heatshield thicknesses for lunar reentry defined - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: North American defined the maximum, nominal, and minimum CM ablation heatshield thicknesses for lunar reentry. The maximum and minimum limits represented variations that might arise as studies progressed..

1963 September 1-7 - .
  • Design of control panel for the Apollo CM was 90 percent complete - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: MSC reported that design of the control and displays panel for the CM was about 90 percent complete. North American was expected to release the design by September 20. Qualification testing of the panels would begin around December 1..

1963 September 4 - .
  • Series of water impact tests recommended for the Apollo CM's recovery systems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. MSC Flight Operations Division (FOD) recommended a series of water impact tests to establish confidence in the CM's recovery systems under a variety of operating conditions. FOD suggested several air drops with water landings under various test conditions. Among these were release of the main parachutes at impact, deployment of the postlanding antennas, actuation of the mechanical location aids, and activation of the recovery radio equipment.

1963 September 6 - .
  • Apollo CM boilerplate destroyed during tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. At El Centro, Calif., CM boilerplate (BP) 3, a parachute test vehicle, was destroyed during tests simulating the new BP-6 configuration (without strakes or apex cover). Drogue parachute descent, disconnect, and pilot mortar fire appeared normal. However, one pilot parachute was cut by contact with the vehicle and its main parachute did not deploy. Because of harness damage, the remaining two main parachutes failed while reefed. Investigation of the BP-3 failure resulting in rigging and design changes on BP-6 and BP-19.

1963 September 6 - .
  • Contract with Kollsman for Apollo CM guidance and navigation optical equipment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC announced a $7.658 million definitive contract with Kollsman Instrument Corporation for the CM guidance and navigation optical equipment, including a scanning telescope, sextant, map and data viewer, and related ground support equipment. MSC had awarded Kollsman a letter contract on May 28, 1962, and had completed negotiations for the definitive contract on March 29, 1963. "The newly signed contract calls for delivery of all hardware to AC Spark Plug by August 1, 1964."

1963 September 9 - .
  • Apollo CM to be able to charge the 28-volt portable life support system battery - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Cockpit. MSC ordered North American to make provisions in the CM to permit charging the 28-volt portable life support system battery from the spacecraft battery charger.

    On the following day, the Center informed North American also that a new mechanical clock timer system would be provided in the CM for indicating elapsed time from liftoff and predicting time to and duration of various events during the mission.


1963 September 12 - .
  • Gemini, Apollo, and X-20 studied for military space missions. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Dynasoar; MOL; Gemini; Apollo CSM. The President's Scientific Advisory Committee requested a briefing from the Air Force on possible military space missions, biomedical experiments to be performed in space, and the capability of Gemini, Apollo, and the X-20 vehicles to execute these requirements.

1963 September 16 - .
  • Tone warning signal added to the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: A tone warning signal was added to the CM instrumentation system. If a system malfunctioned, this warning would be heard through both the master caution and warning subsystem and the astronauts' earphones..

1963 September 18 - .
  • AiResearch awarded contract for the Apollo CM environmental system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: The AiResearch Manufacturing Company announced that it had been awarded a $20 million definitive contract for the CM environmental system. (AiResearch had been developing the system under a letter contract since 1961..

1963 September 19 - .
  • Changes in the Apollo CM's landing requirements - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. MSC made several changes in the CM's landing requirements. Impact attenuation would be passive, except for that afforded by the crew couches and the suspension system. The spacecraft would be suspended from the landing parachutes in a pitch attitude that imposed minimum accelerations on the crew. A crushable structure to absorb landing shock was required in the aft equipment bay area.

1963 September 19-25 - .
  • Automatic radiator control added to the Apollo CM's environmental control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. North American incorporated an automatic radiator control into the CM's environmental control system to eliminate the need for crew attention during lunar orbit.

    Recent load analysis at North American placed the power required for a 14-day mission at 577 kilowatt-hours, a decrease of about 80 kilowatt-hours from earlier estimates.


1963 September 24 - .
  • Television camera in the Apollo CM modified so that ground personnel could observe the astronauts - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Television. MSC advised North American that the television camera in the CM was being modified so that ground personnel could observe the astronauts and flight operations. Television images would be transmitted directly to earth via the Deep Space Instrumentation Facility.

1963 September 30 - .
  • Qualification testing began on fuel tanks for the service propulsion system (SPS) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Qualification testing began on fuel tanks for the service propulsion system (SPS). The first article tested developed a small crack below the bottom weld, which was being investigated, but pressurization caused no expansion of the tank. During mid-October, several tanks underwent proof testing. And, on November 1, the first SPS helium tank was burst-tested.

1963 October 14 - .
  • Combustion stability in the Apollo service propulsion engine - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: ASPO established criteria for combustion stability in the service propulsion engine. The engine had to recover from any instability, whether induced or spontaneous, within 20 milliseconds during qualification testing..

1963 October 16-23 - .
  • Apollo weight reduction suggestions - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hohmann, Bernhard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight; LM Weight. An MSC Spacecraft Technology Division Working Group reexamined Apollo mission requirements and suggested a number of ways to reduce spacecraft weight: eliminate the free-return trajectory; design for slower return times; use the Hohmann descent technique, rather than the equal period orbit method, yet size the tanks for the equal period mode; eliminate the CSM/LEM dual rendezvous capability; reduce the orbital contingency time for the LEM (the period of time during which the LEM could remain in orbit before rendezvousing with the CSM); reduce the LEM lifetime.

1963 October 16-November 15 - .
  • Apollo CM humidity study - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Mercury MA-9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: Because of an electrical equipment failure on Mercury MA-9, North American began a CM humidity study. . Additional Details: here....

1963 October 21 - .
  • The second prototype space suit was received by MSC's Crew Systems Division - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Young. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Hatch. The second prototype space suit was received by MSC's Crew Systems Division. Preliminary tests showed little improvement in mobility over the first suit. On October 24-25, a space suit mobility demonstration was held at North American. The results showed that the suit had less shoulder mobility than the earlier version, but more lower limb mobility. Astronaut John W. Young, wearing the pressurized suit and a mockup portable life support system (PLSS), attempted an egress through the CM hatch but encountered considerable difficulty. At the same time, tests of the suit-couch- restraint system interfaces and control display layout were begun at the Navy's Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge in Johnsville, Pa. Major problems were restriction of downward vision by the helmet, extension of the suit elbow arm beyond the couch, and awkward reach patterns to the lower part of the control panel. On October 30-November 1, lunar task studies with the suit were carried out at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in a KC-135 aircraft at simulated lunar gravity. Mobility tests were made with the suit pressurized and a PLSS attached.

1963 October 24 - .
  • NASA-Industry Apollo Executives Group - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The NASA-Industry Apollo Executives Group, composed of top managers in OMSF and executives of the major Apollo contractors, met for the first time. The group met with George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, for status briefings and problem discussions. In this manner, NASA sought to make executives personally aware of major problems in the program.

1963 October 31 - .
  • Marquardt production of reaction control engines for the SM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. The Marquardt Corporation received a definitive $9,353,200 contract from North American for development and production of reaction control engines for the SM. Marquardt, working under a letter contract since April 1962, had delivered the first engine to North American that November.

1963 November 1 - .
  • Advantages outlined of Apollo CSM's HF transceiver capability - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. MSC Flight Operations Division outlined the advantages inherent in the CSM's capability to use the HF transceiver during earth orbit. The HF transceiver would allow the CSM to communicate with any one tracking station at any time during earth orbit, even when the spacecraft had line-of-sight (LOS) contact with only one or two ground stations in some orbits. It would give the astronauts an additional communications circuit. Most important, this HF capability could alert the network about any trouble in the spacecraft and give the Flight Director more time to make a decision while the spacecraft was out of LOS communication with the ground stations.

1963 November 5 - .
  • Apollo vibration test system from LTV accepted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. MSC accepted the final items of a $237,000 vibration test system from the LTV Electronics Division to be used in testing spacecraft parts.

    On this same day, MSC awarded a $183,152 contract to Wyle Laboratories to construct a high-intensity acoustic facility, also for testing spacecraft parts. The facility would generate noise that might be encountered in space flight.


1963 November 5 - .
  • Results of a three-month study on radiation instrumentation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. North American presented to MSC the results of a three-month study on radiation instrumentation. Three general areas were covered: radio-frequency (RF) warning systems, directional instrumentation, and external environment instrumentation. The company concluded that, with the use of an RE system, astronauts would receive about two hours' notice of any impending solar proton event and could take appropriate action. Proper orientation of the spacecraft could reduce doses by 17 percent, but this could be accomplished only by using a directional detection instrument. There was a 70 percent chance that dosages would exceed safe limits unless such an instrument was used. Consequently North American recommended prompt development.

    Despite the contractor's findings, MSC concluded that there was no need for an RE warning system aboard the spacecraft, believing that radiation warning could be handled more effectively by ground systems. But MSC did concur in the recommendation for a combined proton direction and external environment detection system and authorized North American to proceed with its design and development.


1963 November 7 - .
  • Apollo Pad Abort Mission 1 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES; CSM Parachute. Apollo Pad Abort Mission I (PA-1), the first off-the-pad abort test of the launch escape system (LES), was conducted at WSMR. PA-1 used CM boilerplate 6 and an LES for this test.

    All sequencing was normal. The tower-jettison motor sent the escape tower into a proper ballistic trajectory. The drogue parachute deployed as programmed, followed by the pilot parachute and main parachutes. The test lasted 165.1 seconds. The postflight investigation disclosed only one significant problem: exhaust impingement that resulted in soot deposits on the CM.


1963 November 8 - .
  • Drop test to evaluate dual drogue parachute for Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. At El Centro, Calif., a drop test was conducted to evaluate a dual drogue parachute arrangement for the CM. The two drogues functioned satisfactorily. The cargo parachute used for recovery, however, failed to fully inflate, and the vehicle was damaged at impact. This failure was unrelated to the test objectives.

1963 November 12 - .
  • Meeting reviewed the tower flap versus canard concept for the Apollo earth landing system (ELS) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. A joint North American-MSC meeting reviewed the tower flap versus canard concept for the earth landing system (ELS). During a low-altitude abort, MSC thought, the ELS could be deployed apex forward with a very high probability of mission success by using the tower flap configuration. The parachute system proposed for this mode would be very reliable, even though this was not the most desirable position for deploying parachutes. Dynamic stability of the tower flap configuration during high- altitude aborts required further wind tunnel testing at Ames Research Center. Two basic unknowns in the canard system were deployment reliability, and the probability of the crew's being able to establish the flight direction and trim the CM within its stability limits for a safe reentry. Design areas to be resolved were a simple deployment scheme and a spacecraft system that would give the crew a direction reference.

    MSC directed North American to proceed with the tower flap as its prime effort, and attempt to solve the stability problem at the earliest possible date. MSC's Engineering and Development Directorate resumed its study of both configurations, with an in-depth analysis of the canard system, in case the stability problem on the tower flap could not be solved by the end of the year.


1963 November 14 - .
  • Emergency impact limits for Apollo spacecraft design - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. ASPO revised the normal and emergency impact limits (20 and 40 g, respectively) to be used as human tolerance criteria for spacecraft design. (These limits superseded those established in the August 14, 1963, North American contract and subsequent correspondence.)

1963 November 16-December 15 - .
  • Eight-day trial of the prototype Apollo diet - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. North American conducted an eight-day trial of the prototype Apollo diet. Three test subjects, who continued their normal activities rather than being confined, were given performance and oxygen consumption tests and lean body mass and body compartment water evaluations. The results showed insignificant changes in weight and physiology.

1963 November 16-December 15 - .
  • All production drawings for the Apollo CM ECS released - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. All production drawings for the CM environmental control system were released. - AiResearch Manufacturing Company reported the most critical pacing items were the suit heat exchanger, cyclic accumulator selector valve, and the potable and waste water tanks.

1963 November 19-20 - .
  • Probe and drogue docking concept adopted for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. At a meeting of the Apollo Docking Interface Panel, North American recommended and Grumman concurred that the center probe and drogue docking concept be adopted.MSC emphasized that docking systems must not compromise any other subsystem operations nor increase the complexity of emergency operations. In mid-December, MSC/ASPO notified Grumman and North American of its agreement. At the same time, ASPO laid down docking interface ground rules and performance criteria which must be incorporated into the spacecraft specifications.

    There would be two ways for the astronauts to get from one spacecraft to the other. The primary mode involved docking and passage through the transfer tunnel. An emergency method entailed crew and payload transfer through free space. The CSM would take an active part in translunar docking, but both spacecraft must be able to take the primary role in the lunar orbit docking maneuver. A single crewman must be able to carry out the docking maneuver and crew transfer.


1963 November 28-December 4 - .
  • Active thermal control system for Apollo SM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. MSC reviewed a North American proposal for adding an active thermal control system to the SM to maintain satisfactory temperatures in the propulsion and reaction control engines. The company's scheme involved two water-glycol heat transport loops with appropriate nuclear heaters and radiators. During December, MSC directed North American to begin preliminary design of a system for earth orbit only. Approval for spacecraft intended for lunar missions was deferred pending a comprehensive review of requirements.

1963 November - .
  • Simulated meteoroid impact tests on the Apollo heatshield - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Ames Research Center performed simulated meteoroid impact tests on the Avco Corporation heatshield structure. Four targets of ablator bonded to a stainless steel backup structure were tested. The ablator, in a Fiberglas honeycomb matrix, was 4.369 millimeters (0.172 inch) thick in two targets and 17.424 millimeters (0.686 inch) thick in the other two. Each ablator was tested at 116.48 K (-250 degrees F) and at room temperature, with no apparent difference in damage.

    Penetration of the thicker targets was about 13.970 millimeters (0.55 inch). In the thinner targets, the ablator was pierced. Debris tore through the steel honeycomb and produced pinholes on the rear steel sheet. Damage to the ablator was confined to two or three honeycomb cells and there was no cracking or spalling on the surface.

    Tests at Ames of thermal performance of the ablation material under high shear stress yielded favorable preliminary results.


1963 December 3-5 - .
  • Design review of the Apollo CSM part-task trainer - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Summary: A design review of the CSM part-task trainer was held at North American. Briefings included general design criteria and requirements, physical configuration, simulation models, and scheduling. The trainer was expected to be operational in December 1964..

1963 December 5 - .
  • Apollo SLA was shortened - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Primarily to save weight, the length of the adapter was shortened to 853 centimeters (336 inches), as recommended by Grumman..

1963 December 10-17 - .
  • Operational demands upon Apollo CM from separation to splashdown - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: The MSC Operations Planning Division (OPD) reviewed the operational demands upon the CM from the time of CM-SM separation until splashdown. OPD concluded that the CM should be designed to operate for 45 minutes during this phase of the mission..

1963 December 16 - .
  • Safety for Apollo of breathing 100 percent oxygen at 5 psi for 30 days proven - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. MSC and the U.S. Air Force Aerospace Medical Division completed a joint manned environmental experiment at Brooks Air Force Base, Tex. After spending a week in a sea-level atmospheric environment, the test subjects breathed 100 percent oxygen at 3.5 newtons per square centimeter (5 psi) at a simulated altitude of 8,230 meters (27,000 feet) for 30 days. They then reentered the test capsule for observation in a sea-level environment for the next five days. This experiment demonstrated that men could live in a 100 percent oxygen environment under these conditions with no apparent ill effects.

1963 December 16-January 15 - .
  • Adequacy of the Apollo CM RCS for automatic reentry - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: North American completed a study to determine, for automatic modes of reentry, adequacy of the current CM reaction control system (RCS) and compatibility of the RCS with other reentry subsystems..

1963 December 16-January 15 - .
  • Apollo CM environmental control system redesign - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM ECS. MSC directed North American to redesign the CM environmental control system compressor to provide 0.283 cubic meters (10 cubic feet) of air per minute to each space suit at 1.8 newtons per square centimeter (3.5 psi), 16.78 kilograms (37 pounds) per hour total.

1963 December 18-January 14 - .
  • Bioinstrumentation channels to the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. MSC directed North American to assign bioinstrumentation channels to the CM for early manned flights for monitoring the crew's pulse rate, blood pressure, respiration, and temperature. These readings could be obtained simultaneously on any one crew member and by switching from man to man for monitoring the entire crew.

1963 December 18-January 14 - .
  • Feasibility of unmanned Apollo earth orbit mission without a guidance system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. The System Engineering Division (SED) examined the feasibility of performing an unmanned earth orbital mission without the guidance and navigation system. SED concluded that the stabilization and control system could be used as an attitude reference for one to two orbits and would have accuracies at retrofire suitable for recovery. The number of orbits depended upon the number of maneuvers performed by the vehicle, since the gyros tended to drift.

1963 December 19 - .
  • First three prototype Apollo fuel cells delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Summary: Pratt and Whitney Aircraft delivered the first three prototype-A fuel cells to North American..

1964 January 11 - .
  • Three U S Air Force test pilots in a simulated seven- day lunar landing mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Three U. S. Air Force test pilots began a five-week training period at the Martin Company leading to their participation in a simulated seven- day lunar landing mission. This was part of Martin's year-long study of crew performance during simulated Apollo missions (under a $771,000 contract from NASA).

1964 January 14 - .
  • Spacecraft communications problems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. At an MSC-North American meeting, spacecraft communications problems were reviewed. Testing had indicated that considerable redesign was essential to ensure equipment operation in a high-humidity environment. Also antenna designs had created several problem areas, such as the scimitar antenna's causing the CM to roll during reentry. The amount of propellant consumed in counteracting this roll exceeded reentry allowances. Further, because the CM could float upside down, the recovery antenna might be pointed at the ocean floor. In fact, many at this meeting doubted whether the overall communications concept was satisfactory "without having detailed ground receiver characteristics." The situation derived from "one of the primary problems in the area of communications system design . . . the lack of functional requirements specifications."

1964 January 15-23 - .
  • Apollo crew food could be eaten in a semi-liquid form during emergency pressurized operation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. ASPO and the Astronaut Office agreed to provide the crew with food that could be eaten in a liquid or semi-liquid form during emergency pressurized operation. This would permit considerable reduction in the diameter of the emergency feeding port in the helmet visor.

1964 January 15-23 - .
  • Feasibility of manual maneuver required by the Apollo canard abort system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. MSC's Systems Engineering Division met with a number of astronauts to get their comments on the feasibility of the manual reorientation maneuver required by the canard abort system concept. The astronauts affirmed that they could accomplish the maneuver and that manual control during high-altitude aborts was an acceptable part of a launch escape system design. They pointed out the need to eliminate any possibility of sooting of the windows during normal and abort flight. Although the current design did not preclude such sooting, a contemplated boost protective cover might satisfy this requirement.

1964 January 15 - .
  • First Apollo fuel cell delivered by Pratt and Whitney - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. The first fuel cell module delivered by Pratt and Whitney Aircraft to North American was started and put on load. The module operated normally and all test objectives were accomplished. Total operating time was four hours six minutes, with one hour at each of four loads-20, 30, 40, and 50 amperes. The fuel cell was shut down without incident and approximately 1,500 cubic centimeters (1.6 quarts) of water were collected.

1964 January 16-February 15 - .
  • Design completed of all components of Apollo CM ECS - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: AiResearch Manufacturing Company reported that it had completed design effort on all components of the CM environmental control system..

1964 January 16-February 15 - .
  • Equipment stowage location tests in Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. Two astronauts took part in tests conducted by North American to evaluate equipment stowage locations in CM mockup 2. Working as a team, the astronauts simulated the removal and storage of docking mechanisms. Preliminary results indicated this equipment could be stowed in the sleeping station. When his suit was deflated, the subject in the left couch could reach, remove, and install the backup controllers if they were stowed in the bulkhead, couch side, or headrest areas. When his suit was pressurized, he had difficulty with the bulkhead and couch side locations. The subject in the center couch, whose suit was pressurized, was unable to be of assistance.

1964 January 17 - .
  • Design review of the Apollo CM reaction control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. A design review of the CM reaction control system (RCS) was held. Included was a discussion of possible exposure of the crew to hazardous fumes from propellants if the RCS ruptured at earth impact. For the time being, the RCS design would not be changed, but no manned flights would be conducted until the matter had been satisfactorily resolved. A detailed study would be made on whether to eliminate, reduce, or accept this crew safety hazard.

1964 January 17 - .
  • LEM missed rendezvous comm problems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications; CSM Docking. Grumman was studying problems of transmitting data if the LEM missed rendezvous with the CSM after lunar launch. This meant that the LEM had to orbit the moon and a data transmission blackout would occur while the LEM was on the far side of the moon. There were two possible solutions, an onboard data recorder or dual transmission to the CSM and the earth. This redundancy had not previously been planned upon, however.

1964 January 23 - .
  • Visibility requirements on the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA and North American discussed visibility requirements on the CM and came to the following conclusions: the contractor would provide four portholes in the protective shroud so the astronauts could see through both side and forward viewing windows, and ensure that all windows were clean after launch escape tower separation. North American proposed the addition to Block II CM of a collimated optical device for orientation and alignment during docking. MSC Flight Crew Operations Directorate recommended that mirrors be added to increase external and internal field of vision.

1964 January 23-29 - .
  • Qualification testing of components of the Apollo CM environmental control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: The AiResearch Manufacturing Company began qualification testing of the first group of components of the CM environmental control system..

1964 January 23 - .
  • Contract amendment to North American for buildings for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: MSC issued a $9.2 million contract amendment to North American for the construction and modification of buildings at Downey, Calif., and for research and development work on the CM..

1964 January 24 - .
  • Design review of crew systems checkout for the Apollo CM waste management system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. A design review of crew systems checkout for the CM waste management system was held at North American. As a result, MSC established specific requirements for leakage flow measurement and for checkout at North American and Cape Kennedy. The current capability of the checkout unit restricted it to measuring only gross leakage of segments of the system.

    Further analysis of the management system was necessary to determine changes needed in the checkout unit.


1964 February 6 - .
  • Honeywell developed an all-attitude display unit for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company reported it had developed an all-attitude display unit for the CM to monitor the guidance and navigation system and provide backup through the stabilization and control system. The Flight Director Attitude Indicator (or "eight-ball") would give enough information for all spacecraft attitude maneuvers during the entire mission to be executed manually, if necessary.

1964 February 7 - .
  • Status of the tower flap versus the canard Apollo launch escape vehicle (LEV) configurations - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Engineers from ASPO and Engineering and Development Directorate (EDD) discussed the current status of the tower flap versus the canard launch escape vehicle (LEV) configurations. Their aim was to select one of the two LEV configurations for Block I spacecraft. ASPO and EDD concluded that the canard was aerodynamically superior; that arguments against the canard, based on sequencing, mechanical complexity, or schedule effect, were not sufficient to override this aerodynamic advantage; and that this configuration should be adopted for Block I spacecraft. However, further analysis was needed to choose the design for the Block II LEV.

1964 February 13-19 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate (BP) 13 spacecraft delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Boilerplate (BP) 13 spacecraft was flown from North American, Downey, Calif., to MSC's Florida Operations facility at Cape Kennedy, where the vehicle was inspected and checked out. On April 2, the spacecraft and launch escape system were moved to the pad and mated to the launch vehicle, SA-6. After exhaustive testing, a Flight Readiness Review on May 19 established that BP-13 was ready for launch.

1964 February 13-20 - .
  • Apollo Block II CSM configuration based on three classes of changes - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The Block II CSM configuration was based on three classes of changes: mandatory changes necessary to meet the

    1. Functional requirements of the lunar mission.
    2. Manufacturing or fabrication changes (identified only with improved fabrication techniques).
    3. Technically desirable and weight reduction changes.

1964 February 14 - .
  • Apollo SM RCS to have emergency deorbit capability - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: MSC ordered North American to design the SM's reaction control system with the capability for emergency retrograde from earth orbit..

1964 February 16-March 15 - .
  • Crew transfer tests using a mockup of the Apollo CM/LEM transfer tunnel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. North American completed its initial phase of crew transfer tests using a mockup of the CM/LEM transfer tunnel. Subjects wearing pressure suits were suspended and counterbalanced in a special torso harness to simulate weightlessness; hatches and docking mechanisms were supported by counterweight devices. The entire tunnel mockup was mounted on an air-bearing, frictionless table. Preliminary results showed that the crew could remove and install the hatches and docking mechanisms fairly easily.

1964 February 16-March 15 - .
  • Apollo potable water system was changed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: The potable water system was changed to meter both hot and cold water in one-ounce increments to provide accurate measurements for food rehydration. The previous water valve was a full-flow tap..

1964 February 16-March 21 - .
  • Plan for changing the relationship of the Apollo navigation and guidance contractors - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC completed and forwarded to NASA Headquarters a plan for changing the relationship of the navigation and guidance contractors. AC Spark Plug would become the principal contractor, with the Raytheon Company and Kollsman Instrument Corporation as subcontractors. MIT would still have primary responsibility for system design and analysis.

1964 February 17 - .
  • During a lunar mission, fuel cells in the Apollo CSM would produce 220 liters of potable water - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Summary: MSC announced that, during a 14-day lunar mission, fuel cells in the Apollo CSM would produce about 220 liters (60 gallons) of potable water while furnishing power to operate the electronic equipment..

1964 February 17 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Second Little Joe II launch vehicle delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: General Dynamics Convair delivered to White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) the second Little Joe II launch vehicle, the first Little Joe II scheduled to fly with a production Apollo spacecraft..

1964 February 17 - .
  • Motorola proposal for the Apollo Unified S-band Test Program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Motorola, Inc., submitted a proposal to NASA for the Apollo Unified S-band Test Program, a series of tests on the unified S-band transponder and premodulation processor. Motorola had already begun test plans, analytical studies, and fabrication of special test equipment.

1964 February 20-26 - .
  • Apollo tower flap configuration issues - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: Trajectory analyses by North American indicated that, with the tower flap configuration, it was highly probable that crew acceleration limits would be exceeded during high-altitude abort..

1964 February 20-26 - .
  • Dynamic testing of the Apollo docking subsystem - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. North American submitted to ASPO a proposal for dynamic testing of the docking subsystem, which called for a full-scale air-supported test vehicle. The contractor estimated the program cost at $2.7 million for facilities, vehicle design, construction, and operation.

1964 February 22 - .
  • Studies of the dangers of meteoroids and radiation in the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Cockpit. George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, summarized recent studies of the dangers of meteoroids and radiation in the Apollo program. Data from the Explorer XVI satellite and ground observations indicated that meteoroids would not be a major hazard. Clouds of protons ejected by solar flares would present a risk to astronauts, but studies of the largest solar flares recorded since 1959 showed that maximum radiation dosages in the CM and the Apollo space suit would have been far below acceptable limits (set in July 1962 by the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences). Cosmic rays would not be a hazard because of their rarity. Radiation in the Van Allen belts was not dangerous because the spacecraft would fly through the belts at high speeds.

1964 February 25 - .
  • Apollo earth landings to be primarily on water - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. At a NASA-North American Technical Management Meeting at Downey, Calif., North American recommended that Apollo earth landings be primarily on water. On the basis of analytical studies and impact tests, the contractor had determined that "land impact problems are so severe that they require abandoning this mode as a primary landing mode." In these landings, North American had advised, it was highly probable that the spacecraft's impact limits would be surpassed. In fact, even in water landings "there may be impact damage which would result in leakage of the capsule." (ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea, at this meeting, "stated that MSC concurs that land impact problems have not been solved, and that planning to utilize water impact is satisfactory."

    Three days later, Shea reported to the MSC Senior Staff that Apollo landings would be primarily on water. The only exceptions, he said, would be pad aborts and emergency landings. With this question of "wet" versus "dry" landing modes settled, Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Assistant Director for Flight Operations, brought up the unpleasant problem of the CM's having two stable attitudes while afloat - and especially the apex-down one. This upside-down attitude, Kraft emphasized, submerged the vehicle's recovery antennas and posed a very real possibility of flooding in rough seas. Shea countered that these problems could be "put to bed" by using some type of inflatable device to upright the spacecraft.


1964 February 25 - .
  • Configuration for the Apollo launch escape vehicle - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. At a NASA-North American technical management meeting, the tower flap versus canard configuration for the launch escape vehicle was settled. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea decided that canards should be the approach for Block I vehicles, with continued study on eliminating this device on Block II vehicles.

1964 February 27 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate (BP) 19 drop tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Boilerplate (BP) 19 was drop tested at El Centro, Calif., simulating flight conditions and recovery of BP-12. A second BP-19 drop, on April 8, removed all constraints on the BP-12 configuration and earth landing system. Another aim, to obtain information on vehicle dynamics, was not accomplished because of the early firing of a backup drogue parachute.

1964 February 27-29 - .
  • Amendments to AC Spark Plug contract for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC and AC Spark Plug negotiated amendments to AC's contract for a research and development program for inertial reference integrating gyroscopes. The amendments covered cost overruns, an additional 30 pieces of hardware, and conversion of the contract to an incentive-fee type (target price, $3.465 million; ceiling price, $3.65 million).

1964 March 2-9 - .
  • Mockup of the crew transfer tunnel reviewed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. At North American, a mockup of the crew transfer tunnel was reviewed informally. The mockup was configured to the North American-proposed Block II design (in which the tunnel was larger in diameter and shorter in length than on the existing spacecraft). MSC asked the contractor to place an adapter in the tunnel to represent the physical constraints of the current design, which would permit the present design to be thoroughly investigated and to provide a comparison with the Block II proposal.

1964 March 16-April 15 - .
  • Apollo CM ECS component testing completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: AiResearch Manufacturing Company completed testing on development components of the CM environmental control system. Specifications for components had been submitted to North American..

1964 March 16-April 15 - .
  • Design review of the Apollo CM heatshield substructure - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American held a design review of the CM heatshield substructure. Use of titanium in place of stainless steel was being evaluated as part of a weight reduction study for the Block II spacecraft. Added reliability and a weight saving of several hundred pounds might be achieved thereby. Three factors would be considered: the brittleness of stainless steel at extremely cold temperatures, the higher cost of titanium, and the verification of diffusion bonding of titanium honeycomb.

1964 March 16-April 15 - .
  • First prototype of the Apollo CM reentry battery was delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: The first prototype of the CM battery for use during reentry was delivered to North American by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc..

1964 March 19 - .
  • Apollo CM crew couches fixed except in zero-G flight phases - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: NASA instructed North American to fix the CM crew couches along all axes during normal and emergency acceleration, except at impact. During nonacceleration mission phases, the couches would be adjustable for crew comfort..

1964 March 19-26 - .
  • Apollo CM couch width studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: MSC Crew Systems Division (CSD) evaluated a CM couch width of 58.4 centimeters (23 inches). CSD found that the couch hampered an astronaut's movement in an unpressurized suit and totally restricted him if his suit was pressurized..

1964 March 19-26 - .
  • Hard boost protective cover for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: After the decision to use canards instead of tower flaps, North American returned to the concept of a hard boost protective cover. The tower jettison motor would remove the cover along with the tower..

1964 March 20 - .
  • Breaking the Apollo CM windows for postlanding ventilation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch; CSM Recovery. Summary: Tests at North American demonstrated the possibility of using onboard tools to break the CM hatch windows for postlanding ventilation of the spacecraft..

1964 March 20 - .
  • Groups of scientists to assist NASA in defining the scientific objectives of Project Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications began organizing several groups of scientists to assist the agency in defining more specifically the scientific objectives of Project Apollo. In a number of letters to prominent American scientists, Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications Homer E. Newell asked them to propose suitable experiments in such fields as geology, geophysics, geochemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. This broadly based set of proposals, Newell explained, is "for the purpose of assuring that the final Apollo science program is well balanced, as complete as possible, and that all potential investigators have been given an opportunity to propose experiments." The proposals would then be reviewed by subcommittees of NASA's Space Sciences Steering Committee.

1964 March 24 - .
  • Narrower hatch configuration for Apollo Block II - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Block II. To verify a narrower hatch configuration proposed for Block II spacecraft, North American evaluated the capability of an astronaut wearing a pressurized space suit and a portable life support system to pass through the main hatch of the CM for extravehicular activities. Subjects were able to enter and leave the mockup without undue difficulty despite the presence of gravity.

1964 March 26-April 1 - .
  • Because of pure oxygen atmosphere specified, Apollo requirements for component testing reviewed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Because of the pure oxygen atmosphere specified for the spacecraft, North American reviewed its requirements for component testing. Recent evaluation of the CM circuit breakers had indicated a high probability that they would cause a fire. The company's reliability office recommended more flammability testing, not only on circuit breakers but on the control and display components as well. The reliability people recommended also that procurement specifications be amended to include such testing.

1964 March 29-April 4 - .
  • Apollo CM might not withstand water impact - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: Impact tests indicated that, because of oscillations and consequent high angles of attack, the CM might not withstand water impact and could sink. North American planned a series of water impact tests using boilerplate 28 to study the problem..

1964 March 30 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Apollo mated to Little Joe II launch vehicle - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Summary: CSM boilerplate 12 (with launch escape system) was mated to its Little Joe II launch vehicle..

1964 April 7-8 - .
  • Shea summarized recent activities concerning the Block II spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard; Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. At the April 7-8 NASA-North American Technical Management Meeting (the first of these meetings to be held at MSC's new home, "NASA Clear Lake Site 1"), ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea summarized his office's recent activities concerning the Block II spacecraft. He spelled out those areas that ASPO was investigating - which included virtually the whole vehicle between escape tower and service engine bell. Shea outlined procedures for "customer and contractor" to work out the definitive Block II design, aiming at a target date of mid-May 1965. These procedures included NASA's giving North American descriptions of its Block II work, estimates of weight reduction, and a set of ground rules for the Block II design. And to ensure that both sides cooperated as closely as possible in this work, Shea named Owen E. Maynard, Chief of MSC's Systems Engineering Division, and his counterpart at Downey, Norman J. Ryker, Jr., to "honcho" the effort.

1964 April 14 - .
  • Phase I tests of the Apollo SM engine completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Firings at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) and at Aerojet-General Corporation's Sacramento test site completed Phase I development tests of the SM propulsion engine. The last simulated altitude test at AEDC was a sustained burn of 635 seconds, which demonstrated the engine's capability for long-duration firing. Preliminary data indicated that performance was about three percent below specification, but analysis was in progress to see if it could be improved.

1964 April 15 - .
  • Dale D Myers named North American's program manager for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Dale D. Myers, North American's Space and Information Systems Division vice president, succeeded John W. Paup as the contractor's program manager for the CM..

1964 April 15 - .
  • Flotation attitude studied for Apollo CM's - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: ASPO asked North American to investigate the possibility of designing apex-upright, stable flotation attitude into Block I and Block II CM's..

1964 April 16-May 15 - .
  • Simulations to evaluate Apollo astronauts' ability to perform attitude change maneuvers - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. North American completed the first of a series of simulations to evaluate the astronauts' ability to perform attitude change maneuvers under varying rates and angles. Subjects were tested in a shirtsleeve environment and in vented and pressurized International Latex Corporation state-of-the-art pressure suits. The subjects had considerable difficulty making large, multi-axis attitude corrections because the pressurized suit restricted manipulation of the rotational hand controller.

1964 April 16-22 - .
  • Preliminary study on removal of one of three fuel cells from the Block II Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American conducted a preliminary study on removal of one of three fuel cells from the Block II CSM. The contractor predicted a total weight saving of about 168 kilograms (370 pounds), with potential indirect reductions in the cryogenic systems, but this change would require a significant increase in reliability.

1964 April 16 - .
  • Apollo changes for Block II - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Joseph F. Shea, ASPO Manager, in a letter to North American's Apollo Program Manager, summarized MSC's review of the weight status of the Block I and the design changes projected for Block II CSM's.

    The Block II design arose from the need to add docking and crew transfer capability to the CM. Reduction of the CM control weight (from 9,500 to 9,100 kilograms (21,000 to 20,000 pounds)) and deficiencies in several major subsystems added to the scope of the redesign. Additional Details: here....


1964 April 23 - .
  • Apollo CM heatshield design philosophy modified - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. After completing estimates of the heating conditions for a series of MIT guided reentry trajectories, the MSC Engineering and Development Directorate recommended that the heatshield design philosophy be modified from the current "worst possible entry" to the "worst possible entry using either the primary or backup guidance mode." North American had drawn up the requirements early in 1962, with the intent of providing a heatshield that would not be a constraint on reentry. However, it was now deemed extremely unlikely that an entry, employing either the primary or backup guidance mode, would ever experience the heat loads that the contractor had designed for earlier. The ablator weight savings, using the MIT trajectories, could amount to several hundred pounds.

1964 April 24 - .
  • Contract with Philco for Apollo spacecraft flight control support - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA definitized the letter contract with the Philco Corporation Techrep Division for spacecraft flight control support. The definitive contract covered the period from September 16, 1963, through March 31, 1965, and the total cost-plus-fixed-fee was $720,624.

1964 April 28-30 - .
  • Mockup inspection and review for Block II Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Johnson, Caldwell; Slayton. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. At Downey, Calif., MSC and North American officials conducted a mockup review on the Block I CSM. Major items reviewed were:

    • Cabin interior (complete except for hatches, display panel lighting, survival equipment, umbilical connections, and zero-g restraints).
    • CM exterior (complete except for hatches and boost protective cover).
    • Earth landing system.
    • Launch escape system.
    • SM.
    One hundred and eleven request for change forms were submitted to the mockup review board, composed of Robert O. Piland (Chairman), Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., Donald K. Slayton, Caldwell C. Johnson, Owen E. Maynard, and Clinton L. Taylor of MSC; and H. G. Osbon and Charles H. Feltz of North American.

    For the first time, three representative Apollo space suits were used in the CM couches. Pressurized suit demonstrations, with three suited astronauts lying side by side in the couches, showed that the prototype suit shoulders and elbows overlapped and prevented effective operation of the CM displays and controls. Previous tests, using only one suited subject, had indicated that suit mobility was adequate. Gemini suits, tested under the same conditions, proved much more usable. Moreover, using Gemini suits for Apollo earth orbital missions promised a substantial financial saving. As a result of further tests conducted in May, the decision was made to use the Gemini suits for these missions. The existing Apollo space suit contract effort was redirected to concentrate on later Apollo flights. A redesign of the Apollo suit shoulders and elbows also was begun.


1964 May 28 - . 17:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I. LV Configuration: Saturn I-Blk2 SA-6.
  • Saturn 6 - . Payload: Apollo CSM Boilerplate 13. Mass: 16,900 kg (37,200 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Decay Date: 1964-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 800 . COSPAR: 1964-025A. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 31.7000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Summary: Apollo Saturn Mission A-101, using CM BP-13 atop SA-6 Saturn I launch vehicle, launched at Cape Kennedy, Fla., to prove spacecraft/launch vehicle compatibility. Boilerplate CSM, LM adapter, LES. LES jettison demonstrated..

1964 June 11 - .
  • Mandatory changes to Apollo Block I and Block II spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I; CSM Block II. Summary: NASA directed North American Aviation, Inc. (NAA), to make certain mandatory changes to both Block I and Block II spacecraft systems..

1964 September 18 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I. LV Configuration: Saturn I-Blk2 SA-7.
  • Saturn 7 - . Payload: Apollo CSM Boilerplate 15. Mass: 16,700 kg (36,800 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Decay Date: 1964-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 883 . COSPAR: 1964-057A. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 31.7000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Apollo systems test. Third orbital test. First closed-loop guidance test..

1964 September 30 - .
  • Formal inspection of Block II Apollo CSM mockup - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: NAA conducted formal inspection and review of Block II CSM mockup..

1964 October 1-8 - .
  • Spring-activated pop-up antenna for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Summary: North American switched to a spring-activated pop-up antenna for the command module (CM) high-frequency recovery radio..

1964 October 2 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Plan to verify the Apollo CM's radiation shielding - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC's Apollo Spacecraft Program Office (ASPO) approved a plan (put forward by the MSC Advanced Spacecraft Technology Division to verify the CM's radiation shielding. Checkout of the radiation instrumentation would be made during manned earth orbital flights. The spacecraft would then be subjected to a radiation environment during the first two unmanned Saturn V flights. These missions, 501 and 502, with apogees of about 18,520 km (10,000 nm), would verify the shielding. Gamma probe verification, using spacecraft 008, would be performed in Houston during 1966. Only Block I CM's would be used in these ground and flight tests. Radiation shielding would be unaffected by the change to Block II status.

1964 October 2 - .
  • Two additional Apollo spacecraft checkout ground stations - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: MSC submitted a Request for Proposals to General Electric Company (GE) for two additional spacecraft acceptance checkout ground stations. Eight million dollars was the estimated cost of the added equipment..

1964 October 2-29 - .
  • Apollo part task trainers canceled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Summary: ASPO notified Grumman and North American that it had canceled requirements for Apollo part task trainers..

1964 October 8-15 - .
  • Apollo CM instrument changes recommended - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. On the basis of reentry simulations, North American recommended several CM instrument changes. An additional reaction control system display was needed, the company reported. Further, the flight attitude and the stabilization and control system indicators must be modified to warn of a system failure before it became catastrophic. The entry monitor system for Block I spacecraft would have to be replaced and the sample g-meter was not wholly satisfactory.

1964 October 8-15 - .
  • Block I Apollo CM's heat rejection capability inadequate - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Analysis by MSC of the performance of the environmental control system radiators for Block I CM's placed their heat rejection capability at 4,000 Btus per hr, far below the anticipated mission load of 7,220.. Additional Details: here....

1964 October 13 - .
  • Electrical power requirements for the guidance and control systems in Block II Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American and MIT Instrumentation Laboratory representatives met in Houston to discuss electrical power requirements for the guidance and control systems in Block II CMs. They had determined the additional electrical power needed for the guidance and control system 24 volts was available,

1964 October 14 - .
  • Qualification testing of the reentry batteries for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Eagle-Picher Company completed qualification testing on the 25-amperehour reentry batteries for the CM. Shortly thereafter, Eagle-Picher received authorization from North American to proceed with design and development of the larger 40-ampere-hour batteries needed for the later Block I and all Block II spacecraft.

1964 October 14 - .
  • First Apollo guidance system shipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. In a letter to NASA Administrator James E. Webb, AC Spark Plug reported that the first Apollo guidance system completed acceptance testing and was shipped at 11:30 p.m. and arrived at Downey, California, early the following day. AC reported that in more than 2,000 hours of operation they had found the system to be "remarkably reliable, accurate and simple to operate."

1964 October 15 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo guidance and control interfaces - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The Guidance and Control Implementation Sub-Panel of the MSC-MSFC Flight Mechanics Panel defined the guidance and control interfaces for Block I and II missions. In Block II missions the CSM's guidance system would guide the three stages of the Saturn V vehicle; it would control the S- IVB (third stage) and the CSM while in earth orbit; and it would perform the injection into a lunar trajectory. In all of this, the CSM guidance backed up the Saturn ST-124 platform. Actual sequencing was performed by the Saturn V computer.

1964 October 15-22 - .
  • Castings for the Apollo CM data storage equipment to be of aluminum - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Because they were unable to find a satisfactory means of plating the magnesium castings for the CM data storage equipment (to fulfil the one percent salt spray requirement), Collins Radio Company and the Leach Corporation were forced to use aluminum as an alternative. This change would increase the weight of the structure by about 2.3 kg (5 lbs) and, perhaps even more significant, could produce flutter when the recorder was subjected to vibration tests. These potential problems would be pursued when a finished aluminum casting was available.

1964 October 16-November 15 - .
  • Three Apollo fuel cells operated in a simulated space vacuum - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Summary: Three Pratt and Whitney fuel cells were operated in a simulated space vacuum at North American for 19, 20, and 21 hours. This was the first time three cells were operated as an electrical power generating subsystem..

1964 October 16-November 15 - .
  • Block II Apollo CSM entry monitor subsystem compatibility - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American and Honeywell reviewed the Block II CSM entry monitor subsystem's compatibility with the stabilization and control system. The proposed configuration, they found, combined maximum reliability with minimum size and weight and would provide adequate mission performance.

1964 October 17 - .
  • IBM contract for the Apollo backup computer - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: MSC and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) negotiated a $1,500,000 fixed-price contract for the Apollo guidance and navigation system backup computer..

1964 October 19 - .
  • Supplemental agreement on the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: On October 19, a supplemental agreement in the amount of $115,000,000 was issued to North American, bringing the total funded amount of the CSM contract to $1,136,890,000..

1964 October 22-29 - .
  • Heavy black deposits discovered on the environmental control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Heavy black deposits were discovered on the environmental control system (ECS) cold plates when they were removed from boilerplate 14. Several pinholes were found in the cold plate surfaces, and the aluminum lines were severely pitted. This was, as ASPO admitted, a matter of "extreme concern" to the ECS design people at North American, because the equipment had been charged with coolant for only three weeks. This evidence of excessive corrosion reemphasized the drawbacks of using ethylene glycol as a coolant.

1964 October 27 - .
  • North American to halt procurement of a Apollo CM simulator - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC ordered North American to halt procurement of a CM simulator. Instead, the company was to begin a simulator program using the two existing evaluator-type CMs in conjunction with the digital-analog computer facility. These evaluators would be used to verify the guidance and navigation and stabilization and control system software, and to analyze crew tasks and failure effects.

1964 October 28 - . LV Family: Little Joe II; Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • Apollo mission programming - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO's Operations Planning Division defined the current Apollo mission programming as envisioned by MSC. The overall Apollo flight program was described in terms of its major phases: Little Joe II flights (unmanned Little Joe II development and launch escape vehicle development); Saturn IB flights (unmanned Saturn IB and Block I CSM development, Block I CSM earth orbital operations, unmanned LEM development, and manned Block II CSM/LEM earth orbital operations); and Saturn V flights (unmanned Saturn V and Block II CSM development, manned Block II CSM/LEM earth orbital operations, and manned lunar missions).

1964 October 28 - .
  • Results of Scout test of the Apollo heatshield material - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. At Langley Research Center, representatives from Langley, MSC, Ames Research Center, Avco Corporation, and North American met to discuss their independent conclusions of the data gathered from the Scout test of the Apollo heatshield material and to determine whether a second test was advisable. Langley's report revealed that: the heatshield materials performed as predicted within the flight condition appropriate to Apollo; the excessive recession rates occurred during flight conditions which were more severe than those considered for the design of the heatshield or expected during Apollo reentries.

    Each group represented had a different interpretation of the reasons for the excessively high surface recession. The conclusion was that a second flight of the heatshield materials on the Scout would not particularly improve the understanding of the material's performance because of the limited variation in reentry trajectory and flight conditions obtainable with the Scout vehicle.


1964 October 29-November 5 - .
  • Frst operational deployment of the launch escape system canards - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. North American conducted the first operational deployment of the launch escape system canards. No problems were encountered with the wiring or the mechanism. Two more operational tests remained to complete the minimum airworthiness test program, a constraint on boilerplate 23.

1964 October 29-November 5 - .
  • Salt spray test on the Apollo CM television camera's magnesium housing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Television. MSC conducted a week-long salt spray test on the CM television camera's magnesium housing. This was necessitated by similar tests on the Leach data storage structure, which had disclosed the inadequacy of that equipment's nickel plating. The television camera, with its protective coating (AMS 2478, Dow 17 treatment), withstood the ordeal quite well. MSC therefore decided that the magnesium housing was acceptable.

1964 October 29-November 5 - .
  • Flush-mounted VHF antennas recommended for the Block II Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: After studying the merits of three flush-mounted versus two scimitar VHF antennas for the Block II CSM, the MSC Instrumentation and Electronics Systems Division recommended the flush-mounted type..

1964 October 29 - .
  • Problems of bonding the secondary structure to the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. North American conferred with representatives from Shell Chemical Company, Narmco, Epoxylite, and Ablestick on the problems of bonding the secondary structure to the CM. They agreed on improved methods of curing and clamping to strengthen the bond and prevent peeling.

1964 October 29-November 5 - .
  • Portable light assembly for the Apollo CM canceled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Cockpit. MSC directed North American to halt development of a portable light assembly for the CM. It was not required, the Center said, because the spaceship's primary lighting system included extendable floodlights. Small lights on the fingertips of the space suit and a flashlight in the survival kit were also available if needed.

1964 October 30 - .
  • First drop test of boilerplate 28 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. North American conducted the first drop test of boilerplate 28 at Downey, Calif. The test simulated the worst conditions that were anticipated in a three-parachute descent and water landing. The second drop, it was expected, would likewise simulate a landing on two parachutes. The drop appeared normal, but the spacecraft sank less than four minutes after hitting the water. Additional Details: here....

1964 November 2 - .
  • Bellcomm evaluation of the q-ball in the Apollo emergency detection system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Bellcomm, Inc., presented its evaluation of the requirement for a q-ball in the emergency detection system. (The device, enclosed in the nose cone atop the launch escape tower, measured dynamic pressures and thus monitored the vehicle's angle of attack, and was designed to warn the crew of an impending breakup of the vehicle.) Bellcomm's findings confirmed that the q-ball was absolutely essential and that the device was ideally suited to its task.

1964 November 3 - .
  • ITTcontract for S-band acquisition receivers for Apollo ground-based dish antennas - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Summary: International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation (ITT) Federal Laboratories' Astrionics Center received a $125,000 contract from Collins Radio for the S-band acquisition receivers that position the ground-based dish antennas toward the spacecraft..

1964 November 5-12 - .
  • During 20-g loading test Apollo CM aft heatshield failed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. During a mechanical loading test (simulating a 20-g reentry) the CM aft heatshield failed at 120 percent of maximum load. Structures and Mechanics Division engineers inspected the structure. They found that the inner skin had buckled, the damage extending three quarters of the way around the bolt circle that secured the heatshield to the spacecraft's inner structure. Their findings would be used along with data from the recent drop of boilerplate 28 to determine what redesign was necessary.

1964 November 5-12 - .
  • Flashing light on the Apollo CSM, as an aid for visual rendezvous, not required - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC informed North American that a flashing light on the CSM, as an aid for visual rendezvous, was not required. (A request for some such device had been generated at the Block II mockup review.) Houston's position was based on the current CSM/LEM configuration, which called for rendezvous radar on both spacecraft and the ability of both vehicles to effect the rendezvous using either its own radar or that in the target vehicle.

1964 November 5-12 - .
  • Testing of the Apollo breadboard environmental control system discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Engineers from the MSC Crew Systems Division and from North American discussed testing of the breadboard environmental control system. During all flights - both manned and unmanned - North American must monitor the cabin atmosphere by gas chromatography and mass spectrography. The company should also compare the materials for the breadboard with those for Mercury, Gemini, and other applicable space chambers.

1964 November 9 - .
  • Apollo guidance and navigation equipment contract amended - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: NASA and AC Spark Plug amended the company's contract for guidance and navigation equipment. The change embodied an incentive clause, based on a cost-schedule-performance scheme, and placed the estimated cost of the contract at $235,000,000..

1964 November 10 - .
  • First firing of the service propulsion system engine - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Joseph G. Thibodaux, Jr., MSC Propulsion and Power Division, reported at an Apollo Engineering and Development technical management meeting that the first J-2 firing of the service propulsion system engine was conducted at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). Two fuel cell endurance tests of greater than 400 hours were completed at Pratt and Whitney. MSC would receive a single cell for testing during the month.

1964 November 12-19 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Disagreement on number of reentry tests to qualify Apollo CM heatshield - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. There appeared to be some confusion and/or disagreement concerning whether one or two successful Saturn V reentry tests were required to qualify the CM heatshield. A number of documents relating to instrumentation planning for the 501 and 502 flight indicated that two successful reentries would be required. The preliminary mission requirements document indicated that only a single successful reentry trajectory would be necessary. The decision would influence the measurement range capability of some heatshield transducers and the mission planning activity being conducted by the Apollo Trajectory Support Office. The Structures and Mechanics Division had been requested to provide Systems Engineering with its recommendation.

1964 November 12-19 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate 28 aft heatshield showed shear failures - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: More careful examination of the boilerplate 28 aft heatshield indicated that the shear failures were in the face sheet splices which were not in the same locations as the core splices..

1964 November 12-19 - .
  • Lump considered for the Apollo CM's blunt face - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. In its search for some method of reducing water impact pressures, North American was considering adding a 15- to 30.5-cm (6- to 12-in) "lump" to the CM's blunt face. The spacecraft manufacturer was also investigating such consequent factors as additional wind tunnel testing, the effect on heatshield design, and impact upon the overall Apollo program.

1964 November 13 - .
  • Requirements for visual docking aids on both of the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. MSC defined the requirements for visual docking aids on both of the Apollo spacecraft:

    • At a range of 305 m (1,000 ft), the astronaut must be able to see the passive spacecraft and determine its gross attitude.
    • From 61 m (200 ft) away, he must be able to judge the target's relative attitude and the alignment of his own vehicle.
    • And from this latter distance - and still solely through visual means the pilot must be able to calculate the distance between the two spacecraft and the closing rate.

1964 November 16-December 15 - .
  • Apollo nuclear particle detection system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. After investigating the maximum radiation levels that were anticipated during Apollo earth orbit missions, North American confirmed the need for some type of nuclear particle detection system (NPDS). Except for periods of extremely high flux rates, the current design of the NPDS was considered adequate. During the same reporting period, North American awarded a contract to Philco to build the system.

1964 November 17-18 - .
  • Apollo-Saturn Emergency Detection System Design Sub-Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. The Emergency Detection System (EDS) Design Sub-Panel of the Apollo-Saturn Electrical Systems Integration Panel held its first meeting at North American's Systems and Information Division facility at Downey, Calif. A. Dennett of MSC and W. G. Shields of MSFC co-chaired the meeting.

    Personnel from MSC, MSFC, KSC, OMSF, and North American attended the meeting. Included in the discussions were a review of the EDS design for both the launch vehicle and spacecraft along with related ground support equipment; a review of the differences of design and checkout concepts; and a review of EDS status lights in the spacecraft.


1964 November 19-26 - .
  • Integrity of the Apollo CM's aft heatshield during water impacts - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. To solve the persisting problem of the integrity of the CM's aft heatshield during water impacts, MSC engineers were investigating several approaches: increasing the thickness of the face sheet (but with no change to the core itself); and replacing the stainless-steel honeycomb with a type of gridwork shell. Technicians felt that, of these two possibilities, the first seemed more efficient structurally.

1964 November 19-26 - .
  • Lights on the fingertips of space suits adequate - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Cockpit. MSC determined that the lights on the fingertips of the space suits were adequate to supplement the CM's interior lighting. Thus North American's efforts to develop a portable light in the spacecraft were canceled. The exact requirements for those fingertip lights now had to be defined. The astronauts preferred red bulbs, which would necessitate a redesign of the existing Gemini system. (See October 29-November 5.)

1964 November 19 - .
  • Displays and keyboards for the Apollo CSM and LEM not compatible - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Slayton. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II; CSM Cockpit. MSC's Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations, Donald K. Slayton, told the Apollo Program Manager that the current display and keyboard (DSKY) for the Block II CSM and for the LEM were not compatible with existing display panel design of both vehicles from the standpoint of lighting, nomenclature presentation, and caution warning philosophy. In his memorandum, Slayton pointed out mandatory operational requirements of the DSKY to ensure compatibility and consistency with the existing spacecraft display panel design.

    With reference to lighting, he said all numerics should be green, nomenclature and status lights white, and caution lights should be aviation yellow. All panel lighting should be dimmable throughout the entire range of brightness, including off.

    In regard to nomenclature, Slayton pointed out that abbreviations on the DSKY should conform to the North American Interface Control Document (ICD). The referenced ICD was being reviewed by Grumman and North American and was scheduled to be signed December 1, 1964.

    Referring to the caution and warning system, he pointed out that all caution lights on the DSKY should be gated into the primary navigation and guidance system (PNGS) caution light on the main instrument panel of both vehicles and into the PNGS caution light on the lower equipment bay panel of the CM.

    Slayton requested that preliminary designs of the DSKY panel be submitted to the Subsystem Managers for Controls and Displays for review and approval.


1964 November 19-26 - .
  • Container design and stowage of survival kits in the Block II Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Officials from North American and MSC Crew Systems Division defined the container design and stowage of survival kits in the Block II CM. The equipment would be packed in fabric rucksacks and would be installed in the spacecraft's stowage compartment. (This method eliminated a removable hard container used in the Block I vehicle and would save weight.)

1964 November 23 - .
  • Formal go-ahead on the Apollo Block II spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: North American received NASA's formal go-ahead on manufacture of the Block II spacecraft..

1964 November 23 - .
  • Apollo CSM Configuration Control Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: The CSM Configuration Control Panel, at its first meeting, approved several engineering changes. Perhaps the most significant was the substitution of an elapsed time display for the clock on the main display console..

1964 November 23 - .
  • Preliminaries for the formal Flight Readiness Review of Apollo boilerplate 23 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: A "pre-FRR" laid some preliminaries for the formal Flight Readiness Review (ERR) of boilerplate 23 (held at WSMR on December 4, 1964). . Additional Details: here....

1964 November 26-December 3 - .
  • Radiator for the environmental control system in Apollo Block I inadequate - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Crew Systems Division (CSD) engineers evaluated the radiator for the environmental control system in Block I CSM's. The division was certain that, because of that item's inadequacy, Block I missions would have to be shortened.

    During the same period, however, the Systems Engineering Division (SED) reported "progress" in solving the radiator problem. SED stated that some "disagreement" existed on the radiator's capability. North American predicted a five-day capability; CSD placed the mission's limit at about two days. SED ordered further testing on the equipment to reconcile this difference.


1964 November 26-December 3 - .
  • Deployment angle of 45 degrees for the Apollo adapter panels - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The Configuration Control Panel approved a deployment angle of 45 degrees for the adapter panels on Block I flights. North American anticipated no schedule impact. MSC and North American were jointly evaluating the acceptability of this angle for Block II missions as well. A most important consideration was the necessity to communicate via the CM's high-gain antenna during the transposition and docking phase of the flight.

1964 November 26-December 3 - .
  • Serious thermal problem for equipment in the rear of the Apollo SM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Because of heat from the service propulsion engine (especially during insertion into lunar orbit), a serious thermal problem existed for equipment in the rear of the SM. Reviewing the rendezvous radar's installation, the Guidance and Control Division felt that a heatshield might be needed to protect the equipment. Similar problems might also be encountered with the steerable antenna.

1964 November 26-December 3 - .
  • NASA to furnish VHF transmitter as a telemetry dump for all manned Block I flights - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC informed North American that the Center would furnish a VHF transmitter to serve as a telemetry dump for all manned Block I flights. This would permit wide flexibility in testing the CSM S-band's compatibility with the Manned Space Flight Network prior to Block II missions.

1964 November 27 - .
  • General Precision's Link Group contract for two Apollo LEM simulators - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. General Precision's Link Group received a $7 million contract from NASA, through a subcontract with Grumman, for two LEM simulators, one at Houston and the other at Cape Kennedy. Along with comparable equipment for the CSM (also being developed by Link), the machines would serve as trainers for Apollo astronauts. The devices would duplicate the interior of the spacecraft; and visual displays would realistically simulate every phase of the mission.

1964 November 30 - .
  • Canard thrusters for the Apollo launch escape system tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. North American tested the canard thrusters for the launch escape system, using both single and dual cartridges. These tests were to determine whether the pressure of residual gases was sufficient to maintain the canards in a fully deployed position. Investigators found that residual pressures remained fairly constant; further, the firing of a single cartridge produced ample pressure to keep the canards deployed.

1964 November 30 - .
  • Acceptance testing completed on three principal systems trainers for the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Acceptance testing was completed at Downey, California, on three principal systems trainers for the CSM (the environmental control, stabilization and control, and electrical power systems). The trainers were then shipped to Houston and installed at the site, arriving there December 8. They were constructed under the basic Apollo Spacecraft contract at a cost of $953,024.

1964 December 3-10 - .
  • Plans for mockups of the Block II Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC approved plans put forth by North American for mockups of the Block II CSM. For the crew compartment mockup, the company proposed using the metal shell that had originally been planned as a simulator. Except for the transfer tunnel and lighting, it would be complete, including mockups of all crew equipment. Additional Details: here....

1964 December 3-10 - .
  • Design frozen of the Apollo drogue mortar - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: MSC froze the design of the drogue mortar for the launch escape system. Laboratory qualification was scheduled to begin about the middle of the month. Qualification of the mortars for the pilot parachute would then follow..

1964 December 3-10 - .
  • Dumping helium into cabin during an emergency studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Engineering and medical experts of the Crew Systems Division reviewed dumping helium from the CM's gas chromatograph into the cabin during reentry or in a pad abort. Reviewers decided that the resultant atmosphere (9.995 kilonewtons (1.45 psi) helium and 31.349 kilonewtons (4.55 psia) oxygen) posed no hazard for the crew. Systems Engineering Division recommended, however, that dump time be reduced from 15 minutes to three, which could readily be done.

1964 December 7 - .
  • Rotation angle of the adapter panels set at 45 degrees - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC ordered North American to fix the rotation angle of the adapter panels at 45 degrees. (This angle should give ample clearance during an SM abort.) Also, so that each panel would have two attenuators, North American should include such a device at each thruster location.

    On the same day, the Center directed North American to put a standard mechanical clock (displaying Greenwich Mean Time) in the lower equipment bay of the CM. (The spacecraft also had an elapsed time device on the main display console.)


1964 December 8 - .
  • Apollo main parachute drop-tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. A single main parachute was drop-tested at El Centro, Calif., to verify the ultimate strength. The parachute was designed for a disreef load of 11,703 kg (25,800 lbs) and a 1.35 safety factor. The test conditions were to achieve a disreef load of 15,876 kg (35,000 lbs. Preliminary information indicated the parachute deployed normally to the reefed shape (78,017 kg (17,200 lbs) force), disreefed after the programmed three seconds, and achieved an inflated load of 16,193 kg (35,700 lbs), after which the canopy failed. Additional Details: here....

1964 December 10-January 7 - .
  • Tooling concepts for the Apollo Block II spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. The resident Apollo office at North American discussed the company's tooling concepts for the Block II spacecraft with the chief of Marshall's Planning and Tool Engineering Division and the local Marshall representative. These reviewers agreed on the suitability of North American's basic approach. Though they recognized that the initial tooling cost would be high, they nonetheless felt that the total costs of manufacturing would not be appreciably affected. The substitution of mechanical for optical checking devices, it was agreed, would eliminate much of the "judgment factor" from the inspection process; mechanical checking also would assure uniformity of major components or subsystems.

1964 December 10-January 7 - .
  • Positive expulsion tanks for Apollo CSM RCS failed tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: Because of faults in both design and in testing procedures, the positive expulsion tanks for the CSM reaction control system failed their verification tests (begun during the preceding month)..

1964 December 10-January 7 - .
  • Mockup of the food stowage compartment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Crew Systems Division received from North American a mockup of the proposed design of the food stowage compartment in the Block II CSM. This article would be used for packaging studies in preparation for the lower equipment bay mockup review in February..

1964 December 16 - .
  • Mission planning presentation for flights AS-201; AS-202 and AS-203 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. A mission planning presentation was given to ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea, Assistant Director for Flight Operations Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., and Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations Donald K. Slayton covering missions AS-201, AS-202, and AS-203. Additional Details: here....

1964 December 16-January 15 - .
  • Phase II Apollo service propulsion system engine tests begun - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: Phase II service propulsion system engine tests at Arnold Engineering Development Center were begun under simulated high altitude conditions with a successful first firing of 30 seconds. A total of nine firings were completed..

1964 December 16-January 15 - .
  • Flight test instrumentation compatible with heatshield of Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Summary: Ames researchers conducted 23 runs in the Center's wind tunnel to confirm the flight test instrumentation's compatibility with the aft heatshield of the CM. The instrumentation performed satisfactorily..

1964 December 16 - .
  • First test of Apollo fecal canister and urine relief tube under zero-g conditions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: Aboard a KC-135 from Wright-Patterson AFB, the fecal canister and urine relief tube were first tested under zero-g conditions. Similar manned tests of a complete unit were scheduled for February 1965..

1964 December 18 - .
  • North American delivered Apollo CM 001 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: North American delivered spacecraft 001's CM to White Sands. The SM was shipped several days later, and would be used for propulsion engine development. Aerojet-General shipped the service propulsion engine to the facility on January 6, 1965..

1964 December 28 - .
  • Apollo CM to be modified so that the sight assembly could be used from either docking window - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: MSC directed North American to modify the CM so that the sight assembly could be used from either docking window..

1964 - During the last quarter - .
  • Large-scale testing of the radiator for Apollo Block II CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Ling-Temco-Vought began large-scale developmental testing of the radiator for the Block II CSM environmental control system. One problem immediately apparent was the radiator's performance under extreme conditions..

1965 January 5 - .
  • Qualification program for Apollo launch escape and pitch control motors - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. North American and Lockheed summarized the qualification program for the launch escape and pitch control motors. While several performance deviations were reported, these were minor and, in general, the presentation was deemed satisfactory. North American followed up on the discrepancies and, on March 22, the motors were declared flight-qualified.

1965 January 6 - .
  • Partial donning of the Apollo space suit - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Block II. ASPO's Systems Engineering Division (SED) investigated the possibility of partial donning of the space suit (sans helmet and gloves) and the consequent effects upon operation of the CM environmental control system (ECS). (Current ECS design called for shirtsleeve and full-suited operations.) The systems engineers found that, with vehicle reliability based upon shirtsleeve environments, wearing part of the suit contributed little toward protecting the astronaut against loss of cabin pressure.

    Most pressure-seal failures in the spacecraft would still allow the astronaut time to don the complete suit. Catastrophic failures (i.e., loss of windows or hatches) were highly improbable, but if one of this type occurred, depressurization would be so rapid as to preclude the astronaut's donning even a part of the suit. Actually, overall mission reliability was greatest with the shirtsleeve environment; continuous suit wear degraded the garment's reliability for the lunar exploration phase of the flight. Moreover, a number of design changes in the spacecraft would be required by partial suit wear.

    SED concluded that, to build confidence in the spacecraft's pressurization system, Block I CM's should be outfitted for partial suit wear. In Block II vehicles the suit should not be worn during translunar mission phases (again because of mission reliability). SED recommended to the ASPO Manager, therefore, that he direct North American to incorporate provisions for partial suit wear in Block I and to retain the shirtsleeve concept for the Block II spacecraft.


1965 January 7 - .
  • Revised Apollo launch schedule - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. William A. Lee, chief of ASPO's Operations Planning Division, announced a revised Apollo launch schedule for 1966 and 1967. In 1968, a week-long earth orbital flight would be a dress rehearsal for the lunar mission. "Then the moon," Lee predicted. "We have a fighting chance to make it by 1970," he said, "and also stay within the 20 billion price tag set . . . by former President Kennedy."

1965 January 7-14 - .
  • Change in the Apollo CM back-face temperature - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Changing the CM back-face temperature requirement from 600 degrees F at touchdown to 600 degrees F at parachute deployment threatened to increase the cabin air temperature. Physiologists at MSC had previously declared that the cabin temperature should not exceed 100 degrees F. The proposed change in the back-face requirement, North American reported, would raise the cabin's interior to 125 degrees F. MSC's Crew Systems Division reviewed these factors and decided the increased cabin temperature would not be acceptable.

1965 January 11 - .
  • Dalmo-Victor to supply antennas for Apollo CSM's - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. North American selected Dalmo-Victor to supply S-band high-gain antennas for Apollo CSM's. (The deployable antenna would be used beyond 14,816 km (8,000 nm) from the earth.) Dalmo-Victor would complete the antenna design and carry out the development work, and North American would procure production units under a supplemental contract.

1965 January 11 - .
  • LC 16 to be converted to test stands for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. NASA announced that Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 16, a Titan missile facility, would be converted into static test stands for Apollo spacecraft. This decision eliminated the need for such a facility originally planned on Merritt Island and, it was predicted, would cost little more than a fourth of the $7 million estimated for the new site.

1965 January 14 - .
  • Acceptance tests for Apollo CSM sequential and propulsion systems trainers - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. North American completed acceptance tests for the CSM sequential and propulsion systems trainers. On January 15 the equipment was shipped to MSC, where it was installed the following week. This terminated the procurement program for the Apollo systems trainer.

1965 January 14 - .
  • Apollo CM/SM umbilical cutter caused damage to the heatshield - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. During testing, it was found that blast effects of the linear charge for the CM/SM umbilical cutter caused considerable damage to the heatshield. To circumvent this problem, North American designed a vastly improved pyrotechnic-driven, guillotine-type cutter. MSC readily approved the new' device for both Block I and II spacecraft.

1965 January 14-21 - .
  • Meteoroid environment in cislunar space defined for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. OMSF asked MSC to provide NASA Headquarters with a statement of "the minimum definition of meteoroid environment in cislunar space" which would be necessary for confidence that Apollo could withstand the meteoroid flux. The "desirable degree of definition" was also requested. This material was to be used as inputs to the current cislunar Pegasus studies being conducted by OMSF.

1965 January 14-21 - .
  • Development firings of the Apollo parachute mortars completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: Development firings of the launch escape system's drogue and pilot parachute mortars were completed, and the units were slated for qualification trials the following month..

1965 January 18 - .
  • Qualification testing completed of the tanks for the Apollo service propulsion system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: General Motors' Allison Division completed qualification testing of the propellant tanks for the service propulsion system..

1965 January 20 - .
  • Test altitude for Apollo mission A-004 decreased - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: The test altitude for mission A-004 was decreased from 22,860 to 19,507 m (75,000 to 64,000 ft) to ensure the attainment of limit loads on the CM during a tumbling power-on abort..

1965 January 21-28 - .
  • Main parachute disconnects verified - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: Two underwater firings verified the design concept of the main parachute disconnects..

1965 January 21 - .
  • Apollo dual drogue parachutes in drop test - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Northrop-Ventura verified the strength of the dual drogue parachutes in a drop test at El Centro, Calif. This was also the first airborne test of the new mortar by which the drogues were deployed and of the new pilot parachute risers, made of steel cables. All planned objectives were met. Additional Details: here....

1965 January 25 - .
  • Flotation characteristics of the Apollo CM studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. To determine flotation characteristics of the spacecraft, the Stevens Institute of Technology began a testing program using one-tenth scale models of the CM. Researchers found that the sequence in which the uprighting bags were deployed was equally critical in both a calm sea and in various wave conditions; improper deployment caused the vehicle to assume an apex-down position. These trials disproved predictions that wave action would upright the spacecraft from this attitude.

    Further testing during the following month reinforced these findings. But because sequential deployment would degrade reliability of the system, North American held that the bags must upright the spacecraft irrespective of the order of their inflation. Stevens' investigators would continue their program, examining the CM's characteristics under a variety of weight and center of gravity conditions.


1965 January 25 - .
  • Backup Apollo Block II space suit development program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Block II. MSC negotiated a backup Block II space suit development program with David Clark Company, which paralleled the Hamilton Standard program, at a cost of $176,000. Criteria for selecting the suit for ultimate development for Block II would be taken from the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Design and Performance Specification. A selection test program would be conducted at MSC using the CM mockup, the lunar simulation facility, and the LEM mockup.

1965 January 26 - .
  • Thermal effects for a fixed Apollo CSM rendezvous radar antenna - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM SPS. Summary: At a meeting held at Grumman, RCA presented its study on thermal effects for a fixed rendezvous radar antenna assembly which would be protected from the CSM service propulsion system by a thermal shield..

1965 January 28 - .
  • Gemini pistol-type water dispenser could not be used in the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: After examining the CM's potable water system, engineers in the MSC Crew Systems Division found that the Gemini pistol-type water dispenser could not be used in the Apollo spacecraft without some changes in the dispenser design..

1965 January 29 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate 28 second water impact test - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Apollo boilerplate 28 underwent its second water impact test. Despite its strengthened aft structure, in this and a subsequent drop on February 9 the vehicle again suffered damage to the aft heatshield and bulkhead, though far less severe than that experienced in its initial test. The impact problem, it was obvious, was not yet solved.

1965 January - .
  • Shea pleased with the pace of the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea reiterated the space agency's phasic view of the Apollo program. He was well pleased with the pace of the program and reported that ground testing of all CSM subsystems was "well along." Reflecting on the year just past, Shea observed that it was one in which Apollo objectives were achieved "milestone by milestone?' He was equally optimistic about Apollo's progress during the coming months, predicting that there would be "three Apollo spacecraft in continuous ground testing" by the end of the year.

1965 February 3 - .
  • ASPO established radiation reliability goals for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. ASPO established radiation reliability goals for Apollo. These figures would be used to coordinate the radiation program, to define the allowable dosages, and to determine the effect of radiation on mission success. The crew safety goal (defined as the probability of a crewman's not suffering permanent injury or worse, nor his being incapacitated and thus no longer able to perform his duties) was set at 0.99999. The major hazard of a radiation environment, it was felt, was not the chance of fatal doses. It was, rather, the possibility of acute radiation sickness during the mission. The second reliability goal, that for success of the mission (the probability that the mission would not be aborted because of radiation environment), was placed at 0.98.

    These values, ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea emphasized, were based on the 8.3-day reference mission and on emergency dose limits previously set forth. They were not to be included in overall reliability goals for the spacecraft, nor were they to be met by weight increases or equipment relocations.


1965 February 4-11 - .
  • Real-time commands added to the up-data link equipment on Apollo command modules 012 and 014 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: After considering possible impacts, MSC directed North American to implement real-time commands to the up-data link equipment on command modules 012 and 014..

1965 February 4-11 - .
  • Use of high purity oxygen during manned ground testing of the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. MSC questioned the necessity of using highly purified (and expensive) fuel-cell-type oxygen to maintain the cabin atmosphere during manned ground testing of the spacecraft. The Center, therefore, undertook a study of the resultant impurities and effect on crew habitability of using a commercial grade of aviation oxygen.

1965 February 5 - .
  • Apollo SM 001's service propulsion engine static-fired - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: SM 001's service propulsion engine was static-fired for 10 sec at White Sands. The firing was the first in a program to verify the mission profiles for later flight tests of the module. (SM 001 was the first major piece of flight-weight Apollo hardware.).

1965 February 8 - .
  • Requirement deleted for a rendezvous radar in the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. Summary: MSC deleted the requirement for a rendezvous radar in the CSM..

1965 February 11 - .
  • Drogue parachutes tested to ultimate load - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. A drop test at EI Centro, Calif., demonstrated the ability of the drogue parachutes to sustain the ultimate disreefed load that would be imposed upon them during reentry. (For the current CM weight, that maximum load would be 7,711 kg (17,000 lbs) per parachute.) Preliminary data indicated that the two drogues had withstood loads of 8,803 and 8,165 kg (19,600 and 18,000 lbs). One of the drogues emerged unscathed; the other suffered only minor damage near the pocket of the reefing cutter.

1965 February 12 - .
  • Apollo CM airlock costs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC relayed to NASA Headquarters North American's cost estimates for airlocks on the Apollo CM:

    SpacecraftDevelopmentUnit Cost
    Block I$840,000$185,000
    Block II$960,000$112,000
    Blocks I & II$1,050,000$111,000
    (The unit costs presumed two flight items for Block I and 12 for Block II spacecraft.)

    During late February and early March, North American completed a conceptual design study of an airlock for the Block I CMs. Designers found that such a device could be incorporated into the side access hatch. A substitute cover for the inner hatch and a panel to replace the window on the outer hatch would have to be developed, but these modifications would not interfere with the basic design of the spacecraft.


1965 February 16-March 15 - .
  • Apollo CM's waste management system demonstrated under zero-g conditions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: The CM's waste management system demonstrated its feasibility under zero-g conditions during flights from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The system successfully contained both solid and liquid wastes and did not leak even when filled to capacity..

1965 February 16 - .
  • Apollo hardware delivery schedules changed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. In a memorandum to ASPO, Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, inquired about realigning the schedules of contractors to meet revised delivery and launch timetables for Apollo. Phillips tentatively set forth deliveries of six spacecraft (CSM/LEMs) during 1967 and eight during each succeeding year; he outlined eight manned launches per year also, starting in 1969.

1965 February 16 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I. LV Configuration: Saturn I SA-9.
  • Apollo-Model 3 - . Payload: Apollo CSM Boilerplate 16. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Decay Date: 1985-07-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 1088 . COSPAR: 1965-009B. Apogee: 736 km (457 mi). Perigee: 500 km (310 mi). Inclination: 31.7000 deg. Period: 97.06 min.

1965 February 17 - . LV Family: Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • Unmanned capabilities required of Block I Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea clarified the manned unmanned capabilities required of Block I CSM spacecraft to ensure that end-item specifications appropriately reflect those capabilities. . Additional Details: here....

1965 February 17 - .
  • Increase in the Apollo CM's land landing capability - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: North American proposed an idea for increasing the CM's land landing capability. This could be done, the company asserted, by raising the water impact limits (thus exceeding normal tolerances) and stiffening the shock struts.. Additional Details: here....

1965 February 18-25 - .
  • Launch escape system no longer met specification - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES; CSM Parachute. Because of the CM's recent weight growth, the launch escape system (LES) was incapable of lifting the spacecraft the "specification" distance away from the booster. The performance required of the LES was being studied further; investigators were especially concerned with the heat and blast effects of an exploding booster, and possible deleterious effects upon the parachutes.

1965 February 23-26 - .
  • Mockup review of the Apollo CM's forward compartment and lower equipment bay - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. MSC and North American conducted Part 2 of the mockup review of the CM's forward compartment and lower equipment bay. (Part 1 was accomplished January 14-15. This staged procedure was in line with the contractor's proposal for a progressive review program leading up to the Critical Design Review scheduled for July 19-23.) Except for minor changes, the design was acceptable.

1965 February 23 - .
  • IBM to design backup guidance and navigation computer for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: NASA awarded a fixed-price contract (worth l.5 million) to IBM to design a backup guidance and navigation computer for the Apollo CM..

1965 February 24 - .
  • John B Alldredge Contracting Officer for the Apollo North American contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: MSC's Procurement and Contracts Division notified ASPO that John B. Alldredge had been assigned as the Contracting Officer for Contract NAS 9-150 (the North American contract), replacing Henry P. Yschek..

1965 February 24 - .
  • Contract to Collins for Apollo S-band telemetry equipment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. NASA awarded a $2,740,000 fixed-price contract to the Collins Radio Company for S-band telemetry equipment. Collins would install the equipment at three antenna facilities that supported Apollo lunar missions (at Goldstone, Calif.; Canberra, Australia; and Madrid, Spain).

1965 February 25-March 4 - .
  • Thermal and vacuum effects on the Apollo CM's parachute material tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. To determine thermal and vacuum effects on the CM's parachutes, MSC Structures and Mechanics Division tested nylon samples in a vacuum under varying temperature conditions. After two weeks of exposure to this spacelike environment, the samples exhibited only a 16 percent loss of strength (as against a design allowable of 25 percent).

1965 February 25-March 4 - .
  • Deployment tests of the Apollo CM's pop-up recovery antenna - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: DeHavilland completed deployment tests of the CM's pop-up recovery antenna..

1965 February 25 - .
  • Apollo Block I pressure garment emergency donning tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Using a mockup Apollo CM, MSC Crew Systems Division tested the time in which an astronaut could don and doff the Block I pressure garment assembly while at various stations inside the spacecraft. The two subjects' average donning times were nine min 33 sec and 10 min; mean doffing times were four min five sec and five min 23 sec.

1965 February 26 - .
  • William A Lee assumed responsibility for Apollo Operations - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard; Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea named William A. Lee as an assistant program manager. Lee, who previously headed the Operations Planning Division (which had been absorbed into Owen E. Maynard's Systems Engineering Division), now assumed responsibility for Apollo Operations (both the flight-test program and the lunar mission). Lee thus joined Harry L. Reynolds, also an assistant manager, who was assigned to the LEM's development. Deputy Manager Robert O. Piland continued overseeing the CSM's development and, along with Shea, overall program management.

1965 February - .
  • Pointing accuracy of Apollo control system at transearth injection - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Because of a change in the size of the entry corridor, North American technicians sought to determine whether they might relax the requirements for pointing accuracy of the stabilization and control system at transearth injection. They could not. To ensure a delta-V reserve, the accuracy requirement must remain unchanged.

1965 March 2 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft's thermal protection could be qualified in a single mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. MSC Structures and Mechanics Division presented their findings on the possibility of qualifying the spacecraft's thermal protection in a single mission. While one flight was adequate to prove the ablator's performance, the division asserted, it would not satisfy the requirements as defined in the specification.

1965 March 3 - .
  • Apollo Block I environmental control increased coolant - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. To prevent radiator freezing - and consequent performance degradation - in the Block I environmental control system, MSC ordered North American to supplement the system's coolant. Forty-five kg (100 lbs) of water would be stored in the SMs of airframes 012 and 014.

1965 March 3 - .
  • Definitive contract for guidance and navigation systems for the Apollo CM and LEM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. NASA and General Motors' AC Spark Plug Division signed the definitive contract (cost-plus-incentive-fee type) for primary guidance and navigation systems for the Apollo spacecraft (both CMs and LEMs). The agreement, extending through December 1969, covered manufacturing and testing of the systems.

1965 March 4 - .
  • Apollo Boilerplate 28 third water drop test - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. North American gave boilerplate 28 its third water drop test. Upon impact, the spacecraft again suffered some structural damage to the heatshield and the core, though much less than it had experienced on its initial drop. Conditions in this test were at least as severe as in previous ones, yet the vehicle remained watertight.

1965 March 5 - .
  • Wind tunnel testing of stability of Apollo Block II CM and escape tower - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Researchers at Ames Research Center began testing the stability of the Block II CM and escape tower (with canards) in the Center's wind tunnel. Tests would be conducted on the CM itself and while mated with the tower..

1965 March 8 - .
  • Qualification testing of the Apollo CM's earth landing sequence controller - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: Northrop-Ventura began qualification testing of the CM's earth landing sequence controller..

1965 March 9 - .
  • Cracking of Apollo heatshield during cure - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Avco found that cracking of the ablator during cure was caused by incomplete filling, leaving small voids in the material. The company ordered several changes in the manufacturing process: a different shape for the tip of the "filling gun" to facilitate filling those cells that were slightly distorted; manual rather than automatic retraction of the gun; and x-raying of the ablator prior to curing. Using these new methods, Avco repaired the aft heatshield and toroidal corner of airframe 006, which was then re-cured. No cracking was visible. The crew compartment heatshield for airframe 009 came through its cure equally well. Voids in the ablator had been reduced to about two percent. "It appears," Structures and Mechanics Division reported, "that the problem of cracking . . . has been solved by better manufacturing."

1965 March 11-18 - .
  • 27½ degrees Apollo CM hang angle during parachute descent retained - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: MSC concurred in North American's recommendation that the 27½ degrees hang angle during parachute descent be retained. . Additional Details: here....

1965 March 11-18 - . LV Family: Little Joe II. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe II.
  • Apollo boilerplate (BP) 23 failure analysis - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. During the flight of boilerplate (BP) 23, the Little Joe II's control system had coupled with the first lateral bending mode of the vehicle. To ensure against any recurrence of this problem on the forthcoming flight of BP-22, MSC asked North American to submit their latest figures on the stiffness of the spacecraft and its escape tower. These data would be used to compute the first bending mode of BP-22 and its launch vehicle.

1965 March 12 - .
  • During a pad abort, propellants from the Apollo CM's RCS to be dumped overboard - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. During a pad abort, propellants from the CM's reaction control system (RCS) would be dumped overboard. Structures and Mechanics Division (SMD) therefore established a test program to evaluate possible deleterious effects on the strength of the earth landing system's nylon components. SMD engineers would expose test specimens to RCS fuel (monomethyl hydrazine) and oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide). This testing series would encompass a number of variables: the length of exposure; the time period between that exposure and the strength test; the concentration of propellant; and the rate and direction of the air flow. Testing was completed near the end of the month. SMD reported that "no significant degradation was produced by any of the test exposure conditions."

1965 March 15-17 - .
  • Acoustic tests on Apollo boilerplate 14 interior - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. North American conducted acoustic tests on the spacecraft's interior, using boilerplate (BP) 14. Noise levels generated by the spacecraft's equipment exceeded specifications. Prime culprits appeared to be the suit compressor and the cabin fans. North American engineers asserted, however, that the test vehicle itself, because of its sheet metal construction, compounded the problem. These tests with BP-14, they affirmed, were not representative of conditions in flight hardware. Data on communications inside the spacecraft were inconclusive and required further analysis, but the warning alarm was sufficiently loud to be heard by the crewmen.

1965 March 16-April 15 - .
  • Apollo high-angle water impact tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. North American dropped boilerplate 1 twice to measure the maximum pressures the CM would generate during a high-angle water impact. These figures agreed quite well with those obtained from similar tests with a one-tenth scale model of the spacecraft, and supported data from the model on side wall and tunnel pressures.

1965 March 16 - .
  • Navigational sighting requirements during an Apollo lunar landing mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC estimated the number of navigational sightings that Apollo crewmen would have to make during a lunar landing mission:

    • Translunar coast
      1. four maneuvers to align the inertial measurement unit (IMU)
      2. 20 navigational sightings requiring 10 maneuvers
    • Transearth coast
      1. four maneuvers for IMU alignment
      2. 50 sightings, 25 maneuvers
    • Lunar orbit
      1. 10 maneuvers for IMU alignment
      2. 24 sightings, 24 maneuvers.
    (The Manned Space Flight Network was the primary source for navigational data during the coasting phases of the mission; and although the network could supply adequate data during the circumlunar phase as well, onboard capability must be maintained.)

1965 March 16 - .
  • Nine scientific experiments on Apollo SA 204/Airframe 012 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. MSC directed North American to include nine scientific experiments on SA 204/Airframe 012: cardiovascular reflex conditioning, bone demineralization, vestibular effects, exercise ergometer, inflight cardiac output, inflight vector cardiogram, measurement of metabolic rate during flight, inflight pulmonary functions, and synoptic terrain photography. On June 25, the last five experiments were deleted and a cytogenic blood studies experiment was added.

1965 March 16 - .
  • Requirement deleted for relaying transmissions from astronaut via the Apollo LEM/CSM VHF link - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. MSC eliminated the requirement for relaying, via the LEM/CSM VHF link, transmissions from a moon-exploring astronaut to the earth. This change allowed the 279.0 megacycle (Mc) transmitters in both vehicles to be eliminated; cleared the way for a common VHF configuration; and permitted duplex voice communications between astronaut and spacecraft. For communicating with the LEM, MSC directed North American to provide a 259.7 Mc transmitter in the CSM.

1965 March 16 - .
  • Deletion of liftoff light in the Block II Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO proposed deletion of a liftoff light in the Block II CM. The Block I design provided a redundant panel light which came ON at liftoff as a part of the emergency detection system (EDS). This light gave a cue to the pilot to verify enabling of the EDS automatic abort, for which manual backup was provided. The Block II CM would incorporate improved EDS circuitry without manual backup. Deletion of the liftoff light in the CM was proposed to save weight, power, space, and reliability, and to eliminate a crew distraction during the boost phase of flight.

1965 March 17 - .
  • Shirtsleeve environment to be retained in Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM ECS. After extensive analysis, Crew Systems Division recommended that the "shirtsleeve" environment be kept in the CM. Such a design was simpler and more reliable, and promised much greater personal comfort than wearing the space suit during the entire mission.

1965 March 18-25 - .
  • Optimum weight of Block II Apollo CMs without impact to landing reliability - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Structures and Mechanics Division engineers were studying several schemes for achieving the optimum weight of Block II CMs without compromising landing reliability: reducing velocity by retrorockets or "explosions" in the parachutes; controlling roll attitude to 0 degrees at impact through a "rotatable pot" structure; changing landing medium (i.e., shape hole in water and/or aeration of the water).

1965 March 23-24 - .
  • Critical Design Review of the Apollo CM Block II - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Part I of the Critical Design Review of the crew compartment and the docking system in the Block II CM was held at North American. Systems Engineering (SED) and Structures and Mechanics (SMD) divisions, respectively, evaluated the two areas.. Additional Details: here....

1965 March 24 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft AFRM 009 test paces the CSM program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea said that the first major test of an Apollo spacecraft AFRM 009 tended to pace the CSM program and therefore had taken on a special program significance. . Additional Details: here....

1965 March 24 - .
  • Study of coolant loop corrosion in the Apollo CM's environmental control system - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. ASPO requested the Structures and Mechanics Division (SMD) to study the problem of corrosion in the coolant loops of the CM's environmental control system, and to search for effective inhibitors. Current efforts at North American to lessen corrosion included improved hardware and operating procedures, but stopped short of extensive redesigning; and it would be some time before conclusive results could be expected. Early in May, Owen E. Maynard, chief of the Systems Engineering Division, directed SMD immediately to begin its search for inhibitors. If by July 1966 the corrosion problem remained unresolved, SMD could thus recommend stopgap measures for the early spacecraft.

1965 March 25-April 1 - .
  • Common personal communications equipment for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Summary: Crew Systems Division confirmed the feasibility of commonality of personal communications equipment for the entire Apollo program..

1965 March 25-April 1 - .
  • Ling-Temco-Vought design support on the environmental control radiators for Block II Apollo CSMs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: North American completed negotiations with Ling-Temco-Vought for design support on the environmental control radiators for Block II CSMs..

1965 March 26 - .
  • Water impact tests with Apollo CM boilerplate - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. North American began a series of water impact tests with boilerplate 1 to obtain pressure data on the upper portions of the CM. Data on the side walls and tunnel agreed fairly well with those obtained from 1/10 scale model drops; this was not the case with pressures on the top deck, however.

1965 March 27 - .
  • Test Series I on Apollo spacecraft 001 completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Test Series I on spacecraft 001 was completed at WSTF Propulsion Systems Development Facility. Vehicle and facility updating in progress consisted of activating the gimbal subsystem and installing a baffled injector and pneumatic engine propellant valve. The individual test operations were conducted satisfactorily, and data indicated that all subsystems operated normally. Total engine firing time was 765 seconds.

1965 March 29-April 4 - .
  • All acceptance tests of Apollo hydrogen and oxygen tanks stopped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Beech Aircraft Corporation stopped all end-item acceptance tests of hydrogen and oxygen tanks as a result of interim failure reports issued against three tanks undergoing tests. Failures ranged from exceeding specification tolerances and failure to meet heat leak requirements to weld failure on the H2 tank. Beech would resume testing when corrective action was established and approved by North American.

1965 April 1-8 - .
  • Nondestructive techniques for testing Apollo honeycomb structures - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. North American reviewed nondestructive techniques for testing honeycomb structures. The principal method involved ultrasonic testing, but this approach was highly dependent upon equipment and procedure. At best, ultrasonic testing could do no more than indicate faulty bond areas, and these could be confirmed only through destructive tests. A number of promising nondestructive methods were being investigated, but thus far none was satisfactory. The danger in this situation was that, if design allowables had to be lowered to meet the results of strength distribution tests, the weight advantage of honeycomb construction might be lost.

1965 April 2 - .
  • Electrical power system for Apollo spacecraft 011 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. North American presented final results of their modification to the electrical power system for spacecraft 011 to solve the power and energy problem. This consisted of the addition of three batteries which would be mounted on the center platform and used to supply instrumentation and mission control programmer loads during flight. These batteries would be paralleled with the entry and landing batteries at impact to provide power for postlanding recovery loads. MSC concurred with this approach.

1965 April 5-11 - .
  • Qualification tests completed on two Apollo CM reaction control engines - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: Rocketdyne completed qualification tests on two CM reaction control engines. These were successful. One of the nozzle extensions failed to seat, however, and was rejected. Its failure was being analyzed..

1965 April 5-16 - .
  • Evaluation by simulator of the Apollo Block 11 CSM's manual thrust vector control - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. To evaluate the Block 11 CSM's manual thrust vector control, five pilots, among them two astronauts, flew the Apollo simulator at Honeywell. These mock flights demonstrated that the manual control was sufficiently accurate for transearth injection. Also, researchers determined that the optical alignment sight provided the crewmen with attitude references adequate for midcourse maneuvers.

1965 April 6 - .
  • Quality verification vibration tests were completed on the command module of Apollo spacecraft 006 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Quality verification vibration tests were completed on the command module of spacecraft 006..

1965 April 12 - .
  • MIT contract to design guidance and navigation equipment for Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Summary: MSC awarded MIT a new $15,529,000 contract to design guidance and navigation equipment for Apollo spacecraft..

1965 April 15-22 - .
  • Testing on the Apollo CM's uprighting system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: North American began full-scale developmental testing on the CM's uprighting system..

1965 April 15-22 - .
  • Improvement in Apollo bonding process - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: At North American, ultrasonic inspection of the forward portion of airframe 007 disclosed only minor imperfections in the bonding, called "a dramatic demonstration of the improvement in the bonding process.".

1965 April 15 - .
  • Apollo Block I and Block II suit interface control documents - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L. ASPO informed North American that a meeting would be held at its Downey, California, plant April 20-23 to negotiate and have signed off all Block I and Block II suit interface control documents (ICDs) and the government furnished equipment ICDs. Hamilton Standard, Grumman, and David Clark were being instructed to have representation present to achieve the signed ICDs. North American was instructed to have the ICDs in final form to be signed or negotiated.

1965 Mid month - .
  • Environmental umbilical arrangement for the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. Officials from North American and the three NASA centers most concerned (MSFC, KSC, and MSC) discussed the environmental umbilical arrangement for the CM. The current configuration hampered rapid crew egress and therefore did not meet emergency requirements. This group put forth several alternative designs, including lengthening the umbilical hood and relocating the door or hatch.

1965 April 16-May 15 - .
  • Two Apollo CSM fuel cells failed qualification testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Two CSM fuel cells failed qualification testing, the first failing after 101.75 hrs of the vacuum endurance test. Pratt and Whitney Aircraft determined that the failure was caused by a cleaning fluid which contaminated and plugged the oxygen lines and contaminated the oxygen gas at the electrodes. Additional Details: here....

1965 April 16-May 15 - .
  • Qualification testing completed on the fuel tanks for the Apollo SM's reaction control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: North American completed qualification testing on the fuel tanks for the SM's reaction control system..

1965 April 16-May 15 - .
  • One in a hundred that Apollo crewmen would land on solid ground - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. On the basis of current systems reliabilities and the design reference mission, North American estimated at one in a hundred the possibility that returning Apollo crewmen would land on solid ground rather than on water. The contractor used this estimate in formulating test programs for boilerplate 28 and spacecraft 002A and 007.

1965 April 16-May 15 - .
  • North American halted testing on the hydrogen tanks for the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Summary: North American halted testing on the hydrogen tanks for the CSM, produced by Beech, because of weld failures. Testing on a redesigned tank assembly began on May 8..

1965 April 19-26 - .
  • Meeting resolved all interfaces between the Apollo space suit and the two blocks of spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Communications. North American, Hamilton Standard, Grumman, David Clark, and MSC representatives, meeting in Downey, California, resolved all interfaces between the space suit and the two blocks of spacecraft. As a result of these agreements, MSC directed North American and Grumman to make some minor changes (suggested by the Crew Systems Division) in the communications cables; to remove the portable life support systems from the CM; and to add a thermal-meteoroid garment - rather than one providing merely thermal protection - to the CM.

1965 April 20 - .
  • Initial design engineering inspection of Apollo Spacecraft 009 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. At the initial design engineering inspection (DEI) of Spacecraft 009, held at Downey, California, MSC and North American officials reviewed the compatibility of the vehicle with SA-201 mission requirements. The DEI Review Board approved 11 hardware changes and assigned 26 others for further study.

1965 April 20 - .
  • Action to reduce the expenditures on the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The ASPO CSM Project Officer, C. L. Taylor, said that immediate action must be taken to reduce the FY 1965 expenditures on the CSM program by $5 million. Toward that end, he directed attention to a cost reduction program, "Project Squeeze," and said that a joint North American/NASA Project Squeeze had been in operation several months and had resulted in significant program reductions. However, the majority of items recommended for investigation were North American-oriented.

    Taylor requested items for consideration be submitted no later than April 27, 1965, and pointed out some specifics which might be considered:

    1. qualification programs, hardware quantities, tests, etc.,
    2. component testing,
    3. analytical effort,
    4. design to excess,
    5. documentation, and
    6. changes.

1965 April 22-29 - .
  • Electrical power profile for Apollo spacecraft 011 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: North American updated the electrical power profile for spacecraft 011.. Additional Details: here....

1965 April 22 - .
  • Revisions to Apollo Mission 204A mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. The MSC Systems Engineering Division published revisions to Apollo Mission 204A objectives and mission requirements. The principal difference between the revised version and the Initial Mission Directive for Mission 204 was the expansion of the secondary propulsion system performance objective, the radiation survey meter objective, which was deleted, and the don/doff of the Block I pressure garment and thermal blanket objectives which had also been deleted.

1965 April 22-23 - .
  • Final zero-g trials of the Apollo CM waste management system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: North American conducted the final zero-g trials (part of developmental testing on the CM's waste management system) and reported good results for both urine and feces apparatus..

1965 April 26 - .
  • Simulations of Apollo high-altitude aborts and dockings - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. Summary: Operating on a round-the-clock schedule, researchers at Langley Research Center began simulations of high-altitude aborts and CSM-active dockings..

1965 April 26-May 2 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate 14 simulated the mission for spacecraft 009 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: Using boilerplate 14, North American simulated the mission for spacecraft 009. The test was conducted in two phases, with the vehicle on external and then internal power. All data showed satisfactory performance..

1965 April 26 - .
  • First Apollo CM heatshields - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: North American received CM 009 forward and crew compartment heatshields from Avco Corporation. These heatshields were the first CM heatshields received by the contractor with complete ablative application..

1965 April 27 - .
  • Design of the Apollo CM for earth impact - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American summarized its position on the design of the CM for earth impact in a letter to MSC. A number of meetings had taken place since the NASA North American Technical Management Meeting February 25, 1964, at which the decision was made to reorient Apollo impact to water as the primary landing site.

    The letter reviewed the history of boilerplate 28 drop tests and a series of MSC North American meetings during the last two months of 1964 and the first two of 1965. On February 12, at a meeting at Downey, California, North American had recommended:

    • Design for 0.99999 criteria.
    • Retain the 27.5 degrees hang angle to eliminate the requirement for redesign of upper crew compartment side wall. The dual hang angle configuration should be eliminated for spacecraft 017 and subsequently through Block II.
    • Allow plastic deformation of the aft heatshield.
    • Continue investigation of possible upper deck and tunnel problems.
    • Fly spacecraft 009 with a probability of success at water impact of 0.999, and continue boilerplate 28 testing to give assurance of meeting this criterion.
    In a follow-up meeting on March 2, NASA gave concurrence to these recommendations in the form of signed meeting minutes.

    At the time of the April 27 letter, North American was implementing the design changes defined in the Apollo CM design changes for water impact. The changes were based on North American's best understanding of agreements between it and MSC regarding criteria, loads, definition of the ultimate land envelope, structural analysis, and the requirement that no-leakage integrity within the ultimate load level be demonstrated by test.


1965 April 27-30 - .
  • Apollo CM Block II Critical Design Review Part II - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Part II of the Critical Design Review of the crew compartment and docking system for the Block II CM was held at Downey, California, using mockups 28 and 27 A. (Part I had been held on March 23-24.). Additional Details: here....

1965 April 28 - .
  • Shirtsleeve environment in the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Joseph F. Shea, ASPO Manager, approved Crew Systems Division's recommendation to retain the "shirtsleeve" environment for the CM. The design was simpler and promised greater overall mission reliability; also, it would be more comfortable for the crewmen. Additional Details: here....

1965 April 29-May 6 - .
  • Change in the Apollo checkout procedure at Merritt Island - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. The Flight Projects Division (FPD) proposed a change in the checkout procedure at Merritt Island (KSC). The idea, drawn from Gemini, would eliminate checkout at the environmental control system (ECS) facility. Basically, FPD's plan was to transport the mated CSM directly from the Operations and Checkout Building to the altitude chamber, where the ECS would be tested. Officials at North American approved the new procedure, and FPD requested the Checkout and Test Division to study its feasibility.

1965 April 30 - .
  • North American announced an Apollo Engineering Reorganization - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. North American announced an Apollo Engineering Reorganization, designed to improve operational efficiency and to be consistent with existing requirements of the Apollo program. The reorganization would: (1) increase the number of managers, but reduce the individual manager's scope and eliminate one level of management, making for clearer assignments and better communications; (2) incorporate certain checkout and ground support equipment systems engineering functions into Systems Engineering, strengthening the integration capabilities and simplifying operational procedures; and (3) basic functions of analytical engineering within Apollo Engineering were being transferred to the Research and Engineering Division, increasing the effective use of technical and management personnel.

1965 May 1 - .
  • Engineering inspection of Apollo boilerplate 23A - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. North American and NASA officials conducted an engineering inspection on boilerplate 23A at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The board approved four requests on minor structural changes; a fifth request, involving tolerances on the boost protective cover, was slated for further study.

1965 May 4 - .
  • Real-time digital command equipment not recommended Apollo Block I vehicles - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Although North American was including real-time digital command equipment in Block II CSMs (as NASA had directed), the firm recommended that such equipment not be placed on Block I vehicles. North American based their contention on two factors:

    1. the anticipated cost and schedule impacts; and
    2. command capability was not essential during earth orbital flights.

1965 May 4 - .
  • Apollo RCS oxidizer tank failure - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Technical personnel at MSC became concerned over an RCS oxidizer tank failure that occurred in February 1965, during propellant exposure and creep tests. The failure had previously been explained as stress corrosion caused from a fingerprint on the tank shell before heat treat. NASA requested that the test be repeated under tighter controlled procedures.

1965 May 4 - .
  • Apollo to have a combustion instability monitoring system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. MSC directed North American to provide spacecraft 012, 014, 017, and 020 with a system to monitor combustion instability in the service propulsion engine. (On April 8, officials of ASPO, Propulsion and Power Division, and the Flight Operations Directorate had agreed on the desirability of such a system.) Should vibrations become excessive, the device would automatically shut down the engine. Manual controls would enable the astronauts to lock out the automatic system and to restart the engine.

1965 May 4 - .
  • Apollo Panel Review Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. A Panel Review Board (PRB) meeting was held at Office of Manned Space Flight (OMSF) in Washington and the MSC and MSFC Chairmen of the Flight Mechanics Panel attended.

    Prior to the formal meeting, discussions with T. Thompson and B. Kaskey revealed that Bellcomm had recommended to Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that the contingency mission for AS 204 be an unmanned orbital flight and that no unmanned contingency mission be planned for 205. The reason for an unmanned contingency for 204 was to give MSFC an additional opportunity to obtain orbital data from the S-IVB stage.

    PRB was informed that lack of specific requirements concerning contingency mission capability was hampering Flight Mechanics Panel in completion of interface control documents and associated mission development. Contingency capability was classified into two types: (1) contingency capability to provide for failures during the flight program or schedule adjustments of the hardware; and (2) in-flight contingencies due to malfunction of the launch vehicle.


1965 May 4 - .
  • Preliminary flight readiness review for Apollo boilerplate (BP) 22 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: A preliminary flight readiness review was held in Houston on boilerplate (BP) 22. . Additional Details: here....

1965 May 6-13 - .
  • Apollo SLA would not survive a service propulsion system abort - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Structures and Mechanics Division engineers determined that the spacecraft-LEM-adapter would not survive a service propulsion system abort immediately after jettisoning of the launch escape tower. North American planned to strengthen the upper hinges and fasteners and to resize the shock attenuators on spacecraft 009.

1965 May 6 - .
  • Apollo earth landing system tested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. The Apollo earth landing system (ELS) was tested in a drop of boilerplate (BP) 19 at El Centro, Calif. The drop removed constraints on the ELS for BP-22; also, it was a "prequalification" trial of the main parachutes before the start of the full qualification test program.

1965 May 7 - .
  • First Apollo launch escape system completion - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Launch escape system (LES) installation for CSM 009 was completed, marking the first LES completion..

1965 May 12 - .
  • Testing begins on rockets that would allow soft landing for Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Recovery. Developmental testing began on a new landing device for the CM, one using rockets (mounted on the heatshield) that would be ignited immediately before impact. The current method for ensuring the integrity of the spacecraft during a landing in rough water involved strengthening of the aft structure. The new concept, should it prove practicable, would offer a twofold advantage: first, it would lighten the CM considerably; second, it would provide an improved emergency landing capability.

1965 May 13-20 - .
  • S-band antennas on all Block II Apollo CMs moved - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: To broaden communications capabilities during near-earth phases of a mission, the S-band omnidirectional antennas on all Block II CMs were moved to the toroidal (doughnut-shaped) section of the forward heatshield..

1965 May 13-20 - .
  • Physiological effects of tailward g forces for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Crew Systems Division (CSD) representatives contracted with Northrop Space Laboratories to study physiological effects of tailward g forces. (CSD believed these forces might be "very hazardous." Consequently, the lowest impact limits for Apollo missions were in that direction.) Northrop would study bradycardia (slow heart rate) in animals induced by such acceleration, and would apply these findings to humans. CSD hoped thereby to determine whether current limits were "ultraconservative."

1965 May 13 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Mission directive for Apollo-Saturn 201 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, issued the mission directive for Apollo-Saturn 201. The mission would flight-test the Saturn IB and the Apollo CSM..

1965 May 16-June 15 - .
  • Third series of Apollo water impact tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. North American conducted the third in a series of water impact tests on boilerplate 1 to measure pressures on forward portions of the spacecraft. Data from the series supported those from tests with one- tenth scale models of the CM. The manufacturer reported, therefore, that it planned no further full-scale testing.

1965 May 16-June 15 - .
  • Preliminary Apollo Reliability Report - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204; Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. North American released a preliminary report, "Apollo Reliability Modeling Documentation," in response to an action item assigned to MSC by the President's Scientific Advisory Committee (PSAC) Space Technology Panel at an Apollo program reliability briefing for the panel in January. Additional Details: here....

1965 May 21 - .
  • Preliminary flight rating tests on the Apollo reaction control engine - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: Marquardt Corporation completed preliminary flight rating tests on the reaction control engine for the SM..

1965 May 25 - .
  • Block II-type, flush-mounted omni-directional S-band antennas on Apollo CMs 017 and 020 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC directed North American to install Block II-type, flush-mounted omni-directional S-band antennas on CMs 017 and 020. These antennas would survive reentry and thus would afford telemetry transmissions throughout the flight. On June 25, the Center ordered that they be installed in the toroidal (doughnut shaped) section of the aft heatshield.

1965 May 25 - . 07:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I. LV Configuration: Saturn I SA-8.
  • Apollo-Model 4 - . Payload: Apollo CSM Boilerplate 26. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Decay Date: 1989-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 1385 . COSPAR: 1965-039B. Apogee: 739 km (459 mi). Perigee: 511 km (317 mi). Inclination: 31.7000 deg. Period: 97.21 min.

1965 May 26 - .
  • Inertial reference system on Apollo Block II spacecraft studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. To aid reacquisition and tracking of the high-gain antenna, MSC directed North American to study the feasibility of an inertial reference system on Block II spacecraft, one that would use rate signals from the CSM's stabilization and control system. Without this system, the astronauts would have to perform anywhere from 250 to 500 antenna reacquisitions during a single lunar mission. And during sleeping periods, when the CM pilot was alone in the vehicle, it was mandatory that the antenna automatically reacquire the earth.

1965 May 27-June 3 - .
  • Apollo liquid cooling garment modified - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L. MSC's Crew Systems Division (CSD) received from Hamilton Standard Division a liquid cooling garment which had been modified to include a comfort liner. Preliminary tests by the contractor showed a substantial increase in comfort with only a small decrement to cooling capacity. CSD scheduled tests to validate the performance.

1965 May - .
  • Qualification testing on the Apollo tower jettison motor completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. Thiokol Chemical Company completed qualification testing on the tower jettison motor. An ignition delay on February 22 had necessitated a redesign of the igniter cartridge. Subsequently, Thiokol developed a modified pyrogen seal, which the firm tested during late August and early September.

1965 June 1 - .
  • Recommendation to incorporate gimbal actuator warning lights in Apollo Block I and II CMs - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea replied to a recommendation by the Assistant Director for Flight Operations to incorporate warning lights in Block I and II CMs to indicate failure of the gimbal actuator secondary drive motors. ASPO decided that no failure indication would be provided for the redundant drive motors in Block I spacecraft because:

    1. in-flight checkout procedures would provide for exercising the gimbal actuators by the primary and secondary drive motors prior to service propulsion system burns; and
    2. all manned Block I missions would be conducted in earth orbit and reaction control system deorbit capability was stipulated.
    The warning lights would be incorporated in Block II spacecraft, and the in-flight checkout procedures would also apply to Block II lunar missions.

1965 June 2 - .
  • No unmanned flights planned for the Block II Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO advised North American that, at present, no unmanned flights were planned for the Block II CM. After the company concluded its own analysis of Apollo requirements, MSC would determine whether the heatshield must be verified prior to manned missions. But because of the long "lead time" involved, North American should continue securing the requisite instrumentation pending a final decision.

1965 June 3 - .
  • Qualification testing of the earth landing system for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: Northrop-Ventura began qualification testing of the earth landing system for Apollo with a drop of boilerplate 19 at El Centro, Calif. The entire landing sequence took place as planned; all parachutes performed well..

1965 June 3-10 - .
  • Programmer timer to be used for earth reacquisition by the Apollo CSM's S-band high-gain antenna - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Summary: MSC approved North American's recommendation that a programmer timer approach be used for earth reacquisition by the CSM's S-band high-gain antenna..

1965 June 5 - .
  • Apollo CSM boilerplate 22 flight would not have to be repeated - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea concluded, after reviewing the boilerplate 22 mission, that all the test objectives would be met satisfactorily either in the flight of spacecraft 002 or in the ground qualification program. For that reason the boilerplate 22 flight would not be repeated.

1965 June 7 - .
  • Rocket landing system for the Block II Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: MSC directed NAA to make a "predesign" study of a rocket landing system for the Block II CM. (The Center had already studied the system's feasibility and had conducted full-scale drop tests.).

1965 June 7-13 - .
  • Qualification testing on the Apollo CM's reaction control system engines - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: North American's Rocketdyne Division began qualification testing on the CM's reaction control system engines..

1965 June 8-10 - .
  • MSC reviewed a lighting mockup of the crew compartment in the Block II Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC reviewed a lighting mockup of the crew compartment in the Block II CM. The design concept, though needing further refinement, was deemed acceptable. Engineers from Crew Systems Division found that lights on the fingertips of the suit gloves worked quite well; optimum positioning was as yet undetermined, however. At the same time, MSC reviewed the design of the Block I side hatch (i.e., not modified to meet Block II extravehicular requirements). Reviewers found North American's major problems were warpage and crew ingress from space. Further, the design of both side hatches needed "additional coordination" with that of the umbilical access arm of the launch tower to ensure compatibility.

1965 June 10-17 - .
  • Physiological aspects of pure-oxygen environments - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. NASA hired the U.S. Navy's Air Crew Equipment Laboratory (ACEL) to study several physiological aspects of pure-oxygen environments. Primarily, ACEL's study would try to determine: (1) whether known effects (such as lung collapse) could somehow be reversed; and (2) whether such environments enhanced respiratory infections.

1965 June 10-17 - .
  • Deficiency in list of materials used in the Apollo CM's habitable area - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. A list of materials that North American reported using in the CM's habitable area omitted more than 70 items that had appeared in earlier such reports. MSC ordered the company to determine why. This item could affect the course of backup toxicity testing. Materials listed as "used but not tested" were given highest priority in toxicity testing.

1965 June 11 - .
  • MSC and North American discussed the brittleness of Apollo boost protective cover - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC and North American discussed the brittleness of the boost protective cover and the possibility that, during tower jettison or abort, the cover might break up and cause damage to the spacecraft. Having investigated a number of various materials and construction techniques, North American recommended adding a nylon fabric to strengthen the structure. Company engineers believed that, thus reinforced, the cover would be less likely to tear apart in flight. Even though this would increase the weight of the cover by about 27 kg (60 lbs), MSC concurred. The change applied to both Block I and Block II CMs, and was effective for spacecraft 002, 009, and all subsequent vehicles.

1965 June 15 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Reduced Apollo Block II service propulsion system for Saturn IB missions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Independent studies were made at MSC and North American to determine effects and impact of off-loading certain Block II service propulsion system components for Saturn IB missions. The contractor was requested to determine the weight change involved and schedule and cost impact of removing one oxidizer tank, one fuel tank, one helium tank and all associated hardware (fuel and oxidizer transfer lines, propellant quantity sensors and certain gaging wire harnesses) from CSM 101 and CSM 103. The MSC study was oriented toward determining technical problems associated with such a change and the effects on spacecraft operational requirements. The North American study indicated that removing the equipment would save about 690 000, along with a weight reduction of approximately 454 kg (1,000 lbs). Additional Details: here....

1965 June 16-July 15 - .
  • Scientific airlock for the Apollo Block II spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: North American submitted a design proposal for a scientific airlock for the CM (applicable to 014 and all Block II spacecraft). Structural design was scheduled to begin shortly..

1965 June 16-July 15 - .
  • Apollo service propulsion engine failures - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. North American reported two service propulsion engine failures at AEDC and a third at WSMR. At the first location, both failures were attributed to separation of the thrust chamber from the injector assembly; in the latter instance, weld deficiencies were the culprit. Analysis of all these failures was continuing.

1965 June 16 - .
  • Total Apollo fuel cell effort reduced - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. The net effect of a decision by ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea in May was that the total fuel cell effort at both Pratt and Whitney and North American should be no more than $9.7 million during FY 1966. The decision as to the distribution of the funds was left to the discretion of the fuel cell subsystem manager.

1965 June 17 - .
  • Development Engineering Inspection on Apollo spacecraft 002 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard; Chamberlin. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. A Development Engineering Inspection (DEI) was held on spacecraft 002 at North American, Downey, California. The NASA Board consisted of W. M. Bland, Jr., Chairman; R. H. Ridnour, J. Chamberlin, S. A. Sjoberg, F. J. Bailey, O. G. Morris, O. E. Maynard, and O. Tarango.

    A total of 20 Request for Changes (RFCs) were submitted and reviewed; 12 of them resulted from the design review conducted at MSC prior to the DEI, and eight resulted from the inspection of the vehicle. The final disposition of the RFCs was: seven approved for immediate action; five approved for study; three rejected; and five determined not applicable.


1965 June 21 - .
  • Apollo technical definitions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. The following definitions were specified for use in evaluating design reliability, for design tradeoff studies, and in appropriate Interface Control Documentation:

    Mission success
    all primary mission objectives must have been accomplished and both the crew and command module safely recovered.
    Alternate mission
    if a contingency prevented completion of all primary mission objectives, but did not require immediate termination of the mission, an alternate mission plan would be followed but alternate missions would not be included in design reliability calculations.
    Abort
    the only objective after an abort decision was the safest recovery of the crew considering the contingency which caused the abort.

1965 June 23 - .
  • Apollo change proposals not adequately evaluated for program impact - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. In a memorandum concerning Configuration Control Panel and Configuration Control Board actions, J. Thomas Markley, Chief of ASPO's Program Control Division, pointed out that many proposals coming before the two groups were not being adequately evaluated for program impact by the responsible subsystem or technical area manager. He said, in part, "We must keep the number of changes to a minimum and incorporate only those that are necessary to meet program objectives. We are beyond the time when we can afford the luxury design improvement changes, unless they can show substantial savings to the overall program. . . ."

1965 June 23 - .
  • Block I and Block II Apollo CSM HE orbital communications - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The operational requirement for Block I and Block II CSM HE orbital communications capability was investigated. ASPO requested that appropriate contract direction and specification change notices be submitted immediately to eliminate this capability from the Block II CSM and the practicality of eliminating the HE orbital capability from the Block I CSM be investigated.

1965 June 24-July 1 - .
  • Report on modifications for lunar distance operating range for the Apollo CSM high-gain antenna - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Summary: Dalmo-Victor submitted to MSC a report on modifications necessary to extend to lunar distances the operating range of the CSM's high-gain antenna. The Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division was reviewing the report..

1965 June 25 - .
  • Design approved for thermal control of the valves in the Apollo CM's reaction control system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. MSC approved North American's concept for thermal control of the valves in the CM's reaction control system (essential for long-duration missions). The crew could electrically heat the valves for about ten minutes before CSM separation and before the system was pressurized, thereby forestalling possible freezing of the oxidizer when it contacted the valve.

1965 June 25 - .
  • General Electric for all Apollo automatic checkout equipment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. ASPO informed Grumman, NAA, AC Spark Plug, and MIT that effective June 21, 1965, General Electric Company, Apollo Support Department, Daytona Beach, Fla., had assumed responsibility for the preparation and conduct of all automatic checkout equipment (ACE) training for NASA and its contractors.

    To satisfy conditions of its contract, General Electric would:

    • Survey NASA and contractor ACE training requirements and prepare for ASPO endorsement a standard set of lesson plans (course outlines) for three distinct ACE training courses -
      1. for ACE operators and operational checkout procedures writers,
      2. for personnel who had site assignments but were not operators, and
      3. for all other individuals who did not satisfy the aforementioned assignment considerations.
    • Issue with ASPO approval a lesson plan for each ACE training course. These plans would be considered baseline documents and deviations would not be permitted without prior approval from ASPO.
    • Prepare one study guide which would contain common reference information for all three ACE training courses.
    • Issue coordinated ACE training schedules approved by ASPO.
    • Distribute monthly status reports to each participating organization. 'This report would contain a training schedule for the next three months as well as a discussion of achievements. To control established plans and implement changes, the coordinator for each participating organization would be responsible for determining local training requirements and coordinating those needs with other contractors or NASA elements who desired training at that facility.
    • Issue a citation which would acknowledge satisfactory course completion to those qualifying students.
    Purpose of selection of a single ACE training contractor and establishment of a standard set of courses was to provide participating organizations a sufficient amount of training and a universal understanding of ACE.

1965 June 29 - .
  • Apollo PA-2 launch escape system test - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES; CSM Recovery. NASA launched Apollo mission PA-2, a test of the launch escape system (LES) simulating a pad abort at WSMR. All test objectives were met. The escape rocket lifted the spacecraft (boilerplate 23A) more than 1,524 m (5,000 ft) above the pad. The earth landing system functioned normally, lowering the vehicle back to earth. This flight was similar to the first pad abort test on November 7, 1963, except for the addition of canards to the LES (to orient the spacecraft blunt end forward after engine burnout) and a boost protective cover on the CM. PA-2 was the fifth of six scheduled flights to prove out the LES.

1965 July 2 - .
  • Protective devices for Apollo astronauts during a solar flare - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea ordered Crew Systems Division to develop some type of protective devices that the astronauts might use to shield their eyes during a solar flare. ASPO regarded the risk of cataracts during these solar events as extraordinarily high. Although not mandatory, it was desirable that the crew could still see while wearing the devices. Should a flare occur while the crew manned the LEM, mission ground rules called for an abort back to the safety of the CSM; therefore, such devices would be needed for the CM alone.

1965 July 7-13 - .
  • Thermal problems with Apollo Block II environmental control system (ECS) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Illustrative of continuing design and managerial problems, MSC and North American representatives attempted to resolve thermal problems with the Block II environmental control system (ECS), primarily the ECS radiator. The week-long talks were fruitless. MSC's arguments and supportive evidence notwithstanding, the contractor steadfastly opposed the water-glycol approach, favoring a nonfreezing liquid (Freon). MSC, similarly, was hardly satisfied with North American's intransigence and less so with the company's effort and performance. "A pertinent observation," reported Crew Systems Division, "is that . . . it will be extremely difficult to complete any other development in support of Block II schedules unless their (North American's) attitude is changed."

1965 July 7-9 - .
  • Langley completed Apollo CSM simulations - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. Summary: Langley Research Center completed CSM active docking simulations and lunar orbital docking runs..

1965 July 11 - .
  • Apollo RCS oxidizer tank failed during test - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. An RCS oxidizer tank failed during a test to demonstrate propellant compatibility with titanium tanks. This was the first of seven tanks to fail from a group of ten tanks put into test to investigate a failure that occurred during February 1965. These results caused an intensive investigation to be undertaken.

1965 July 15 - .
  • Redesign of the side hatch in the Block II Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American began redesigning the side hatch mechanism in the CM to satisfy the requirement for extravehicular transfer from Block II spacecraft. Two basic modifications to the Block I mechanism were required: (1) enlarging it to overcome thermal warpage; and (2) adding some hinge retention device to secure the hatch once it was opened.

1965 July 16 - .
  • Passive water landing for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. North American recommended to MSC that, for the time being, the present method for landing the CM (i.e., a passive water landing) be maintained. However, on the basis of a recent feasibility study, the contractor urged that a rocket landing system be developed for possible use later on. North American said that such a system would improve mission reliability through the increase in impact capability on both land and water.

1965 July 16-August 15 - .
  • Wind tunnel tests of Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: On the basis of wind tunnel tests at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), North American now considered as negligible the effects of structural protuberances on the CM's rolling moment and on propellant consumption..

1965 July 19-20 - .
  • Zero-g tests of the Apollo CM's crew couch - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Summary: North American conducted zero-g tests at Wright-Patterson AFB to evaluate the design of the CM's unitized crew couch and restraint hardware..

1965 July 19 - .
  • Apollo Block II CSM fuel cells from Pratt and Whitney - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: NASA Headquarters authorized North American to subcontract the Block II CSM fuel cells to Pratt and Whitney. Estimates placed the cost at $30 million..

1965 July 21 - .
  • Qualification testing completed on Apollo CSM batteries - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: North American reported that qualification testing had been completed on two items of electrical hardware, the CSM battery charger and the pyrotechnic battery..

1965 July 26 - .
  • Malfunction caused Apollo boilerplate 1 to impact on land - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. At North American's drop facility, a malfunction in the release mechanism caused boilerplate 1 to impact on land rather than water. After a recurrence of this accident on August 6, a team of investigators began looking into the problem. Drops were suspended pending their findings. These incidents aggravated delays in the test program, which already was seven weeks behind schedule.

1965 July 29 - .
  • General Electric Apollo Acceptance Checkout Equipment contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. General Electric (GE) received a supplement to its ACE-S/C (Acceptance Checkout Equipment-Spacecraft) contract. Total cost and fee for the amendment, which covered a reliability program for Apollo parts and materials, was $1,382,600. This brought the total value of GE's contract to $85.6 million.

1965 July 30 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC37B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I. LV Configuration: Saturn I SA-10.
  • Apollo-Model 5 - . Payload: Apollo CSM Boilerplate 9A. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Decay Date: 1975-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 1468 . COSPAR: 1965-060B. Apogee: 536 km (333 mi). Perigee: 521 km (323 mi). Inclination: 28.8000 deg. Period: 95.21 min.

1965 August 2 - .
  • Marquardt to build Apollo Block II SM reaction control system engines - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. NASA's office at Downey, Calif., approved the contract with the Marquardt Corporation for the procurement of Block II SM reaction control system engines. Estimated cost of the fixed price contract would be $6.5 million. Marquardt was supplying the Block I SM engines.

1965 August 5 - .
  • Apollo boilerplate (BP) 6A sustained considerable damage - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. During tests of the Apollo earth landing system (ELS) at El Centro, Calif., boilerplate (BP) 6A sustained considerable damage in a drop that was to have demonstrated ELS performance during a simulated apex-forward pad abort. Oscillating severely at the time the auxiliary brake parachute was opened, the spacecraft severed two of the electrical lines that were to have released that device. Although the ELS sequence took place as planned, the still-attached brake prevented proper operation of the drogues and full inflation of the mains. As a result, BP-6A landed at a speed of about 50 fps.

1965 August 5-12 - .
  • Apollo design changes to be processed through a Change Control Board (CCB) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. North American developed a plan to process NASA- and contractor-initiated design changes through a Change Control Board (CCB). Indications were that the contractor's Apollo Program Manager would implement the plan on August 19. Elevating the level of management on the CCB, together with a standard approach to processing changes, was expected to improve the technical definition and documentation of design changes. In addition, program baselines were being established to permit a more informed control of technical requirements.

1965 August 6 - .
  • Design review on the environmental control system radiator for the Block II Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American and MSC attended a design review at Ling-Temco-Vought on the environmental control system radiator for the Block II CSM. After reviewing design and performance analyses, the review team approved changes in testing and fabrication of test hardware.

1965 August 10 - .
  • Apollo CM's postlanding battery failure procedure - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: MSC notified North American that, should one of the CM's postlanding batteries fail, the crew could lower the power requirements of the spacecraft during recovery and thus stay within the capabilities of the two remaining batteries..

1965 August 12 - .
  • Recent failures of Apollo titanium tanks at Bell studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Resident ASPO quality assurance officers at North American began investigating recent failures of titanium tanks at Bell Aerosystems. Concern about this problem had been expressed by the Apollo Test Directorate at NASA Hq in July and MSC started an investigation at that time. The eventual solution (a change in the nitrogen tetroxide specification) was contributed to by North American, Bell Aero Systems, the Boeing Company, MSFC, MSC, Langley Research Center, and a committee chaired by John Scheller of NASA Hq. The penstripe method to find cracks on the interior of the vessels was used to solve the problem. The quality assurance people viewed the failures as quite serious since Bell had already fabricated about 180 such tanks.

1965 August 12 - .
  • Six key checkpoints in development of Apollo hardware listed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, listed the six key checkpoints in the development of Apollo hardware:

    1. Preliminary Design Review (PDR)
    2. Critical Design Review (CDR)
    3. Flight Article Configuration Inspection (FACI)
    4. Certification of Flight Worthiness (COFR)
    5. Design Certification Review (DCR)
    6. Flight Readiness Review (FRR)
    Additional Details: here....

1965 August 18-24 - .
  • Preliminary Design Engineering Inspection for Apollo CSM 011 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The preliminary Design Engineering Inspection (DEI) for CSM 011, Mission AS-202, was held. This was a major program milestone for the mission. The review board met on August 24 and the formal DEI was conducted August 30, 31, and September 1..

1965 August 23 - .
  • Ground rules for qualifying equipment for Apollo Block II - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Joseph F. Shea, ASPO Manager, summarized ground rules on the schedules for qualifying and delivering equipment for Block II spacecraft,. Additional Details: here....

1965 August 27 - .
  • Ground testing of Apollo service propulsion system concluded - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. North American reported that ground testing of the service propulsion engine had been concluded. Also, changing the propellant ratio of the service propulsion system had improved the engine's performance and gimbal angles and had reduced the weight of the Block II SM.

1965 August 30-September 1 - .
  • Apollo CSM 011 design engineering inspection - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Spacecraft 011's design engineering inspection was held at North American. The review combined structures, mission (SA-202), and ground support. The Review Board approved 55 changes (53 of which were assigned to North American)..

1965 September 1 - .
  • Impact tests with Apollo boilerplate 28 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. North American conducted another in their series of impact tests with boilerplate 28. This drop tested the toroidal section of the spacecraft (heatshield and equipment bay structure) in impact at high angle and maximum horizontal velocity. The spacecraft suffered no visible damage. Some water leaked into the vehicle, but this was blamed on the boilerplate structure itself and the apex-down attitude after impact.

1965 September 1-8 - .
  • External panel retention cables on the Apollo adapter unacceptable - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC advised officials at North American's Tulsa Division that their concept for external panel retention cables on the adapter was unacceptable. While the Tulsa people agreed with Houston's objections, because of orders from Downey they had no authority to change the design. Structures and Mechanics Division reported that North American's "continued apathy . . . to redesign the system" threatened a schedule delay.

1965 September 9-16 - .
  • Apollo parachute test cancelled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: Northrop-Ventura canceled a parachute test because of problems with the reefing line rings and the main parachute bags. North American was looking into these problems which, it was anticipated, would affect both blocks of spacecraft..

1965 September 13 - .
  • ASPO Manager Joseph F Shea announced a new plan to control Apollo spacecraft weight - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea announced a new plan for controlling the weight of Apollo spacecraft. Every week, subsystem managers would report to a Weight Control Board (WCB), headed by Shea, which would rule on their proposals for meeting the target weight for their systems. Three task forces also would report to the WCB on the way to lighten the spacecraft:

    1. weight reduction task force;
    2. requirements reduction task force; and
    3. an operations task force.

1965 September 14 - .
  • Several changes to the Apollo spacecraft service propulsion engine ordered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. As a result of discussions with North American and Aerojet-General, MSC ordered several changes to the service propulsion engine:

    1. redesign of the ablation chamber seals and the flange mountings
    2. modifications to permit ground purging
    3. redesign of the injection hub
    4. doubling of the nominal valve opening time (from 0.3 to 0.6 sec).
    These changes applied to all qualification test and all flight hardware.

1965 September 16 - .
  • Recovery personnel to be able to enter the Apollo CM through the main hatch - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kraft. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch; CSM Heat Shield; CSM Recovery. MSC's Assistant Director for Flight Operations, Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., told ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea that postlanding operational procedures require that recovery force personnel have the capability of gaining access into the interior of the CM through the main crew hatch. This was necessary, he said, so recovery force swimmers could provide immediate aid to the crew, if required, and for normal postlanding operations by recovery engineers such as spacecraft shutdown, crew removal, data retrieval, etc.

    Kraft said the crew compartment heatshield might char upon reentry in such a manner as to make it difficult to distinguish the outline of the main egress hatch. This potential problem and the necessity of applying a force outward to free the hatch might demand use of a "crow bar" tool to chip the ablator and apply a prying force on the hatch.

    Since this would be a special tool, it would have to be distributed to recovery forces on a worldwide basis or be carried aboard the spacecraft. Kraft requested that the tool be mounted onboard the spacecraft in a manner to be readily accessible. He requested that the design incorporate a method to preclude loss of the tool - either by designing the tool to float or by attaching it to the spacecraft by a lanyard.


1965 September 16-17 - .
  • Design review on the environmental control system radiator for the Block II Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American and its subcontractor, LTV, conducted a design review on the environmental control system radiator for the Block II CSM. Both parties agreed upon a backup effort (i.e., a narrower selective stagnation panel), which would be more responsive to thermal changes in the spacecraft. Testing of this backup design could follow that of the prototype and still meet the design release.

1965 September 16-23 - .
  • Saturn flights show damage to the Apollo thermal coating - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Systems Engineering Division (SED) reported that, on the basis of data from SA-4, 8, and 9 flights, the thermal coating of the spacecraft suffered considerable damage. This degradation was caused by the S-IV retro motor and/or the tower jettison motor. SED advised that a thorough analysis was scheduled shortly at TRW to look into the entire area of thermal factors and the performance of ablative coating. However, North American refused to acknowledge the existence of any such thermal problem, SED said. The firm's "continued inactivity" was described as a "major obstacle" to solving the problem.

1965 September 17 - .
  • Basic structure of Apollo CM simulator delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. The basic structure of Apollo CM simulator "A," around which a full-scale mockup of the CM crew stations would be built, was delivered to MSC. Flight Crew Support Division would use the mockup for crew familiarization, procedures training, and equipment evaluation.

1965 September 21 - .
  • Indication of certain failures of the Apollo service propulsion system (SPS) not required - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea decided that no device to indicate a failure of the secondary gimbal motor in the service propulsion system (SPS) was necessary on Block I spacecraft. Two factors shaped Shea's decision:

    1. procedures for inflight checkout of the vehicle called for gimbaling the service propulsion engine with both primary and secondary drive motors prior to SPS burns;
    2. furthermore, all Block I (i.e., earth orbital) spacecraft would be capable of returning to earth by means of the SM's reaction control system.
    This decision did not alter the requirement for such devices on Block II spacecraft, however, and North American was incorporating warning lights on those vehicles to indicate such gimbal motor failures.

1965 September 22-29 - .
  • North American proposed an additional pane of glass for the windows on Block II Apollo CMs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. North American proposed an additional pane of glass for the windows on Block II CMs. Currently, both blocks of spacecraft had one pane. Should meteoroids pit this pane, the window could fail during reentry at lunar velocities. The meteoroid protection group in Structures and Mechanics Division were evaluating North American's proposal, which would add about 10.43 kg (23 lbs) to the vehicle's weight. No such added protection was required on Block I spacecraft.

1965 September 27 - .
  • Apollo CSM's communications capability - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: North American evaluated the CSM's communications capability with the unified S-band system using attitude data published with the AS-501 (spacecraft 017) preliminary reference trajectory. . Additional Details: here....

1965 September 29 - .
  • Problems with antennas for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Ralph S. Sawyer, Chief of the Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division, advised ASPO Manager Shea of current problems with antennas for the Apollo spacecraft:

    CSM high gain antenna
    the infrared (IR) earth tracker originally proposed would not satisfy mission requirements. Additional Details: here....

1965 September 29 - .
  • CDR of the Block II Apollo CSM scheduled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The Critical Design Review (CDR) of the Block II CSM was scheduled to be conducted in November and December 1965, with the first phase being held November 15-18, and the second phase December 13-17.

    The first phase activity would be a review of drawings, schematics, procurement specifications, weight status, interface control drawings, failure analysis, proposed specification change notices, and specification waivers and deviations. The second phase of the review would be a physical inspection of the mockup of the Block II CSM.

    The review would be conducted by review teams organized in the several areas and headed by team captains, as follows: Structures and Propulsion, O. Ohlsson; Communications, Instrumentation, and Electrical Power, W. Speier; Stabilization and Control, Guidance and Navigation, A. Cohen; Crew Systems, J. Loftus; and Mission Compatibility and Operations, R. Battey.


1965 September 30-October 7 - .
  • Tests completed on the windows in the Block I Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Pressure loading and thermal tests were completed on the types of windows in the Block I CM. The pressure tests demonstrated their ability to withstand the ultimate stresses (both inward and outward) that the CM might encounter during an atmospheric abort. The thermal simulations qualified the windows for maximum temperatures anticipated during reentry at lunar velocities.

1965 September 30-October 7 - .
  • Heatshield on Apollo Block I CMs must be thinned - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Flight Projects Division advised that, on the basis of current weight studies, the aft heatshield on Block I CMs must be thinned. . Additional Details: here....

1965 September 30 - .
  • Survival equipment for Apollo spacecraft defined - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Crew Systems Division defined the survival equipment that MSC would procure for Apollo spacecraft. Fifteen survival sets would be needed for Block I and 30 for Block II CMs..

1965 October 1 - .
  • Horizon photometer and star tracker deleted from the primary guidance system in Block I Apollo CSMs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. In the absence of a firm requirement, and because of limited utility, reported Robert C. Duncan, Chief of the Guidance and Control Division, the horizon photometer and star tracker were being deleted from the primary guidance system in Block I CSMs. (Block II guidance systems would still contain the devices.)

1965 October 1 - .
  • NASA formally accepted Apollo spacecraft 002 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: At a Customer Acceptance Readiness Review at North American, NASA formally accepted spacecraft 002. The vehicle was then demated and shipped to White Sands..

1965 October 5 - .
  • Changes in the Apollo CM uprighting system for Block I - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: As a result of a design meeting on September 2, MSC ordered North American to make a number of detailed hardware changes in the CM uprighting system for Block I spacecraft..

1965 October 7-14 - .
  • Beryllium posed a toxicological hazard to the crew of the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. MSC's Reliability and Quality Assurance Division reported in August that, because beryllium would corrode in the humid environment of the spacecraft's cabin, the metal thus posed a toxicological hazard to the crew of the CM. During subsequent meetings with the Health and Physics Group, and Guidance and Control and Structures and Mechanics Divisions, it was agreed that, because of crew safety, beryllium surfaces in the guidance and control system must be coated to protect the metal from the humid atmosphere inside the cabin of the spacecraft.

1965 October 8 - .
  • Failed drop of Apollo boilerplate 6A due to braking parachute - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. A drop in the boilerplate 6A series, using flight-qualifiable earth landing system (ELS) components, failed because the braking parachute (not a part of the ELS) did not adequately stabilize the vehicle. MSC invited North American and Northrop-Ventura to Houston to explain the failure and to recommend corrective measures.

1965 October 12 - .
  • Parachute mortar failed during static testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. On August 26, the attachments for the pilot parachute mortar had failed during static testing on CM 006. The fittings had been redesigned and the test was not repeated. This test, the final one in the limit load series for the earth landing system, certified the structural interface between the CM and the earth landing system for the 009 flight.

1965 October 15 - .
  • Recovery requirements for the Apollo spacecraft were specified by ASPO - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Owen E. Maynard, Systems Engineering Division chief, summarized for ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea the recovery requirements for Apollo spacecraft. The CM must float in a stable, apex-up attitude, and all of the vehicle's recovery aids (uprighting system, communications, etc.) must be operable for 48 hrs after landing. In any water landing within 40 degrees north or south latitude, the Landing and Recovery Division had determined, the crew either would be rescued or recovery personnel would be in the water with the CM within this 48-hr period. Thereafter, Maynard said, the spacecraft had but to remain afloat until a recovery ship arrived - at most, five days.

1965 October 20-21 - .
  • North American agreed to maintain mockups of both of the two blocks of Apollo CMs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: To support studies on equipment stowage, North American agreed to maintain mockups of the crew compartments in the two blocks of CMs. The contractor's effort would be geared for the first manned flight for each series of vehicles (spacecraft 012 and 101)..

1965 October 20 - .
  • NASA accepted first flight Apollo spacecraft 009 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Apollo spacecraft 009, first of the type that would carry three astronauts to the moon and back, was accepted by NASA during informal ceremonies at North American. Spacecraft 009 included a CM, SM, launch escape system, and adapter. It went to Cape Canaveral for integration with the first Saturn IB (Saturn IB and SIVB stages received August 1965). The spacecraft was stacked on the launch vehicle on 26 December.

1965 October 20 - .
  • Reduced survival gear for Block I Apollo CMs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: To save weight, Crew Systems Division was studying the feasibility of using three one-man liferafts and a composite set of survival gear in Block I CMs..

1965 October 20 - .
  • The MSC Apollo Mission Constraints Control Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The MSC Mission Constraints Control Panel (MCCP) held its initial meeting. The panel's function was to resolve all conflicts between launch vehicle, spacecraft, and operational constraints. Also, once the preliminary reference trajectory was issued, the MCCP must approve all constraint changes. These would then be included in the mission requirements.

1965 October 21 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Launch schedule for Apollo-Saturn IB flights revised - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, notified the Center directors and Apollo program managers in Houston, Huntsville, and Cape Kennedy that OMSF's launch schedule for Apollo-Saturn IB flights had been revised, based on delivery of CSMs 009 and 011:

    • AS-201 - January 1966
    • AS-202 - June 1966
    Schedules for AS-203 through 205 (July and October 1966, and January 1967) were unchanged.

1965 October 21 - .
  • Completion of static structural tests on the forward heatshield for the Block I Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. North American completed static structural tests on the forward heatshield for the Block I CM (part of the certification test network for airframes 009, 011, and 012), thus demonstrating the heatshield's structural integrity when jettisoned (at the start of the earth landing system sequence).

1965 October 23-26 - .
  • Apollo SM 009 delivery delayed when Pregnant Guppy grounded - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. While delivering Apollo SM 009, the Pregnant Guppy aircraft was delayed at Ellington Air Force Base, Texas, for three-and-a-half days while waiting for an engine change. In view of the delay of the SM, the incident was reviewed during the succeeding weeks, and Aero Spacelines was requested to place spare engines not only at Houston, but also at other strategic locations on the normal air route from Long Beach, Calif., to KSC.

1965 October 29 - .
  • US Public Health Service's concern - Apollo spacecraft might bring organisms back from the moon - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Maynard. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Owen E. Maynard, Systems Engineering Division chief, advised his branch managers of the U.S. Public Health Service's (PHS) growing concern that Apollo spacecraft and crews might bring organisms back from the moon. PHS feared that such organisms would be "capable of multiplying in the earth environment and (that) precautionary measures must be undertaken to prevent global exposure." Therefore, Maynard told his group, PHS believed that the CM, its environment, and its crew must not be allowed to contact the earth's environment. Maynard further advised that efforts were already underway to define the design of an isolation facility, and isolation facilities for the recovery ships were being contemplated.

    As a result of this strong stand by PHS, Maynard said, "It appears that ASPO will soon be requested to show what spacecraft measures are being taken to assure that the CM environment will not be exposed to the earth atmosphere. The spacecraft," Maynard told his group - who already knew as much - "has not been designed to preclude CM environment exposure." Actually, much the opposite had long been assumed to be part of normal operating procedures. Maynard therefore ordered subsystem managers to review their individual systems to determine:

    • If their system was potentially a carrier of moon germs
    • What could be done to confine such organisms
    • If a "strict no contamination edict" would affect the life and operation of systems
    • How postlanding procedures could be changed to prevent release of organisms from the spacecraft
    Maynard cautioned systems managers to "assume that ASPO is morally obligated to prevent any possible contamination of the earth," and not to reply with "the standard answer that no changes can be made within present weight, cost, and schedule limitations. Admittedly," he said, "our first look may prove to be insurmountable." Nonetheless, review must be performed so that recommendations can be made concerning all such systems.

1965 November 10 - .
  • Apollo CM couch might strike the Apollo CM structure or stowed equipment on landing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Hatch; CSM Recovery. A North American layout of the volume swept by the CM couch and crewmen during landing impact attenuation showed several areas where the couch and or crewmen struck the CM structure or stowed equipment. One area of such interference was that the center crewman's helmet could overlap about four inches into the volume occupied by the portable life support system (PLSS) stowed beneath the side access hatch. The PLSS stowage was recently changed to this position at North American's recommendation because the original stowage position on the aft bulkhead interfered with the couch attenuation envelope. The contractor was directed by MSC to explain this situation.

1965 November 10 - .
  • Apollo Program Review for key CSM subcontractors - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: North American conducted an Apollo Program Review for key subcontractors to convey the current status of the program and to discuss the subcontractors' specific participation and support to the program..

1965 November 11 - .
  • Apollo Block I SPS engine altitude qualification test - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: The Block I service propulsion system engine successfully completed the first altitude qualification tests at AEDC..

1965 November 19 - .
  • Manned portion of the Apollo coast and maneuver simulation program was completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The manned portion of the coast and maneuver simulation program was completed, evaluating man-in-the-loop capabilities and their effects upon maneuver accuracy, maneuver time, and propellant consumption. . Additional Details: here....

1965 November 23 - .
  • Fire during Apollo CM RCS test for spacecraft 009 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. North American informed MSC of a fire in the reaction control system (RCS) test cell during a CM RCS test for spacecraft 009. The fire was suspected to have been caused by overheating the test cell when the 10 engines were activated, approximately 30 sec prior to test completion. An estimated test delay of two to three weeks, due to shutdown of the test cell for refurbishment, was forecast. MSC informed the Apollo Program Director that an investigation was underway.

1965 November 28 - .
  • Ordnance separation tests of the first three Apollo SLA completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Ordnance separation tests on the first three spacecraft-LEM-adapters (SLA) in a series of four were completed at North American's Tulsa facility. The tests successfully demonstrated the deployment of the SLA's forward panels in preparation for the first spacecraft orbital flight.

1965 November 30 - .
  • Apollo Mission Simulator No 1 shipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Summary: Apollo Mission Simulator No. 1 was shipped from Link Group, General Precision, Binghamton, New York, to MSC..

1965 November - .
  • Stress corrosion of the Apollo reaction control system tanks - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. A series of tests were run to determine the cause of stress corrosion of the reaction control system titanium tanks. Results showed that tanks exposed to chemically pure nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) oxidizer suffered stress corrosion cracking, but tanks exposed to N2O4 containing small amounts of nitric oxide did not fail. The qualification testing program would soon resume.

1965 Winter - .
  • Apollo SA-11 (cancelled) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo SA-11. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. The decision was made to conduct all Apollo tests on the more powerful Saturn IB booster and these flights were cancelled in October 1963..

1965 December 2 - .
  • Negotiations with North American on the Apollo incentive contract - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA had essentially completed negotiations with North American on the incentive contract. Based on agreements reached with the contractor during negotiations, Master Development Schedule 9 was published, which included Block I and Block II spacecraft schedules, SLA schedules, SM Block II primary structure schedules, and a tabulated list of milestones containing former and new schedule dates.

1965 December 3 - .
  • Flight Readiness Review for Mission Apollo A-004 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The Flight Readiness Review for Mission A-004 was conducted at White Sands Test Facility. The board concurred in proceeding with launch preparations. Subsequent to the review, the failure analysis of the autopilot subsystem revealed loose solder connections, and the launch was rescheduled for December 15, from the original December 8 planned launch. The launch was later scheduled for December 18; then, because of continued problems with the autopilot, was scrubbed until January.

1965 December 6-17 - .
  • Block II Apollo CSM Critical Design - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The Block II CSM Critical Design Review (CDR) was held at North American, Downey, Calif. The specifications and drawings were reviewed and the CSM mockup inspected. Review Item Dispositions were written against the design where it failed to meet the requirements.

    As a result of the CDR North American would update the configuration of mockup 27A for use in zero-g flights at Wright-Patterson AFB. The flights could not be rescheduled until MSC approved the refurbished mockup as being representative of the spacecraft configuration.


1965 December 7 - .
  • Incompatibility of titanium alloys and nitrogen tetroxide - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea informed North American, Grumman, and Bell Aerosystems Company that NASA's Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, George E. Mueller, had requested a presentation on the incompatibility of titanium alloys and nitrogen tetroxide and its impact on the Apollo Program, this to be done at the NASA Senior Management Council meeting on December 21.

    In light of recent failures of almost all titanium tanks planned for use in the Apollo Program when exposed to nitrogen tetroxide under conditions which might be encountered in flight, the matter was deemed to be of utmost urgency.

    A preliminary meeting was scheduled at NASA Headquarters on December 16 and one responsible representative from each of the prime contractors and subcontractors was requested to be present. Prior to the December 16 meeting, it would be necessary for each organization to complete the following tasks:

    • Tabulate and analyze all tank tests to date and all related materials tests.
    • Establish a format for presentation of the effects of time, temperature, and stress levels on failure.
    • Obtain the best correlation between actual tank tests and related materials tests.
    • Establish limits of operation and confidence levels for all current titanium tanks and relate these to all planned flights.
    • Tabulate all titanium tank hardware in inventory and complete costs of development and manufacture of this hardware to date.
    • Consider and recommend a course of action which would alleviate problems for early flights using existing hardware with minimum cost and schedule impact.
    • Consider and recommend a course of action for future flights and indicate cost and schedule impact.
    • If recommendations for future action include coatings, surface preparation, or alternate materials, present component weight increase and overall spacecraft increase.
    • Consider changes in mission ground rules which would decrease time of tanks under pressure.
    • Consider possibility of venting and repressurization and impact on pressurization system design, weight, cost and schedule.
    • Review all missions and present pressurization times, stress levels, and thermal environment of all Apollo titanium tanks which contain nitrogen tetroxide.

1965 December 9-16 - .
  • Apollo Block II critical design review on the earth landing system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Nine review item dispositions were submitted at the Block II critical design review concerning the earth landing system and shock attenuation system (struts). Six were on specifications, one on installation drawings, and two on capability. The two most significant were:

    1. the contract for Block II parachutes had not been awarded and consequently top installation drawings were not yet available for review; and
    2. specifications defining crew couch strut loading tolerances had not been released but the strut drawings had.

1965 December 9-16 - .
  • Block II Apollo food stowage problems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The Block II Apollo food stowage problems were explored at North American. Methods of restraint were resolved to allow accessibility of the man-meal assemblies. The contractor, Melpar, Inc., would rework and reposition mockup man-meal assemblies to conform with suggestions by the Crew Provisions Office of the MSC Apollo Support Office and North American representatives.

1965 December 10 - .
  • Apollo at-sea operational qualification tests completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Summary: At-sea operational qualification tests, using boilerplate 29 to simulate spacecraft 009, were completed. All mechanical system components performed satisfactorily, except for the recovery flashing light.. Additional Details: here....

1965 December 15 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo CSM ultimate static testing began - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: CSM ultimate static testing began. A failure occurred at 140 percent of the limit load test which simulated the end of the first-stage Saturn V boost.. Additional Details: here....

1965 December 16 - .
  • Apollo Weight and Performance management system proved itself as a useful management tool - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips said the Apollo Weight and Performance management system, jointly developed by the Apollo Program Office and the Centers had proved itself as a useful management tool. He considered that the system had matured to the point that changes in organizational responsibility were needed. He set a target date of December 31, 1965, to complete the following actions:

    • The focal point for the work had been in Apollo Program Control. Since it was a systems engineering function, Phillips was transferring this responsibility to his Apollo Systems Engineering organization.
    • The APO Directorate of Systems Engineering would provide a quarterly weight and performance report and a monthly summary report on an integrated program basis.
    • MSC would be responsible for and provide to the Apollo Program Office the weight and performance material which had been directed to Apollo Program Control.
    Phillips acknowledged that an important element of the Apollo Weight and Performance management system had been the prediction analysis (weight growth) assessment effort performed by GE Apollo Support Division, under contract to the Apollo Program Control Office. Phillips felt, however, that weight growth analyses were a Center responsibility, and there was no continuing need for GE to perform in this area since the prediction analysis methodology had been established.

    Phillips told ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea that if he wished to continue to use GE's service in this area, he would support his request with the stipulation that GE's prediction analysis operation be supervised by MSC personnel.


1965 December 20 - .
  • Both radar and optical tracking systems included in the Apollo hardware development phase - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Robert C. Duncan, Chief of MSC's Guidance and Control Division, revealed that recent discussions between himself, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller, and ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea had resulted in a decision to continue both radar and optical tracking systems into the hardware development phase. It was also agreed that some specific analytical and hardware homework must be done. The hardware action items were being assigned to Robert A. Gardiner and the analytical action items to Donald C. Cheatham.

    The primary objective was to design, develop, and produce rendezvous sensor hardware that was on time and would work, Duncan said; second, that "we must have a rendezvous strategy which takes best advantage of the capability of the rendezvous sensor (whichever type it might be)."

    The greatest difficulty in reducing operating laboratory equipment into operating spacecraft hardware occurred in the process of packaging and testing for flight. This milestone had not been reached in either the radar or the optical tracker programs.

    Duncan said, "We want to set up a 'rendezvous sensor olympics' at some appropriate stage . . . when we have flight-weight equipment available from both the radar contractor and the optical tracker contractor. This olympics should consist of exposing the hardware to critical environmental tests, particularly vibration and thermal-cycling, and to operate the equipment after such exposure." If one or the other equipment failed to survive the test, it would be clear which program would be continued and which would be canceled. "If both successfully pass the olympics, the system which will be chosen will be based largely upon the results of the analytical effort. . . . If both systems fail the olympics, it is clear we have lots of work to do," Duncan said.


1965 December 30-January 6 - .
  • NASA Headquarters had directed that crew water intake be recorded on all Apollo flights - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. NASA Headquarters had directed that crew water intake be recorded on all Apollo flights. To meet this requirement the Government-furnished water gun would have to be modified to include a metering capability. A gun with this capability was successfully flown on the Gemini VI and Gemini VII flights and could be used without change in the CM and LEM if it could withstand the higher water pressure. Incorporation of the gun could require bracket changes in the CM and the LEM.

1965 December 30-January 6 - .
  • Simulated Apollo CM forward bulkhead completed for magnetic hammer tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. As a result of joint efforts by the Resident ASPO and MSFC Resident Manufacturing Representative, a simulated forward bulkhead for the CM inner-crew compartment was fabricated by North American and sent to MSFC for use in developing a head for the magnetic hammer which would be compatible to the extremely thin skins used on the compartment. The need for the magnetic hammer arose from the "canning" and "wrinkles" found after welding on the forward bulkhead. A tryout for the magnetic hammer on the simulated bulkhead was scheduled the first week in January.

1965 December 30 - .
  • Apollo earth landing system qualification drop tests incomplete - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Because earth landing system qualification drop tests on boilerplate 6A and boilerplate 19 had failed to demonstrate that Block I recovery aids would not be damaged during landing, MSC notified North American that certain existing interim configuration recovery aid mockups must be replaced by actual hardware capable of fulfilling test requirements. The hardware included: two VHF antennas; one flashing light; one RF antenna, nondeployable; sea marker, swimmer umbilical, nondeployable. In addition, existing launch escape system tower leg bolts should be replaced by redesigned Block I tower bolts, including protective covers, to demonstrate that the redesigned bolts and covers did not degrade the performance of the earth landing system. North American was to reply with a total change plan by January 5, 1966.

1965 December 31 - .
  • Apollo SM reaction control system engine qualification completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: The SM reaction control system engine qualification was completed with no apparent failures..

1966 January 3-7 - .
  • Preliminary Design Review for the Apollo Block II pressure garment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L. Summary: The Preliminary Design Review for the Block II pressure garment assembly was held at International Latex Corporation..

1966 January 8-11 - .
  • First Apollo fuel cell system test at White Sands - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. The first fuel cell system test at White Sands Test Facility was conducted successfully. Primary objectives were: 1 to verify the capability of the ground support equipment and operational checkout procedure to start up, operate, and shut down a single fuel cell power plant; and 2 to evaluate fuel cell operations during cold gimbaling of the service propulsion engine.

1966 January 13 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Land impact program for the Apollo CM Block I deleted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. A decision made at a Program Management Review eliminated the requirement for a land impact program for the CM to support Block I flights. Post-abort CM land impact for Saturn IB launches had been eliminated from Complex 37 by changes to the sequence timers in the launch escape system abort mode. The Certification Test Specification and related Certification Test Requirements would reflect the new Block II land impact requirements.

1966 January 20 - .
  • Little Joe II A-004 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Apollo Mission A-004 was successfully accomplished at White Sands Missile Range. This was the first flight test utilizing the Apollo Block I type spacecraft and the sixth and final test of the Apollo CSM development program at WSMR.. Additional Details: here....

1966 January 21 - .
  • NASA converted North American Apollo contracts to a cost-plus-incentive-fee agreement - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA converted one of its major contracts from a cost-plus-fixed-fee to a cost-plus-incentive-fee agreement. The contract was with North American Aviation's Space and Information Systems Division, Downey, Calif., for development of the Apollo spacecraft command and service modules (CSM) and spacecraft-lunar excursion module adapter (SLA).

1966 January 28 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft altitude chamber run requirements - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. The Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Checkout and Test Division was informed by the Flight Crew Operations Director that in reference to a request for "...our desires for altitude chamber runs on Apollo spacecraft, we definitely feel three runs are mandatory on CSMs 012 and 014". Additional Details: here....

1966 January 28 - .
  • Dual Apollo AS-207/208 flight scheduled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA Hq. requested the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office at Manned Spacecraft Center to evaluate the impact, including the effect on ground support equipment and mission control, of a dual AS-207/208 flight as early as AS-207 was currently scheduled. ASPO was to assume that launch vehicle 207 would carry the Block II CSM, launch vehicle 208 would carry the lunar excursion module (LEM), and the two launches would be nearly simultaneous. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) were asked to make similar studies for their systems. Response was requested by February 7, 1966.

1966 February 2 - .
  • Rodana to develop Apollo emergency medical kits - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. MSC awarded $70,000 contract to Rodana Research Corp. to develop emergency medical kits that would "satisfy all inflight and training requirements for the Apollo Command Module and the Lunar Excursion Module." Under terms of contract, two training units would be delivered for each flight, in addition to one mockup and six prototype models. The small kits would contain loaded injectors, tablets, capsules, ointments, inhalers, adhesives, and compressed dressings.

1966 February 6-8 - .
  • First test of Apollo cryogenic gas storage system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. The first test of the cryogenic gas storage system was successfully conducted from 12:30p.m. February 6 through 8:50 p.m. February 8 at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), N. Mex. Primary objectives were to demonstrate the compatibility between the ground support equipment and cryogenic subsystem with respect to mechanical, thermodynamic, and electrical interfaces during checkout, servicing, monitoring, and ground control. All objectives were attained.

1966 February 7 - .
  • Apollo CSM weight program reviewed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The CSM weight program was reviewed by James L. Bullard of MSC and D. Morgan of North American Aviation at a meeting in Houston. . Additional Details: here....

1966 Spring - .
  • Apollo SA-12 (cancelled) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo SA-12. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. The decision was made to conduct all Apollo tests on the more powerful Saturn IB booster and these flights were cancelled in October 1963..

1966 March 1 - .
  • Capability to support Apollo AS-207 208 dual launch - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea informed Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips, in response to a January 28 TWX from Phillips, that MSC had evaluated the capability to support a dual launch of AS-207 208 provided an immediate go-ahead could be given to the contractors. Shea said the evaluation had covered mission planning, ground support equipment (GSE), flight hardware, and operations support. Modifications and additional GSE would be required to update Launch Complex 34 at Cape Kennedy to support a Block II CSM. The total cost of supporting the AS-207/208 dual launch was estimated at $10.2 million for the GSE and additional boiler plate CSM configuration, but Shea added that these costs could be absorbed within the FY 1966 budget. Shea recommended that the dual mission be incorporated into the program.

1966 March 3 - .
  • Landing rocket system for Apollo. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller; Shea. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo X. Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller acknowledged receipt from Joseph F. Shea, the Apollo Spacecraft Program Manager at MSC, of a detailed technical description of MSC's plans and development progress toward developing a landing rocket system for Apollo. (MSC had undertaken this effort some months earlier at Mueller's specific request.) Mueller advised Shea that he had asked AAP Deputy Director John H. Disher to work closely with Shea's people to devise a land landing system for AAP built on Houston's effort for Apollo.

1966 March 8 - .
  • Dual Apollo AS-207/208 mission planned - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips notified the three manned space flight Centers that they were requested to plan for a dual AS-207/208 mission, assuming that launch would occur one month later than the 207 launch now scheduled..

1966 March 9-10 - .
  • First integrated test of major Apollo service module systems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: The first integrated test of the service propulsion system, electrical power system, and cryogenic gas storage system was successfully conducted at the White Sands Test Facility..

1966 March 14 - .
  • Delivery changes in Apollo space flight schedules - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. NASA Hq. told MSC that delivery changes should be reflected in manned space flight schedules as controlled milestone changes and referred specifically to CSM 008 - April 1966; CSM 011 - April 15, 1966; and CSM 007 - March 31, 1966. Headquarters noted that the "NAA (North American Aviation Inc.) contract delivery date remains 28 February 1966" for each and that "every effort should be made to deliver these articles as early as possible, since completion of each is constraining a launch or other major activity."

1966 March 28 - .
  • Cost problems of the Apollo contract with General Motors' AC Electronics Division - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips discussed cost problems of the contract with General Motors' AC Electronics Division, in a memo to NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller. One of the problems was late design releases from Massachusetts Institute of Technology to AC Electronics, resulting in an increase of $2.7 million. Phillips also pointed out that computer problems at Raytheon Corp. had increased the program cost by $6.7 million, added that many of these problems had their origins in the MIT design, and listed seven of the most significant technical problems. Phillips stated that MSC in conjunction with AC Electronics had taken several positive steps:

    1. to establish a factory test method review board to review all procedures encompassing fabrication of the computer in the manufacturing process;
    2. to schedule 100-percent audit of all hardware in fabrication; and
    3. to increase the AC Electronics resident technical staff at the Raytheon plant.

1966 April 7 - .
  • Potential uses of TV on Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Television. In response to the March 30 memo from NASA Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., regarding potential uses of TV on Apollo, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller replied that ". . . we have been making a progressive review of the Apollo electronic systems. Performance and application of the Apollo TV system are being looked at as part of the review." He added that he expected to be in position by mid-May to discuss plans with Seamans in some detail.

1966 April 12 - .
  • Status report on Apollo Block I spacesuit assembly - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Block I. Summary: Bellcomm, Inc., memo to Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips presented the status of the Apollo Block I spacesuit assembly.. Additional Details: here....

1966 April 18 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft 007 and 011 delivered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Spacecraft 007 and 011 were delivered to NASA by North American Aviation. Spacecraft 007 was delivered to Houston to be used for water impact and flotation tests in the Gulf of Mexico and in an environmental tank at Ellington AFB. It contained all recovery systems required during actual flight and the total configuration was that of a flight CM.

    The CM of spacecraft 011 was similar to those in which astronauts would ride in later flights and the SM contained support systems including environmental control and fuel cell systems and the main service propulsion system. Spacecraft 011 was scheduled to be launched during the third quarter of 1966.


1966 May 3 - .
  • Plans for full-scale Apollo parachute tests at White Sands - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth wrote George E. Mueller, NASA OMSF, that plans were being completed for MSC in-house, full-scale parachute tests at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), N. Mex. The tests would be part of the effort to develop a gliding parachute system suitable for land landing with manned spacecraft. Tests were expected to begin in July 1966, with about six tests a year for two or three years. Gilruth pointed out that although full-scale tests were planned for WSMR it would not be possible to find suitable terrain at that site, at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., or at El Centro, Calif., to determine operational and system requirements for land landing in unplanned areas. Unplanned-area landing tests were cited as not a major part of the program but a necessary part. He pointed out that the U.S. Army Reservation at Fort Hood, Tex., was the only area which had the required variety of landing obstacle sizes and concentrations suitable for the unplanned-area tests. Scale-model tests had been made and would be continued at Fort Hood without interference to training, and MSC had completed a local agreement that would permit occasional use of the reservation but required no fiscal reimbursement or administrative responsibility by MSC. This action was in response to a letter from Mueller July 8, 1965, directing that MSC give careful consideration to transfer of parachute test activities to WSMR.

1966 May 5 - .
  • Apollo engine testing problems - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Engine testing at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) had been the subject of discussions during recent months with representatives from MSC, Apollo Program Quality and Test groups, AEDC, Air Force Systems Command and ARO, Inc., participating. While AEDC had not been able to implement formal NASA requirements, the situation had improved and MSC was receiving acceptable data.

    In a letter to ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea, Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips said, ". . . I do not think further pressure is in order. However, in a separate letter to Lee Gossick, I have asked that he give his personal attention to the strict adherence to test procedures, up-to-date certification of instrumentation, and care and cleanliness in handling of test hardware."


1966 May 11 - .
  • Refurbished CSMs proposed for AAP. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gilruth; Mueller. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo LM Lab; Apollo X. Replying to a suggestion by MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth that AAP capitalize on Apollo hardware to an even greater extent by using refurbished CSMs, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller deferred any action toward implementing a competitive effort for such work. This was necessary, he said, because of the present unsettled nature of AAP planning. Additional Details: here....

1966 May 19 - .
  • Problem of potential Apollo mission aborts - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kraft. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. E. E. Christensen, NASA OMSF Director of Mission Operations, in a letter to Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., MSC, said he was certain the problem of potential mission abort was receiving considerable attention within the Flight Operations Directorate. The resulting early development of related mission rules should provide other mission activities with adequate planning information for design, engineering, procedural, and training decisions. Christensen requested that development of medical mission rules be given emphasis in planning, to minimize the necessity for late modification of spacecraft telemetry systems, on-board instrumentation, ground-based data-processing schemes, and training schedules.

1966 May 19 - .
  • Fire in the Apollo environmental control system unit - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. As a result of a fire in the environmental control system (ECS) unit at AiResearch Co., a concerted effort was under way to identify nonmetallic materials as well as other potential fire problems. MSC told North American Aviation it appeared that at least some modifications would be required in Block I spacecraft and that modifications could be considered only as temporary expedients to correct conditions that could be more readily resolved in the original design. MSC requested that North American eliminate or restrict as far as possible combustible materials in the following categories in the Block II spacecraft:

    1. materials contained in sufficient quantities to contribute materially to a fire once started,
    2. materials present in lengths which could propagate a flame front over 46 centimeters,
    3. materials used with the electrical system, and
    4. materials that could be ignited by a spark source.
    Additionally, North American Aviation was requested to review, evaluate, and institute design measures to eliminate other potential fire hazards, such as hydrogen leakage from batteries, overheated lamps, and large areas of exposed fabric or foam.

1966 May 27 - .
  • Structural problems in the Apollo CSM fuel and oxidizer tanks - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Petrone; Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea informed Rocco A. Petrone, KSC, that structural problems in the CSM fuel and oxidizer tanks required standpipe modifications and that they were mandatory for Block I and Block II spacecraft. Retrofit was to be effective on CSM 011 at KSC and other vehicles at North American's plant in Downey, Calif.

1966 Summer - .
  • Apollo SA-13 (cancelled) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo SA-13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. The decision was made to conduct all Apollo tests on the more powerful Saturn IB booster and these flights were cancelled in October 1963..

1966 June 16 - .
  • Problems and solutions in packing Apollo parachutes - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Joseph N. Kotanchik, MSC, told H. E. McCoy of KSC that his April 4 letter discussing problems and solutions in packing parachutes at KSC by Northrop-Ventura Co. had been studied. . Additional Details: here....

1966 June 23 - .
  • Two-burn Apollo lunar orbit deboost technique proposed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance; CSM Recovery. A memorandum for the file, prepared by J. S. Dudek of Bellcomm, Inc., proposed a two-burn deboost technique that required establishing an initial lunar parking orbit and, after a coast phase, performing an added plane change to attain the final lunar parking orbit. The two-burn deboost technique would make a much larger lunar area accessible than that provided by the existing Apollo mission profile, which used a single burn to place the CSM and LM directly in a circular lunar parking orbit over the landing site and would permit accessibility to only a bow-tie shaped area approximately centered about the lunar equator. On August 1, the memo was forwarded to Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips, stating that the trajectory modification would increase the accessible lunar area about threefold. The note to Phillips from R. L. Wagner stated that discussions had been held with MSC and it appeared that the flight programs as planned at the time could handle the modified mission.

1966 July 6 - .
  • North American closing out its Apollo office at Grumman's Bethpage, NY - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. North American Aviation informed Grumman that it was closing out its office at Grumman's Bethpage, N.Y., plant at the close of business on July 8. If study found that reestablishment of a Space and Information Division resident representative at Bethpage was in the best interest of the program, North American Aviation would comply.

1966 July 29 - .
  • Apollo Computer Design Review - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. In response to a request from Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips, Bellcomm, Inc., prepared a memorandum on the major concerns resulting from its review of the AC Electronics report on the Apollo Computer Design Review. In a transmittal note to Phillips, I. M. Ross said, "We have discussed these items with MSC. It is possible, however, that (Robert) Duncan and (Joseph) Shea have not been made aware of these problems." The Bellcomm memorandum for file, prepared by J. J. Rocchio, reported that in late February 1966 MSC had authorized AC Electronics Division (ACED) to initiate a complete design review of the Apollo guidance computer to ensure adequate performance during the lunar landing mission. A June 8 ACED report presented findings and included Massachusetts Institute of Technology comments on the findings. In addition to recommending a number of specific design changes, the report identified a number of areas which warranted further review. MSC authorized ACED to perform necessary additional reviews to eliminate all indeterminate design analyses and to resolve any discrepancies between the ACED and MIT positions. At the time Bellcomm prepared the memo many of the problem areas had been or were in process of being satisfactorily resolved. However, several still remained:

    1. MSC had not had the opportunity to review an approved version of the final test method for the Block II/LM computer and as a result there was no official acceptance test for computers at that point, although the first of the flight-worthy computers had left the factory and the second was in final test at the factory.
    2. The Design Review Report classified the timing margin of the Block II computer as indeterminate, since the team was unable to make a detailed timing analysis in the allotted time.
    3. Both Block I and Block II Apollo guidance computer programs had experienced serious problems with parts qualification and with obtaining semiconductor devices which could pass the flight processing specifications.
    4. The lack of adequate documentation to support the Block II computer and its design was cited "as perhaps the most significant fault uncovered" by the design review team.

1966 August 5 - .
  • Stowable net couches for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Maxime A. Faget, MSC, informed Center Director Robert R. Gilruth there was a continuing effort on lightweight, energy-absorbing, and stowable net couches, and development had been redirected to a nonelastic fabric net couch system attached to existing Apollo attenuation struts. North American Aviation had previously been given the task of investigating the use of net couches on Apollo. Results of that investigation indicated the spacecraft attenuation-strut-vehicle attachments would be overloaded when using net couches. The North American Aviation investigators made their calculations by assuming no-man attenuation in the lateral and longitudinal force directions. Those calculations were recomputed using the design criteria and proper loadings and the results indicated no overloading when using net couches. MSC's Advanced Spacecraft Technology Division had reviewed and approved the efforts, permitting use of the net couches on Apollo and Apollo Applications missions.

1966 August 30 - .
  • Apollo Mission Simulator (AMS) pacing item in the Apollo Block II flight program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Because the Apollo Mission Simulator (AMS) was one of the pacing items in the Apollo Block II flight program, a critical constraint upon operational readiness was the availability of Government-furnished equipment (GFE) to the AMS contractor, General Precision's Link Group. For that reason MSC ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea asked A. L. Brady, Chief of the Apollo Mission Simulator Office, to establish controls to ensure that GFE items were provided to Link in time to support the program. He requested that an individual be appointed to be responsible for each item and that a weekly report on the status be submitted on each item.

1966 Fall - .
  • Apollo SA-14 (cancelled) - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo SA-14. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: From September 1962 NASA planned to fly four early manned Apollo spacecraft on Saturn I boosters. The decision was made to conduct all Apollo tests on the more powerful Saturn IB booster and these flights were cancelled in October 1963..

1966 September 14 - .
  • Costs for Apollo testing in MSC's large thermal vacuum chamber outlined - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. MSC Deputy Director George M. Low submitted information to NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller on manpower requirements and operating costs for testing in MSC's large thermal vacuum chamber. Spacecraft 008 testing reflected a manpower cost (civil service and contractor) of $7,034,000, chamber operating cost of $321,000, and material costs of $277,000. The spacecraft had been in the chamber 83 days, during which time a 92-hour unmanned test and a 163-hour manned test had been conducted.

1966 October 7 - .
  • Apollo AS-202 impact error analzyed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Guidance. In a memorandum to the NASA Deputy Administrator, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller commented on the AS-202 impact error. Mueller said the trajectory of the August 25 AS-202 mission was essentially as planned except that the command module touched down about 370 kilometers short of the planned impact point. Additional Details: here....

1966 October 11 - .
  • Increasing engineering orders for Apollo spacecraft 012 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips was informed of increasing engineering orders for spacecraft 012. C. H. Bolender, OMSF Mission Operations Deputy Director, reported information received from John G. Shinkle, Kennedy Space Center Apollo Program Manager, on October 10. Additional Details: here....

1966 October 12 - .
  • Apollo environment control unit in serious trouble - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips told Mark E. Bradley, Vice President and Assistant to the President of The Garrett Corp., that "the environment control unit, developed and produced by Garrett's AiResearch Division under subcontract to North American Aviation for the Apollo spacecraft was again in serious trouble and threatened a major delay in the first flight of Apollo." Additional Details: here....

1966 October 19 - .
  • Von Braun complains of transfer of Apollo lunar work - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; Mueller; Stuhlinger. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Marshall Space Flight Center Director Wernher von Braun wrote MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth that MSFC had spent a considerable effort in planning the transfer of study and development tasks in the lunar exploration program to MSC. Von Braun said, "We feel it is in the spirit of the MSF Hideaway Management Council Meeting held on August 13-15, 1966, to consider the majority of our Lunar Exploration Work Program for transfer to MSC in consonance with Bob Seamans' directive which designates MSC as the Lead Center for lunar science." He added that MSFC had formulated a proposal which it felt was in agreement with the directives and at the same time provided for management interfaces between the two Centers without difficulty.

    Briefly MSFC proposed to transfer to MSC:

    1. planning for Apollo Applications lunar traverses;
    2. lunar surface geological, geophysical, geochemical, biological, and biomedical experiments; and
    3. emplaced scientific station experiments.
    MSFC proposed to retain

    1. the local scientific survey module and related mobility efforts,
    2. Apollo Applications program lunar drill,
    3. lunar surveying system, and
    4. lunar flying device (one man flying machine).
    He added that MSFC had been working in specific areas of scientific technology that promised to furnish experiments that could be used on the lunar surface or from lunar orbit as well as from a planetary vehicle for planetary observations. Among these were radar and laser altimetry and infrared spectroscopy.

    Von Braun said that Ernst Stuhlinger of the Research Projects Laboratory had discussed the proposed actions for transfer of functions to MSC, and MSC Experiments Program Manager Robert O. Piland had indicated his general agreement, pending further consideration. He asked that Gilruth give his reaction to the proposal and said, "It would be very helpful if our two Centers could present a proposal to George Mueller (OMSF) on which we both agree."


1966 October 21 - .
  • Improved Apollo hardware configuration monitoring - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC's ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea proposed to KSC Apollo Program Manager John G. Shinkle that - because the program was moving into the flight phase and close monitoring of the hardware configuration was important - they should plan work methods in more detail. He reminded Shinkle that he had named Walter Kapryan Assistant Program Manager "to provide the technical focal point . . . to maintain the discipline for the total spacecraft"; therefore Shea would like to transfer the chairman of the Apollo Configuration Control Panel from Shinkle's organization to Kapryan effective Nov. 1, 1966.

1966 October 21 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Langley Apollo Visibility Study - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Langley Research Center informed MSC that the Apollo Visibility Study requested by MSC would be conducted. Langley mockups could be used along with an SLA panel to be provided by MSC from Tulsa North American. The proposed study would be semistatic, with the astronaut seated in the existing CM mockup and viewing the S-IVB/SLA mockup. The positions of the mockups would be varied manually by repositioning the mockup dollies, and the astronaut would judge the separation distance and alignment attitude. The study was expected to start at the end of October or early November and last two or three weeks.

1966 October 25 - . LV Family: Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • Propellant tanks of Apollo service module 017 failed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Propellant tanks of service module 017 failed during a pressure test at North American Aviation, Downey, Calif. . Additional Details: here....

1966 November 4 - .
  • Concern over the extensive damage to Apollo fuel cell modules from operational errors - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. NASA Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips indicated his concern to MSC over the extensive damage to a number of fuel cell modules from operational errors during integrated system testing. Phillips pointed out that in addition to the added cost there was a possible impact on the success of the flight program. He emphasized the importance of standardizing the procedures for fuel cell activation and shutdown at North American Aviation, MSC, and KSC to maximize learning opportunities.

1966 November 22 - .
  • Perkin-Elmer and Chrysler continue studies of optical technology for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Docking. Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, Conn., and Chrysler Corp., Detroit, Mich., were authorized about $250,000 each to continue studies of optical technology for NASA. The nine-month extension of research by the two companies was to evaluate optical experiments for possible future extended Apollo flights. The proposed experiments included control of optical telescope primary mirrors, telescope temperature control, telescope pointing, and laser propagation studies.

1967 January 4 - .
  • Program for control of hazardous Apollo spacecraft materials - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. Charles A. Berry, MSC Director of Medical Research and Operations, proposed establishment of an MSC management program for control of hazardous spacecraft materials, to provide confidence for upcoming long- duration Apollo missions while simultaneously saving overall costs. Berry pointed out that no unified program for control of potentially toxic or flammable spacecraft materials existed and, in the past, individual Program Offices had established their own acceptance criteria for toxological safety and fire hazards.

1967 January 12 - .
  • Apollo CM assembly accidents at North American plants - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. The NASA Western Support Office, Santa Monica, Calif., reported two accidents at North American plants, with no personal injuries:

    • Apollo CM 2S-1 - being hoisted into a cradled position at North American Aviation's Space and Information Systems Division, Downey, Calif. - was dropped 1.8 meters onto a concrete floor Jan. 12. The first report was that the CM apparently suffered considerable damage.
    • The S-II-5 interstage received possible structural damage when the protective metal roof covering of a handling fixture was struck during the swing opening of the six-story east door of Station 9 at the Seal Beach plant. The structural connections of the handling fixture to the interstage indicated damage. The S-II-5 interstage had been improperly parked within the swing opening of the east door.

1967 January 19 - .
  • Numerous deficiencies noted in Apollo AS-204 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Testing of CSM 012 at Downey, Calif., and KSC revealed numerous failures in the communications cable assembly caused by broken wiring, bent pins, and connector malfunctions. . Additional Details: here....

1967 January 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
1967 January 27 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • Apollo AS-204 first steps - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Fire sweeping through command module 012 atop its Saturn IB launch vehicle at Launch Complex 34, KSC, took the lives of the three-man crew scheduled for the first manned Apollo space flight. . Additional Details: here....

1967 January 29 - .
  • Astronaut Borman briefed the Apollo 204 Review Board after inspection of the damaged CSM 012 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: Astronaut Frank Borman briefed the Apollo 204 Review Board after his inspection of the damaged command and service modules. . Additional Details: here....

1967 January 31 - .
  • Launch preparation for Apollo AS-501 to proceed as planned - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. A TWX from NASA Headquarters to MSC, MSFC, and KSC ordered checkout and launch preparation of AS-501 to proceed as planned, except that the CM would not be pressurized in an oxygen environment pending further direction. If AS-501 support, facility, or work force should conflict with the activities of the AS-204 Review Board, the Board would be given priority.

1967 February 2 - .
  • Apollo command module 014 arrived at KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Command module 014 arrived from the North American Aviation plant in Downey, Calif., and was placed in the Pyrotechnic Installation Building at KSC. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 3 - .
  • Apollo 204 Review Board requested procedures for entry into CM 012 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Petrone; Shea. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The Apollo 204 Review Board Chairman requested that a document be written to establish procedures for entry into CM 012. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 4 - .
  • Draft report on the use of internal and external power for the Apollo 204 Review Board - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Maxime Faget, MSC, distributed a draft report on the use of internal and external power on the command module for the information of the Apollo 204 Review Board. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 7 - .
  • Senate Committee hears NASA testimony on the Apollo 204 fire - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seamans. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences met in executive session to hear NASA testimony on the Apollo 204 fire. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 7 - .
  • Preliminary report provided to the Apollo 204 Review Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Irving Pinkel, of Lewis Research Center and the Fire Propagation Panel, presented a preliminary report to the Apollo 204 Review Board. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 8 - .
  • Deficiency in the mission control programmer (MCP) in Apollo spacecraft 017 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: MSC ASPO Manager Joseph Shea reviewed with George Jeffs of North American Aviation a deficiency in the mission control programmer (MCP) in spacecraft 017. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 10 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft 012 service module to be used for nonflight support of the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. William W. Petynia, MSC, was given ASPO responsibility for use of the spacecraft 012 service module in nonflight support of the Apollo program when the Apollo 204 Review Board released the SM from - further investigation. It was to be used in subsystem tests or tests of the complete module.

1967 February 15 - .
  • The Apollo 204 Review Board briefing on anomalies before and during the CM 012 fire - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The Apollo 204 Review Board received a detailed briefing on the anomalies recorded before and during the CM 012 fire. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 20 - .
  • Apollo 204 Review Board approved removal of CSM 012 service module from the launch vehicle - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The Apollo 204 Review Board approved a plan to remove the spacecraft 012 service module from the launch vehicle on February 21. . Additional Details: here....

1967 February 20 - .
  • Kleinknecht Chairman of the Apollo CSM Configuration Control Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Kenneth S. Kleinknecht was designated Chairman of the CSM Configuration Control Panel in the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, MSC. He would have authority to approve CSM changes within the limits outlined in the ASPO Configuration Management Plan..

1967 February 25 - .
  • Third interim report on the Apollo 204 Review Board investigation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: NASA Administrator James E. Webb released a statement and Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans' third interim report on the Apollo 204 Review Board investigation, including tentative findings and preliminary recommendations. . Additional Details: here....

1967 March 2 - .
  • Wiring discrepancies found in Apollo spacecraft 017 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. MSC ASPO reported to NASA Hq. that, because of many wiring discrepancies found in Apollo spacecraft 017, a more thorough inspection was required, with 12 main display control panels to be removed and wiring visually inspected for cuts, chafing, improper crimping, etc. Additional Details: here....

1967 March 3 - .
  • Apollo 204 Review Board decided to classify all material from command module 012 by categories - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The Apollo 204 Review Board decided to classify all material from command module 012 as Category A or Category B items. . Additional Details: here....

1967 March 7 - .
  • Apollo CM 012 showed rupture in the floor - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The aft heatshield was removed from CM 012. A close inspection disclosed that the rupture in the floor extended about two-thirds of the circumference, a rupture much greater than originally estimated..

1967 March 14 - .
  • Audit of Apollo quality control and inspection procedures - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips appointed a team to make a special audit of quality control and inspection. The audit would encompass Apollo spacecraft operations at Downey, Calif., KSC, and elsewhere as required and would consider both contractor and government activities to determine if problems or deficiencies existed and recommend corrective action. The team was to use to the maximum extent the results of quality and inspection audit activities already under way at MSC and KSC.

    Specifically, the team was to

    1. review inspection standards for compatibility with Apollo program requirements, the degree to which these standards had been reduced to effective instructions and criteria for use by individual inspectors, and consistency between sites;
    2. evaluate at each activity the program for selection, training, and evaluation of quality control and inspection personnel;
    3. evaluate the adequacy of follow-up, closeout action and treatment by management of reported discrepancies in quality reports, failure reports, and program action requests;
    4. evaluate the effectiveness of materials and parts control in ensuring that all materials and parts in end items as well as those used in processing and testing were in accordance with drawings and specifications; and
    5. evaluate methods used to ensure quality of product from vendors and subcontractors.
    Phillips named Rod Middleton of NASA OMSF to chair the team. Other members were Willis J. Willoughby, OMSF; Martin L. Raines, White Sands Test Facility; John Berkebile, MSFC; John D. Dickenson, KSC; and Jeff Adams and Robert Blount, MSC. Phillips requested a report by March 31.

1967 March 15 - .
  • Apollo CSM 017 on hold due to discrepancies - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: CSM 017 was in hold because of numerous discrepancies found in the spacecraft. Of 1,368 "squawks" concerning exposed wiring, 482 had been resolved by March 14. Spacecraft mechanical mating with the launch vehicle was projected for April 29..

1967 March 15 - .
  • Apollo 012 service module to be used for program support - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. MSC informed Kennedy Space Center that, on release of the 012 service module from further investigation, the MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program Office would use it for program support. ASPO was establishing tests and test locations and asked KSC to deactivate SM systems and store the SM in a remote area for up to four weeks.

1967 March 15 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Rendezvous with S-IVB stage primary objective of Apollo 7 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kraft. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations Donald K. Slayton requested that a rendezvous of the CSM with its launch vehicle S-IVB stage be a primary objective of the Apollo 2 mission.. Additional Details: here....

1967 March 18-19 - .
  • The final report of the Apollo Spacecraft and Ground Support Equipment Configuration Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. Summary: The final report of the Spacecraft and Ground Support Equipment Configuration Panel (No. 1) was accepted by the Apollo 204 Review Board. . Additional Details: here....

1967 March 18-20 - .
  • The Apollo 204 Review Board accepted the final report of its Origin and Propagation of Fire Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: The Apollo 204 Review Board accepted the final report of its Origin and Propagation of Fire Panel (No. 5). . Additional Details: here....

1967 March 19 - .
  • Final report of the Ground Emergency Provisions Panel accepted by the Apollo 204 Review Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. Summary: The final report of the Ground Emergency Provisions Panel (Panel 13) accepted by the Apollo 204 Review Board submitted 14 findings and determinations. . Additional Details: here....

1967 March 27 - .
  • Apollo fire detection systems and fire extinguishers considered - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. A meeting at MSC considered fire detection systems and fire extinguishers. Participants were G. M. Low, K. S. Kleinknecht, A. C. Bond, J. N. Kotanchik, J. W. Craig, M. W. Lippitt, and G. W. S. Abbey. Craig and Lippitt had visited Wright Field, Ohio, and from their findings the following conclusions were reached:

    1. no fire detection system was available for incorporation into the Apollo spacecraft;
    2. a reliable system would be desirable, but the system must not give false alarms when used in a closed spacecraft environment and yet must give adequate warning of fire;
    3. two kinds of systems appeared to be in varying states of development - systems using infrared or ultraviolet sensors and systems sensing ionized particles or condensation nucleii in the atmosphere;
    4. a work statement should be prepared, with the help of personnel at Wright Field, for the purpose of receiving specific proposals on available systems; and
    5. the ultimate goal should be to develop a system ready for flight use within six months.

1967 March 28 - .
  • Apollo 204 Review Board asked for a report on the Pyrotechnic Installation Building activity - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Apollo 204 Review Board Chairman Floyd Thompson asked for a report on the Pyrotechnic Installation Building activity. . Additional Details: here....

1967 March 29 - April 4 - .
1967 March 30 - .
  • Apollo 204 Review Board scheduled to review final report of its Historical Data Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. Summary: The Apollo 204 Review Board was scheduled to review the final report of its Historical Data Panel (Panel No. 6). . Additional Details: here....

1967 March 30 - .
  • The Apollo 204 Review Board accepted the final report of Design Review Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II; CSM Hatch. Summary: The Apollo 204 Review Board accepted the final report of its Design Review Panel (No.9).. Additional Details: here....

1967 March 31 - .
  • Apollo descent propulsion system series tests - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Descent Propulsion. ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea requested that the White Sands Test Facility be authorized to conduct the descent propulsion system series tests starting April 3 and ending about May 1. The maximum expected test pressure would be 174 newtons per sq cm (253 psia), normal maximum operating pressure. The pressure could go as high as 179 newtons per sq cm (260 psia) according to the test to be conducted.

    Required leak check operations were also requested at a maximum pressure of 142 newtons per sq cm (206 psia), with a design limit of 186 newtons per sq cm (270 psia). The test fluids would be compatible with the titanium alloy at the test pressures. The test would be conducted in the Altitude Test Stand, where adequate protection existed for isolating and containing a failure. MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth approved the request the same day.


1967 March 31 - .
  • Final report of the Medical Analysis Panel (No 11) to the Apollo 204 Review Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. Summary: The final report of the Medical Analysis Panel (No. 11) to the Apollo 204 Review Board was processed for printing. . Additional Details: here....

1967 April - .
  • Apollo 205 (cancelled) - . Crew: Cunningham; Eisele; Schirra. Backup Crew: Borman; Collins; Stafford. Payload: CSM-014. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cunningham; Eisele; Schirra; Borman; Collins; Stafford. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 205. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. It was originally planned to make a second solo flight test of the Block I Apollo CSM on a Saturn IB. The flight was finally seen as unnecessary; the decision to cancel it came on November 16, 1966. After the Apollo 1 fire on January 27, 1967, the Schirra crew was assigned to Apollo 7, the first manned flight test of the new Block II Apollo CSM-101.

1967 April 1 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Replacement of the Apollo service module 017 oxidizer tank - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: In reply to a request from NASA Hq., CSM Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht told Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that replacement of the service module 017 oxidizer tank was based on a double repair weld of the method 2 kind in that tank. . Additional Details: here....

1967 April 5 - .
  • Mission profile for first manned Apollo flight - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Hatch. Summary: The mission profile for the first manned Apollo flight would be based on that specified in Appendix AS-204 in the Apollo Flight Mission Assignments Document dated November 1966, the three manned space flight Centers were informed. . Additional Details: here....

1967 April 8 - .
  • Apollo fuel-cell tank contaminated welds - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: A flash report sent to the NASA Apollo Program Director by ASPO Manager George M. Low at MSC informed him that all the fuel-cell gaseous- nitrogen titanium-alloy tanks were suspected of having contaminated welds. . Additional Details: here....

1967 April 8 - .
1967 April 10 - .
  • Apollo CSM 017 inertial measurement unit removed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: MSC informed NASA Hq. that the spacecraft 017 inertial measurement unit (IMU) was being removed to replace capacitors that were suspect after a number of failures with qualified mylar capacitors. . Additional Details: here....

1967 April 10 - .
  • Two task teams on Apollo CSM electrical systems established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: MSC ASPO Manager George M. Low told Sydney C. Jones, Jr., MSC Communications and Power Branch, that he wanted to establish two task teams on CSM electrical systems. . Additional Details: here....

1967 April 10 - .
  • Two task teams to investigate Apollo CSM electrical systems and flammable materials - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. George Low requested William M. Bland, MSC, to take action on two recommendations made by MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth:

    1. Take stereo color photos of all spacecraft areas before they were closed out. This procedure had been invaluable during the Apollo Review Board's activities at KSC, and the same technique, applied during the manufacturing process of current spacecraft, might help answer questions raised subsequent to the closeout of an area and thereby save time.
    2. Make additional requirements for the use of cover plates over spacecraft wire bundles. Greater use of cover plates during manufacturing, test, and perhaps even flight would prevent damage during subsequent activities.

1967 April 14 - .
  • Apollo CM tests show burning in pure oxygen - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. CM mockup tests by the Structures and Mechanics Division at the MSC Thermochemical Test Area had shown that significant burning occurred in oxygen environments at a pressure of 11.4 newtons per square centimeter (16.5 psia). The tests, in which most of the major crew bay materials had been replaced by Teflon or Beta cloth, consisted of deliberately igniting crew bay materials sequentially in two places. The Division recommended that operation with oxygen at 11.4 newtons in the crew compartment be eliminated and that either air or oxygen at 3.5 newtons per sq cm (5 psia) be used. In reply, the ASPO Manager pointed out that "Dr. Gilruth has indicated a strong desire to avoid the use of air on the pad which requires subsequent spacecraft purges. Accordingly, we should maintain the option of launching with a pure oxygen cabin environment until such time as additional tests indicate it would not be feasible."

1967 April 18 - .
  • No NASA accountability for Apollo wiring - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. ASPO Manager George M. Low pointed out to MSC Director of Engineering and Development Maxime A. Faget that apparently no single person at MSC was responsible for spacecraft wiring. Low said he would like to discuss naming a subsystem manager to follow this general area, including not only the wiring schematics, circuitry, circuit-breaker protection, etc., but also the detailed design, engineering, fabrication, and installation of wiring harnesses.

1967 April 26 - .
  • Apollo CM's 017 and 020 purged on pad with nitrogen - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Because of the amount of flammable material in spacecraft 017 and 020, MSC decided to purge these two spacecraft on the pad with gaseous nitrogen. The total amount of oxygen in the spacecraft at time of reentry would not exceed 14 percent. No tests would be conducted on these spacecraft with hatches closed when men were in the spacecraft.

1967 April 27 - .
  • NASA Task Team - Block II Apollo CSM Redefinition - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Borman. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA Task Team - Block II Redefinition, CSM, was established by ASPO. The team - to be in residence at North American Aviation during the redefinition period - was to provide timely response to questions and inputs on detail design, overall quality and reliability, test and checkout, baseline conditions, configuration control, and schedules.

    Astronaut Frank Borman was named Task Team Manager and group leaders were: Design, Aaron Cohen; Quality and Reliability and Test and Checkout Procedures, Scott H. Simpkinson; Materials, Jerry W. Craig; Specifications and Configuration Control, Richard E. Lindeman; and Scheduling, Douglas R. Broome.


1967 May 1 - .
  • Apollo crew safety and mission success concerns - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. George C. White, Jr., NASA OMSF Director of Apollo Reliability and Quality, told Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that an MSC presentation on April 29 had restored confidence in Apollo's future, but three areas caused him concern as possible compromises with crew safety and mission success in the interest of near-term schedule and cost considerations. They were:

    • Soldered joints in coolant system plumbing. Design of the joints was basically wrong; the insertion of the tubing into the sleeve was less than the tube diameter. Shear strength of the solder had to be depended upon for mechanical integrity against bending and vibration as well as for sealing. Insertion should be two to three times the diameter so that bending could be carried by the bearing of the tube in the sleeve, and the solder would only have to seal.
    • Wiring harnesses. Wiring in the Block II spacecraft had a number of problems, the real significance of which was difficult to evaluate. Numerous instances of damaged insulation (bare conductor) had been found and the repairs had, in turn, resulted in more damage. At least once, split insulation (bare conductor) had been found inside a wire bundle; it could have been in the wire as received or could have resulted from cold flow.
    • Modification procedure. MSC planned to make the changes in the Block II spacecraft by working directly from mockup to the spacecraft, using sketches and a minimum of paper work. While this kind of an operation could get a job done in a hurry, it required a strong leader, thoroughly experienced in working with engineering and factory people and procedures, and rigorous adherence to a minimal streamlined paper system. All "engineering" must be on drawings and all fabrication work must be inspected at least as rigorously as in a normal manufacturing process.
    White urged close management attention to ensure quality.

1967 May 2-4 - .
  • NASA Apollo Block II Redefinition Task Team - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: NASA Block II Redefinition Task Team group leaders and CSM Program Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht arrived at North American Aviation Space Division at Downey May 2, followed by Task Team Manager Frank Borman the next day. . Additional Details: here....

1967 May 2 - .
  • Apollo 204 Review Board to release CM 014 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: ASPO Manager George M. Low asked the Chairman of the Apollo 204 Review Board to consider releasing CM 014 for use in the Apollo program. . Additional Details: here....

1967 May 5 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Minimum restart capability for Saturn S-IVB stage - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. After review of operational considerations for a minimum restart capability in the Saturn launch vehicle's S IVB stage, MSC's Director of Flight Operations reported to NASA Hq. that an 80-minute restart capability was believed the best compromise for the early lunar missions, "for the primary reason of providing sufficient time for ground support in verifying navigation, and flight crew checkout of CSM and S-IVB systems prior to TLI (translunar injection), while providing for two injection opportunities in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (second and third revolutions). For later missions, consideration should be given to the hardware implications of providing a restart capability with minimum (zero) restrictions, so that advantage may be taken of confidence in onboard systems to gain additional payload."

1967 May 11 - .
  • Selection of North American as Apollo prime contractor questioned by Congress - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. NASA Administrator James E. Webb issued a statement on selection of the Apollo spacecraft contractor: "In the 1961 NASA decision to negotiate with North American Aviation for the Apollo command and service modules, there were no better qualified experts in or out of NASA on whom I could rely than Dr. Robert Gilruth, Dr. Robert C. Seamans, and Dr. Hugh L. Dryden. These three were unanimous in their judgment that of the five companies submitting proposals, and of the two companies that were rated highest by the Source Evaluation Board, North American Aviation offered the greatest experience in developing high-performance manned flight systems and the lowest cost. Additional Details: here....

1967 May 12 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft 101 wiring harness to be replaced - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Anthony W. Wardell of the MSC Flight Safety Analysis Office wrote Apollo Manager Low that "the May 10 inspection further substantiates my previous recommendation to replace, rather than rework, the (spacecraft 101 wiring) harness. . Additional Details: here....

1967 May 15 - .
  • Block II Apollo CSM Redefinition Task Team augmented - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The NASA Block II CSM Redefinition Task Team was augmented by the assignment of Gordon J. Stoops as Group Leader-Program Control, with the following functions:

    • Liaison with North American Aviation Program Control and Contracts to expedite updating of the contract change authorizations and the issuance of timely program technical direction.
    • Liaison with the ASPO CSM project Engineering and Checkout Division and CSM Contract Engineering Branch at MSC to expedite contract change authorizations and ensure timely program technical direction.

1967 May 19 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo CSM Block II spacecraft vibration program begun - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. A Block II spacecraft vibration program was begun to provide confidence in CSM integrity and qualify the hardware interconnecting the subsystems within the spacecraft. A test at MSC was to simulate the vibration environment of max-q flight conditions. The test article was to be a Block II CSM. A spacecraft-LM adapter, an instrumentation unit, and an S-IVB stage forward area simulation would also be used.

1967 May 20 - .
  • Contract for three additional Apollo CSMs requested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC notified NASA Hq. that - with the changes defined for the Block II spacecraft following the January 27 Apollo 204 fire and with CSM delivery schedules now reestablished - it was necessary to complete a contract for three additional CSMs requested in 1966. North American Aviation had responded September 15, 1966, to MSC's February 28 request for a proposal, but action on a contract had been suspended because of the AS-204 accident. NASA Hq. on June 27, 1967, authorized MSC to proceed.

1967 May 26 - .
  • No substitute for glycol in the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. ASPO Manager George Low told Charles A. Berry, MSC Director of Medical Research and Operations, that it had been determined there was no suitable substitute for water glycol as a coolant and it would continue to be used in the Apollo spacecraft. Low recognized that it was "essential that the effects of any possible glycol spill be well defined and that procedures be established to avoid any hazardous conditions." He asked Berry's office to define the limits of exposure for glycol spills of varying quantities and for recommendations concerning cabin purge in the event of a spill. Low also wondered, assuming development of a smelling agent, if it would be possible to determine the concentration of water glycol by the strength of the smell in the spacecraft. Berry's office replied June 22 that it was working with Crew Systems Division to identify an odor additive for leak detection. They would begin a program to establish a safe upper limit for human exposure to ethylene glycol and had asked the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Toxicity for information. Animal exposure tests probably would be necessary; if they were needed, a test plan would be submitted before July 1.

1967 May 26 - .
  • Review of the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: NASA Headquarters and MSC officials attended a review of the CSM at North American Aviation in Downey. . Additional Details: here....

1967 May 31 - .
  • Apollo fuel cell system failure actions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. George M. Low told Joseph N. Kotanchik, Chief of MSC's Structures and Mechanics Division, that actions were pending on Pratt & Whitney pressure vessel failures. The pressure vessels were used in the Apollo fuel cell system. Kotanchik had spelled out a list of problem areas in connection with both the vessels and management interface between MSC and principal contractor North American Aviation, and between North American and its subcontractor Pratt & Whitney.

1967 June 7 - .
  • Apollo Block II manned mission flight plan redefined - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA Office of Manned Space Flight had redefined the Apollo Block II manned mission flight plan, ASPO informed the MSC Director of Science and Applications. The first manned flight plan called for

    1. an open-ended mission up to 10 days,
    2. sufficient instrumentation,
    3. no extravehicular activity,
    4. a CSM rendezvous with the S-IVB stage, and
    5. no experiments that required spacecraft integration.
    The redefinition resulted in OMSF's indicating that no scientific experiments would be flown on the mainstream Apollo flights unless they would contribute to the accomplishment of the lunar mission. ASPO therefore had told North American Aviation that certain scientific experiments planned for spacecraft 101 would now be deleted from the program. The experiments were Simple Navigation (D019), Urine Volume Measuring System (M005), UV Stellar Photography (S019), and UV/X-ray Solar Photography (S020).

1967 June 8 - .
  • Larger Apollo drogue parachutes - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: At a NASA and North American Aviation management meeting, North American was directed to proceed with development of larger drogue parachutes and staged main chute disreefing, using 5- and 8-second reefing-line cutters. . Additional Details: here....

1967 June 8 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Rendezvous with the S-IVB stage by the first manned Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips, in a message to ASPO Manager George M. Low, spoke of a June 2 agreement to include a CSM active rendezvous with the Saturn S-IVB stage of the launch vehicle in the mission profile of the first manned Apollo mission. Phillips said that it should be recognized that such a rendezvous would not be a primary objective for the first manned mission and that the decision should be reviewed if any related problem that would complicate mission preparations were identified.

1967 June 9 - .
  • Selection of North American as Apollo prime contractor documented - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seamans. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection. Robert C. Seamans, Jr., Deputy Administrator of NASA, prepared a memorandum to the file concerning the selection of North American Aviation as the CSM prime contractor. The memorandum, a seven-page document, chronologically reviewed the steps that led to the selection of North American and followed by about a month the statement of NASA Administrator James E. Webb in response to queries from members of the Congress.

1967 June 9 - .
  • Sequence of Apollo missions following the first manned flight - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. Robert O. Aller, NASA OMSF, told Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that considerable analysis, planning, and discussion had taken place at MSC on the most effective sequence of Apollo missions following the first manned flight (Apollo 7). The current official assignments included three CSM/LM missions for CSM/LM operations, lunar simulation, and lunar capability. MSC's Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) had offered an alternate approach of that sequence by proposing that the third mission be a lunar-orbit mission rather than a high earth-orbit mission. Aller preferred the FOD proposal, since it would offer considerable operational advantages by conducting a lunar-orbital flight before the lunar landing. He recommended Phillips consider that sequence of missions and that consideration be given to including it as a prime or alternate mission in the Mission Assignments Document. "Identifying it in that document," Aller said, "would initiate the necessary detailed planning."

1967 June 13 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft 105 testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The purpose of spacecraft 105 testing was to establish transition relations between the primary and secondary structure that supported systems' interconnecting hardware (wiring, tubing and associated valves, filters, regulators, etc.) and demonstrate structural integrity of the Block II CSM when subjected to qualification vibration environment, with special emphasis on interconnecting hardware. The test vehicle was being configured with complete basic Block II wiring harness and fluid systems. The vehicle would be checked out before and after each phase of testing to verify wiring harness impedance and continuity and fluid systems pressure integrity. The fluid systems would be at operating pressure during the testing.

1967 June 17 - .
  • Plans made to armor-plate 102 out of 167 solder joints inside the Apollo CM of spacecraft 101 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Plans were to armor-plate 102 out of 167 solder joints inside the CM of spacecraft 101, ASPO Manager George M. Low informed Maxime A. Faget, MSC's Director of Engineering and Development. . Additional Details: here....

1967 June 28 - .
  • Apollo materials replacement and boilerplate tests - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Dale D. Myers, Apollo CSM Manager for North American Aviation, Inc., requested a meeting with ASPO Manager George M. Low and ASPO CSM Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht to resolve issues concerning materials replacement and objectives for boilerplate tests. In reply, on July 6, Low said that Kleinknecht had conducted a complete review of flammable materials since receipt of Myers' June 28 letter and that a number of telephone conversations had been held on the subject. MSC recommended that the insulation on the environmental control unit be covered with nickel foil and that silicone-rubber wire-harness clamps could possibly be covered with a combination of "Laddicote" and nitroso rubber. Plans were for the boilerplate mockup tests to use an overloaded wire in a wire bundle as an ignition source. At Myers' suggestion, MSC was also looking into the use of electric arcs, or sparks, as a possible ignition source. Low said: "As you know, our goal in the mockup tests will be to demonstrate that any fire in a 6 psi (4.1 newtons per square centimeter) oxygen atmosphere extinguishes itself. . . . If we can demonstrate that in the 6 psi oxygen atmosphere a fire would spread very slowly so that the crew could easily get out of the spacecraft while on the pad . . . , then I believe that we should also be satisfied."

1967 June 28 - .
  • Apollo AS-205 experiments - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The Apollo Program Director requested MSC to assign the following experiments to AS-205, spacecraft 101: M006 - Bone Demineralization, M011 - Cytogenic Blood Studies, M023 - Lower Body Negative Pressure, S005 - Synoptic Terrain Photography, and S006 - Synoptic Weather Photography. Additional Details: here....

1967 July 12 - .
  • Apollo CSM shipment schedule issued by NASA HQ - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. A CSM shipment schedule, to be used for planning throughout the Apollo program and as a basis for contract negotiations with North American Aviation, was issued by NASA Hq. The schedule covered CSM 101 through CSM 115, CSM 105R, and CSM 020 and the period September 29, 1967, through November 17, 1969.

1967 July 18 - .
  • Apollo CSM flammability mockup testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. CSM flammability mockup testing was discussed at a program review. It was pointed out that boilerplate testing was being conducted at Downey and that an all-up test should not be performed until all individual tests were completed and the final configuration was completely established.

1967 July 22 - .
  • Apollo oxygen purge system (OPS) transfer runs were conducted in the Water Immersion Facility - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. A series of oxygen purge system (OPS) transfer runs were conducted in the Water Immersion Facility at MSC. Preliminary reports indicated the results of the tests were highly satisfactory, but an assessment of pad abort procedures following several runs in the Apollo Mission Simulator were not so promising. Further work and study in this area was in progress.

1967 July 24 - .
  • Changes resulting from AS-204 investigation - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS; CSM Electrical; CSM Hatch. ASPO Manager George M. Low issued instructions that the changes and actions to be carried out by MSC as a result of the AS-204 accident investigation were the responsibility of CSM Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht. The changes and actions were summarized in Apollo Program Directive No. 29, dated July 6, 1967.

1967 July 28 - .
  • Detailed review of the Block II Apollo CSM to be held - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO announced that a detailed review of the Block II CSM would be held to gain a better understanding of the hardware. ASPO Manager George M. Low pointed out that it had been customary in the Gemini and Apollo Programs to conduct Design Certification Reviews (DCRs) before manned flight of the "first of a kind" vehicle. He added that the detailed review should address itself to design and analysis, test history and evaluation of test results, and the understanding of operational procedures for each element in the CSM. To ensure the most thorough review, MSC divisions would conduct preliminary reviews. The division chiefs would then present their findings to the directorates, the ASPO management, and the MSC Director.

1967 August 1 - .
  • Apollo component design efficiency requested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, CSM Manager at MSC, requested that North American organize a team of engineers with broad design backgrounds to make an independent assessment of component design efficiency. The team would identify actions to reduce spacecraft weight and to establish control methods to prevent future weight increases. The team would be placed under the leadership of a North American employee with broad knowledge of Apollo hardware.

    To deal with Apollo weight problems, North American replied in October, accurate and timely weight visibility was of paramount importance. To provide this visibility, North American used system design personnel directly in weight prediction and reporting. As part of this plan, all engineering-design-change documentation would contain a delta weight effect that would be reviewed and approved by engineering management; weight trends and status would be reported monthly to North American and NASA management. A list of weight reduction candidates was suggested to NASA.


1967 August - . LV Family: Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • Apollo 207 (cancelled) - . Crew: McDivitt; Schweickart; Scott. Backup Crew: Cernan; Stafford; Young. Payload: CSM-101. Nation: USA. Related Persons: McDivitt; Schweickart; Scott; Cernan; Stafford; Young. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 207. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Before the Apollo 1 fire, it was planned that McDivitt's crew would conduct the Apollo D mission - a first manned test in earth orbit of the Lunar Module. Separate Saturn IB launches would put Apollo Block II CSM 101 / AS-207 and Lunar Module LM-2 / AS-208 into earth orbit. The crew would then rendezvous and dock with the lunar module and put it through its paces. After the fire, it was decided to launch the mission on a single Saturn V as Apollo 9.

1967 August 18 - .
  • NASA Block II Apollo CSM Redefinition Task Team phased out - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The NASA task team for CSM Block II redefinition, established on April 27, was phased out. During its duration the task team provided timely response and direction in the areas of detail design, overall quality and reliability, test and checkout, baseline specifications, and schedules. With the phaseout of the team, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office policies and procedures would be carried out by the ASPO resident manager. A single informal point of contact was also established between MSC and North American for engineering and design items.

1967 August 19 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft deliveries had slipped - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: ASPO Manager George M. Low, in a letter to Dale D. Myers of North American Aviation, expressed disappointment that both spacecraft 2TV-1 and 101 had slipped approximately six weeks. . Additional Details: here....

1967 August 22 - .
  • Senior design review group established for Apollo command module stowed equipment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. A senior design review group was established to review the command module stowed equipment and the stowage provisions, to ensure the timely resolution and implementation of changes necessary because of new materials criteria and guidelines. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director, would head the group.

1967 August 26 - .
  • Reuse of failed Apollo equipment discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. "Reuse of failed equipment" was the subject of a memorandum to W. M. Bland in the MSC Reliability and Quality Assurance Office from ASPO Manager George M. Low. He said: "I have recently heard of several instances of reuse of apparently failed equipment without any fixes applied to that equipment. I understand that, if a component or subsystem is removed from the spacecraft because it has apparently failed but a subsequent failure analysis does not show anything to be wrong with the equipment, the equipment is then put back into stock for reinstallation. It appears to me that, if a component is once suspected or known to have caused a failure or to have failed, it should not be allowed back in the program unless a fix has been made or unless it has been proved conclusively that the failure was not caused by that component. If we do not now have a program directive that states such a policy, I think we should impose one as quickly as possible and set up adequate procedures to control it."

1967 September 1 - .
  • Apollo test flow study group to make a detailed evaluation of testing at KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: An Apollo test flow study group was formed to make a detailed evaluation of spacecraft, launch vehicle, and space vehicle testing at KSC. The group was composed of aerospace industry and NASA personnel..

1967 September 15 - .
  • Short circuit on Apollo CSM 020 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: A short circuit occurred during checkout of CSM 020 at North American, Downey, Calif. . Additional Details: here....

1967 September 16 - .
  • Apollo CSM 017 guidance and navigation computer locked up - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. During operational checkout procedures on CSM 017, which included running the erasable memory program before running the low-altitude aborts, the guidance and navigation computer accidentally received a liftoff signal and locked up. Investigation was initiated to determine the reason for the liftoff signal and the computer lockup (switch to internal control). No damage was suspected.

1967 September 22 - .
  • Merger of North American Aviation and Rockwell-Standard - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The merger of North American Aviation, Inc., and Rockwell-Standard Corp. became effective and was announced. The company was organized into two major groups, the Commercial Products Group and the Aerospace and Systems Group. The new company would be known as North American Rockwell and use the acronym NR.

1967 September 28 - .
  • Elimination of all flammables from the Apollo cabin not possible - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. In spite of efforts to eliminate all flammable materials from the interior of the spacecraft cabin during flight, it was apparent that this could not be completely accomplished. For example, silicone rubber hoses, flight logs, food, tissues, and other materials would be exposed with in the cabin during portions of the mission. However, flammable materials would be outside their containers only when actually needed. Special fire extinguishers would be carried during flight.

1967 September 29 - .
  • Board to review the Apollo operational corridor - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. An Apollo Entry Performance Review Board was established by the MSC Director to review and validate the analytical tools as well as the Apollo operational corridor. The Board was set up because the performance of the ablation heatshield in the Apollo spacecraft, as then analyzed, imposed a limitation on the entry corridor at lunar return velocity. The following were named to the Board: Maxime A. Faget, MSC, chairman; Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, MSC; Eugene C. Draley and Don D. Davis, Jr., Langley Research Center; Alvin Seiff and Glen Goodwin, Ames Research Center; and Leo T. Chauvin, MSC, secretary.

1967 September 29 - .
  • Apollo CSM 101 schedule agreed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Key dates in the spacecraft 101 schedule were agreed to during a meeting of Samuel C. Phillips, Robert R. Gilruth, George M. Low, and Kenneth S. Kleinknecht with North American management: inspection of wiring, October 7, 1967; completion of manufacturing, December 15, 1967; delivery, March 15, 1968. In addition, several decisions were reached concerning certain systems of spacecraft 101. Among these, it was agreed that the entry monitor system would not be checked out on spacecraft 101.

1967 September 29 - .
  • Poor quality control of the Apollo parachute system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. ASPO Manager George M. Low, in a letter to Richard E. Horner, Senior Vice President of Northrop Corp., following a phone call to Horner on Sept. 28, reiterated NASA's "continuing and serious concern with the quality control at Northrop Ventura on the Apollo spacecraft parachute system. In recent weeks, I have had many reports of poor workmanship and poor quality, both in the plant at Northrop Ventura and in the field at El Centro."

    On October 20 Horner told Low he had taken time to assure himself of the best possible information available before replying and offered background on the situation: "The design effort goes back to 1961 and testing began at the El Centro facility in 1962. There was continuous operation of the test group at El Centro until 1966 when the completion of the Block II testing program dictated the closeout of our operation there. In our total activity, we have had a peak of 350 personnel assigned to the Apollo, with 20 of that number located at El Centro during the most active portion of the test program. When it was finally determined that the increased weight capability redesign was necessary for mission success, the program nucleus had been reduced to 30 personnel and the established schedule for the system re-design, test and fabrication requires a build-up to 250. . . . The schedule has also dictated the adoption of such procedures as concurrent inspection by the inspectors of Northrop, North American and NASA, a procedure which, I am sure, is efficient from a program point of view but is inherently risky in terms of the wide dissemination of knowledge concerning every human mistake. This is significant only from the point of view of the natural human failing to be more willing to share the responsibility for error than for success. . . . We do not intend in any way to share responsibility for these errors and expect to eliminate the potential for their recurrence. We have established standards of quality for this program that are stringent and uncompromising. . . . Even though the technical and schedule challenge is substantial, we are confident that by the time qualification testing is scheduled to start during the first week of December 1967 we will have a flawless operation. . . ."


1967 October 5 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft weight problem - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. An exchange of correspondence between MSC and North American Rockwell emphasized the seriousness of the spacecraft weight problem. Accurate and timely weight visibility was of paramount importance for weight control and resulted from proper implementation and control of weight prediction, weight control from design initiation, and weight status reporting. To ensure visibility, North American Rockwell was instituting a program that would use system design personnel in weight prediction and reporting. Preliminary design personnel in the Design Requirements Group were designated to integrate the effort.

1967 October 5-15 - .
  • Apollo Spacecraft Incident Investigation and Reporting Panel - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC established an Apollo Spacecraft Incident Investigation and Reporting Panel, with Scott H. Simpkinson as chairman. Panel members would be selected from ASPO, the Flight Safety Office, and the Engineering and Development Directorate. In addition, members would be assigned from the RASPO offices at Downey, Bethpage, and KSC when incidents occurred at their locations. All incidents suspected of directly affecting the safety of the spacecraft or its ground support equipment and all incidents that represented a hazard to personnel working in the area were to be investigated and reported. Incidents having a cost impact of over $5,000 or a schedule impact of 24 hours would also be reported to the panel chairman and considered for investigation. Panel membership was announced October 16. The following day, a letter from Simpkinson to panel members established procedures for investigating and reporting incidents.

1967 October 12 - .
  • Apollo CSM 101 entry monitor system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: ASPO Manager George Low submitted a memorandum for the record on the September 29 decision not to check out the spacecraft 101 entry monitor system (EMS). . Additional Details: here....

1967 October 13 - .
  • Ballute system for Apollo rejected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. A proposal to use a Ballute system rather than drogue parachutes to deploy the main chutes on the Apollo spacecraft was rejected. It was conceded that the Ballute system would slightly reduce dynamic pressure and command module oscillations at main parachute deployment. However, these advantages would be offset by the development risks of incorporating a new and untried system into the Apollo spacecraft at such a late date.

1967 October 17 - .
  • Four additional Apollo CSMs approved - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seamans. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA Hq. informed MSC that NASA Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., had approved the project approval document authorizing four additional CSMs beyond No. 115A. MSC was requested to proceed with all necessary procurement actions required to maintain production capability in support of projected schedules for these items.

1967 October 20 - .
  • Apollo RCS for CSM 101 criticized - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: The SM reaction control system (RCS) for spacecraft 101 was criticized by C&SM RCS Subsystem Manager Ralph J. Taeuber. . Additional Details: here....

1967 October 28 - .
  • Pure oxygen in the Apollo CSM cabin during prelaunch - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Plans were to use 100-percent oxygen in the CSM cabin during prelaunch operations for manned flights but, since flammability tests of the CSM were not finished, the possibility existed that air might be used instead of pure oxygen. Therefore, contingency plans would be developed to use air in the cabin during the prelaunch operations so that a change would not delay the program.

1967 October 30 - .
  • Apollo Drop Test failure 84-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. A parachute test (Apollo Drop Test 84-1) failed at EI Centro, Calif. The parachute test vehicle (PTV) was dropped from a C-133A aircraft at an altitude of 9,144 meters to test a new 5-meter drogue chute and to investigate late deployment of one of the three main chutes. Additional Details: here....

1967 November 3-December 19 - .
  • Apollo launch site recovery and rescue - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Debus. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. In an exchange of correspondence, KSC Director Kurt H. Debus and MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth agreed that close coordination was required between the two Centers regarding launch site recovery and rescue in the event of malfunction leading to an unsuccessful abort before or just after ignition during a launch phase. Coordinated recovery and rescue plans were being formulated for such an emergency. Plans would also include the Department of Defense Eastern Test Range and required coordination with DOD. On December 19 Debus was informed by NASA Hq. that his proposal for a slide wire emergency system had been reviewed and approved.

1967 November 8 - .
  • Full scale Apollo CSM be tested to evaluate fire propagation in orbit and on the ground - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. The MSC Director of Engineering and Development pointed out that a fullscale CSM would soon be tested to evaluate the hazard of fire propagation both in orbit (cabin atmosphere of oxygen at pressure of 3.8 newtons per square centimeter - 5.5 pounds per square inch absolute) and on the pad (oxygen at 11.4 newtons per sq cm-16.5 psia). There was a reasonable probability that the CSM might qualify in the first but not the second case. In such event, it was proposed that the prelaunch cabin atmosphere be changed from 100-percent oxygen to a mixture of 60-percent oxygen and 40percent helium or to a mixture of 60-percent oxygen and 40-percent nitrogen. This proposal was made on the assumption that those mixtures at 11.4 newtons per sq cm would not offer more of a fire hazard than 100percent oxygen at 3.8 newtons. It was also assumed that these mixtures would be physiologically suitable after being bled down to orbital pressure without subsequent purging or being enriched with additional oxygen. Structures and Mechanics Division (SMD) was requested to make flammability tests to determine the relative merit of the two mixtures and to outline a minimum test program to provide confidence that the mixed gas atmosphere might be considered equivalent to oxygen at 3.8 newtons.

1967 November 9 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-501.
  • Apollo 4 - . Payload: Apollo CSM 017 / LTA-10R / S-IVB-501. Mass: 36,656 kg (80,812 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Duration: 2.35 days. Decay Date: 1967-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 3032 . COSPAR: 1967-113A. Apogee: 371 km (230 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 32.7000 deg. Period: 91.90 min. Apollo 4 (AS-501) was launched in the first all-up test of the Saturn V launch vehicle and also in a test of the CM heatshield. The Saturn V, used for the first time, carried a lunar module test article (LTA-10R) and a Block I command and service module (CSM 017) into orbit from KSC Launch Complex 39, Pad A, lifting off at 7:00:01 a.m. EST - one second later than planned. The launch was also the first use of Complex 39. The spacecraft landed 8 hours 37 minutes later in the primary recovery area in the Pacific Ocean, near Hawaii, about 14 kilometers from the planned point (30.06 N 172.32 W). CM, apex heatshield, and one main parachute were recovered by the carrier U.S.S. Bennington

    Main objectives of the mission were to demonstrate the structural and thermal integrity of the space vehicle and to verify adequacy of the Block II heatshield design for entry at lunar return conditions. These objectives were accomplished.

    The S-IC stage cutoff occurred 2 minutes 30 seconds into the flight at an altitude of about 63 kilometers. The S-II stage ignition occurred at 2 minutes 32 seconds and the burn lasted 6 minutes 7 seconds, followed by the S-IVB stage ignition and burn of 2 minutes 25 seconds. This series of launch vehicle operations placed the S-IVB and spacecraft combination in an earth parking orbit with an apogee of about 187 kilometers and a perigee of 182 kilometers. After two orbits, which required about three hours, the S-IVB stage was reignited to place the spacecraft in a simulated lunar trajectory. This burn lasted five minutes. Some 10 minutes after completion of the S-IVB burn, the spacecraft and S-IVB stage were separated, and less than 2 minutes later the service propulsion subsystem was fired to raise the apogee. The spacecraft was placed in an attitude with the thickest side of the CM heatshield away from the solar vector. During this four-and-one-half-hour cold-soak period, the spacecraft coasted to its highest apogee - 18,256.3 kilometers. A 70 mm still camera photographed the earth's surface every 10.6 seconds, taking 715 good-quality, high-resolution pictures.

    About 8 hours 11 minutes after liftoff the service propulsion system was again ignited to increase the spacecraft inertial velocity and to simulate entry from a translunar mission. This burn lasted four and one half minutes. The planned entry velocity was 10.61 kilometers per second, while the actual velocity achieved was 10.70.

    Recovery time of 2 hours 28 minutes was longer than anticipated, with the cause listed as sea conditions - 2.4-meter swells.


1967 November 13 - .
  • Northrop Ventura performance on Apollo parachute system discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO Manager George Low, in a memorandum to CSM Manager Kenneth Kleinknecht, remarked that he had "just read Dale Myers' letter to you . . . on the subject of Northrop Ventura performance. In addition I have . . . read a letter from Dick Horner to me in response to my letter . . . of September 29, 1967. Additional Details: here....

1967 November 14 - .
  • Apollo Configuration Control Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. In a letter to North American Rockwell and Grumman management, ASPO Manager George Low pointed out that he had taken a number of steps to strengthen the Configuration Control Board (CCB) activities and said he felt it was "very desirable to have senior management from NAR and GAEC present for our Board meetings." The meetings were held each Friday North American Apollo CSM Manager Dale D. Myers replied on November 17 that he, Charles Feltz, or George Jeffs would attend the meetings on an alternate schedule. Myers informed Low that North American was implementing new requirements designed to strengthen its own CCB. MSC's Kenneth S. Kleinknecht had been invited to attend North American's weekly Tuesday meetings when possible and RASPO Manager Wilbur Gray was invited to attend routinely.

1967 November 16 - .
  • Status of Apollo environmental control unit - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Robert R. Gilruth, George M. Low, and Maxime A. Faget, with other MSC personnel and North American Rockwell management officials visited AiResearch to review the status of the Apollo environmental control unit electronic components. There had been serious concern about AiResearch capabilities in this area. The review indicated that AiResearch circuit designs were satisfactory; that the electronic parts used were not satisfactory , but that substitutions of high-reliability parts could be made; and that AiResearch's capability in the manufacture of electronic components was substandard insofar as the aerospace industry was concerned. AiResearch was directed to obtain a subcontractor to build the most critical electronic controller in accordance with AiResearch designs and parts lists. All other electronic components were still under review and additional ones might be added to the backup contractor at a later date.

1967 November 17 - .
  • Results of Apollo survey at North American Rockwell - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Summary: Eberhard F. M. Rees of MSFC sent MSC ASPO Manager George M. Low the results of a brief survey he had made at North American Rockwell. . Additional Details: here....

1967 November 20 - .
  • Apollo propellant sloshing studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: MSC asked MSFC assistance in identifying and understanding any propellant sloshing effects that might create problems in the flight test program. The greatest uncertainty was associated with the techniques for passive thermal control in nonpowered flight..

1967 December - .
1967 December 5 - .
  • Apollo SM-102 static-fire test objectives - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Walter J. Kapryan of the MSC Resident ASPO at KSC told the KSC Apollo Program Manager that one of the primary test objectives of the SM-102 static-fire test was to determine system deterioration caused by the static-fire sequence and exposure to residual hypergolics trapped in the system during subsequent prelaunch operations. Additional Details: here....

1967 December 8 - .
  • Apollo drop test failed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. An Apollo drop test failed at El Centro, Calif. The two-drogue verification test had been planned to provide confidence in the drogue chute design (using a weighted bomb) before repeating the parachute test vehicle (PTV) test. Preliminary information indicated that in the test one drogue entangled with the other during deployment and that only one drogue inflated. The failure appeared to be related to a test deployment method rather than to drogue design. The test vehicle was successfully recovered by a USAF recovery parachute-intact and reusable.

1967 December 12 - .
  • Customer acceptance readiness review of Apollo CM 101 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: The phase I customer acceptance readiness review (CARR) of CM 101 was held at North American Rockwell in Downey, Calif. . Additional Details: here....

1967 December 16 - .
  • Decisions on flammability problems related to coax cables in Apollo CMs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Top NASA and North American Rockwell management personnel discussed flammability problems associated with coax cables installed in CMs. It was determined that approximately 23 meters of flammable coax cable was in CM 101 and, when ignited with a nichrome wire, the cable would burn in oxygen at both 4.3 and 11.4 newtons per square centimeter (6.2 and 16.5 pounds per square inch). Burning rates varied from 30 to 305 centimeters per minute, depending upon the oxygen pressure and the direction of the flame front propagation. The cable was behind master display panels, along the top of the right-hand side of the cabin, vertically in the rear right-hand corner of the cabin, in the cabin feed-through area, and in the lower equipment bay. The group reviewed the detailed location of the cable, viewed movies of flammability tests, examined movies of the results of testing with fire breaks, discussed possible alternatives, and inspected cable installations in CMs 101 and 104.

    The following alternatives were considered:

    1. Replace all coax cable.
    2. Wrap all coax cable with aluminum tape.
    3. Partially wrap the cable to provide fire breaks. Tests at North American indicated that a 102-millimeter segment of wrapped cable with four layers of aluminum foil would provide a fire break. MSC tests indicated such a fire break was not adequate for multiple cables.
    4. Leave the installation as it was.

    The following factors were considered in reaching a decision for spacecraft 101:

    1. The wiring in that spacecraft had been completed for several months. All subsystems had been installed and protective covers had been installed. Complete replacement or complete wrapping of all coax cables would be time consuming; it might take as long as three months, when taking retest into consideration. Additionally, in spite of extreme care, complete replacement or wrapping might do considerable damage to the installed wiring, and even partial wrapping might cause damage in many areas.
    2. The coax cable could not self-ignite under any conditions.
    3. In most installations, the coax cable was a separate bundle and not part of other wire bundles. An exception was the feed-through area in the lower right-hand corner of the cabin, where the coax cable was intertwined with other wires. Although power cables existed in this area, these were not high-current-carrying cables.
    4. A minimum number of possible ignition sources existed in the vicinity of the coax cables, and a complex series of events would be required to ignite the cable.

    In view of these factors, decisions for spacecraft 101 were:

    1. The cable would be flown essentially as installed. The only exception was that the vertical cable bundle in the right-hand corner of the spacecraft would be wrapped with layers of aluminum tape. Each cable in this bundle would be individually wrapped.
    2. An analysis by North American would document all other wiring near the coax cable, including the wire size, functions, maximum currents carried, and degree of circuit-breaker protection.
    3. All possible ignition sources near the coax cable would be documented.
    4. Tests would be made in boilerplate (BP) 1250 to determine the effects of fire breaks inherent in the installation.
    In making these decisions, NASA and North American recognized that they were contrary to existing criteria and guidelines. Those present agreed that the decisions were an exception and in no way should be construed as a change or relaxation of the criteria and guidelines. The basic reason for the exception was summarized as follows: "As a result of the clean installation of the coax cables, the lack of external ignition sources, and the complete job done in cleaning up the spacecraft from the flammability viewpoint, the risk of igniting the coax cables is exceedingly small. This risk is believed to be less than would likely be incurred through possible damage to existing installations had a decision been made to replace or wrap the cables."

    The installation in spacecraft 2TV-1 would not be changed. This decision was made fully recognizing that more flammable material remained in 2TV-1 than in 101. However, the burning rate of coax cable had been demonstrated as very slow, and it was reasoned that the crew would have sufficient time to make an emergency exit in the vacuum chamber from 2TV-1 long before any dangerous situations would be encountered.

    Officials also agreed that coax cable in boilerplate 1224 would not be ignited until after the results of the BP 1250 tests had been reviewed.


1967 December 20 - .
  • Coax cable problems in Apollo CSM 103 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 10. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: As a part of the managers' technical status review, Dale Myers of North American Rockwell presented his analysis of fixes for the coax cable in spacecraft 103 and subsequent spacecraft. . Additional Details: here....

1967 December 21 - .
  • Apollo Spacecraft Weight and Mission Performance Definition - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips told ASPO Manager George M. Low that a review had begun on the "Apollo Spacecraft Weight and Mission Performance Definition" report dated December 12 and that his letter indicated approval of certain changes either requested or implied by the report. Phillips added that his letter identified a second group of pending changes for which insufficient information was available. He stressed his serious concern over the problem of spacecraft weight growth and said weight must be limited to the basic 45,359-kilogram launch vehicle capability. "According to the progression established in your report, CM's 116 through 119 could exceed the parachute hand-weight capability. I would like to establish a single set of controlled basic weights for the production vehicles. For product improvement changes a good rule is a pound deleted for every pound added. For approved changes to the basic configuration, it is the responsibility of NASA to understand the weight and performance implication of the change and to establish appropriate new control values. . . ."

1967 December 27 - .
  • NAA Apollo solder joint fixes rejected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. CSM Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht asked the Manager of the Resident Apollo Spacecraft Program Office (RASPO) at Downey to inform North American Rockwell that MSC had found the suggestion that aluminum replace teflon for solder joint inserts and outer armor sleeves in Apollo spacecraft plumbing unacceptable because

    1. the teflon insert was designed to give an interference fit to prevent the passage of solder balls into the plumbing;
    2. an aluminum insert could not be designed with an interference fit for obvious reasons;
    3. the aluminum insert was tested at the beginning of the program and found to be inferior to the teflon insert; and
    4. the aluminum armor seal could not be used as a replacement for the outer armor sleeves because it did not eliminate the creep problem of solder.

1968 January 2 - .
  • Key decisions required to certify the Apollo system-design for manned flight summarized - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. MSC called to the attention of North American Rockwell the number of discrepancies found at KSC that could have been found at Downey before hardware shipment. In an effort to reduce the discrepancies North American was requested to obtain and use the KSC receiving inspection criteria as a guide for shipping inspections. It was also suggested that the possibility of sending a few key inspectors to KSC for periods of three to six months to gain additional experience might be investigated.

1968 January 11 - .
  • Apollo Parachute Test Vehicle failed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. A Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV) test failed at El Centro, Calif. The PTV was released from a B-52 aircraft at 15,240 meters and the drogue chute programmer was actuated by a static line connected to the aircraft. One drogue chute appeared to fail upon deployment, followed by failure of the second drogue seven seconds later. Additional Details: here....

1968 January 11 - .
  • Concern over configuration control of Apollo flight hardware - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: CSM Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht wrote his counterpart at North American Rockwell, Dale D. Myers, to express concern about NR's seeming inability to implement configuration control of flight hardware and ground support equipment. . Additional Details: here....

1968 January 13 - .
  • Plans to static-fire the Apollo SPS - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: ASPO Manager George M. Low outlined for the NASA Apollo Program Director MSC plans to static-fire the service propulsion system (SPS) as a complete unit. . Additional Details: here....

1968 January 17 - .
  • Review of recent Apollo parachute test failure - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Eberhard Rees, Apollo Special Task Team chief at North American Rockwell, participated in a failure review at Northrop-Ventura of the recent parachute test failure and in development of a revised test plan. Others at the review included Dale Myers and Norman Ryker from North American and W. Gasich and W. Steyer, General Manager and Apollo Program Manager at Northrop-Ventura. Those at the review put together a revised drop test program that resulted in only a two-week schedule delay because of the failure. Repair of the parachute test vehicle was under way. Meantime, tests would continue, employing bomb and boilerplate devices. Also, Rees decided to establish a Flight Readiness Review Board (headed by Joseph Kotanchik of MSC) to approve each drop test, and Northrop officials had established an internal review board to review test engineering and planning and were tightening their inspection and quality control areas.

1968 January 17 - .
  • Serious quality deficiencies at North American - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Eberhard Rees, Director of the Apollo Special Task Team at North American Rockwell's Downey plant, wrote ASPO Manager George Low outlining what he termed "serious quality and reliability resources deficiencies" and proposed several steps to bolster NASA's manpower in these areas. Specifically, Rees cited the immediate need for additional manpower (primarily through General Electric) to make vendor surveys, test failure assessments, and specification review and analysis and establish minimum inspection points. In addition, Rees said, many areas were almost totally lacking in coverage by the government, such as monitoring qualification tests, receiving inspections, pre-installation test, and many manufacturing operations. He urged Low to reassess his requirements in Houston to determine how many persons MSC might contribute (along with those from MSFC and GE) to plug these vital areas.

1968 January 18 - .
  • Contamination of Apollo CM 103's potable water - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: A meeting was held at MSC to determine necessary action concerning recent contamination of CM 103's potable water, oxygen, and water-glycol lines. . Additional Details: here....

1968 January 18-19 - .
  • Review of the Apollo LM thermal vacuum test programs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural; LM Structural. Rolf Lanzkron and Owen Morris, Chiefs of MSC's CSM and LM Project Engineering Divisions, led a review of the 2TV-1 and LTA-8 (thermal vacuum test article and lunar module test article) thermal vacuum test programs at MSC. Chief concerns expressed during the review centered on the heavy concentration of testing during the summer of 1968, the need for simultaneous operation of test chambers A and B, and the lack of adequately trained chamber operations support personnel for dual testing. The review disclosed that maintenance of testing schedules for LTA-8 was most unlikely, even with a seven-day-a-week work schedule. (The central problem was the large number of open items that had to be cleared before start of the tests.)

1968 January 24 - .
  • Apollo CSM chief problems listed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute; CSM Recovery. Eberhard F. M. Rees, head of the Apollo Special Task Team at North American Rockwell, met with Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, MSC, and Martin L. Raines, Manager of the White Sands Test Facility, to review the team's recent operations and the responses of North American and its numerous subcontractors to the team's recommendations. Kleinknecht listed what he thought were the chief problems facing the CSM program: the S-band highgain antenna (which he said should be turned over entirely to the task team for resolution); the parachute program; the environmental control system; and contamination inside the spacecraft. He urged that the team take the lead in developing solutions to these problems.

1968 January 25 - .
  • Constant concern for Apollo crew safety was becoming more pronounced - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. In a letter to officials of the three manned space flight Centers, NASA Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips called attention to the fact that as the time for the first manned Apollo flight was approaching constant concern for crew safety was becoming more pronounced. Phillips pointed out that the Crew Safety Panel, Flight Mechanics Panel, Launch Operations Panel, Hazardous Emergency Egress Working Group, and other Intercenter Coordination Panels had each dealt with specific aspects of Apollo crew safety. Individual Centers and contractors had exercised their crew safety responsibilities through system design, quality control, and test channels. Single-point failure analyses, dealing with specific hardware areas, had been made.

    He said that these efforts had resulted in current provisions for rapid crew egress on the pad, for spacecraft abort during early phases of the launch, and for contingency flight modes. Phillips added, ". . . to insure that all of the many parts of the problem are properly integrated we should at this time step back and take another look at the overall crew safety picture from ingress to mission completion. The questions to be addressed are:

    1. Have we systematically analyzed all likely failure modes or anomalies which could jeopardize the crew from ingress to mission completion?
    2. In each of these cases do we have proper and timely cues coupled with a safe egress, abort, or contingency capability?
    3. Do we have a plan for the timely solution of the known crew safety related problems?
    . . . I would like to have this essential area worked under leadership of MSC-focused at a high management level - with assistance as required from MSFC and KSC. . . ." In a reply to Phillips, on February 28, MSC's George Low indicated that John Hodge had agreed to undertake the task and had already held discussions on the subject with George Hage of Phillips' office.

1968 January 26 - .
  • Special Task Team for Apollo CSM 103 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: The Special Task Team for CSM 103, appointed January 18, submitted a progress report of activities during daily sessions held January 22 through 25. . Additional Details: here....

1968 January 26 - .
  • Potential stress corrosion problem limited in the Apollo CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. In response to a letter from ASPO Manager George M. Low in late December 1967, seeking assurances that no potential stress corrosion problems existed in the CSM, Dale D. Myers, CSM Program Manager at North American Rockwell, reviewed the three instances where problems had been encountered during the CSM project and iterated the extensive efforts to ensure against such potential problems. Echoing much the same words as his counterpart at Grumman, Myers stated that "it is not possible to guarantee that no single instance of stress corrosion will ever occur" and that circumstances "could create a problem not anticipated." He concluded that his company's efforts in this direction had been "entirely adequate and beyond the requirements of the contract and good practice in this industry," and he seated his belief that additional efforts in this area would not produce measurable results.

1968 January 30 - .
  • Apollo parachute test vehicle concerns - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. MSC CSM Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, in a letter to North American Rockwell's Dale D. Myers, protested lack of North American reponse to written MSC direction concerning parachute test vehicles. Kleinknecht pointed out that MSC had "considerably modified our usual requirements in supporting the boilerplate 19 task being performed for you by Western Ways, Inc. These efforts seem to be completely negated by delayed go-ahead to Northrop Ventura for their portion of the task. I understand that neither Western Ways nor Northrop Ventura was given a go-ahead until January 19, 1968. The original written direction to NR (North American) was on November 9, 1967, to provide another parachute test vehicle (PTV) and give us an estimate of cost and schedule for another boilerplate PTV." If the effort on the PTV had started at that time, "we would now be able to use that vehicle rather than the bomb-type vehicles after losing PTV No. 2. The cost and schedule for boilerplate 19 was not submitted to MSC until later, on December 22, asking for a reply by January 2, 1968. Because of the holiday period, this written reply was furnished on January 5, after an investigation of the cost and schedule. The Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) stated a completion date of May 5; however, after a request by my people to see what could be done to improve this date, the improvement moved the Northrop Ventura schedule from June 14 to May 24 (a Friday). This date is three weeks later than the date cited in the ECP and is completely unacceptable. . . ."

    On February 29, Myers assured Kleinknecht that North American had proceeded with the BP-19A task in advance of NASA full coverage. Initial partial coverage was issued to North American on January 5, 1968. On March 14, in a letter of commendation, Kleinknecht thanked Myers for the attention given the BP-19A effort that made a March 15 completion by Western Ways possible. On May 27, W. H. Gray, RASPO Manager, wrote another letter of commendation thanking North American for completing BP-19A in time for a drop test in May 1968.


1968 February 2 - .
  • Need for audits of equipment supplied from vendors to Apollo spacecraft contractor - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Eberhard F. M. Rees, Apollo Special Task Team Director at North American Rockwell, reported to ASPO Manager George M. Low on the need for audits of equipment supplied from vendors to the spacecraft contractor. Significant hardware failures and nonconformances had been discovered after delivery of equipment from the vendors to Downey, Rees stated, and NASA must take strong steps to upgrade the quality of workmanship at the vendors' locations.

1968 February 3 - .
  • Reexamination of all interconnecting systems of the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mrazek. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. ASPO Manager George M. Low advised Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that, in accordance with an action item resulting from the spacecraft environmental testing review at MSFC on January 10, he was reexamining the design, fabrication, and inspection of all interconnecting systems of the spacecraft to determine what further steps might be taken to ensure the integrity of those systems. Low had requested William Mrazek of MSFC to direct this effort, using a small task team to review the design of all spacecraft wiring and plumbing systems, their fabrication, and quality assurance and inspection techniques.

1968 February 5 - .
  • 40 per-cent nitrogen prelaunch atmosphere in Apollo - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget; Slayton. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. A Senior Flammability Review Board meeting at MSC reached a number of decisions on the CSM. Attending were Robert R. Gilruth, chairman; George M. Low, Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, Aleck C. Bond, Maxime A. Faget, Donald K. Slayton, Charles A. Berry, and Rodney G. Rose, all of MSC; Samuel C. Phillips, NASA Hq.; William B. Bergen and Dale D. Myers, North American Rockwell; and George Stoner, Boeing (nonvoting observer).

    Several previous action assignments were reviewed:

    1. Component level Flammability Test Program - North American reviewed the results of its material identification and test program, the component test program, and the boilerplate 1,250 tests. These tests had provided the basis for design decisions on selection and application of CM nonmetallic materials.
    2. Boilerplate 1224 configuration comparison to CSMs 2TV-1 and 101 - North American presented the comparison and the Board decided that the boilerplate configuration was representative of the "worst case" configuration, considering both 2TV-l and 101.
    3. Internal ignition rationale - ignition rationale for the boilerplate 1224 tests was presented to the Board. Nichrome wire ignitors were used with the ignitor wire embedded in potting. In some locations a Ladicote cover was applied over the potting and ignitor. The Board pointed out that the ignition techniques were not really representative of actual operating conditions and were indeed overly severe.
    4. Crew communications umbilical - North American was evaluating a fluorel crew communications umbilical as well as fluorel oxygen umbilicals. A Beta sleeve over the oxygen and crew communications umbilicals would also be evaluated for its operational acceptability by the Crew.
    The Board presented a review of test results. In the tests at pressure of 4.3 newtons per square centimeter (6.2 pounds per square inch) in a 95-percent oxygen atmosphere, there were 38 ignitions in boilerplate 1224. Of these,5 produced fires large enough to require further consideration. In tests at 11.2 newtons per sq cm (16.2 psia) in a 60-percent-oxygen and 40-percent nitrogen atmosphere, there were 31 ignitions. Of these, 4 produced fires large enough to require further consideration.

    The Board concluded that the material changes made in the CM had resulted in a safe configuration in both the tested atmospheres. The Board agreed "that there will always be a degree of risk associated with manned space flight," but the risk of fire "was now substantially less than the basic risks inherent in manned space flight."

    Among decisions reached were:

    1. the CSM 2TV-1 and 101 coaxial cable configuration would be tested in the 60-percent-oxygen and 40-percent nitrogen atmosphere;
    2. material improvements and testing would be continued and changes would be phased in, pending the availability of proved materials; and
    3. action would be taken to be prepared to use a 60-percent-oxygen and 40-percent-nitrogen prelaunch atmosphere in CSM 101.
    A final decision would be made at the Design Certification Review on March 7.

1968 February 14 - .
  • Potential post-reentry fire hazard in Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. James P. Nolan, Jr., Chief of Plans, NASA OMSF, wrote Mission Operations Director John D. Stevenson describing a potential post-reentry fire hazard in the command module. A hazard might result from incomplete mixing of pure oxygen in the cockpit with normal air after landing, which could produce pockets of almost pure oxygen in closed cabinets, equipment bays, wire bundles, and interstices of the spacecraft. (Two test chamber explosions and fires had occurred at Douglas Aircraft Co. under similar conditions during the early 1950s, he advised.) Nolan suggested that the potential fire hazard be critically reviewed, including possible additional chamber flammability testing. Several weeks later, Stevenson informed Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that he had discussed Nolan's ideas with MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth, ensuring attention by the Flammability Review Board. He reported that MSC was planning an additional series of chamber tests to determine whether such a fire hazard actually existed.

1968 February 14 - .
  • Reexamination of software requirements for the Apollo mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA Hq. asked MSC's support for the effort under way by the Software Review Board (created at Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips' request several weeks earlier) to reexamine software requirements for the lunar mission. A specific concern of the Board (which included representatives from the major support contractors, IBM, TRW, and Bellcomm) was the level of sophistication and complexity inherent in the present MIT computer programs. To understand better the possibilities of carrying out the lunar mission using the present computer system but with much simpler programming, Mueller asked the Board to examine the feasibility, cost, and schedule implications of carrying out the mission using about half the fixed and erasable memory of the computer and otherwise trading off program simplicity for minor increases in propellant requirements.

1968 February 15 - .
  • Selection of a prelaunch atmosphere for the Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips wrote ASPO Manager George M. Low setting forth a strategy for announcing selection of a prelaunch atmosphere for the spacecraft. Because the decision undoubtedly would draw much public attention, Phillips said, it was important that the decision be based on comprehensive study and be fully documented to explain the rationale for the decision both to NASA's management and to the general public. Foremost, he said, that rationale must include a clear statement of physiological requirements for the mission and for aborts. Secondly, it must also cover flammability factors in cabin atmosphere selection. Finally, the decision rationale must explain engineering factors related to hardware capability and crew procedures, as well as operational factors and how they affected the choice of atmosphere during prelaunch and launch phases of the mission.

1968 February 19 - .
  • Task team on water requirements aboard Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. ASPO Manager George Low appointed Douglas R. Broome to head a special task team to resolve the problem of water requirements aboard the Apollo spacecraft. For some six months, Low noted, numerous discussions had surrounded the question of water purity requirements and loading procedures. Several meetings and reviews, including one at MSC on January 16 and another at KSC on February 13, had failed to resolve the problem, and Low thus instructed Broome's team to reach a "final and definite agreement" on acceptable water specifications and loading procedures. Much unnecessary time and effort had been expended on this problem, Low said, and he expected the team "to put this problem to rest once and for all."

1968 February 19 - .
  • Apollo hardware and software changes to be coordinated - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Meetings of the Software Task Force had brought out the lack of a formal requirement that the Change Control Board (CCB) consider how hardware and software changes might affect each other, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Flight Mueller told Apollo Director Phillips. Mueller asked Phillips if he would consider a program directive requiring such assessments before changes could be approved. On March 2, ASPO Manager George Low wrote a note to Flight Operations Director Chris Kraft concerning the same problem. Low believed "our CCB Manual required that any changes requiring or affecting more than one panel (e.g., your software panel and Kleinknecht's CSM panel) should come to the Apollo spacecraft CCB." Kraft replied April 12 that he concurred. Kraft said that "various MSC organizations are represented on my Software Control Board (SCB). These representatives identify related impacts on other functional elements of the program during the discussion of change actions in the . . . meeting. Also, we have taken action to assure integrated assessment of software and spacecraft changes prior to presentation to the SCB. . . . T. F. Gibson, Jr., Flight Operations Directorate, and J. F. Goree, Jr., ASPO, have resolved working arrangements to assure . . . the disciplines called for by the Configuration Management Manual are carried out. I understand that the Change Integration Group in ASPO will critique proposed change actions to either software or spacecraft hardware and identify associated impacts. . . . Changes involving interfaces between the software and spacecraft hardware, or other functional elements of the program, would then be brought to your CCB for disposition of the . . . change as prescribed by the Configuration Control Manual. . . . I feel . . . this formal change integration function is appropriate as a check and balance. . . ."

1968 February 29 - .
  • Results of an Apollo wire improvement study submitted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. In response to action required by the CSM 2TV-2 and CSM 101 Wire Board in October 1967, Dale D. Myers, CSM Program Manager at North American Rockwell, submitted to MSC results of a wire improvement study for the umbilical feedthrough area for the lower equipment bay. Additional Details: here....

1968 March 1 - .
  • Decision not to static-fire Apollo service modules - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: MSC had decided not to static-fire the service modules of Block II spacecraft before flight (specifically, spacecraft 101), ASPO advised NASA Hq. . Additional Details: here....

1968 March 4 - .
  • Results of the Apollo CSM flammability tests conducted on boilerplate 1224 assessed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. The MSC Flammability Review Board met to assess results of the CSM flammability tests conducted on boilerplate 1224. The Board unanimously recommended using a 60-percent-oxygen and 40-percent-nitrogen atmosphere in the spacecraft cabin during launch, but continued use of a pure oxygen atmosphere at pressure of 4.1 newtons per square centimeter (6 pounds per square inch) during flight. Members concluded that this mixed-gas environment offered the best protection for the crew on the pad and during launch operations, while still meeting physiological and operational requirements. During the final stages of the flammability test program, tests had indicated that combustion characteristics for the 11-newtons-per-sq-cm (16-psi), 60-40 atmosphere and for the 4.1-newton pure oxygen atmosphere were remarkably similar. Also, full-scale trials had demonstrated that in an emergency the crew could get out of the spacecraft quickly and safely.

1968 March 8 - .
  • Apollo S-band high-gain-antenna system problems - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. Apollo Special Task Team Director Eberhard F. M. Rees wrote Dale D. Myers, Apollo CSM Program Manager at North American Rockwell, to convey the concern of ASPO Manager George M. Low and others over the status of the S-band high-gain-antenna system. (Of all the subsystems in the spacecraft, that antenna seemed to face perhaps the toughest technical and schedule problems.) On December 14, 1967, Rees had visited the subcontractor's plant (Dalmo Victor) at Belmont, Calif., and had heard optimistic status reports on the entire system, including quality control and delivery schedules. Shortly thereafter, when Dalmo Victor began quality testing, the company encountered serious technical difficulties and the delivery schedule, as Rees put it, "collapsed completely." He then recounted several efforts by analytical teams to pinpoint the technical problems and to put the program back into shape (including reviews in mid-February and again on March 1, when very little progress could be seen). This record of inability to remedy technical problems, said Rees, indicated a serious weakness among Apollo contractors regarding visibility of their programs as well as their analytical engineering capability.

1968 March 11 - .
  • Completion of integrated system testing of Apollo 2TV-1 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Structural. Summary: North American Rockwell technicians at Downey completed integrated system testing on 2TV-1, the CSM thermal vacuum test vehicle. Shipment of the test article to MSC was scheduled for the end of March..

1968 March 12 - .
  • Results of a thorough review of Apollo subcontractors - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Edgar M. Cortright, NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, reported on the results of a thorough review of Apollo subcontractors made during January and February at the request of George E. Mueller. Cortright's review, coordinated with Apollo Program Directors in Washington and Houston, included detailed analysis of subsystem programs and on-site assessment of technical problems, schedule patterns, and testing programs. While favorably impressed with what he had found in general, he cited a number of what he termed "disturbing" conditions: most subsystems were facing hardware delivery schedule problems; many open failures existed; most qualification tests obviously would run beyond flight hardware delivery dates, requiring change-outs at KSC; several of the major subcontractors' difficulties had been compounded by lack of visibility of the overall spacecraft program (those "subs," he said, could have benefited from more attention by the "primes" and from allowing them a role in decision-making affecting their subsystems). Also, Cortright concluded that NASA itself could make more efficient use of subsystem managers and get them more deeply involved in the life of their respective programs. As a remedy to improve the total subsystem picture, Cortright recommended additional subsystem testing (and closer scrutiny by NASA of those tests); a reexamination of the entire Apollo system to determine any procedural errors in operating the subsystems that could result in failure of a subsystem; more contractor involvement in decision-making by both NASA and the primes; and greater emphasis on the manned space flight awareness program.

1968 March 18 - .
  • Apollo CSM 020 reaction control system pressure vessel reviews - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM RCS. Summary: The MSC Structures and Mechanics Division reported to ASPO Manager George M. Low that additional verification of the spacecraft 020 reaction control system (RCS) pressure vessels would not be required. . Additional Details: here....

1968 March 19 - .
  • Suggestion of added Apollo spacecraft delivery delays rejected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: ASPO Manager George Low emphatically rejected North American Rockwell's suggestion of added spacecraft delivery delays. . Additional Details: here....

1968 March 21 - .
  • Continuing problems with the Apollo high-gain antenna - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. In an effort to resolve the continuing technical and schedule problems with the high-gain antenna system at Dalmo Victor, Apollo CSM Program Manager Dale D. Myers named a Resident Subsystem Project Manager at the vendor's plant. This change provided a single management interface with Dalmo Victor. The representative had been given authority to call on whatever North American Rockwell resources he might need to accomplish program objectives.

1968 March 22 - .
  • Concern over problems with leaks in the ball valves for the Apollo service propulsion system - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Eberhard F. M. Rees, Director of the Apollo Special Task Team at North American Rockwell, wrote to the company's CSM Program Manager Dale D. Myers to express his concern over persistent problems with leaks in the ball valves for the service propulsion system. Rees doubted that any real progress was being made, stating that the problem persisted despite relaxations in leakage criteria and that qualification failures continued to occur. Rees described a review of the program on March 18 at Aerojet-General Corp. as lacking in factual depth. Also, the company did not appear to be pursuing developmental testing of configurational changes with any degree of vigor. Rees suggested to Myers that his people were on the right track and with management attention the vendor's efforts could be channeled to get some genuine results.

1968 March 23 - .
  • Apollo drogue chute test failure 99-5 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Apollo drogue chute test 99-5 failed at the El Centro, Calif., parachute facility. The drop was conducted to demonstrate the slight change made in the reefed area and the 10-second reefing cutter at ultimate load conditions. The 5,897-kilogram vehicle was launched from a B-52 aircraft at 10,668 meters and programmer chute operation and timing appeared normal. At drogue deployment following mortar activation, one drogue appeared to separate from the vehicle. Additional Details: here....

1968 March 27 - .
  • Nitrogen in the Apollo spacecraft's cabin atmosphere - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. ASPO documented its reasons for using nitrogen rather than helium (as the Air Force had done) as the diluent in the Apollo spacecraft's cabin atmosphere, in response to a suggestion from Julian M. West of NASA Hq. Aaron Cohen, Assistant Chief of the MSC Systems Engineering Division, recounted that the Atmosphere Selection Task Team had addressed the question of nitrogen versus helium (regardless of percentage) and had rejected helium because of uncertainty of the compatibility of spacecraft equipment with helium. Further, helium presented the same physiological problems as did nitrogen, and whatever flammabilities advantages helium possessed were extremely small. For all these reasons, Cohen explained, the team had early elected to concentrate on nitrogen- mixed atmospheres.

1968 March 29 - .
  • Lunar photography from orbit during Apollo missions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo LMSS; CSM Recovery. NASA Hq. asked that MSC consider a variety of lunar photographic operations from orbit during manned landing missions. Cancellation from Apollo of the lunar mapping and survey system had eliminated any specially designed lunar photographic capability; but photography was still desired for scientific, operational, and contingency purposes. Presence of the CSM in orbit during manned landing missions, Headquarters OMSF said, would be a valuable opportunity, however limited, for photographic operations. MSC was asked to evaluate these operations to define whatever hardware and operational changes in Apollo might be required to capitalize upon this opportunity.

1968 April 2 - .
  • Design review of the Apollo CM water sterilization system - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Eberhard F. M. Rees, Director of the Special Task Team at North American Rockwell, spearheaded a design review of the CM water sterilization system at Downey, Calif. (The review had resulted as an action item from the March 21 Configuration Control Board meeting in Downey.) Rees and a team of North American engineers reviewed the design of the system and test results and problems to date. Chief among performance concerns seemed to be compatibility of the chlorine solution with several materials in the system, maximum allowable concentration of chlorine in the water supply from the medical aspect, and contamination of the system during storage, handling, and filling. Assuming North American's successful completion of qualification testing and attention to the foregoing action items, said Rees, the system design was judged satisfactory.

1968 April 2 - .
  • 40 percent nitrogen for the Apollo CM cabin in prelaunch operations - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. NASA Hq. confirmed oral instructions to MSC and KSC to use 60 percent oxygen and 40 percent nitrogen to pressurize the Apollo CM cabin in prelaunch checkout operations and during manned chamber testing, as recommended by the Design Certification Review Board on March 7 and confirmed by the NASA Administrator on March 12. This instruction was applicable to flight and test articles at all locations.

1968 April 4 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-502.
  • Apollo 6 - . Payload: Apollo CM 020/ SM 014 / Apollo LTA-2R / S-IVB 502. Mass: 36,806 kg (81,143 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Duration: 2.43 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3170 . COSPAR: 1968-025A. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.20 min. Apollo 6 (AS-502) was launched from Complex 39A at Kennedy Space Center. The space vehicle consisted of a Saturn V launch vehicle with an unmanned, modified Block I command and service module (CSM 020) and a lunar module test article (LTA-2R).

    Liftoff at 7:00 a.m. EST was normal but, during the first-stage (S-IC) boost phase, oscillations and abrupt measurement changes were observed. During the second-stage (S-II) boost phase, two of the J-2 engines shut down early and the remaining three were extended approximately one minute to compensate. The third stage (S-IVB) firing was also longer than planned and at termination of thrust the orbit was 177.7 x 362.9 kilometers rather than the 160.9-kilometer near-circular orbit planned. The attempt to reignite the S-IVB engine for the translunar injection was unsuccessful. Reentry speed was 10 kilometers per second rather than the planned 11.1, and the spacecraft landed 90.7 kilometers uprange of the targeted landing point.

    The most significant spacecraft anomaly occurred at about 2 minutes 13 seconds after liftoff, when abrupt changes were indicated by strain, vibration, and acceleration measurements in the S-IVB, instrument unit, adapter, lunar module test article, and CSM. Apparently oscillations induced by the launch vehicle exceeded the spacecraft design criteria.

    The second-stage (S-II) burn was normal until about 4 minutes 38 seconds after liftoff; then difficulties were recorded. Engine 2 cutoff was recorded about 6 minutes 53 seconds into the flight and engine 3 cutoff less than 3 seconds later. The remaining second-stage engines shut down at 9 minutes 36 seconds - 58 seconds later than planned.

    The S-IVB engine during its first burn, which was normal, operated 29 seconds longer than programmed. After two revolutions in a parking orbit, during which the systems were checked, operational tests performed, and several attitude maneuvers made, preparations were completed for the S-IVB engine restart. The firing was scheduled to occur on the Cape Kennedy pass at the end of the second revolution, but could not be accomplished. A ground command was sent to the CSM to carry out a planned alternate mission, and the CSM separated from the S-IVB stage.

    A service propulsion system (SPS) engine firing sequence resulted in a 442-second burn and an accompanying free-return orbit of 22,259.1 x 33.3 kilometers. Since the SPS was used to attain the desired high apogee, there was insufficient propellant left to gain the high-velocity increase desired for the entry. For this reason, a complete firing sequence was performed except that the thrust was inhibited.

    Parachute deployment was normal and the spacecraft landed about 9 hours 50 minutes after liftoff, in the mid-Pacific, 90.7 kilometers uprange from the predicted landing area (27.40 N 157.59 W). A normal retrieval was made by the U.S.S. Okinawa, with waves of 2.1 to 2.4 meters.

    The spacecraft was in good condition, including the unified crew hatch, flown for the first time. Charring of the thermal protection was about the same as that experienced on the Apollo 4 spacecraft (CM 017).

    Of the five primary objectives, three - demonstrating separation of launch vehicle stages, performance of the emergency detection system (EDS) in a close-loop mode, and mission support facilities and operations - were achieved. Only partially achieved were the objectives of confirming structure and thermal integrity, compatibility of launch vehicle and spacecraft, and launch loads and dynamic characteristics; and of verifying operation of launch vehicle propulsion, guidance and control, and electrical systems. Apollo 6, therefore, was officially judged in December as "not a success in accordance with . . . NASA mission objectives."


1968 April 10 - .
  • TV camera to be carried in Apollo 7 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: A TV camera would be carried in CM 101 on the first manned Apollo flight, Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips, wrote the ASPO Manager (confirming their discussions). . Additional Details: here....

1968 April 12 - .
  • Apollo parachute review - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: A number of decisions were made at the completion of a parachute review at Northrop-Ventura.. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 12 - .
  • Wiring harness problems in Apollo CSM discussed - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: Apollo Special Task Team Director Eberhard Rees wrote Dale D. Myers at North American Rockwell: "As you are well aware, many manhours have been spent investigating and discussing the radially cracked insulation on wire supplied by Haveg Industries. . Additional Details: here....

1968 April 16 - .
  • Results of Apollo boilerplate 1224 tests in a 60%-oxygen / 40% nitrogen cabin atmosphere - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. A meeting at MSC with Irving Pinkel of Lewis Research Center and Robert Van Dolah of the Bureau of Mines reviewed results of boilerplate 1224 tests at 11.4 newtons per square centimeter (16.5 pounds per square inch) in a 60-percent-oxygen and 40-percent-nitrogen atmosphere. Additional Details: here....

1968 April 17 - .
  • Numerous radiation detectors evaluated for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. MSC Engineering and Development Director Maxime Faget reported to George Low that his directorate had investigated numerous radiation detectors, ionization particle detectors, and chemical reactive detectors. The directorate had also obtained information from outside sources such as the National Bureau of Standards, Mine Safety Appliances, Parmalee Plastics, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, and the Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory organization. None of the methods investigated could meet the stated requirements for a spacecraft fire detection system.

1968 April 27 - .
  • Delays in Apollo CSM and LM delivery dates - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO Manager George M. Low explained to the Apollo Program Director the underlying causes of slips in CSM and LM delivery dates since establishment of contract dates during the fall of 1967. The general excuse, Low said, was that slips were the result of NASA-directed hardware changes. "This excuse is not valid." He recounted how NASA-imposed changes had been under strict control and only essential changes had been approved by the MSC Level II Configuration Control Board (CCB). Additional Details: here....

1968 May 21 - .
  • Potential for lunar photography of the moon from the CSM during Apollo lunar missions - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Following up on an earlier request to examine the potential for lunar photography of the moon from the CSM during Apollo lunar missions, Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips asked MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth to expand MSC's effort to include the potential for a range of scientific investigations. Specifically, he asked that MSC study the overall potential of the CSM for lunar science and the modification needed to support increasingly complex experiment payloads. Among experiments that might be carried out from the CSM Phillips cited infrared spectrometer radiometer, ultraviolet absorption spectrometer, passive microwave, radar-laser altimetry, and subsatellites.

1968 May 29 - .
  • NASA's North American Management Performance Award Board issued a summary of its findings - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA's North American Management Performance Award Board sent a summary of its findings for the first interim period, from September 1967 through March 1968, to North American Rockwell's Space Division. The review board had been charged with assessing the company's performance under spacecraft contract NAS 9-150 and determining an award fee under the contract's incentive agreements. Board Chairman B. L. Dorman wrote Space Division President William B. Bergen that the Board had been impressed by the attention of North American's top management to the CSM program. Moreover, a cooperative attitude from top to bottom had afforded NASA an excellent view into problem areas, while the company's assessment of problems had helped to produce high-quality hardware. On the other hand, several activities needed improvement: cost control; tighter management control over change traffic; stronger management of subcontractors; and better planning and implementation of test and checkout functions.

1968 June 10 - .
  • Flight combustion stability monitor on Apollo 7 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. ASPO Manager George M. Low met with Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., and Donald K. Slayton, Directors of MSC Flight and Flight Crew Operations, and several members of their staffs (including astronaut Walter M. Schirra, Jr.) to discuss using the flight combustion stability monitor (FCSM) on the Apollo 7 flight. Additional Details: here....

1968 June 11 - .
  • Two pilot-chute riser failures during drop tests of Apollo - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Dale D. Myers, Apollo CSM Program Manager at North American Rockwell, advised MSC officials of his company's investigation of two pilot-chute riser failures during recent drop tests of the Block II earth-landing system. Should there be any imperfections in either hardware or assembly techniques, Myers explained, the Block II pilot chute and riser system could be a marginal-strength item. Investigations had determined that early manufacturing processes had allowed a differential length between the two plies of nylon webbing in the pilot-chute riser which caused unequal load distribution between the two plies and low total riser strength. Because of the earlier test failures, Myers said, the pilot chute riser had been redesigned. The two-ply nylon webbing had been replaced by continuous suspension lines (i.e., 12 nylon cords) and the 5.5-millimeter-diameter cable was changed to 6.3-millimeter cable. He then cited a series of recent tests that verified the redesigned pilot-chute riser's strength to meet deployment under worst-case operational conditions.

1968 July 3 - .
  • Final drop test to qualify the Apollo CSM earth landing system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA and contractor technicians successfully conducted the final parachute drop test to qualify the Apollo CSM earth-landing system. The Block II ELS thus was considered ready for manned flight after 12 Block I, 4 Block II, and 7 increased-capability Block II Qualification Tests - that had followed 77 Block I, 6 Block II, and 25 increased-capability Block II Development Drop Tests.

1968 July 10-11 - .
  • Apollo Review Board certifies Apollo CSM 101 and the Block II CSM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L; CSM Block II. Summary: The Apollo Design Certification Review (DCR) Board met in Houston to examine CSM 101 and the Block II CSM for proof of design and development maturity and to certify the designs for flightworthiness and manned flight safety.. Additional Details: here....

1968 July 22 - .
  • Apollo CSM 102 deleted from the manned flight program - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. In the continuing effort to reduce costs while still maintaining a balanced and viable program, ASPO Manager George M. Low recommended to NASA Hq. that CSM 102 be deleted from the manned flight program. He estimated total savings at $25.5 million (excluding cost of refurbishment after the current ground test program). In addition, he said, during the static structural test program at North American Rockwell, CSM 102 would be subjected to loads that would compromise structural integrity of the vehicle for manned flight.

1968 August 7 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • George Low promotes idea of flying Apollo 8 as a lunar orbit mission without the Lunar Module - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7; Apollo 8; Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LM; Apollo CSM; CSM Block II; LM Guidance; LM RCS. On August 7, Low asked MSC's Director of Flight Operations Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., to look into the feasibility of a lunar orbit mission for Apollo 8 without carrying the LM. A mission with the LM looked as if it might slip until February or March 1969. The following day Low traveled to KSC for an AS-503 review, and from the work schedule it looked like a January 1969 launch. Additional Details: here....

1968 August 9 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Senior Apollo porject management backs Apollo 8 lunar mission concept - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7; Apollo 8; Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo LTA; Apollo CSM. Summary: August 9 was probably one of the busiest days in George Low's life; the activities of that and the following days enabled the United States to meet the "in this decade" goal.. Additional Details: here....

1968 August 10 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • North American not enthusiastic about plan to send Apollo 8 to moon. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7; Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo LTA; Apollo CSM. Summary: More detailed reviews within NASA showed there were still no obvious insurmountable problems that might block the plan. However North American was not too receptive to the idea.. Additional Details: here....

1968 August 10 - .
  • Houston going ahead with Apollo mission planning that employed a two-burn orbit insertion maneuver - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Capping off a considerable exchange of views between MSC and NASA Headquarters, ASPO Manager George Low advised Apollo Program Director Sam Phillips that Houston was going ahead with mission planning that employed a two-burn orbit insertion maneuver. He forwarded to Phillips a lengthy memorandum from one of his staff, Howard W. Tindall, Jr., that explained in detail MSC's rationale for this two-stage orbital maneuver, the most important of which derived from crew safety and simplified orbital mission procedures. The overriding factor, Tindall explained, was a "concern for the consequences of the many things we will not have thought about but will encounter on the first lunar flight. Anything that can be done to keep the dispersions small and the procedures simple provides that much more tolerance for the unexpected. . . . The cost of the two-stage LOI is a small price to pay for these intangible but important benefits."

1968 August 12 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo 8 lunar mission scheduled for December 20. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo LTA; Apollo CSM. On August 12 Kraft informed Low that December 20 was the day if they wanted to launch in daylight. With everyone agreeing to a daylight launch, the launch was planned for December 1 with a "built-in hold" until the 20th, which would have the effect of giving assurance of meeting the schedule. LTA (LM test article)-B was considered as a substitute; it had been through a dynamic test vehicle program, and all except Kotanchik agreed this would be a good substitute. Grumman suggested LTA-4 but Low decided on LTA-B.

1968 August 13 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Borman crew selected for Apollo 8 lunar mission. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George; Borman. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8; Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Kleinknecht had concluded his CSM 103-106 configuration study by August 13 and determined the high-gain antenna was the most critical item. Kraft was still "GO" and said December 20-26 (except December 25) offered best launch times; he had also looked at January launch possibilities. Slayton had decided to assign the 104 crew to the mission. He had talked to crew commander Frank Borman and Borman was interested.

1968 August 14 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • During a key meeting of Apollo senior figures - top NASA management first approached regarding an Apollo 8 lunar mission in December - reaction: negative. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun; Low, George; Debus. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Participants in the August 14 meeting in Washington were Low, Gilruth, Kraft, and Slayton from MSC; von Braun, James, and Richard from MSFC; Debus and Petrone from KSC; and Deputy Administrator Thomas Paine, William Schneider, Julian Bowman, Phillips, and Hage from NASA Hq. Low reviewed the spacecraft aspects; Kraft, flight operations; and Slayton, flight crew support. MSFC had agreed on the LTA-B as the substitute and were still ready to go; and KSC said they would be ready by December 6. Additional Details: here....

1968 August 15 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Webb briefed on Apollo 8 lunar mission concept. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Phillips, Samuel; Low, George; Webb; Paine. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7; Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Phillips and Paine discussed the plan with Webb in Vienna. Webb wanted to think about it, and requested further information by diplomatic carrier. That same day Phillips called Low and informed him that Mueller had agreed to the plan with the provisions that no full announcement would be made until after the Apollo 7 flight; that it could be announced that 503 would be manned and possible missions were being studied; and that an internal document could be prepared for a planned lunar orbit for December.

1968 August 17 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Webb approves Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission for December - but no public announcement until after a successful Apollo 7 flight. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Webb; Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7; Apollo 8; Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Phillips and Hage visited MSC, bringing the news that Webb had given clear-cut authority to prepare for a December 6 launch, but that they could not proceed with clearance for lunar orbit until after the Apollo 7 flight, which would be an earth-orbital mission with basic objectives of proving the CSM and Saturn V systems. Phillips said that Webb had been "shocked and fairly negative" when he talked to him about the plan on August 15. Subsequently, Paine and Phillips sent Webb a lengthy discourse on why the mission should be changed, and it was felt he would change his mind with a successful Apollo 7 mission.

1968 August 17 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Further development of a pogo sensor for the Apollo Apollo CSM halted - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: ASPO Manager George M. Low wrote Program Director Samuel C. Phillips seeking to halt further development of a pogo sensor for the CSM. . Additional Details: here....

1968 September 10 - .
  • Status of action items assigned by Apollo Crew Safety Review Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: ASPO Manager George M. Low advised Headquarters of the status of MSC's work on action items assigned as a result of the Apollo Crew Safety Review Board presentation on June 17.. Additional Details: here....

1968 September 12 - .
  • Preparations for the first manned Apollo flight - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Summary: Dale D. Myers, North American Rockwell's Apollo CSM Program Manager, wrote George M. Low: . Additional Details: here....

1968 September 18 - .
  • Review of the Apollo CSM subsystems - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mrazek; Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Dale D. Myers, Apollo CSM Program Manager at North American Rockwell, wrote to CSM Manager Kenneth S. Kleinknecht at MSC to apprise him of the company's response to an earlier review of the CSM subsystems development program. During February a small task team from MSFC, headed by William A. Mrazek, had surveyed the design, manufacture, and checkout of several of the spacecraft's subsystems. Findings of the team had been reviewed with Eberhard F. M. Rees, then at Downey as head of the Apollo Special Task Team. Myers sent Kleinknecht briefing notes of a presentation to Rees and others of the special team describing North American's responses to specific issues raised by Mrazek's group. These issues, Myers reported, had been resolved to the satisfaction of both contractor and customer.

1968 September 18 - .
  • Configuration management for Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. ASPO officials headed by Manager George M. Low met with spacecraft managers from North American Rockwell and Grumman to discuss configuration management for the remainder of the Apollo program and to set forth clear ground rules regarding kinds of changes (described as Class I and Class II) and the requisite level of authority for such changes. The outcome of this meeting, as Low told Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips, was that MSC would pass judgment on all Class I changes and that "nearly every change (would) fall in this category." Minor design changes might still be approved at the contractor or subcontractor levels, said Low, but MSC would judge whether those changes were indeed Class II changes. The overall result of this policy, he told Phillips, would be a better awareness by NASA of all changes made by spacecraft subcontractors and a firm understanding that only NASA could approve Class I design modifications.

1968 September 23 - .
  • The Apollo Guidance Software Task Force submitted its final report - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The Apollo Guidance Software Task Force, which NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight George E. Mueller had convened in December 1967, submitted its final report. Purpose of the task force, as Mueller had stated at the time, was to determine whether "additional actions . . . could be taken to improve the software development and verification process and control of it." Between December and July 1968, the group met 14 times at NASA and contractor locations to review the historical evolution of software programs within the Apollo project. Because of the great complexity of this entire field, the task force members recommended that it continue to receive attention by top management levels at both MSC and MSFC. And drawing upon experience learned in the Apollo program, the task force recommended that software not be slighted during any advanced manned programs and that adequate resources and experienced personnel be assigned early in the program to this vital and easily underestimated area.

1968 September 25 - .
  • Concerns over quality coverage of Apollo spacecraft testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA Resident ASPO Manager Wilbur H. Gray at Downey told Dale D. Myers, North American Rockwell CSM Manager, that NR quality coverage of spacecraft testing no longer provided NASA with confidence in test results and that NASA Quality Control would return to monitoring test activities in and from the ACE (acceptance checkout equipment) control room. Gray charged that North American had progressively backed away from contractually agreed steps of the November 30, 1967, Quality Program Plan, and that these actions had affected test readiness, testing, and trouble shooting to the point that test acceptance could not be accepted with any reasonable assurance. Gray said that - unless North American responded by immediate reinstatement of the procedures which, as a minimum, were those that worked satisfactorily on CSMs 103 and 104 - NASA formal acceptance of operational checkout procedures would be discontinued and contractual action initiated. An annotation to George Low from Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, MSC's CSM Manager, indicated the letter had been written with the concurrence and at the suggestion of Kleinknecht.

    Myers replied: "I regret that NASA feels any lack of confidence in current test results. . . . For the past year, there has been a constant improvement program carried out in Test Quality Assurance to (1) perform quality evaluation and acceptance of test results in real time and (2) upgrade the test discipline to be consistent with good quality practice. I believe that this improvement program has been effective and is evidenced by the current efficiency of test and expedient manner in which test paper work is being closed out. While there is naturally some cost benefit experienced from the successful improvements, cost never has been placed as a criteria above quality. . . .

    "Again, I want to emphasize that the CSM Program has not nor will not intentionally place cost ahead of quality. . . . The procedures which worked satisfactorily on CSM 103 and 104 are being improved to provide better test discipline and more effective Quality Assurance coverage. Test progress on CSM 106 to date indicates a greater test effectiveness and a greater confidence in test results than any previous CSM's." Additional Details: here....


1968 September 26 - .
  • Commendation for Rees and the Apollo Special Task Team - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Rees. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth sent Eberhard F. M. Rees, MSFC Deputy Director, his "personal commendation" and appreciation for Rees's leadership of the Apollo Special Task Team and its efforts to bring the CSM program out of the difficult period early in 1967. The work of Rees and his group, said Gilruth, had made an outstanding contribution to the Apollo program and had given NASA management "a significantly higher level of technical confidence" that the Block II spacecraft could safely perform its mission. In addition, Gilruth noted, Rees's "diplomacy in interfacing with North American management also created a much better NASA-contractor relationship and mutual understanding of program technical requirements."

1968 September 28 - .
  • Review of functional interfaces between launch vehicle and spacecraft for Apollo 7 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. Summary: Results of a joint MSFC-MSC review of functional interfaces between the launch vehicle and spacecraft for Apollo 7 were forwarded to NASA Hq. . Additional Details: here....

1968 September 30 - .
  • Apollo D and G missions to test Apollo EMU - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; A7L. Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips asked ASPO Manager George M. Low to investigate the feasibility of using data from the D and G missions to increase NASA's knowledge of and confidence in the operational capabilities of the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Phillips included in his request specific recommendations for additional instrumentation to obtain the necessary data. His action stemmed from a general concern about the extent and complexity of surface operations on the first lunar landing flight (which might substantially reduce chances for successful completion). For this reason, he and other program officials had stringently limited the number of objectives and the extent of those surface activities. But to plan confidently for surface EVA during follow-on Apollo landing missions, Phillips said, as much information as possible had to be gathered about the operational capability of the crew and the EMU.

1968 October 1-2 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • The Apollo Crew Safety Review Board held its fourth meeting at MSC - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: The Apollo Crew Safety Review Board held its fourth meeting at MSC. . Additional Details: here....

1968 October 2 - .
  • Operational philosophy for the Apollo 7 mission - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mueller. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: George E. Mueller, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, wrote MSC Director Robert R. Gilruth to reemphasize the operational philosophy for the Apollo 7 mission. . Additional Details: here....

1968 October 7 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo 8 CSM installed atop the Saturn V - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. In preparation for the flight of Apollo 8, NASA and industry technicians at KSC placed CSM 103 atop the Saturn V launch vehicle. The launch escape system was installed the following day; and on October 9 the complete AS-503 space vehicle was rolled out of the Vehicle Assembly Building and moved to the launch pad, where launch preparations were resumed.

1968 October 7 - .
  • Apollo test recording guidelines - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. In compliance with Apollo Program Directive 29 of July 6, 1967, ASPO Manager George M. Low informed Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips that "the private umbilical connection between the astro- communicator and the astronauts, the private administrative telephone connection via the umbilical cable to the astronauts, and the private aeromed communications in the MSOB (Manned Spacecraft Operations Building) will be recorded during all hazardous spacecraft tests. The recording will be placed in the hands of the Director of Flight Crew Operations, who will keep this recording for a period of 30 days following mission completion. After that time the recording may be destroyed."

1968 October 9 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB.
  • All changes to Apollo 7 as a result of Apollo 1 fire completed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: NASA Apollo Mission Director William C. Schneider reported completion of all action items pertinent to Apollo 7 assigned by Apollo Program Director Samuel C. Phillips as a result of recommendations by the Apollo Crew Safety Review Board on May 27, 1968.. Additional Details: here....

1968 October 11 - . 15:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC34. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB. LV Configuration: Saturn IB SA-205.
  • Apollo 7 - . Call Sign: Apollo 7. Crew: Cunningham; Eisele; Schirra. Backup Crew: Cernan; Stafford; Young. Payload: Apollo CSM 101 / S-IVB-205. Mass: 14,674 kg (32,350 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cunningham; Eisele; Schirra; Cernan; Stafford; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 10.84 days. Decay Date: 1968-10-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 3486 . COSPAR: 1968-089A. Apogee: 306 km (190 mi). Perigee: 229 km (142 mi). Inclination: 31.6000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Apollo 7 (AS-205), the first manned Apollo flight, lifted off from Launch Complex 34 at Cape Kennedy Oct. 11, carrying Walter M. Schirra, Jr., Donn F. Eisele, and R. Walter Cunningham. The countdown had proceeded smoothly, with only a slight delay because of additional time required to chill the hydrogen system in the S-IVB stage of the Saturn launch vehicle. Liftoff came at 11:03 a.m. EDT. Shortly after insertion into orbit, the S-IVB stage separated from the CSM, and Schirra and his crew performed a simulated docking with the S-IVB stage, maneuvering to within 1.2 meters of the rocket. Although spacecraft separation was normal, the crew reported that one adapter panel had not fully deployed. Two burns using the reaction control system separated the spacecraft and launch stage and set the stage for an orbital rendezvous maneuver, which the crew made on the second day of the flight, using the service propulsion engine.

    Crew and spacecraft performed well throughout the mission. During eight burns of the service propulsion system during the flight, the engine functioned normally. October 14, third day of the mission, witnessed the first live television broadcast from a manned American spacecraft.


1968 October 17 - .
  • Contractor support of the Apollo flight program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Dale D. Myers, Apollo CSM Manager at North American Rockwell, wrote ASPO Manager George Low on the policy question of contractor and subcontractor support of the current Apollo flight program and potential follow-on activities. Support for such activities, Myers said, "can be seriously jeopardized if we permit . . . experienced, specialized personnel and unique facilities to become irretrievably lost to the program." He emphasized in particular the case of Aeronca, Inc., of Middletown, Ohio, manufacturer of stainless steel honeycomb panels that formed the structure of the CSM heatshield. Without some sort of sustaining activity, manufacturing skills and capabilities at Aeronca - and numerous other subcontractors and vendors - would rapidly wither. Myers earnestly solicited Low's views on the subject of subcontractor capability retention. In Low's response, he indicated that immediate action was being initiated to establish capability retention for the three most critical sources, Aeronca, Beech, and Pratt and Whitney, and a plan of action was being prepared for others.

1968 October 18 - .
  • Apollo official policy position for landings on land - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. David B. Pendley, Technical Assistant for Flight Safety at MSC, recommended to ASPO Manager George M. Low an official policy position for landings on land. Pendley stated that despite all efforts by the Center's Engineering and Development Directorate to develop a safe land-landing capability with the CSM, the goal could not be attained. The best course, he told Low, was to accept the risk inherent in the fact that a land landing could not be avoided in an early launch abort-accept the risk openly and frankly and to plan rescue operations on the premise of major structural damage to the spacecraft. "If we do not officially recognize the land landing hazard," Pendley said, "this will place us in an untenable position should an accident occur, and will further prejudice the safety of the crew by continuing a false feeling of security on the subject."

1968 October 21 - .
  • Apollo 7 CSM to Downey for postflight testing - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. While the flight of Apollo 7 was still in progress, ASPO Manager George M. Low ordered that CSM 101 be returned to Downey as quickly as possible at the end of the mission to begin postflight testing as quickly as possible. Therefore, no public affairs showing of the spacecraft could be permitted.

1968 October 28 - .
  • No static-firing of the Apollo 8 reaction control system on the pad - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7; Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Summary: MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program Office Manager George M. Low deleted the requirement for a short static-firing of the Apollo 8 service module reaction control system on the pad before launch (the so-called "burp" firing). . Additional Details: here....

1968 November 10 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Success of Apollo 7 clears way for Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission in December. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 7; Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Apollo LTA. Apollo 7 - flown October 11-22 - far exceeded Low's expectations in results and left no doubts that they should go for lunar orbit on Apollo 8. At the November 10 Apollo Executive meeting Phillips presented a summary of the activities; James gave the launch vehicle status; Low reported on the spacecraft status and said he was impressed with the way KSC had handled its tight checkout schedule; Slayton reported on the flight plan; and Petrone on checkout readiness. Petrone said KSC could launch as early as December 10 or 12. Phillips said he would recommend to the Management Council the next day for Apollo 8 to go lunar orbit. Additional Details: here....

1968 November 11 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Paine gives Apollo 8 go-ahead for lunar orbit mission. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Paine; Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo LTA; Apollo CSM. Summary: Low's initiative had paid off; the final decision to go to the moon in 1968 was made with the blessings of all of NASA's decision-makers, the Apollo Executive Committee, STAC, and PSAC..

1968 November 12 - .
  • Land landing of the Apollo CSM in the area of the launch site after an abort assessed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. The Apollo Crew Safety Review Board met to assess land landing of the CSM in the area of the launch site if a flight were aborted just before launch or during the initial phase of a flight. In general the Board was satisfied with overall planned recovery and medical operations. The only specific item to be acted on was some means of purging the interior of the spacecraft to expel any coolant or propellant fumes that might be trapped inside the cabin. The Board was also concerned about the likelihood of residual propellants trapped inside the vehicle even after abort sequence purging, a problem that MSC secured assistance from both the Ames and Lewis Research Centers to solve. At the Board's suggestion, MSC's Crew Systems Division also investigated the use of a helmet liner for the astronauts to prevent head injury upon impact. Finally, the Board recommended continued egress training with fully suited crews, including some night training.

1968 November 21 - .
  • An analysis was made of CSM modifications proposed for AAP. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Orbital Workshop. Summary: The AAP spacecraft requirements and the subsequent subsystem modifications from the Apollo spacecraft resulted from the longer mission duration, increased mission support, docked attitude constraints, and cost and weight factors involved in AAP..

1968 December 9 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Launch preparations for Apollo 8 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM SPS. Summary: Launch preparations for Apollo 8, scheduled for flight December 21, were on schedule, the NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight reported. . Additional Details: here....

1968 December 17 - .
  • Reusability of systems aboard the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Heat Shield. Apollo Program Director Phillips asked ASPO Manager Low to hasten work on the study at North American to define reusability of systems aboard the CM. He asked Low for a review of the area in mid-February 1969 if sufficient data were available by then. Also, Phillips asked Low's recommendations for an effectivity date on any recovery operations to increase reusability of either spacecraft systems or of the complete vehicle. (North American submitted Space Division Report No. 69-463, dated August 29, 1969, recommending preflight preservation treatment and postflight refurbishment that could be accomplished on CMs and its components to enhance reusability. Removal of heatshield access ports and flushing with fresh water on the recovery ship was the only recommendation implemented, because the others were not judged cost effective.)

1968 December 20 - .
  • The lunar closeup stereo camera on Apollo missions discussed - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The lunar closeup stereo camera on Apollo missions was not a separate scientific experiment, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight wrote MSC Deputy Director George S. Trimble. An adjunct to the field geology experiment, the camera's stereoscopic photographs of fine details on the lunar surface would document individual material samples. Additional photography where no samples were taken would provide information on the range of surface textures near the landing site. Following deployment by the crew of emplaced experiments, the field geology investigation - and thus the stereo camera - had priority. Mueller stated that inclusion of the camera on all early Apollo landing missions was desirable, including the first. However, it was doubtful that the contractor could deliver the first flight article in time for that mission, although the camera could be ready for the second landing if granted waivers in documentation, reliability, and quality controls. Mueller affirmed his desire to grant these relaxations in the normally rigid Apollo hardware demands - to the extent that such waivers could be granted without jeopardizing crew safety or overall mission success. As an added benefit, the Associate Administrator said, "the experiment of giving a qualified contractor a relatively free hand in managing a development project within his particular field of competence should be instructive in the planning of future procurements of this type."

1968 December 21 - . 12:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-503.
  • Apollo 8 - . Call Sign: Apollo 8. Crew: Anders; Borman; Lovell. Backup Crew: Aldrin; Armstrong; Haise. Payload: Apollo CSM 103 / LTA-B / S-IVB-503N. Mass: 28,833 kg (63,565 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Anders; Borman; Lovell; Aldrin; Armstrong; Haise. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 6.13 days. Decay Date: 1968-12-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 3626 . COSPAR: 1968-118A. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. Apollo 8 (AS-503) was launched from KSC Launch Complex 39, Pad A, at 7:51 a.m. EST Dec. 21 on a Saturn V booster. The spacecraft crew was made up of Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and William A. Anders. Apollo 8 was the first spacecraft to be launched by a Saturn V with a crew on board, and that crew became the first men to fly around the moon.

    All launch and boost phases were normal and the spacecraft with the S-IVB stage was inserted into an earth-parking orbit of 190.6 by 183.2 kilometers above the earth. After post-insertion checkout of spacecraft systems, the S-IVB stage was reignited and burned 5 minutes 9 seconds to place the spacecraft and stage in a trajectory toward the moon - and the Apollo 8 crew became the first men to leave the earth's gravitational field.

    The spacecraft separated from the S-IVB 3 hours 20 minutes after launch and made two separation maneuvers using the SM's reaction control system. Eleven hours after liftoff, the first midcourse correction increased velocity by 26.4 kilometers per hour. The coast phase was devoted to navigation sightings, two television transmissions, and system checks. The second midcourse correction, about 61 hours into the flight, changed velocity by 1.5 kilometers per hour.

    The 4-minute 15-second lunar-orbit-insertion maneuver was made 69 hours after launch, placing the spacecraft in an initial lunar orbit of 310.6 by 111.2 kilometers from the moon's surface - later circularized to 112.4 by 110.6 kilometers. During the lunar coast phase the crew made numerous landing-site and landmark sightings, took lunar photos, and prepared for the later maneuver to enter the trajectory back to the earth.

    On the fourth day, Christmas Eve, communications were interrupted as Apollo 8 passed behind the moon, and the astronauts became the first men to see the moon's far side. Later that day , during the evening hours in the United States, the crew read the first 10 verses of Genesis on television to earth and wished viewers "goodnight, good luck, a Merry Christmas and God bless all of you - all of you on the good earth."

    Subsequently, TV Guide for May 10-16, 1969, claimed that one out of every four persons on earth - nearly 1 billion people in 64 countries - heard the astronauts' reading and greeting, either on radio or on TV; and delayed broadcasts that same day reached 30 additional countries.

    On Christmas Day, while the spacecraft was completing its 10th revolution of the moon, the service propulsion system engine was fired for three minutes 24 seconds, increasing the velocity by 3,875 km per hr and propelling Apollo 8 back toward the earth, after 20 hours 11 minutes in lunar orbit. More television was sent to earth on the way back.


1968 December 31 - .
  • Contract to North American Rockwell for modifications to the Apollo CSM for long- duration AAP missions. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Orbital Workshop. Summary: MSC awarded a contract to North American Rockwell, Downey, California, for preliminary design of modifications to the Apollo block II command and service modules for use in long- duration AAP missions. .

1969 January 24 - .
  • Apollo CSM Flight Readiness Review Board - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The CSM Flight Readiness Review Board convened at MSC. Martin L. Raines presented the Reliability and Quality Assurance assessment and pointed out the improvement in discrepancy reports between spacecraft 101, 103, and 104 and concluded that 104 was better than 103 and ready to fly. George M. Low noted that the CSM Review had been outstanding.

1969 January 27 - .
  • Certification reviews for parachute packers in the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. MSC and North American Rockwell reached agreement on certification reviews for parachute packers in the Apollo program. The certification was effective for all parachute packers not previously certified, with upgrading of packers and recertification of present Apollo packers when required.

1969 February 12 - .
  • Apollo Operations Handbook review - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. George M. Low, MSC, told Maxime A. Faget, MSC, that he had recently learned the Apollo Operations Handbook (AOH) was prepared for the Flight Crew Operations Directorate by prime contractors without any formalized review by engineering elements of MSC. On several occasions, when the Engineering and Development (E&D) subsystems managers looked at a section of the handbook in connection with problem areas they found the handbook in error. Low proposed that E&D should

    1. verify technical accuracy of the baseline issue of the handbook before its final issue for the F mission,
    2. verify all changes in the AOH in a timely manner, and
    3. verify any crew checklist changes made during the last 45 days before launch.

1969 February 14 - .
  • Flammability tests of the Sony Apollo tape/voice recorder - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Flammability tests of the Sony tape/voice recorder were made to determine if the recorder met crew-cabin use requirements. Testing was by electrical overloads of nichrome wire ignitors in an atmosphere of 100 percent oxygen at 4.3 newtons per square centimeter (6.2 psia). Post-test evaluations indicated that flammability requirements had been met, since ignitions were self-extinguishing and only localized internal damage occurred.

1969 February 26 - .
  • NASA announced it would negotiate with North American Rockwell for modifications to four Apollo spacecraft for AAP. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Orbital Workshop.

1969 March 3 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-504.
  • Apollo 9 - . Call Sign: Gumdrop. Crew: McDivitt; Schweickart; Scott. Backup Crew: Bean; Conrad; Gordon. Payload: Apollo CSM 104 / Apollo LM 3 / Saturn S-IVB-504N. Mass: 36,511 kg (80,492 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: McDivitt; Schweickart; Scott; Bean; Conrad; Gordon. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 9. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 10.04 days. Decay Date: 1969-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 3769 . COSPAR: 1969-018A. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Apollo 9 (AS-504), the first manned flight with the lunar module (LM-3), was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, on a Saturn V launch vehicle at 11:00 a.m. EST March 3. Originally scheduled for a February 28 liftoff, the launch had been delayed to allow crew members James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. Schweickart to recover from a mild virus respiratory illness. Following a normal launch phase, the S-IVB stage inserted the spacecraft into an orbit of 192.3 by 189.3 kilometers. After post-insertion checkout, CSM 104 separated from the S-IVB, was transposed, and docked with the LM. At 3:08 p.m. EST, the docked spacecraft were separated from the S-IVB, which was then placed on an earth-escape trajectory. On March 4 the crew tracked landmarks, conducted pitch and roll yaw maneuvers, and increased the apogee by service propulsion system burns.

    On March 5 McDivitt and Schweickart entered the LM through the docking tunnel, evaluated the LM systems, transmitted the first of two series of telecasts, and fired the LM descent propulsion system. They then returned to the CM.

    McDivitt and Schweickart reentered the LM on March 6. After transmitting a second telecast, Schweickart performed a 37-minute extravehicular activity (EVA), walking between the LM and CSM hatches, maneuvering on handrails, taking photographs, and describing rain squalls over KSC.

    On March 7, with McDivitt and Schweickart once more in the LM, Scott separated the CSM from the LM and fired the reaction control system thrusters to obtain a distance of 5.5 kilometers between the two spacecraft. McDivitt and Schweickart then performed a lunar-module active rendezvous. The LM successfully docked with the CSM after being up to 183.5 kilometers away from it during the six-and-one-half-hour separation. After McDivitt and Schweickart returned to the CSM, the LM ascent stage was jettisoned.

    During the remainder of the mission, the crew tracked Pegasus III, NASA's meteoroid detection satellite that had been launched July 30, 1965; took multispectral photos of the earth; exercised the spacecraft systems; and prepared for reentry.


1969 March 7 - .
  • Radiation survey of Apollo CSM 107 planned - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. A radiation survey of CSM 107 was planned to determine if the radiation produced by onboard sources would be of a sufficient level to impair the effectiveness of proposed experiments to measure the natural radiation emitted from the lunar surface. The survey would be conducted at KSC by personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center.

1969 March 12 - .
  • Status of a fire detection system for Apollo - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Faget. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. George M. Low discussed the status of a fire detection system for Apollo in a memorandum to Martin L. Raines, reminding him that such a system had been under consideration since the accident in January 1967. Low said: "Yesterday, Dr. (Maxime A.) Faget, you, and I participated in a meeting to review the current status of a flight fire detection system. It became quite clear that our state of knowledge about the physics and chemistry of fire in zero gravity is insufficient to permit the design and development of a flightworthy fire detection system at this time. For this reason, we agreed that we would not be able to incorporate a fire detection system in any of the Apollo spacecraft. We also agreed that it would be most worthwhile to continue the development of a detection system for future spacecraft."

1969 March 20 - .
  • Deletion of Apollo CSM boost protective cover rejected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM LES. ASPO Manager George Low wrote NASA Hq. - referring to a briefing of George Low at Downey on October 25, 1968 - that "MSC has reviewed the possibility of deleting the CSM boost protective cover. We have concluded that deletion . . . would require the following spacecraft modifications: a. A new thermal coating would have to be developed to withstand the boost environment. b. Protective covers would have to be developed for the windows, EVA handholds, vent lines, etc. . . . We have further concluded that a resulting overall weight reduction is questionable, and . . . have therefore decided that the cost of this change could not be justified and that the boost protective cover should be retained."

1969 April 3 - .
  • Apollo ASPO requested a plan for flight crew tests of sleeping pills and other drugs - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. ASPO requested a plan for flight crew tests of sleeping pills and other drugs. The plan was to include number of tests to be performed by each crew member; time of the test with respect to the last sleep period; amount and kind of food and drink taken during a specified time before the test; general physical activity by the crew before taking a drug; and, for comparison purpose, any available statistical information on the effect of these pills after being taken.

1969 April 14-21 - .
  • Twenty-two astronauts trained for Apollo lunar reentry - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Simulator. Twenty-two astronauts trained in the MSC Flight Acceleration Facility during the week, for lunar reentry. Closed-loop simulation permitted the crews to control the centrifuge during the lunar reentry deceleration profiles. Each astronaut flew four different reentry angles, which imposed acceleration loads of from 4.57 to 9.3 g.

1969 May 5 - .
  • Apollo CM cold storage compartment - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Cockpit. MSC asked North American Rockwell to propose a design modification in the CM to add a cold storage compartment for fresh and frozen foods. If the frozen food study appeared promising, then the addition of a small oven or heater, similar in concept to that used by the Air Force on long flights, would also be required.

1969 May 18 - . 16:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-505.
  • Apollo 10 - . Call Sign: Charlie Brown. Crew: Cernan; Stafford; Young. Backup Crew: Cooper; Eisele; Mitchell. Payload: Apollo CSM 106 / Apollo LM 4 / Saturn S-IVB-505N. Mass: 28,870 kg (63,640 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Stafford; Young; Cooper; Eisele; Mitchell. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 10. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 3941 . COSPAR: 1969-043A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. Final dress rehearsal in lunar orbit for landing on moon. LM separated and descended to 10 km from surface of moon but did not land. Apollo 10 (AS-505) - with crew members Thomas P. Stafford, Eugene A. Cernan, and John W. Young aboard - lifted off from Pad B, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12:49 p.m. EDT on the first lunar orbital mission with complete spacecraft. The Saturn V's S-IVB stage and the spacecraft were inserted into an earth parking orbit of 189.9 by 184.4 kilometers while the onboard systems were checked. The S-IVB engine was then ignited at 3:19 p.m. EDT to place the spacecraft in a trajectory toward the moon. One-half hour later the CSM separated from the S-IVB, transposed, and docked with the lunar module. At 4:29 p.m. the docked spacecraft were ejected, a separation maneuver was performed, and the S-IVB was placed in a solar orbit by venting residual propellants. TV coverage of docking procedures was transmitted to the Goldstone, Calif., tracking station for worldwide, commercial viewing.

    On May 19 the crew elected not to make the first of a series of midcourse maneuvers. A second preplanned midcourse correction that adjusted the trajectory to coincide with a July lunar landing trajectory was executed at 3:19 p.m. The maneuver was so accurate that preplanned third and fourth midcourse corrections were canceled. During the translunar coast, five color TV transmissions totaling 72 minutes were made of the spacecraft and the earth.

    At 4:49 p.m. EDT on May 21 the spacecraft was inserted into a lunar orbit of 110.4 by 315.5 kilometers. After two revolutions of tracking and ground updates, a maneuver circularized the orbit at 109.1 by 113.9 kilometers. Astronaut Cernan then entered the LM, checked all systems, and returned to the CM for the scheduled sleep period.

    On May 22 activation of the lunar module systems began at 11:49 a.m. EDT. At 2:04 p.m. the spacecraft were undocked and at 4:34 p.m. the LM was inserted into a descent orbit. One hour later the LM made a low-level pass at an altitude of 15.4 kilometers over the planned site for the first lunar landing. The test included a test of the landing radar, visual observation of lunar lighting, stereo photography of the moon, and execution of a phasing maneuver using the descent engine. The lunar module returned to dock successfully with the CSM following the eight-hour separation, and the LM crew returned to the CSM.

    The LM ascent stage was jettisoned, its batteries were burned to depletion, and it was placed in a solar orbit on May 23. The crew then prepared for the return trip to earth and after 61.5 hours in lunar orbit a service propulsion system TEI burn injected the CSM into a trajectory toward the earth. During the return trip the astronauts made star-lunar landmark sightings, star-earth horizon navigation sightings, and live television transmissions.


1969 May 19 - .
  • Postlanding ventilation filter eliminated for Apollo 12 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 11; Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. In a telephone conference, MSC personnel and members of the Interagency Committee on Back Contamination agreed to eliminate the requirement for a postlanding ventilation filter for Apollo 12, approve a plan for sterilization of the CM in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), release the spacecraft at the same time as the crew release, and approve the LRL Bioprotocol Summary. The ICBC planned to meet on June 5 to complete planning and documentation for Apollo 11.

1969 June 13 - .
  • Color TV coverage for Apollo 11 approved - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 10; Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Television. Apollo Program Director Phillips wrote MSC ASPO Manager George Low, that "based on the excellent results of the color TV coverage on the Apollo 10 mission . . . I concur with your plan to carry and utilize a color TV camera in the Command Module for Apollo 11 and subsequent missions. . . ."

1969 July 8 - .
  • Apollo spacecraft walk-down team to look at spacecraft as late as possible before delivery to KSC - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. In an effort to stem the increasing number of human errors found in flight hardware, the ASPO Manager appointed a spacecraft walk-down team to take a first-hand look at spacecraft as late as possible before delivery to KSC. Team members selected were highly experienced in their respective fields and thoroughly familiar with the spacecraft. While ASPO recognized that the team could not possibly discover all the possible discrepancies, it hoped that the inspections might help avoid some of the problems experienced in the past.

1969 July 9 - .
  • Apollo costs could be reduced - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. The ASPO Manager for the command and service modules expressed belief that costs could be reduced and others avoided by the effective use of agency resources in many areas. However, he pointed out that the very nature of the program - that is, one operating in a research and development atmosphere - would result in higher costs than would a mass-production program.

1969 July 16 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-506.
  • Apollo 11 - . Call Sign: Columbia. Crew: Aldrin; Armstrong; Collins. Backup Crew: Anders; Haise; Lovell. Payload: Apollo CSM 107 / Apollo LM 5 / EASEP / S-IVB-506. Mass: 28,800 kg (63,400 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Aldrin; Armstrong; Collins; Anders; Haise; Lovell. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 8.14 days. Decay Date: 1969-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4039 . COSPAR: 1969-059A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. First landing on moon. Apollo 11 (AS-506) - with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., aboard - was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 9:32 a.m. EDT July 16. The activities during earth-orbit checkout, translunar injection, CSM transposition and docking, spacecraft ejection, and translunar coast were similar to those of Apollo 10.

    At 4:40 p.m. EDT July 18, the crew began a 96-minute color television transmission of the CSM and LM interiors, CSM exterior, the earth, probe and drogue removal, spacecraft tunnel hatch opening, food preparation, and LM housekeeping. One scheduled and two unscheduled television broadcasts had been made previously by the Apollo 11 crew.

    The spacecraft entered lunar orbit at 1:28 p.m. EDT on July 19. During the second lunar orbit a live color telecast of the lunar surface was made. A second service-propulsion-system burn placed the spacecraft in a circularized orbit, after which astronaut Aldrin entered the LM for two hours of housekeeping including a voice and telemetry test and an oxygen-purge-system check.

    At 8:50 a.m. July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin reentered the LM and checked out all systems. They performed a maneuver at 1:11 p.m. to separate the LM from the CSM and began the descent to the moon. The LM touched down on the moon at 4:18 p.m. EDT July 20. Armstrong reported to mission control at MSC, "Houston, Tranquillity Base here - the Eagle has landed." (Eagle was the name given to the Apollo 11 LM; the CSM was named Columbia.) Man's first step on the moon was taken by Armstrong at 10:56 p.m. EDT. As he stepped onto the surface of the moon, Armstrong described the feat as "one small step for man - one giant leap for mankind."

    Aldrin joined Armstrong on the surface of the moon at 11:15 p.m. July 20. The astronauts unveiled a plaque mounted on a strut of the LM and read to a worldwide TV audience, "Here men from the planet earth first set foot on the moon July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." After raising the American flag and talking to President Nixon by radiotelephone, the two astronauts deployed the lunar surface experiments assigned to the mission and gathered 22 kilograms of samples of lunar soil and rocks. They then reentered the LM and closed the hatch at 1:11 a.m. July 21. All lunar extravehicular activities were televised in black-and-white. Meanwhile, Collins continued orbiting moon alone in CSM Columbia.

    The Eagle lifted off from the moon at 1:54 p.m. EDT July 21, having spent 21 hours 36 minutes on the lunar surface. It docked with the CSM at 5:35 p.m. and the crew, with the lunar samples and film, transferred to the CSM. The LM ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit. The crew then rested and prepared for the return trip to the earth.

    The CSM was injected into a trajectory toward the earth at 12:55 a.m. EDT July 22. Following a midcourse correction at 4:01 p.m., an 18-minute color television transmission was made, in which the astronauts demonstrated the weightlessness of food and water and showed shots of the earth and the moon.


1969 August 10 - .
1969 August 13 - .
  • Antenna for Apollo communications on the lunar surface suggested - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Communications. S. C. Phillips, NASA Hq., suggested that for communications on the lunar surface a long, deployable antenna might work. He suggested that an antenna about 30 meters long could be used. The antenna would be rolled up like a tape measure and would curl into a cylinder when deployed, somewhat like an antenna that had been used on the CSM.

1969 September 17 - .
  • Changes in Apollo mission recovery procedures recommended - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Recovery. The Interagency Committee on Back Contamination recommended changes in Apollo mission recovery procedures, including:

    • Elimination of the biological isolation garment and, instead, use of a mask and clean room garment for astronauts returning from lunar missions.
    • Design changes to improve the spacecraft and mobile quarantine facility tunnel operation.

1969 September 19 - .
  • MSC reports that 136 flags of other nations were flown on Apollo 11 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 11. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: MSC replied to a query that 136 flags of other nations, the U.N. flag, and flags from each state and territory of the United States had been flown on Apollo 11. . Additional Details: here....

1969 October 30 - .
  • The Interagency Committee on Back Contamination made the following decisions regarding Apollo 12 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The Interagency Committee on Back Contamination made the following decisions regarding Apollo 12. The biological isolation garment would not be used. A biological mask and flight suit would be used instead. Sterilization of flight film was eliminated. Data tapes would be sterilized if required before the release of samples. The command module would not be decontaminated unless access for postflight testing was required before the sample release date of January 7, 1970.

1969 November 3 - .
  • In-house review reevaluates the Apollo secondary life support system - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kraft. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., MSC Director of Flight Operations, suggested that an in-house review reevaluate the Apollo secondary life support system, because of its complexity and cost of development, and at the same time reexamine the possibilities of an expanded oxygen purge system using identical concepts.

1969 November 3 - .
  • Apollo team made a walkaround inspection of Apollo 14 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. The spacecraft walk-down team, established by ASPO in July in an effort to stem the increased number of human errors found in flight hardware, made a walkaround inspection of CSM-110 (Apollo 14 hardware). Cooperation of North American Rockwell and the Resident Apollo Spacecraft Program Office was excellent during the preparation and implementation of the inspection. No significant discrepancies were found by the inspection team during the several hours of inspection.

1969 November 4-7 - .
  • A preliminary design review on the AAP CSM was held at North American Rockwell, Downey. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Orbital Workshop. Major configuration items which resulted from the review were reindexing the CSM by 180 degrees, based on a crew requirement to be able to realign the astronaut maneuvering unit before undocking from the cluster, and installation provisions for two reentry control system propellant tank farms. Both recommendations would be subjected to further review.

1969 November 14 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-507.
  • Apollo 12 - . Call Sign: Yankee Clipper. Crew: Bean; Conrad; Gordon. Backup Crew: Irwin; Scott; Worden. Payload: Apollo CSM 108 / Apollo LM 6 / ALSEP / S-IVB-507. Mass: 28,790 kg (63,470 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bean; Conrad; Gordon; Irwin; Scott; Worden. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 12. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 10.19 days. Decay Date: 1969-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 4225 . COSPAR: 1969-099A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.19 min. Apollo 12 (AS-507)-with astronauts Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, Jr., and Alan L. Bean as the crewmen-was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 11:22 a.m. EST November 14. Lightning struck the space vehicle twice, at 36.5 seconds and 52 seconds into the mission. The first strike was visible to spectators at the launch site. No damage was done. Except for special attention given to verifying all spacecraft systems because of the lightning strikes, the activities during earth-orbit checkout, translunar injection, and translunar coast were similar to those of Apollo 10 and Apollo 11.

    During the translunar coast astronauts Conrad and Bean transferred to the LM one-half hour earlier than planned in order to obtain full TV coverage through the Goldstone tracking station. The 56-minute TV transmission showed excellent color pictures of the CSM, the intravehicular transfer, the LM interior, the earth, and the moon.

    At 10:47 p.m. EST, November 17, the spacecraft entered a lunar orbit of 312.6 x 115.9 kilometers. A second service propulsion system burn circularized the orbit with a 122.5-kilometer apolune and a 100.6-kilometer perilune. Conrad and Bean again transferred to the LM, where they perfomed housekeeping chores, a voice and telemetry test, and an oxygen purge system check. They then returned to the CM.

    Conrad and Bean reentered the LM, checked out all systems, and at 10:17 p.m. EST on November 18 fired the reaction control system thrusters to separate the CSM 108 (the Yankee Clipper) from the LM-6 (the Intrepid). At 1:55 a.m. EST November 19, the Intrepid landed on the moon's Ocean of Storms, about 163 meters from the Surveyor III spacecraft that had landed April 19, 1967. Conrad, shorter than Neil Armstrong (first man on the moon, July 20), had a little difficulty negotiating the last step from the LM ladder to the lunar surface. When he touched the surface at 6:44 a.m. EST November 19, he exclaimed, "Whoopee! Man, that may have been a small step for Neil, but that's a long one for me."

    Bean joined Conrad on the surface at 7:14 a.m. They collected a 1.9-kilogram contingency sample of lunar material and later a 14.8-kilogram selected sample. They also deployed an S-band antenna, solar wind composition experiment, and the American flag. An Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package with a SNAP-27 atomic generator was deployed about 182 meters from the LM. After 3 hours 56 minutes on the lunar surface, the two astronauts entered the Intrepid to rest and check plans for the next EVA.

    The astronauts again left the LM at 10:55 p.m. EST November 19. During the second EVA, Conrad and Bean retrieved the lunar module TV camera for return to earth for a failure analysis, obtained photographic panoramas, core and trench samples, a lunar environment sample, and assorted rock, dirt, bedrock, and molten samples. The crew then examined and retrieved parts of Surveyor III, including the TV camera and soil scoop. After 3 hours 49 minutes on the lunar surface during the second EVA, the two crewmen entered the LM at 2:44 a.m. EST November 20. Meanwhile astronaut Gordon, orbiting the moon in the Yankee Clipper, had completed a lunar multispectral photography experiment and photographed proposed future landing sites.

    At 9:26 a.m. EST November 20, after 31 hours 31 minutes on the moon, Intrepid successfully lifted off with 34.4 kilograms of lunar samples. Rendezvous maneuvers went as planned. The LM docked with the CSM at 12:58 p.m. November 20. The last 24 minutes of the rendezvous sequence was televised. After the crew transferred with the samples, equipment, and film to the Yankee Clipper, the Intrepid was jettisoned and intentionally crashed onto the lunar surface at 5:17 p.m. November 20, 72.2 kilometers southeast of Surveyor III. The crash produced reverberations that lasted about 30 minutes and were detected by the seismometer left on the moon.

    At 3:49 p.m. EST November 21, the crew fired the service propulsion system engine, injecting the CSM into a transearth trajectory after 89 hours 2 minutes in lunar orbit. During the transearth coast, views of the receding moon and the interior of the spacecraft were televised, and a question and answer session with scientists and the press was conducted.


1969 November 15 - .
  • Apollo subcontractor performance excellent - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. A review of North American Rockwell Space Division's in subcontract management indicated that its subcontractor schedule and cost performance had been excellent. The quality had been achieved, for the most part, by effective North American Rockwell subcontract management planning and execution of these plans.

1969 November 17 - .
  • Apollo Orbital Science Photographic Team selected - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. NASA selected an Apollo Orbital Science Photographic Team to provide scientific guidance in design, operation, and data use of photographic systems for the Apollo lunar orbital science program. Chairman was Frederick Doyle of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14-man team comprised experts from industry, universities, and government.

1969 December 18 - .
  • Configuration control panel for Apollo GFE scientific equipment established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: A configuration control panel for Apollo GFE scientific equipment was established at MSC, with Robert A. Gardiner as chairman. The panel would control proposed changes in Apollo spacecraft GFE science equipment..

1970 January 6 - .
  • North American refused to join Coordinated Aerospace Supplier Evaluation (CASE) organization - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. North American Rockwell declined to become a member of the Coordinated Aerospace Supplier Evaluation (CASE) organization. North American Rockwell stated that its Certified Special Processors system provided greater effectiveness, that there was no real assurance that a supplier listed in the CASE Register was capable of performing to all the requirements of the indicated specifications, and that participants in CASE were prohibited from any exchange of information concerning supplier inadequacies. Several processors discontinued by North American Rockwell because of poor performance were still enjoying the full benefit of listing in the CASE Register, with the implication of system acceptability and certified-processor status that the listing provided.

1970 January 29 - .
  • Ground rules for Apollo service module design and integration established - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 15; Apollo 16; Apollo 18; Apollo 19. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Ground rules for service module design and integration, established during recent changes in the lunar orbital science program, were reported. The Apollo LM experiment hardware would be installed and tested at KSC. A single scientific instrument module configuration was being proposed for Apollo 16-19 with modification kits developed, as required, to install Apollo 18 and Apollo 19 experiments. An expanded Apollo LM data system would be available for Apollo 16 (spacecraft 112).

1970 April 6-10 - .
  • Swigert, Apollo 13 backup pilot, began intensive training to replace Mattingly - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Astronaut John L. Swigert, Jr., Apollo 13 backup command module pilot, began intensive training as a replacement for Thomas K. Mattingly II. The Apollo 13 prime crew had undergone a comprehensive medical examination after German measles had been contracted by Charles M. Duke, Jr., a member of the Apollo 13 backup crew. Mattingly had not shown immunity to the rubella virus and it was feared that he might become ill during the Apollo 13 flight.

1970 April 11 - . 19:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-508.
  • Apollo 13 - . Call Sign: Odyssey. Crew: Haise; Lovell; Swigert. Backup Crew: Duke; Mattingly; Young. Support Crew: Brand; Lousma; Kerwin. Payload: Apollo CSM 109 / Apollo LM 7 / ALSEP / S-IVB-508. Mass: 28,790 kg (63,470 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Haise; Lovell; Swigert; Duke; Mattingly; Young; Brand; Lousma; Kerwin. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Fuel Cell. Duration: 5.95 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 4371 . COSPAR: 1970-029A. Apogee: 186 km (115 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 32.5000 deg. Period: 88.31 min. Apollo 13 (AS-508) was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 2:13 p.m. EST April 11, with astronauts James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr., aboard. The spacecraft and S-IVB stage entered a parking orbit with a 185.5-kilometer apogee and a 181.5-kilometer perigee. At 3:48 p.m., onboard TV was begun for five and one-half minutes. At 4:54 p.m., an S-IVB burn placed the spacecraft on a translunar trajectory, after which the CSM separated from the S-IVB and LM Aquarius. (The crew had named lunar module 7 Aquarius and CSM 109 Odyssey.) The CSM then hard-docked with the LM. The S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system made an evasive maneuver after CSM/LM ejection from the S-IVB at 6:14 p.m. The docking and ejection maneuvers were televised during a 72-minute period in which interior and exterior views of the spacecraft were also shown.

    At 8:13 p.m. EST a 217-second S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system burn aimed the S-IVB for a lunar target point so accurately that another burn was not required. The S-IVB/IU impacted the lunar surface at 8:10 p.m. EST on April 14 at a speed of 259 meters per second. Impact was 137.1 kilometers from the Apollo 12 seismometer. The seismic signal generated by the impact lasted 3 hours 20 minutes and was so strong that a ground command was necessary to reduce seismometer gain and keep the recording on the scale. The suprathermal ion detector experiment, also deployed by the Apollo 12 crew, recorded a jump in the number of ions from zero at the time of impact up to 2,500 shortly thereafter and then back to a zero count. Scientists theorized that ionization had been produced by 6,300 K to 10,300 K (6,000 degrees C to 10,000 degrees C) temperature generated by the impact or that particles had reached an altitude of 60 kilometers from the lunar surface and had been ionized by sunlight.

    Meanwhile back in the CSM/LM, the crew had been performing the routine housekeeping duties associated with the period of the translunar coast. At 30:40 ground elapsed time a midcourse correction maneuver took the spacecraft off a free-return trajectory in order to control the arrival time at the moon. Ensuring proper lighting conditions at the landing site. The maneuver placed the spacecraft on the desired trajectory, on which the closest approach to the moon would be 114.9 kilometers.

    At 10:08 p.m. EST April 13, the crew reported an undervoltage alarm on the CSM main bus B, rapid loss of pressure in SM oxygen tank No. 2, and dropping current in fuel cells 1 and 3 to a zero reading. The loss of oxygen and primary power in the service module required an immediate abort of the mission. The astronauts powered up the LM, powered down the CSM, and used the LM systems for power and life support. The first maneuver following the abort decision was made with the descent propulsion system to place the spacecraft back in a free-return trajectory around the moon. After the spacecraft swung around the moon, another maneuver reduced the coast time back to earth and moved the landing point from the Indian Ocean to the South Pacific.


1970 April 13-June 15 - .
  • Apollo 13 - "Hey - we've got a problem here" - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 13. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Electrical. "Hey, we've got a problem here." The message from the Apollo 13 spacecraft to Houston ground controllers at 10:08 p.m. EDT on April 13, initiated an investigation to determine the cause of an oxygen tank failure that aborted the Apollo 13 mission. Additional Details: here....

1970 April 19 - .
1970 May 6 - .
  • North American Rockwell completed a verification evaluation of the CSM hardware for a 120-day capability and transmitted the certification matrices to NASA. - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; Orbital Workshop. Summary: If there were no changes in CSM mission performance requirements, verification for a 120-day mission would not present a problem..

1970 June 4 - .
  • MSC announced a supplemental agreement to the Apollo contract with North American Rockwell to provide four CSMs for the Skylab Program. - . Nation: USA. Program: Skylab. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: The agreement definitized a letter contract issued in March 1969..

1970 August 7 - .
  • William B Bergen named North American's Group Vice President - Aerospace and Systems - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. North American Rockwell announced that William B. Bergen, who had been serving as president of North American's Space Division, would become a corporate vice president with the title Group Vice President - Aerospace and Systems. This was one of a number of key organizational steps taken since January to improve and strengthen the North American management structure in response to significant changes that had occurred in the aerospace environment.

1970 November 24 - .
1971 January 31 - . 21:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-509.
  • Apollo 14 - . Call Sign: Kitty Hawk. Crew: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard. Backup Crew: Cernan; Engle; Evans. Support Crew: Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Payload: Apollo CSM 110 / Apollo LM 8 / ALSEP / S-IVB-509. Mass: 29,230 kg (64,440 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mitchell; Roosa; Shepard; Cernan; Engle; Evans; Chapman; McCandless; Pogue. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 14. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 9.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-02-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4900 . COSPAR: 1971-008A. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 31.1200 deg. Period: 88.18 min. The Apollo 14 (AS-509) mission - manned by astronauts Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell - was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 4:03 p.m. EST January 31 on a Saturn V launch vehicle. A 40-minute hold had been ordered 8 minutes before scheduled launch time because of unsatisfactory weather conditions, the first such delay in the Apollo program. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection were similar to those of the previous lunar landing missions. However, during transposition and docking, CSM 110 Kitty Hawk had difficulty docking with LM-8 Antares. A hard dock was achieved on the sixth attempt at 9:00 p.m. EST, 1 hour 54 minutes later than planned. Other aspects of the translunar journey were normal and proceeded according to flight plan. A crew inspection of the probe and docking mechanism was televised during the coast toward the moon. The crew and ground personnel were unable to determine why the CSM and LM had failed to dock properly, but there was no indication that the systems would not work when used later in the flight.

    Apollo 14 entered lunar orbit at 1:55 a.m. EST on February 4. At 2:41 a.m. the separated S-IVB stage and instrument unit struck the lunar surface 174 kilometers southeast of the planned impact point. The Apollo 12 seismometer, left on the moon in November 1969, registered the impact and continued to record vibrations for two hours.

    After rechecking the systems in the LM, astronauts Shepard and Mitchell separated the LM from the CSM and descended to the lunar surface. The Antares landed on Fra Mauro at 4:17 a.m. EST February 5, 9 to 18 meters short of the planned landing point. The first EVA began at 9:53 a.m., after intermittent communications problems in the portable life support system had caused a 49-minute delay. The two astronauts collected a 19.5-kilogram contingency sample; deployed the TV, S-band antenna, American flag, and Solar Wind Composition experiment; photographed the LM, lunar surface, and experiments; deployed the Apollo lunar surface experiments package 152 meters west of the LM and the laser-ranging retroreflector 30 meters west of the ALSEP; and conducted an active seismic experiment, firing 13 thumper shots into the lunar surface.

    A second EVA period began at 3:11 a.m. EST February 6. The two astronauts loaded the mobile equipment transporter (MET) - used for the first time - with photographic equipment, tools, and a lunar portable magnetometer. They made a geology traverse toward the rim of Cone Crater, collecting samples on the way. On their return, they adjusted the alignment of the ALSEP central station antenna in an effort to strengthen the signal received by the Manned Space Flight Network ground stations back on earth.

    Just before reentering the LM, astronaut Shepard dropped a golf ball onto the lunar surface and on the third swing drove the ball 366 meters. The second EVA had lasted 4 hours 35 minutes, making a total EVA time for the mission of 9 hours 24 minutes. The Antares lifted off the moon with 43 kilograms of lunar samples at 1:48 p.m. EST February 6.

    Meanwhile astronaut Roosa, orbiting the moon in the CSM, took astronomy and lunar photos, including photos of the proposed Descartes landing site for Apollo 16.

    Ascent of the LM from the lunar surface, rendezvous, and docking with the CSM in orbit were performed as planned, with docking at 3:36 p.m. EST February 6. TV coverage of the rendezvous and docking maneuver was excellent. The two astronauts transferred from the LM to the CSM with samples, equipment, and film. The LM ascent stage was then jettisoned and intentionally crashed on the moon's surface at 7:46 p.m. The impact was recorded by the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 ALSEPs.

    The spacecraft was placed on its trajectory toward earth during the 34th lunar revolution. During transearth coast, four inflight technical demonstrations of equipment and processes in zero gravity were performed.

    The CM and SM separated, the parachutes deployed, and other reentry events went as planned, and the Kitty Hawk splashed down in mid-Pacific at 4:05 p.m. EST February 9 about 7 kilometers from the recovery ship U.S.S. New Orleans. The Apollo 14 crew returned to Houston on February 12, where they remained in quarantine until February 26.

    All primary mission objectives had been met. The mission had lasted 216 hours 40 minutes and was marked by the following achievements:

    • Third manned lunar landing mission and return.
    • Use of mobile equipment transporter (MET).
    • Payload of 32,500 kilograms placed in lunar orbit.
    • Distance of 3.3 kilometers traversed on lunar surface.
    • Payload of 43.5 kilograms returned from the lunar surface.
    • Lunar surface stay time of 33 hours.
    • Lunar surface EVA of 9 hours 47 minutes.
    • Use of shortened rendezvous technique.
    • Service propulsion system orbit insertion.
    • Active seismic experiment.
    • Inflight technical demonstrations.
    • Extensive orbital science period during CSM solo operations.

1971 March 10 - .
  • Photographic coverage of a lunar eclipse during the Apollo 15 mission studied - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Action was initiated to determine the feasibility of providing photographic coverage of a lunar eclipse from the lunar surface or the CSM during the Apollo 15 mission. The eclipse would occur on August 6, three or four days after the scheduled Apollo 15 mission lunar surface liftoff.

1971 July 26 - . 13:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-510.
  • Apollo 15 - . Call Sign: Endeavour. Crew: Irwin; Scott; Worden. Backup Crew: Brand; Gordon; Schmitt. Payload: Apollo CSM 112/LM 10/ ALSEP/ LRV-1/PFS 1/S-IVB-510. Mass: 30,343 kg (66,894 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Irwin; Scott; Worden; Brand; Gordon; Schmitt. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 12.30 days. Decay Date: 1971-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 5351 . COSPAR: 1971-063A. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 29.6800 deg. Period: 87.84 min. Apollo 15 (AS-510) with astronauts David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin aboard was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 9:34 a.m. EDT July 26. The spacecraft and S-IVB combination was placed in an earth parking orbit 11 minutes 44 seconds after liftoff. Activities during earth orbit and translunar injection (insertion into the trajectory for the moon) were similar to those of previous lunar landing missions. Translunar injection was at about 12:30 p.m., with separation of the CSM from the LM/S-IVB/IU at 12:56 p.m. At 1:08 p.m., onboard color TV showed the docking of the CSM with the LM.

    S-IVB auxiliary propulsion system burns sent the S-IVB/IU stages toward the moon, where they impacted the lunar surface at 4:59 p.m. EDT July 29. The point of impact was 188 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 14 landing site and 355 kilometers northeast of the Apollo 12 site. The impact was detected by both the Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 seismometers, left on the moon in November 1969 and February 1971.

    After the translunar coast, during which TV pictures of the CSM and LM interiors were shown and the LM communications and other systems were checked, Apollo 15 entered lunar orbit at 4:06 p.m. EDT July 29.

    The LM-10 Falcon, with astronauts Scott and Irwin aboard, undocked and separated from the Endeavor (CSM 112) with astronaut Worden aboard. At 6:16 p.m. EDT July 30, the Falcon landed in the Hadley-Apennine region of the moon 600 meters north-northwest of the proposed target. About two hours later, following cabin depressurization, Scott performed a 33-minute standup EVA in the upper hatch of the LM, during which he described and photographed the landing site.

    The first crew EVA on the lunar surface began at 9:04 a.m. July 31. The crew collected and stowed a contingency sample, unpacked the ALSEP and other experiments, and prepared the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) for operations. Some problems were encountered in the deployment and checkout of the LRV, used for the first time, but they were quickly resolved. The first EVA traverse was to the Apennine mountain front, after which the ALSEP was deployed and activated, and one probe of a Heat Flow experiment was emplaced. A second probe was not emplaced until EVA-2 because of drilling difficulties. The first EVA lasted 6 hours 33 minutes.

    At 7:49 a.m. EDT August 1, the second EVA began. The astronauts made a maintenance check on the LRV and then began the second planned traverse of the mission. On completion of the traverse, Scott and Irwin completed the placement of heat flow experiment probes, collected a core sample, and deployed the American flag. They then stowed the sample container and the film in the LM, completing a second EVA of 7 hours 12 minutes.

    The third EVA began at 4:52 a.m. August 2, included another traverse, and ended 4 hours 50 minutes later, for a total Apollo 15 lunar surface EVA time of 18 hours 35 minutes.

    While the lunar module was on the moon, astronaut Worden completed 34 lunar orbits in the CSM operating scientific instrument module experiments and cameras to obtain data concerning the lunar surface and environment. X-ray spectrometer data indicated richer abundance of aluminum in the highlands, especially on the far side, but greater concentrations of magnesium in the maria.

    Liftoff of the ascent stage of the LM, the first one to be televised, occurred at 1:11 p.m. EDT August 2. About two hours later the LM and CSM rendezvoused and docked, and film, equipment, and 77 kilograms of lunar samples were transferred from the LM to the CSM. The ascent stage was jettisoned and hit the lunar surface at 11:04 p.m. EDT August 2. Its impact was recorded by the Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Apollo 15 seismometers, left on the moon during those missions. Before leaving the lunar orbit, the spacecraft deployed a subsatellite, at 4:13 p.m. August 4, in an orbit of 141.3 by 102 kilometers. The satellite would measure interplanetary and earth magnetic fields near the moon. It also carried charged-particle sensors and equipment to detect variations in lunar gravity caused by mascons (mass concentrations).

    A transearth injection maneuver at 5:23 p.m. August 4 put the CSM on an earth trajectory. During the transearth coast, astronaut Worden performed an inflight EVA beginning at 11:32 a.m. August 5 and lasting for 38 minutes 12 seconds. He made three trips to the scientific instrument module (SIM) bay of the SM, twice to retrieve cassettes and once to observe the condition of the instruments in the SIM bay.


1971 August 5 - . 15:31 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 15-6 - . Crew: Worden; Irwin. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0264 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Worden; Irwin. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 15. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Deep space retrieval of film cartridges from Service Module..

1971 October 6-7 - .
1972 January 19 - .
  • Policy on astronaut preference kits flown on Apollo spacecraft - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: A directive establishing policy and procedure and assigning responsibilities governing articles to be included in astronaut preference kits flown on board Apollo spacecraft was promulgated..

1972 March 8 - .
  • Olympic Games flag to be carried in the command module during the Apollo 16 mission - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; LM Weight. Summary: An Olympic Games flag 1.2 by 1.8 meters would be packed in a fireproof container and carried in the command module during the Apollo 16 mission. . Additional Details: here....

1972 April 16 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-511.
  • Apollo 16 - . Call Sign: Caspar. Crew: Duke; Mattingly; Young. Backup Crew: Haise; Mitchell; Roosa. Payload: Apollo CSM 113/LM 11/ ALSEP/ LRV-2/PFS 2/S-IVB-511. Mass: 30,358 kg (66,927 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duke; Mattingly; Young; Haise; Mitchell; Roosa. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 11.08 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6000 . COSPAR: 1972-031A. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 32.5420 deg. Period: 88.93 min. The Apollo 16 (AS-511) space vehicle was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12:54 p.m. EST April 16, with a crew of astronauts John W. Young, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Charles M. Duke, Jr. After insertion into an earth parking orbit for spacecraft system checks, the spacecraft and the S-IVB stage were placed on a trajectory to the moon at 3:28 p.m. CSM transposition and docking with the LM were achieved, although a number of minor anomalies were noted.

    One anomaly, an auxiliary propulsion system leak on the S-IVB stage, produced an unpredictable thrust and prevented a final S-IVB targeting maneuver after separation from the CSM. Tracking of the S-IVB ended at 4:04 p.m. EST April 17, when the instrument unit's signal was lost. The stage hit the lunar surface at 4:02 p.m. April 19, 260 kilometers northeast of the target point. The impact was detected by the seismometers left on the moon by the Apollo 12, 14, and 15 missions.

    Spacecraft operations were near normal during the coast to the moon. Unexplained light-colored particles from the LM were investigated and identified as shredded thermal paint. Other activities during the translunar coast included a cislunar navigation exercise, ultraviolet photography of the earth and moon, an electrophoresis demonstration, and an investigation of the visual light-flash phenomenon noted on previous flights. Astronaut Duke counted 70 white, instantaneous light flashes that left no after-glow.

    Apollo 16 entered a lunar orbit of 314 by 107.7 kilometers at 3:22 p.m. April 19. After separation of LM-11 Orion from CSM 112 Casper, a CSM active rendezvous kept the two vehicles close together while an anomaly discovered on the service propulsion system was evaluated. Tests and analyses showed the redundant system to be still safe and usable if required. The vehicles were again separated and the mission continued on a revised timeline because of the 5 3/4-hour delay.

    The lunar module landed with Duke and Young in the moon's Descartes region, about 230 meters northwest of the planned target area at 9:23 p.m. EST April 20. A sleep period was scheduled before EVA.

    The first extravehicular activity began at 11:59 a.m. April 21, after the eight-hour rest period. Television coverage of surface activity was delayed until the lunar roving vehicle systems were activated, because the steerable antenna on the lunar module could not be used. The lunar surface experiments packages were deployed, but accidental breaking of the electronics cable rendered the heat flow experiment inoperable. After completing activities at the experiments site, the crew drove the lunar roving vehicle west to Flag Crater, where they performed the planned tasks. The inbound traverse route was just slightly south of the outbound route, and the next stop was Spook Crater. The crew then returned via the experiment station to the lunar module and deployed the solar wind composition experiment. The duration of the extravehicular activity was 7 hours 11 minutes. The distance traveled by the lunar roving vehicle was 4.2 kilometers. The crew collected 20 kilograms of samples.

    The second extravehicular traverse, which began at 11:33 a.m. April 22, was south-southeast to a mare-sampling area near the Cinco Craters on Stone Mountain. The crew then drove in a northwesterly direction, making stops near Stubby and Wreck Craters. The last leg of the traverse was north to the experiments station and the lunar module. The second extravehicular activity lasted 7 hours 23 minutes. The distance traveled by the lunar roving vehicle was 11.1 kilometers.

    Four stations were deleted from the third extravehicular traverse, which began 30 minutes early at 10:27 a.m. April 23 to allow extra time. The first stop was North Ray Crater, where "House Rock" on the rim of the crater was sampled. The crew then drove southeast to "Shadow Rock." The return route to the LM retraced the outbound route. The third extravehicular activity lasted 5 hours 40 minutes, and the lunar roving vehicle traveled 11.4 kilometers.

    Lunar surface activities outside the LM totaled 20 hours 15 minutes for the mission. The total distance traveled in the lunar roving vehicle was 26.7 kilometers. The crew remained on the lunar surface 71 hours 14 minutes and collected 96.6 kilograms of lunar samples.

    While the lunar module crew was on the surface, Mattingly, orbiting the moon in the CSM, was obtaining photographs, measuring physical properties of the moon and deep space, and making visual observations. Essentially the same complement of instruments was used to gather data as was used on the Apollo 15 mission, but different areas of the lunar surface were flown over and more comprehensive deep space measurements were made, providing scientific data that could be used to validate findings from Apollo 15 as well as add to the total store of knowledge of the moon and its atmosphere, the solar system, and galactic space.

    The LM lifted off from the moon at 8:26 p.m. EST April 23, rendezvoused with the CSM, and docked with it in orbit. Young and Duke transferred to the CSM with samples, film, and equipment, and the LM was jettisoned the next day. LM attitude control was lost at jettison; therefore a deorbit maneuver was not possible and the LM remained in lunar orbit, with an estimated orbital lifetime of about one year.

    The particles and fields subsatellite was launched into lunar orbit and normal system operation was noted. However, the spacecraft orbital shaping maneuver was not performed before ejection and the subsatellite was placed in a non-optimum orbit that resulted in a much shorter lifetime than the planned year. Loss of all subsatellite tracking and telemetry data on the 425th revolution (May 29) indicated that the subsatellite had hit the lunar surface.

    The mass spectrometer deployment boom stalled during a retract cycle and was jettisoned before transearth injection. The second plane-change maneuver and some orbital science photography were deleted so that transearth injection could be performed about 24 hours earlier than originally planned.

    Activities during the transearth coast phase of the mission included photography for a contamination study for the Skylab program and completion of the visual light-flash-phenomenon investigation that had been partially accomplished during translunar coast. A 1-hour 24-minute transearth extravehicular activity was conducted by command module pilot Mattingly to retrieve the film cassettes from the scientific instrument module cameras, inspect the equipment, and expose a microbial-response experiment to the space environment. Two midcourse corrections were made on the return flight to achieve the desired entry interface conditions.


1972 April 25 - . 20:33 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 16-5 - . Crew: Mattingly; Duke. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0507 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Mattingly; Duke. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Deep space retrieval of film cartridges from Service Module..

1972 May 7 - .
  • Tank cart defueling the Apollo 16 command module exploded - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 15; Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Parachute. Summary: A tank cart at the San Diego Naval Air Station, defueling the Apollo 16 command module after its April 27 return from its mission to the moon, exploded because of overpressurization. . Additional Details: here....

1972 June 26 - .
  • No foreseeable mission for Apollo Apollo CSMs 115 and 115a - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. NASA Deputy Administrator George M. Low and Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight Dale D. Myers met and decided there was no foreseeable mission for CSMs 115 and 115a; funds would not be authorized for any work on these spacecraft; and skills would not be retained specifically to work on them.

1972 July 13 - .
  • Photographic tasks of command module pilot during Apollo 17 - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: A meeting at NASA Hq. reviewed the proposed photographic and visual observation tasks of the command module pilot during the Apollo 17 mission scheduled for December. Feasibility of the tasks and potential flight planning impact were discussed..

1972 December 7 - . 05:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-512.
  • Apollo 17 - . Call Sign: America. Crew: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt. Backup Crew: Duke; Roosa; Young. Payload: Apollo CSM 114/LM 12/ ALSEP/ LRV-3/S-IVB-512. Mass: 30,342 kg (66,892 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cernan; Evans; Schmitt; Duke; Roosa; Young. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 12.58 days. Decay Date: 1972-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 6300 . COSPAR: 1972-096A. Apogee: 167 km (103 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 28.5260 deg. Period: 87.83 min. Apollo 17 (AS-512), the final Apollo manned lunar landing mission, was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12:33 a.m. EST December 7. Crew members were astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt. The launch had been delayed 2 hours 40 minutes by a countdown sequencer failure, the only such delay in the Apollo program caused by a hardware failure.

    All launch vehicle systems performed normally in achieving an earth parking orbit of 170 by 168 kilometers. After checkout, insertion into a lunar trajectory was begun at 3:46 a.m.; translunar coast time was shortened to compensate for the launch delay. CSM 114 transposition, docking with LM-12, and LM ejection from the launch vehicle stage were normal. The S-IVB stage was maneuvered for lunar impact, striking the surface about 13.5 kilometers from the preplanned point at 3:27 p.m. EST December 10. The impact was recorded by the passive seismometers left on the moon by Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16.

    The crew performed a heat flow and convection demonstration and an Apollo light-flash experiment during the translunar coast. The scientific instrument module door on the SM was jettisoned at 10:17 a.m. EST December 10. The lunar orbit insertion maneuver was begun at 2:47 p.m. and the Apollo 17 spacecraft entered a lunar orbit of 315 by 97 kilometers. After separation of the LM Challenger from the CSM America and a readjustment of orbits, the LM began its powered descent and landed on the lunar surface in the Taurus-Littrow region at 2:55 p.m. EST on December 11, with Cernan and Schmitt.

    The first EVA began about 4 hours later (6:55 p.m.). Offloading of the lunar roving vehicle and equipment proceeded as scheduled. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package was deployed approximately 185 meters west northwest of the Challenger. Astronaut Cernan drove the lunar roving vehicle to the experiments deployment site, drilled the heat flow and deep core holes, and emplaced the neutron probe experiment. Two geological units were sampled, two explosive packages deployed, and seven traverse gravimeter measurements were taken. During the 7-hour 12-minute EVA, 14 kilograms of samples were collected.

    The second extravehicular activity began at 6:28 p.m. EST December 12. Because of geological interest, station stop times were modified. Orange soil was discovered and became the subject of considerable geological discussion. Five surface samples and a double core sample were taken in the area of the orange soil. Three explosive packages were deployed, seven traverse gravimeter measurements were taken, and observations were photographed. Samples collected totaled 34 kilograms during the 7 hours and 37 minutes of the second EVA.

    The third and final EVA began at 5:26 p.m. EST December 13. Specific sampling objectives were accomplished. Samples - including blue-gray breccias, fine-grained vesicular basalts, crushed anorthositic rocks, and soils - weighed 66 kilograms. Nine traverse gravimeter measurements were made. The surface electrical properties experiment was terminated. Before reentering the LM, the crew selected a breccia rock to dedicate to the nations represented by students visiting the Mission Control Center. A plaque on the landing gear of the lunar module, commemorating all of the Apollo lunar landings, was then unveiled. After 7 hours 15 minutes, the last Apollo EVA on the lunar surface ended. Total time of the three EVAs was approximately 22 hours; the lunar roving vehicle was driven 35 kilometers, and about 115 kilograms of lunar sample material was acquired.

    While Cernan and Schmitt were exploring the lunar surface, Evans was conducting numerous scientific activities in the CSM in lunar orbit. In addition to the panoramic camera, the mapping camera, and the laser altimeter, three new scientific instrument module experiments were included in the Apollo 17 orbital science equipment. An ultraviolet spectrometer measured lunar atmospheric density and composition; an infrared radiometer mapped the thermal characteristics of the moon; and a lunar sounder acquired data on the subsurface structure.

    Challenger lifted off the moon at 5:55 p.m. EST December 14. Rendezvous with the orbiting CSM and docking were normal. The two astronauts transferred to the CM with samples and equipment and the LM ascent stage was jettisoned at 1:31 a.m. December 15. Its impact on the lunar surface about 1.6 kilometers from the planned target was recorded by four Apollo 17 geophones and the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 seismometers emplaced on the surface. The seismic experiment explosive packages that had been deployed on the moon were detonated as planned and recorded on the geophones.

    During the coast back to earth, Evans left the CSM at 3:27 p.m. EST December 17 for a 1-hour 7-minute inflight EVA and retrieved lunar sounder film and panoramic and mapping camera cassettes from the scientific instrument module bay. The crew conducted the Apollo light- flash experiment and operated the infrared radiometer and ultraviolet spectrometer.

    Reentry, landing, and recovery were normal. The command module parachuted into the mid-Pacific at 2:25 p.m. EST December 19, 6.4 kilometers from the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. Ticonderoga. The crew was picked up by helicopter and was on board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga 52 minutes after the CM landed. All primary mission objectives had been achieved.


1972 December 8 - .
  • Apollo extolled - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. "Apollo, of course, was an absolutely unprecedented event in human history, one whose ultimate importance is impossible to fully comprehend at such close range," NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight Dale D. Myers wrote the Administrator. "In addition, its scientific contributions have far exceeded the expectations not only of the skeptics, but even of its proponents. It has virtually created a new branch of science as well as added a brilliant new chapter in the annals of exploration."

1972 December 17 - . 20:27 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 17-6 - . Crew: Evans; Schmitt. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0458 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Evans; Schmitt. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 17. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: Deep space retrieval of film cartridges from Service Module..

1973 May 25 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB. LV Configuration: Saturn IB SA-206.
  • Skylab 2 - . Call Sign: Skylab. Crew: Conrad; Kerwin; Weitz. Backup Crew: McCandless; Musgrave; Schweickart. Payload: Apollo CSM 116. Mass: 19,979 kg (44,046 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Conrad; Kerwin; Weitz; McCandless; Musgrave; Schweickart. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Skylab. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Skylab 2. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 28.03 days. Decay Date: 1973-06-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6655 . COSPAR: 1973-032A. Apogee: 440 km (270 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Epic repair mission which brought Skylab into working order. Included such great moments as Conrad being flung through space by the whiplash after heaving on the solar wing just as the debris constraining it gave way; deployment of a lightweight solar shield, developed in Houston in one week, which brought the temperatures down to tolerable levels. With this flight US again took manned spaceflight duration record.

    Skylab 2 , consisting of a modified Apollo CSM payload and a Saturn IB launch vehicle, was inserted into Earth orbit approximately 10 minutes after liftoff. The orbit achieved was 357 by 156 km and, during a six-hour period following insertion, four maneuvers placed the CSM into a 424 by 415 km orbit for rendezvous with the Orbital Workshop. Normal rendezvous sequencing led to stationkeeping during the fifth revolution followed by a flyaround inspection of the damage to the OWS. The crew provided a verbal description of the damage in conjunction with 15 minutes of television coverage. The solar array system wing (beam) 2 was completely missing. The solar array system wing (beam) 1 was slightly deployed and was restrained by a fragment of the meteoroid shield. Large sections of the meteoroid shield were missing. Following the flyaround inspection, the CSM soft-docked with the OWS at 5:56 p.m. EDT to plan the next activities. At 6:45 p.m. EDT the CSM undocked and extravehicular activity was initiated to deploy the beam 1 solar array. The attempt failed. Frustration of the crew was compounded when eight attempts were required to achieve hard docking with the OWS. The hard dock was made at 11:50 p.m. EDT, terminating a Skylab 2 first-day crew work period of 22 hours.


1973 May 26 - . 00:40 GMT - .
  • EVA Skylab 2-1 - . Crew: Weitz. EVA Type: Stand-Up External Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0257 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Weitz. Program: Skylab. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Skylab 2. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Summary: First and failed attempt to release jammed solar panel..

1973 July - .
  • Apollo 18 (cancelled) - . Crew: Gordon; Brand; Schmitt. Support Crew: Allen; Henize; Parker. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Gordon; Brand; Schmitt; Allen; Henize; Parker. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 18. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The most likely landing site was the crater Gassendi. Before the cancellation, astronaut-geologist Schmitt was pressing for a more ambitious landing in Tycho or the lunar farside. NASA cancelled Apollo 18 and 19 on 2 September 1970 because of congressional cuts in FY 1971 NASA appropriations. Pressure from the scientific community resulted in geologist Schmitt flying on Apollo 17, the last lunar mission, bumping Joe Engle from the lunar module pilot slot.

1973 July 28 - . 11:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB. LV Configuration: Saturn IB SA-207.
  • Skylab 3 - . Call Sign: Skylab. Crew: Bean; Garriott; Lousma. Backup Crew: Brand; Lenoir; Lind. Payload: Apollo CSM 117. Mass: 20,121 kg (44,359 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bean; Garriott; Lousma; Brand; Lenoir; Lind. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Skylab. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Skylab 3. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 59.46 days. Decay Date: 1973-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 6757 . COSPAR: 1973-050A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 422 km (262 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Continued maintenance of the Skylab space station and extensive scientific and medical experiments. Installed twinpole solar shield on EVA; performed major inflight maintenance; doubled record for length of time in space. Completed 858 Earth orbits and 1,081 hours of solar and Earth experiments; three EVAs totalled 13 hours, 43 minutes.

    The space vehicle, consisting of a modified Apollo command and service module payload on a Saturn IB launch vehicle, was inserted into a 231.3 by 154.7 km orbit. Rendezvous maneuvers were performed during the first five orbits as planned. During the rendezvous, the CSM reaction control system forward firing engine oxidizer valve leaked. The quad was isolated. Station-keeping with the Saturn Workshop began approximately 8 hours after liftoff, with docking being performed about 30 minutes later.


1973 August 27 - .
  • Actions for the final phaseout of the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Program Director Chester M. Lee, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Hq., was assigned as the management official to take actions necessary for the final phaseout of the Apollo program. All Apollo program inquiries, activities, and actions not covered by specific delegations of authority would be referred to Lee for appropriate decision and disposition.

1973 November 16 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB. LV Configuration: Saturn IB SA-208.
  • Skylab 4 - . Call Sign: Skylab. Crew: Carr; Gibson, Edward; Pogue. Backup Crew: Brand; Lenoir; Lind. Payload: Apollo CSM 118. Mass: 20,847 kg (45,959 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carr; Gibson, Edward; Pogue; Brand; Lenoir; Lind. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Skylab. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Skylab 4. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 84.05 days. Decay Date: 1974-02-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 6936 . COSPAR: 1973-090A. Apogee: 437 km (271 mi). Perigee: 422 km (262 mi). Inclination: 50.0000 deg. Period: 93.10 min. Final Skylab mission; included observation and photography of Comet Kohoutek among numerous experiments. Completed 1,214 Earth orbits and four EVAs totalling 22 hours, 13 minutes. Increased manned space flight time record by 50%. Rebellion by crew against NASA Ground Control overtasking led to none of the crew ever flying again. Biological experiments included two Mummichog fish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    The space vehicle consisted of a modified Apollo CSM and a Saturn IB launch vehicle. All launch phase events were normal, and the CSM was inserted into a 150.1- by 227.08-km orbit. The rendezvous sequence was performed according to the anticipated timeline. Stationkeeping was initiated about seven and one-half hours after liftoff, and hard docking was achieved about 30 minutes later following two unsuccessful docking attempts. Planned duration of the mission was 56 days, with the option of extending it to a maximum of 84 days.


1973 December - .
1974 April - .
  • Skylab 5 (cancelled) - . Crew: Brand; Lind; Lenoir. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Lind; Lenoir. Program: Skylab. Flight: Skylab 5. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. After completion of the three programmed Skylab flights, NASA considered using the remaining backup Saturn IB and Apollo CSM to fly a fourth manned mission to Skylab. It would have been a short 20 day mission to conduct some new scientific experiments and boost Skylab into a higher orbit for later use by the shuttle. But NASA was confident that Skylab would stay in orbit until shuttle flights began in 1978 - 1979. But the shuttle was delayed, and Skylab crashed to earth before the first shuttle mission was flown.

1974 July - .
  • Apollo 20 (cancelled) - . Crew: Roosa; Lind; Lousma. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Roosa; Lind; Lousma. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 20. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. The preferred landing site was the Marius Hills, or, if the operational constraints were relaxed, the bright crater Tycho. The flight was cancelled on January 4, 1970, before any crew assignments were made. The most likely crew would have been Roosa (Commander); Lind (Lunar Module Pilot); and Lousma (Command Module Pilot).

1975 July 15 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB. LV Configuration: Saturn IB SA-210.
  • Apollo (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Apollo. Crew: Brand; Slayton; Stafford. Backup Crew: Bean; Evans; Lousma. Payload: Apollo CSM 111. Mass: 14,768 kg (32,557 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Brand; Slayton; Stafford; Bean; Evans; Lousma. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: ASTP. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 9.06 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 8032 . COSPAR: 1975-066A. Apogee: 166 km (103 mi). Perigee: 152 km (94 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 87.60 min. This flight marked the culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a common docking system for space rescue. 15 July 1975 began with the flawless launch of Soyuz 19. Apollo followed right on schedule. Despite a stowaway - a 'super Florida mosquito' - the crew accomplished a series of rendezvous manoeuvres over the next day resulting in rendezvous with Soyuz 19. At 11:10 on 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Stafford spent 7 hours, 10 minutes aboard Soyuz, Brand 6:30, and Slayton 1:35. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. This artificial solar eclipse, as viewed from Soyuz, permitted photography of the solar corona. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that the ultraviolet absorption (UVA MA-059) experiment could be performed. This was an effort to more precisely determine the quantities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen existing at such altitudes. Apollo, flying out of plane around Soyuz, projected monochromatic laser-like beams of light to retro-reflectors mounted on Soyuz. On the 150-meter phase of the experiment, light from a Soyuz port led to a misalignment of the spectrometer, but on the 500-meter pass excellent data were received; on the 1,000-meter pass satisfactory results were also obtained.

    With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways. On 20 July the Apollo crew conducted earth observation, experiments in the multipurpose furnace (MA-010), extreme ultraviolet surveying (MA-083), crystal growth (MA-085), and helium glow (MA-088). On 21 July Soyuz 19 landed safely in Kazakhstan. Apollo continued in orbit on 22-23 July to conduct 23 independent experiments - including a doppler tracking experiment (MA-089) and geodynamics experiment (MA-128) designed to verify which of two techniques would be best suited for studying plate tectonics from earth orbit.

    After donning their space suits, the crew vented the command module tunnel and jettisoned the docking module. The docking module would continue on its way until it re-entered the earth's atmosphere and burned up in August 1975.


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