Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian military surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 1997.06.06 (Cosmos 2344) to 2002.07.25 (Cosmos 2392).
Following the failure of the Kozlov Yantar-4KS2 to meet the requirement of matching the performance of the United States KH-11 satellite, a 'clean sheet of paper' approach was taken. Studies were begun in 1980 during the eleventh Five Year Plan (1981-1985). By June 1983 a decree was issued by the Soviet Ministers for a constellation of new-design third generation electro-optical military reconnaissance satellites. These would be orbited in two groups of ten satellites at varying altitudes. This swarm would provide almost complete coverage of the earth's surface at a range of photographic resolutions. Competitive designs were undertaken by NPO Lavochkin and Kozlov's TsSKB. Flight trials were to begin in 1986 to 1987.
LOMO (Leningrad Optical-Mechanical Enterprise) was to build the telescope optics for both designs. Satellite communications data link for the satellites were developed by NPO Vega. But work was slow, and the telescope had weight problems, delaying the start of flight trials. The mid-1980's put huge demands on the spacecraft design bureaus. They were attempting to test and put into production third generation systems while at the same time responding to government crash programs for 'star wars' systems. The Twelfth Five Year Plan had to be revised twice to accommodate these changes. Work at TsSKB was further delayed by priority given to the Buran space shuttle. By January 1989 a new government resolution set 1991 as the date for the start of flight trials. But this was almost immediately followed by the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the attendant financial crisis. Trials were again delayed to 1996-1997 and TsSKB finally dropped out of the competition and turned to continued production of the proven Yantar-4KS1 system.
The new satellite was finally launched in 1997 into an unusually high (1510-2747 km )orbit for a photo-reconnaissance satellite. This evidently was to take full advantage of the single satellite available, even at the sacrifice of ground resolution. Moscow newspapers said that it should not have been launched at the time because its customer, the GRU, was not ready to use the information it provided. The press claimed that the launch had been timed to promote interest in Russian products in the following week's Paris Air Show.
The satellite had been described in Lavochkin OKB promotional brochures years before the launch. Called Arkon, it was stated to have a resolution of 2 to 5 m, depending on the orbital altitude. To achieve this the satellite had a reflecting telescope system with the very long focal length of 27 m. The satellite's CCD sensor operated in 8 bands in the optical and near infra-red region of the spectrum from 0.4 to 1.1 microns. The 30 km swath width indicated a field of view of 0.5 degrees.
The satellite could be rolled 20 degrees from nadir, and the slant range for the system was 3000 km. This suggested that the satellite could image at least 1,000 km from the sub-satellite point, and hence could rapidly revisit locations. The satellite's mission was described as "highly regular observation" and this would be achievable with its 11 revolution per day orbit.
AKA: Araks; 11F664.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
First Launch: 1997.06.06.
Last Launch: 2002.07.25.
Number: 2 .
Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
Proton-K/17S40 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Proton using Block DM-5 / 17S40 fourth stage. This stage has a new payload adapter for use with heavier paylods launched into sub-synchronous orbits. Used for launch of Arkon reconnaisance satellite. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Lavochkin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Lavochkin Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.
Associated Launch Sites
Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
1983 June -
- Arkon-1 third generation electro-optical military reconnaissance satellite authorised - .
Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Arkon-1. A decree was issued by the Soviet Ministers for a constellation of new-design third generation electro-optical military reconnaissance satellites. These would be orbited in two groups of ten satellites at varying altitudes. This swarm would provide almost complete coverage of the earth's surface at a range of photographic resolutions.
1989 January -
- Government resolution delays Arkon-1 to 1991 - .
Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Arkon-1. The project was delayed by higher-priority test and production of third generation systems while at the same time responding to government crash programs for 'star wars' systems. But the revised schedule was almost immediately followed by the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the attendant financial crisis.
1997 June 6 -
16:56 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC200/39
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
. LV Configuration
: Proton-K/17S40 (DM-5) 380-01.
- Cosmos 2344 - .
Payload: Arkon-1 s/n 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Arkon-1. USAF Sat Cat: 24827 . COSPAR: 1997-028A. Apogee: 2,739 km (1,701 mi). Perigee: 1,502 km (933 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 130.00 min. Summary: First launch in a new series of electro-optical military reconnaisance satellites. .
2002 July 25 -
15:13 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC81/24
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
. LV Configuration
: Proton-K/17S40 (DM-5).
- Cosmos 2392 - .
Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Chelomei. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Arkon-1. USAF Sat Cat: 27470 . COSPAR: 2002-037A. Apogee: 1,774 km (1,102 mi). Perigee: 1,506 km (935 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 119.10 min. This was the second launch of the Arkon-1 electro-optical reconnaissance. The 17S40 Blok DM5 upper stage and satellite were placed by the Proton into a parking orbit. The DM then made two burns to place the satellite in its 1500 x 1836 km x 64.4 deg operational orbit.
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