Encyclopedia Astronautica
AS 4000



as4000.jpg
AS 4000 satellite
Credit: Lockheed-Martin
American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1985.11.27 (Satcom K2) to 1998.02.04 (Inmarsat 3 F5). 3-axis stabilization with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters.

Solar arrays provide 2800 W, 3 x 50 Ah NiH batteries. GEO insertion by Star 37XFP solid rocket motor. 16 Ku-band transponders (with six spares) .

Gross mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb).
Height: 2.10 m (6.80 ft).
First Launch: 1985.11.27.
Last Launch: 1998.02.04.
Number: 8 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...
  • Shuttle The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...
  • Ariane 44LP French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket + 2 solid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Atlas IIA American orbital launch vehicle. Atlas IIA was a commercial derivative of the Atlas II developed for the US Air Force. Higher performance RL10A-4 (or RL10A-4-1) engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A engines. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Programs
  • Satcom Series of communications satellites started by RCA Americom in 1975 and continued by GE when it took over RCA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kaesmann, Ferdinand, et. al., "Proton - Development of A Russian Launch Vehicle", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1998, Volume 51, page 3.
  • Vladimirov, A, "Tablitsa zapuskov RN 'Proton' i 'Proton K'", Novosti kosmonavtiki, 1998, Issue 10, page 25.
  • NASA GSFC Orbital Parameters,
  • Lockheed Martin Coporation, Atlas Family Fact Sheets, September 1998.. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC36A Atlas launch complex. Launch site built in 1960 for NASA's Atlas/Centaur development program, and used for launches of that launch vehicle until its retirement. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC36B Atlas V, Atlas launch complex. Atlas Centaur launch pad, in service from 1964 until the retirement of the launch vehicle. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC39A Shuttle, Saturn V launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. Construction began in December 1963. Complex 39A was completed on 4 October 1965. Complex 39A supported two unmanned and nine manned Saturn V/Apollo missions between 9 November 1967 and 8 December 1972. The site also supported the launch of the Skylab space station on 14 May 1973. Both complexes were modified to support Space Shuttle missions later on. Complex 39A supported the first Space Shuttle launch on 12 April 1981. More...

AS 4000 Chronology


1985 November 27 - . 00:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 61-B.
  • Satcom K2 - . Payload: Satcom-K 2 / PAM-D2. Mass: 1,812 kg (3,994 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RCA Amer. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 16276 . COSPAR: 1985-109D. Apogee: 36,002 km (22,370 mi). Perigee: 35,944 km (22,334 mi). Inclination: 4.2000 deg. Period: 1,445.60 min. Released by STS 61B 11/28/85; 81 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 81 deg W in 1985-1996; 85 deg W in 1996-1997; 81 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 6 September 2001 located at 80.95 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 157.11W drifting at 2.398W degrees per day.

1986 January 12 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 61-C.
  • Satcom K1 - . Payload: Satcom-K 1 / PAM-D2. Mass: 1,923 kg (4,239 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: RCA Amer. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. Completed Operations Date: 1997-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16482 . COSPAR: 1986-003B. Apogee: 36,016 km (22,379 mi). Perigee: 35,965 km (22,347 mi). Inclination: 4.5000 deg. Period: 1,446.50 min. Summary: Stationed at 81 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg W in 1986-1997; 87 deg W in 1997 As of 31 August 2001 located at 61.19 deg W drifting at 2.593 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 125.55E drifting at 2.586W degrees per day..

1988 December 11 - . 00:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V27.
  • Astra 1A - . Mass: 1,780 kg (3,920 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 19688 . COSPAR: 1988-109B. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.8000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. European TV broadcast; 19.2 deg W. Astra 1A provides TV coverage to Western Europe. The satellite is owned and operated by Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES), a private company formed in 1985. Astra 1A is based in the GE 4000 series platform, and was the first in a network of four satellites. Spacecraft: GE 4000 platform.3-axis stabilisation with momentum wheels, magnetic torquers, Earth sensors and 16 blowdown monopropellant hydrazine thrusters. Solar arrays provide 2800 W BOL, 3 50 Ahr NiH batteries. GEO insertion by Star 37XFP solid rocket motor. Payload: 16 Ku-band transponders (with six spares) . Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1989-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.38 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 13.01E drifting at 6.968W degrees per day.

1996 April 3 - . 23:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-122.
  • Inmarsat 3 F1 - . Mass: 2,068 kg (4,559 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 23839 . COSPAR: 1996-020A. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,767 km (22,224 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Geostationary at 64.1E. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with RAAN Cntl trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 64 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 63.98 deg E drifting at 0.003 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 64.52E drifting at 0.006W degrees per day.

1996 September 6 - . 17:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 (DM1) 375-01.
  • Inmarsat 3 F2 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INMARSAT. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 24307 . COSPAR: 1996-053A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,766 km (22,223 mi). Inclination: 2.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 15.5W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 15 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 15.48 deg W drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 7 located at 15.47W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day..

1996 December 18 - . 01:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIA. LV Configuration: Atlas IIA AC-129.
  • Inmarsat 3 F3 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 24674 . COSPAR: 1996-070A. Apogee: 35,807 km (22,249 mi). Perigee: 35,764 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Geostationary at 157.6E. Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit with RAAN Cntl trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 178 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 178.02 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 178.19E drifting at 0.002E degrees per day.

1997 June 3 - . 23:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V97.
  • Inmarsat 3 F4 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 24819 . COSPAR: 1997-027A. Apogee: 35,805 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 54.0W Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 54 deg W in 1997-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 53.97 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 142.07W drifting at 0.000E degrees per day..

1998 February 4 - . 23:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V105.
  • Inmarsat 3 F5 - . Mass: 1,021 kg (2,250 lb). Nation: International. Agency: Inmarsat. Manufacturer: RCA. Program: Inmarsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 25153 . COSPAR: 1998-006B. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 25.0 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 25 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 24 July 2001 located at 25.09 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 25.07E drifting at 0.017W degrees per day..

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