Astrid 1 Satellite
Credit: via Goran Olsson
Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1995.01.24. Sweden's third scientific satellite and first microsatellite, ASTRID carries an Energetic Neutral Atom analyzer, an Electron Spectrometer and two UV imagers for imaging the Earth's aurora.
Astrid was piggyback launched with the Russian Tsikada navigation satellite and FAISAT, a small store-and-forward communications satellite. Astrid's scientific instruments went into full operation on Feb 6, after the satellite started getting eclipse periods on every orbit. During a month of operation, 20-30 hours of data were collected over 150 orbits. On March 1, a DC/DC converter for all the three instruments failed to switch on, preventing further scientific operations. However, the satellite proved to be a useful testbed in subsequent months for store-and-forward communications and for autonomous sun-pointing software algorithms.
The spacecraft was spin stabilized, controlled with magnetic torquers and a nutation damper. Spin up was accomplished with a small solid rocket thruster. A flux-gate magnetometer and solar aspect sensor provided attitude sensing. Four solar panels provided roughly 20W of power to the payload, spacecraft bus, and for charging 2 NiCd batteries. Data processing was handled by an 80C31 processor with 8MB of memory available. Downlink occured via S-Band (2208.629 MHz) at 131 kbps or via 400.55 MHz at 8kbps. Transmitter power was 2 W. Commands were uplinked in the 449.95 MHz band at 4800 bps. Astrid was controlled from Swedish Space Corporation's ground station at ESRANGE in Kiruna.
Astrid's scientific payload was developed by the Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Kiruna. The main instrument was a neutral particle imager, or PIPPI (Prelude in Planetary Particle Imaging). The operation of PIPPI in orbit was the first time a dedicated instrument had been used to measure neutral particle flux from the ring current. An Electron Spectrometer, EMIL (Electron Measurements - In-situ and Lightweight), measured electron distribution at 62.5 ms or 125 ms resolution. Two UV imaging photometers, MIO (Miniature Imaging Optics), were mounted in the satellite spin plane. One observed Lyman alpha-emission from the Earth's geocorona, the other observed auroral emissions.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 26 kg (57 lb).
Height: 45.00 m (147.00 ft).
First Launch: 1995.01.24.
Number: 1 .
Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
SSC Swedish manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Swedish Space Corporation, Sweden. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
Associated Launch Sites
Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
1995 January 24 -
03:54 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Plesetsk LC132/1
. LV Family
: Kosmos 3
. Launch Vehicle
: Kosmos 11K65M
- Astrid - .
Mass: 26 kg (57 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Astrid. USAF Sat Cat: 23464 . COSPAR: 1995-002B. Apogee: 1,027 km (638 mi). Perigee: 963 km (598 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Summary: Auroral plasma and auroral imaging..
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