Credit: Sven Grahn
Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1998.12.10. Swedish Space Corporation's second microsatellite (based on Astrid-1) was slated to perform high resolution E-field and B-filed measurements in the Earth's auroral regions.
Additional objectives included the measurement of electron density, electron and ion distribution functions, UV auroral imaging, and UV atmospheric absorption. The spacecraft was a spin stabilized, sun pointing platform with about 10 kg of instrument mass. Dimensions were 170 x 110 x 30 cm with deployed solar panels, which generated about 90 W. After release from the launch vehicle, and spin up (using a tiny solid rocket thruster) the spacecraft employed the SSC "sunseeker" algorithm to find and remain pointed at the sun. Attitude control was accomplished with magnetic torque coils, and a nutation damper. Attitude was determined with a star sensor, sun aspect sensor, and magnetometer. Spacecraft radios downlinked at 128kbps, and accepted uplinked commands at 10kbps. Data reception and satellite control was at SSC in Stockholm.
Astrid-2 flew several distinct instrument packages: EMMA was a comprehensive scientific experiment measuring both electrical and magnetic fields. LINDA was a Langmuir probe experiment, consisting of two 10mm diameter spherical probes mounted on two light weight booms with a probe to probe separation distance of 2.9 meters. By using two probes, scientists hoped to not only measure the fine structure of the plasma density irregularities down to 1 m scales but also distinguish between temporal and spatial effects. MEDUSA was a combined electron and ion spectrometer. The instrument FOV was nearly parallel to the satellite spin plane; this area was split into 16 sectors for measurement. PIA consisted of two spin-scanning photometers (PIA-1/2) for auroral imaging and one sun pointing photometer (PIA-3) for atmospheric absorption measurements. As of 4 October 1997 Astrid had passed three system acceptance tests including EMI compatibility, vibration, and spin balancing.
Gross mass: 30 kg (66 lb).
More... - Chronology...
Height: 0.95 m (3.11 ft).
First Launch: 1998.12.10.
Number: 1 .
Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
SSC Swedish manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Swedish Space Corporation, Sweden. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
Associated Launch Sites
Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
1998 December 10 -
11:57 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Plesetsk LC132/1
. LV Family
: Kosmos 3
. Launch Vehicle
: Kosmos 11K65M
- Astrid-2 - .
Mass: 30 kg (66 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: SSC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Astrid-2. USAF Sat Cat: 25568 . COSPAR: 1998-072B. Apogee: 1,011 km (628 mi). Perigee: 973 km (604 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 105.00 min. Summary: Swedish Space Corporation micro-satellite Astrid-2 was ejected from the Nadezdha 5 COSPAS satellite at 15:25 GMT and was to measure the auroral electromagnetic fields and particle environment..
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