Encyclopedia Astronautica
ATV



atvssto.jpg
ATV
Credit: Gary Hudson
European logistics spacecraft and space tug. The Automated Transfer Vehicle was first proposed in the mid-1980s as a way to transport unmanned cargo to a Space Station. Operational in that role, first launch 2008.03.09. Studies for a manned version with a re-entry capsule conducted, but no funding for development.

Later the design was based on use of an Ariane 5 to launch the ATV for docking with the International Space Station. Following protracted development, the ATV finally flew in 2008.

Early studies focused on a modified version of the Ariane-5's L9.7 upper stage -- the 'ARIES' concept -- but by 1992 the European Space Agency had decided a custom-built propulsion module would be more efficient. A pressurized or unpressurised Cargo Carrier module would transport up to 9000 kg of supplies.

The European Space Agency also considered using the Ariane-5/ATV to launch the Columbus laboratory. The project's detailed Phase B2 began in July 1996. By 1997, ESA had decided to use solar panels to produce additional power for the Automated Transfer Vehicle. One mission of the Automated Transfer Vehicle would be to boost the International Space Station's orbit. Occasional propulsive maneuvers would be necessary to keep the ISS orbit from decaying, since air drag slowly lowered the Space Station's orbit. The ATV would dock at the rear of the Russian Service Module and the Russian Space Agency was providing a rendezvous and docking system as part of an ESA/RSA deal. Periodically boosting the ISS orbit now increasingly appeared to be the ATV's most important mission, since the Russians might not be able to launch enough Progress cargo spacecraft to do the job and the shuttle would eventually retire.

ESA signed a $470 million contract with Aerospatiale in 1998 to develop the Automated Transfer Vehicle. The European Space Agency also paid $23 million to RSA and NPO Energia for integrating the ATV into the ISS Service Module, while the French space agency CNES received $30 million to develop interfaces for the ATV's Ariane-5 carrier rocket. Aerospatiale also signed a consortium agreement with Daimler Chrysler Aerospace, who were to produce up to a dozen ATVs between 2003 and 2013. The target price was $70 million per ATV plus $115 million for the Ariane-5 booster. The final ATV version had a dry mass of 9.2t (including its 3,694kg MPLM-derived Cargo Carrier); carried 2.68-6.76t of propellant for ISS rendezvous and reboost; and the maximum weight at launch was about 20.5t. The spacecraft could carry up to 7 metric tons of cargo in eight International Standard Payload Racks, including 860kg of propellant, 840kg of water and 100kg of atmospheric gases.

In 2005 Lockheed Martin and EADS Space Transportation joined forces to sell the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) to NASA for ISS resupply. The first ATV was then expected to launch in May 2007. Further delays pushed this into 2008. While the ATV would certainly be launched on the Ariane 5 rocket for European missions, it could potentially be launched by Lockheed's Atlas 5 if contracted by NASA.

Characteristics

Orbital Storage: 360 days. Habitable Volume: 48.00 m3.

AKA: Jules Verne; Automated Transfer Vehicle.
Gross mass: 19,357 kg (42,674 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 16,494 kg (36,363 lb).
Payload: 7,300 kg (16,000 lb).
Height: 10.27 m (33.69 ft).
Diameter: 4.48 m (14.69 ft).
Span: 22.30 m (73.10 ft).
First Launch: 2008.03.09.
Last Launch: 2011.02.16.
Number: 2 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane 5 The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • ATV American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. George Detko of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center produced designs for SSTO vehicles as early as 1960. The expendable vehicle had a gross listoff mass of only 22 tonnes, and could deliver a two-person crew to orbit. More...
  • Ariane 5G French orbital launch vehicle. Initial version of the Ariane 5, a bit too large for the main commercial geosynchronous communications satellite payloads. More...
  • Ariane 5 French orbital launch vehicle. The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000. More...
  • Ariane 5ES Version of the Ariane 5 designed to orbit ESA's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) resupply vehicle for the International Space Station. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • ESA European agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. European Space Agency, Europe. More...
  • Cannes French manufacturer of spacecraft. Cannes, France. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...

ATV Chronology


2008 March 9 - . 04:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ES.
  • Jules Verne ATV - . Mass: 19,012 kg (41,914 lb). Nation: France. Agency: Arianespace. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Spacecraft: ATV. Duration: 204.39 days. Decay Date: 2008-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 32686 . COSPAR: 2008-008A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. First launch of Europe's Automated Transfer Vehicle, a logistics vehicle designed for ISS resupply. The Ariane model 5ES launch vehicle, vehicle L528, had the enhanced EAP solid boosters and EPC core stage of the Ariane 5ECA, but with the new EPS-V upper stage with restart capability and a vehicle equipment bay instrument unit strengthened to carry the heavier LEO payload. Jules Verne carried 1300 kg of dry cargo, 302 kg of water and oxygen, and 860 kg of propellant to the ISS. For this test mission it had a dry mass of 10075 kg and 6475 kg of maneuvering propellant (in later missions the propellant could be thousands of kilograms less, in order to deliver more cargo).

    The EPS stage made its first burn and placed the stack into a 137 km x 260 km orbit at 04:20 GMT. The EPS restarted at 05:05, burned for 30-seconds, and released the ATV into a 254 km x 272 km orbit.

    Following extensive checkouts and maneuvering near the ISS, ATV Jules Verne docked at the aft end of ISS Zvezda module at 14:52 GMT on 3 April. While docked to the station, it was used several times to boost the station's orbit and to shift it in debris avoidance maneuvers. The ATV undocked from the ISS on 5 September and used a fuel-conserving 23 days to position itself for a safe re-entry over the South Pacific. Final destructive re-entry began at 13:30 GMT on 29 September.


2011 February 16 - . 21:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ES.
  • Johannes Kepler ATV 2 - . Payload: ATV 2. Mass: 19,712 kg (43,457 lb). Nation: Europe. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-26; ISS EO-25. Spacecraft: ATV. Duration: 125.00 days. Decay Date: 2011-06-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 37368 . COSPAR: 2011-007A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 343 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: ISS resupply; second European Space Agency Automated Transfer Vehicle. Docked with the ISS Zvezda module on 25 February. Undocked on 21 June at 14:46 GMT. Retrofire the same day at 20:04 GMT sent it to burn up over the Pacific Ocean..

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