Encyclopedia Astronautica
Bion



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Bion
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Bion Recovery
Credit: TsSKB
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Bion Cutaway
Credit: TsSKB
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Bion
Credit: TsSKB
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Cosmos 782 / Bion
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian biology satellite. 11 launches, 1973.10.31 (Cosmos 605) to 1996.12.24 (Bion No. 11). Bion was developed for biological studies of the effects of radiation.

The Bion series were built by TsSKB with experimental payloads by the Institute of Medical and Biological Problems. The spacecraft was based on the Zenit reconnaissance satellite and launches began in 1973. Launches in the program included Cosmos 110, 605, 670, 782, plus 11 autonomous Nauka modules flown on Zenit-2M reconnaissance satellites. 90 kg of equipment could be contained in the external Nauka module.

Gross mass: 5,400 kg (11,900 lb).
Payload: 625 kg (1,377 lb).
First Launch: 1973.10.31.
Last Launch: 1996.12.24.
Number: 11 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Kozlov Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kozlov Central Specialized Design Bureau, Samara, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • "'Bion' nuzhen lyudyam", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1996, Issue 6, page 35.
  • NSSDC System for Information Retrieval and Storage (SIRS),
  • Kozlov, D I, Konstruirovanie avtomaticheskikh kosmicheskikh apparatov, Mashnostroenie, Moscow, 1996.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Plesetsk LC41/1 R-7 launch complex. Code named 'Lesobaza', this was the first complex completed at Plesetsk, being declared ready for military service with the R-7A ICBM in November 1959. The complex followed the design of the protoype facility built at Area 31 of Baikonur and included its own residential area for military personnel and assembly buildings for launchers and payloads. More...

Bion Chronology


1973 October 31 - . 18:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 605 - . Payload: Bion no. 1. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 21.50 days. Decay Date: 1973-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 6913 . COSPAR: 1973-083A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the influence of space flight on living organisms and testing of life-support systems for biological entities. Capsule recovered 53 deg 29 min N, 65 deg 27 min E..

1974 October 22 - . 18:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 690 - . Payload: Bion no. 2. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 20.50 days. Decay Date: 1974-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 7478 . COSPAR: 1974-080A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Biological research. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1975 November 25 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 782 - . Payload: Bion no. 3. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 19.50 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 8450 . COSPAR: 1975-110A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Biological research. Continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 64 deg 11 min E. The Cosmos 782 mission marked the first time that the United States participated in the Soviet Cosmos Program. Scientists from France, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. participated in these investigations. Additional Details: here....

1977 August 3 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 936 - . Payload: Bion no. 4. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.60 days. Decay Date: 1977-08-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 10172 . COSPAR: 1977-074A. Apogee: 396 km (246 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Biological research. Scientists from the U.S.S.R., the U.S., Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic conducted experiments in physics and biology on the mission. The biosatellite was recovered at 51 deg 53 min N, 61 deg 30 min E, near Kustanay in Central Asia after remaining in orbit for 18.5 days. Additional Details: here....

1979 September 25 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1129 - . Payload: Bion no. 5. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 18.50 days. Decay Date: 1979-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11536 . COSPAR: 1979-083A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Biological experiments; embryo development, radiation medicine. Biosatellite for the continued investigation of the effects of space flight on living organisms. Capsule recovered 52 deg 17 min N, 65 deg 30 min E. Cosmos 1129 satellite carried biological and radiation physics experiment packages from Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the German Democratic Republic, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Additional Details: here....

1983 December 14 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1514 - . Payload: Bion no. 6. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-12-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 14549 . COSPAR: 1983-121A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 211 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Biological experiments. Continued investigation of the influence of space flight factors on living organisms. Carried monkeys Abrek and Bion. Capsule recovered 52 deg 42 min N, 62 deg 48 min E. The first U.S.S.R. orbital flight of a non-human primate was accomplished on the Cosmos 1514 mission. Two monkeys flew on the mission, together with several pregnant rats. More than 60 experiments were performed by investigators from Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, France, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. U.S. scientists conducted three experiments on the primates and another experiment on the rat subjects. Additional Details: here....

1985 July 10 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1667 - . Payload: Bion no. 7. Mass: 5,700 kg (12,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 6.90 days. Decay Date: 1985-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 15891 . COSPAR: 1985-059A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Biological research. Carried monkeys Verniy and Gordiy. Continued investigations of the influence of space flight factors on living organisms and radiation physics research. Cosmos 1667 was the second USSR biosatellite mission with a primate payload. Cosmos 1667 also featured a large rodent payload, however the U.S. only conducted a single experiment cardiovascular experiment on one of the two flight monkeys. Mission parameters were very similar to those of Cosmos 1514. Countries participating in the mission included the USSR, U.S., France, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. Additional Details: here....

1987 September 29 - . 12:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1887 - . Payload: Bion no. 8. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-10-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 18380 . COSPAR: 1987-083A. Apogee: 382 km (237 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Biological research. Carried monkeys Drema and Erosha. Continued investigations of the influence of space flight factors on living organisms and radiation physics research. Capsule recovered 62 deg 47 min N, 112 deg 26 min E (?).. Additional Details: here....

1989 September 15 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2044 - . Payload: Bion no. 9. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 20242 . COSPAR: 1989-075A. Apogee: 264 km (164 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. 29 US/USSR life science experiments conducted on monkeys, insects, plants, fish, rats. Carried monkeys Zhankonya and Zabiyaka. Cosmos 2044 was the seventh Soviet Biosatellite to orbit the Earth with joint U.S./U.S.S.R. experiments onboard. Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Canada, Poland, Britain, Romania, Czechoslovakia and the European Space Agency also participated in the mission. The joint U.S./U.S.S.R. experiments were conducted on two rhesus monkeys and ten rats that were flown onboard the Biosatellite. The biological payload on the spacecraft also included fish, amphibians, insects, worms, protozoans, cell cultures and plants. Last launch from LC41. Additional Details: here....

1992 December 29 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2229 - . Payload: Bion no. 10. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-01-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 22300 . COSPAR: 1992-095A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Biological research; carried monkeys Ivasha and Krosha. International study of the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of space flight. After 12 days in Earth orbit, the capsule was recovered 50 deg 46 min N, 73 deg 08 min E, about 100 kilometers north of the city of Karaganda. The Cosmos 2229 mission was also referred to as Bion 10, because it was the tenth in a series of Soviet/Russian unmanned satellites carrying biological experiments. Additional Details: here....

1996 December 24 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U PVB15000-050.
  • Bion No. 11 - . Payload: Bion No. 11. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Biology. Type: Biology satellite. Spacecraft: Bion. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1997-01-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 24701 . COSPAR: 1996-073A. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Biological research. Carried monkeys Lalik and Multik..

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